6,932 results match your criteria Archaeology In Oceania[Journal]


Bioavailable Sr/Sr in European soils: A baseline for provenancing studies.

Sci Total Environ 2019 Mar 31;672:1033-1044. Epub 2019 Mar 31.

Eurogeosurveys, Brussels, Belgium.

We present Sr/Sr isotope ratios for ~1200 selected soil samples, collected by the GEMAS consortium from grazing (Gr) and agricultural (Ap) soils in Europe with the aim to better understand the strontium isotope distribution in the bioavailable fraction of the top-soil and its potential for provenancing applications. Spatial analysis shows that there is a clear distinction between coastal (<100 km) and non-coastal (>100 km) samples in their variance and that this variance is mirrored in the sodium concentration, suggesting an important but highly variable contribution from seaspray. We present two Sr/Sr maps at 25 km × 25 km scale: one based solely on the measured data using a classical kriging approach and one based on a Random Forest model using complementary GEMAS data to predict the strontium isotope composition at the remaining 3000+ GEMAS sampling locations, including appropriate uncertainty assessment. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00489697193138
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.03.387DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Evidence for sea spray effect on oxygen stable isotopes in bone phosphate - Approximation and correction using Gaussian Mixture Model clustering.

Sci Total Environ 2019 Apr 10;673:668-684. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Ludwig Maximilian University Munich, Faculty of Biology, Department of Biology I, Anthropology and Human Genomics, Großhaderner Straße 2, 82152 Planegg-Martinsried, Germany.

Palaeobiodiversity research based on stable isotope analysis in coastal environments can be severely hampered by the so-called "sea spray" effect. This effect shifts the isotopic signal of terrestrial individuals towards too marine values. It is commonly agreed upon that sea spray influences sulphur stable isotopes. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00489697193159
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.04.072DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Manuring practices in the first millennium AD in southern Sweden inferred from isotopic analysis of crop remains.

PLoS One 2019 18;14(4):e0215578. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

The Archaeologists, National Historical Museums, Lund, Sweden.

This study uses crop stable nitrogen isotope analysis of charred grain to explore manuring practices in arable production at the affluent regional center Uppåkra and a set of smaller surrounding sites, dating to the first millennium AD in southern Sweden. The isotopic analysis focuses on hulled barley, the principle crop in the Scandinavian Iron Age, and the minor crops: bread wheat, emmer wheat, rye and oat, are included to compare manuring practices in cultivation of other crop species during this period. A field experiment was first conducted to establish relationships between manuring and δ15N values in modern grain from known growing conditions. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0215578PLOS
April 2019
2 Reads

Dating on its own cannot resolve hominin occupation patterns.

Nat Ecol Evol 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Evolutionary Studies Institute & School of Geography, Archaeology and Environmental Studies, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.

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http://www.nature.com/articles/s41559-019-0886-2
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41559-019-0886-2DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Ancient genomes indicate population replacement in Early Neolithic Britain.

Nat Ecol Evol 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department of Earth Sciences, Natural History Museum, London, UK.

The roles of migration, admixture and acculturation in the European transition to farming have been debated for over 100 years. Genome-wide ancient DNA studies indicate predominantly Aegean ancestry for continental Neolithic farmers, but also variable admixture with local Mesolithic hunter-gatherers. Neolithic cultures first appear in Britain circa 4000 BC, a millennium after they appeared in adjacent areas of continental Europe. Read More

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http://www.nature.com/articles/s41559-019-0871-9
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41559-019-0871-9DOI Listing
April 2019
9 Reads

The evolutionary history of the human face.

Nat Ecol Evol 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Universidad Complutense de Madrid-Instituto Carlos III (UCMISCIII), Centro de Investigación de la Evolución y Comportamiento Humanos, Madrid, Spain.

The face is the most distinctive feature used to identify others. Modern humans have a short, retracted face beneath a large globular braincase that is distinctively different from that of our closest living relatives. The face is a skeletal complex formed by 14 individual bones that houses parts of the digestive, respiratory, visual and olfactory systems. Read More

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http://www.nature.com/articles/s41559-019-0865-7
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41559-019-0865-7DOI Listing
April 2019
4 Reads

The Inca bedecked their sacrificial guinea pigs with earrings.

Authors:

Nature 2019 Apr;568(7752):279

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/d41586-019-01074-0DOI Listing

Megalithic tombs in western and northern Neolithic Europe were linked to a kindred society.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Human Evolution, Department of Organismal Biology, Uppsala University, SE-752 36 Uppsala, Sweden;

Paleogenomic and archaeological studies show that Neolithic lifeways spread from the Fertile Crescent into Europe around 9000 BCE, reaching northwestern Europe by 4000 BCE. Starting around 4500 BCE, a new phenomenon of constructing megalithic monuments, particularly for funerary practices, emerged along the Atlantic façade. While it has been suggested that the emergence of megaliths was associated with the territories of farming communities, the origin and social structure of the groups that erected them has remained largely unknown. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1818037116DOI Listing

A comparison of ancient parasites as seen from archeological contexts and early medical texts in China.

Int J Paleopathol 2019 Apr 12;25:30-38. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

Institute of Archaeology, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Beijing, 100732, China.

This paper integrates our knowledge from traditional Chinese medical texts and archeological findings to discuss parasitic loads in early China. Many studies have documented that several different species of eukaryotic endoparasites were present in early human populations throughout China. Nevertheless, comprehensive paleoparasitological records from China are patchy, largely due to taphonomic and environmental factors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpp.2019.03.004DOI Listing

ZooArchNet: Connecting zooarchaeological specimens to the biodiversity and archaeology data networks.

PLoS One 2019 12;14(4):e0215369. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, United States of America.

Interdisciplinary collaborations and data sharing are essential to addressing the long history of human-environmental interactions underlying the modern biodiversity crisis. Such collaborations are increasingly facilitated by, and dependent upon, sharing open access data from a variety of disciplinary communities and data sources, including those within biology, paleontology, and archaeology. Significant advances in biodiversity open data sharing have focused on neontological and paleontological specimen records, making available over a billion records through the Global Biodiversity Information Facility. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0215369PLOS
April 2019
1 Read
3.234 Impact Factor

A new species of Homo from the Late Pleistocene of the Philippines.

Nature 2019 Apr 10;568(7751):181-186. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

National Museum of the Philippines, Manila, The Philippines.

A hominin third metatarsal discovered in 2007 in Callao Cave (Northern Luzon, the Philippines) and dated to 67 thousand years ago provided the earliest direct evidence of a human presence in the Philippines. Analysis of this foot bone suggested that it belonged to the genus Homo, but to which species was unclear. Here we report the discovery of twelve additional hominin elements that represent at least three individuals that were found in the same stratigraphic layer of Callao Cave as the previously discovered metatarsal. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-019-1067-9DOI Listing

Mobility of chromium in sediments dominated by macrophytes and cyanobacteria in different zones of Lake Taihu.

Sci Total Environ 2019 May 19;666:994-1002. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

International Network for Environment and Health, School of Geography and Archaeology & Ryan Institute, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland.

To study the mechanisms of chromium (Cr) mobilization in sediments of lakes with different ecotypes, seasonal sampling was performed in the macrophyte-dominated East Taihu (MDET) and cyanobacteria-dominated Meiliang Bay (CDMB) in Lake Taihu. Concentrations of labile Cr(VI) and dissolved Cr were assessed using diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) and high-resolution dialysis passive sampling devices, respectively. Results indicated that in pore water the dissolved Cr concentrations and in sediments total Cr and Cr fractions concentrations (dissolved, exchangeable and carbonate fraction (F1), Fe-Mn oxide fraction (F2), organic/sulfide fraction (F3)) were lower in MDET than in CDMB. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.02.299DOI Listing

Performance of median kriging with robust estimators of the variogram in outlier identification and spatial prediction for soil pollution at a field scale.

Sci Total Environ 2019 May 21;666:902-914. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Guangxi Forestry Research Institute, Nanning 530002, China.

Median kriging with robust estimators of the variogram has been proposed in literature to reduce the influences of outliers in spatial data of soil pollution, because median kriging can utilize outliers in spatial prediction and robust estimators can overcome the bias caused by outliers. However, performance of the method at a field scale remains unknown. This study compared the method in two case studies of soil Pb pollution with two other commonly used methods for outlier identification, including box-plot and standardized kriging prediction error (SKPE), and with two classical geostatistical approaches for spatial prediction, including kriging with and without outliers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.02.231DOI Listing

Sunken treasures in Andean lake show an empire's quest for control.

Authors:

Nature 2019 Apr;568(7751):146-147

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/d41586-019-01044-6DOI Listing

Diet variability among pre-Dogon and early Dogon populations (Mali) from stable isotopes and dental diseases.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2019 Apr 9. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Laboratory Archaeology and Population in Africa, Anthropology Unit of the Department of Genetics and Evolution, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.

Aims And Objectives: This article reports on diet variability in the Dogon Country (Mali) through a bio-archeological study of pre-Dogon and early Dogon human remains (7th century to 19th century AD) from collective burial caves in the Bandiagara Escarpment.

Materials And Methods: Two hundred and twenty crania from collections curated in Leiden, Paris, and Bamako were studied for dental diseases. In a subset of teeth (n = 175), δ C and δ N were measured in bulk dentine samples. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.23831DOI Listing

Regional diversity in subsistence among early farmers in Southeast Europe revealed by archaeological organic residues.

Proc Biol Sci 2019 Jan;286(1894):20182347

2 Institut für Ur-und Frühgeschichte und Vorderasiatische Archäologie, Universität Heidelberg , Marstallhof 4, 69117 Heidelberg , Germany.

The spread of early farming across Europe from its origins in Southwest Asia was a culturally transformative process which took place over millennia. Within regions, the pace of the transition was probably related to the particular climatic and environmental conditions encountered, as well as the nature of localized hunter-gatherer and farmer interactions. The establishment of farming in the interior of the Balkans represents the first movement of Southwest Asian livestock beyond their natural climatic range, and widespread evidence now exists for early pottery being used extensively for dairying. Read More

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http://www.royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rspb.2018.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2018.2347DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6367183PMC
January 2019
1 Read

Evidence for increased hominid diversity in the Early to Middle Pleistocene of Indonesia.

Nat Ecol Evol 2019 Apr 8. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

UMR 7194 CNRS, Muséum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris, France.

Since the first discovery of Pithecanthropus (Homo) erectus by E. Dubois at Trinil in 1891, over 200 hominid dentognathic remains have been collected from the Early to Middle Pleistocene deposits of Java, Indonesia, forming the largest palaeoanthropological collection in South East Asia. Most of these fossils are currently attributed to H. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41559-019-0860-zDOI Listing

A domestication history of dynamic adaptation and genomic deterioration in Sorghum.

Nat Plants 2019 Apr 8;5(4):369-379. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

School of Life Sciences, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK.

The evolution of domesticated cereals was a complex interaction of shifting selection pressures and repeated episodes of introgression. Genomes of archaeological crops have the potential to reveal these dynamics without being obscured by recent breeding or introgression. We report a temporal series of archaeogenomes of the crop sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) from a single locality in Egyptian Nubia. Read More

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http://www.nature.com/articles/s41477-019-0397-9
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41477-019-0397-9DOI Listing
April 2019
9 Reads

The exceptional abandonment of metal tools by North American hunter-gatherers, 3000 B.P.

Sci Rep 2019 Apr 8;9(1):5756. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Department of Anthropology, Kent State University, Kent, OH, 44242, USA.

Most prehistoric societies that experimented with copper as a tool raw material eventually abandoned stone as their primary medium for tool making. However, after thousands of years of experimentation with this metal, North American hunter-gatherers abandoned it and returned to the exclusive use of stone. Why? We experimentally confirmed that replica copper tools are inferior to stone ones when each is sourced in the same manner as their archaeological counterparts and subjected to identical tasks. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-42185-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6453894PMC

Early tropical crop production in marginal subtropical and temperate Polynesia.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2019 Apr 8. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Centre for Integrated Ecology, School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Deakin University, Geelong, VIC 3216, Australia.

Polynesians introduced the tropical crop taro () to temperate New Zealand after 1280 CE, but evidence for its cultivation is limited. This contrasts with the abundant evidence for big game hunting, raising longstanding questions of the initial economic and ecological importance of crop production. Here we compare fossil data from wetland sedimentary deposits indicative of taro and leaf vegetable (including and spp. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1821732116DOI Listing

Crop and Livestock Diversity Cultivating Gastronomic Potential, Illustrated by Sensory Profiles of Landraces.

J Food Sci 2019 Apr 8. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Authors are with the School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts and Meal Science, Örebro Univ., Sörälgsvägen 1-2, 712 60, Grythyttan, Sweden.

Landraces, that is, crop and livestock not improved by formal breeding, are scarce in the industrialized world and are mainly maintained ex situ for breeding purposes. The natural biodiversity of these landraces may contribute to securing food production that can adapt to a changing climate, crop pathogens, diseases, and other agricultural challenges. In addition, landraces might also possess unique quality traits. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1750-3841.14582DOI Listing
April 2019
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Origin of prehistoric cattle excavated from four archaeological sites in central and northeastern Thailand.

Mitochondrial DNA A DNA Mapp Seq Anal 2019 Apr 7:1-9. Epub 2019 Apr 7.

a Department of Genetics, Faculty of Science, Evolutionary Genetics and Computational Biology Research Unit , Kasetsart University , Bangkok , Thailand.

Cattle have been domesticated in Southeast Asia, including Thailand, for thousands of years, but the history of cattle domestication in the region remains unclear. To date, only genetic studies of modern Thai cattle DNA have been reported. To gain some insight into cattle domestication in the country, a total of 56 cattle remains excavated from four archaeological sites (dated to between 3550 and 1700 years before present (YBP)) in northeastern and central Thailand were analysed in this study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/24701394.2019.1597072DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

The Promise of Paleogenomics Beyond Our Own Species.

Trends Genet 2019 Apr 3. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA; Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA; Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

Paleogenomics, also known as genome-wide ancient DNA analysis, is transforming our understanding of the human past, but has been much less intensively used to understand the history of other species. However, paleogenomic studies of non-human animals and plants have the potential to address an equally rich range of evolutionary, paleoecological, paleoenvironmental, and archaeological research questions. Three recent case studies of cave bears, horses, and maize provide examples of the ways that paleogenomics can be used to examine potential causes of extinctions and dynamic processes of domestication. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tig.2019.02.006DOI Listing

Death among primates: a critical review of non-human primate interactions towards their dead and dying.

Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2019 Apr 4. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

Primate Models for Behavioural Evolution Lab, Institute of Cognitive and Evolutionary Anthropology, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX2 6PN, UK.

For the past two centuries, non-human primates have been reported to inspect, protect, retrieve, carry or drag the dead bodies of their conspecifics and, for nearly the same amount of time, sparse scientific attention has been paid to such behaviours. Given that there exists a considerable gap in the fossil and archaeological record concerning how early hominins might have interacted with their dead, extant primates may provide valuable insight into how and in which contexts thanatological behaviours would have occurred. First, we outline a comprehensive history of comparative thanatology in non-human primates, from the earliest accounts to the present, uncovering the interpretations of previous researchers and their contributions to the field of primate thanatology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/brv.12512DOI Listing

Surface chromium on Terracotta Army bronze weapons is neither an ancient anti-rust treatment nor the reason for their good preservation.

Sci Rep 2019 Apr 4;9(1):5289. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

UCL Institute of Archaeology, London, United Kingdom.

For forty years, there has been a widely held belief that over 2,000 years ago the Chinese Qin developed an advanced chromate conversion coating technology (CCC) to prevent metal corrosion. This belief was based on the detection of chromium traces on the surface of bronze weapons buried with the Chinese Terracotta Army, and the same weapons' very good preservation. We analysed weapons, lacquer and soils from the site, and conducted experimental replications of CCC and accelerated ageing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-40613-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6449376PMC

Growth rings of Brazil nut trees (Bertholletia excelsa) as a living record of historical human disturbance in Central Amazonia.

PLoS One 2019 3;14(4):e0214128. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, Manaus, AM, Brazil.

The Brazil nut tree (Bertholletia excelsa) is an iconic and economically valuable species that dominates vast swathes of the Amazon Basin. This species seems to have been an important part of human subsistence strategies in the region from at least the Early Holocene, and its current distribution may be a legacy of past human settlement. Because B. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0214128PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6447161PMC

Investigating dietary patterns and organisational structure by using stable isotope analysis: a pilot study of the Danish medieval leprosy hospital at Næstved.

Anthropol Anz 2019 Apr 3. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Department of Earth Sciences, Durham University, United Kingdom.

During the 12 and 13 centuries, numerous leprosy hospitals were founded in Europe. Given that leprosy was not considered infectious, this may reflect social dimensions of the disease. Aiming at exploring the impact of leprosy on medieval people and the organisation of the Danish at Næstved, we reconstructed the diet of twenty patients using stable isotopes, and compared our results with relevant historical data. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1127/anthranz/2019/0949DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Poland syndrome before Alfred Poland: the oldest medical description (Paris, France, 1803).

Surg Radiol Anat 2019 Apr 1. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Section of Medical and Forensic Anthropology (UVSQ/EA4498 DANTE Laboratory), UFR of Health Sciences, 2 avenue de la Source de la Bièvre, 78180, Montigny-le-Bretonneux, France.

Here, we present a description of Poland syndrome from the second session of the Anatomical Society (Paris, France) on 11 December 1803 of congenital mammary absence and muscular atrophy on the right side. This case report predates the first official description of the disease published by Alfred Poland in Guy's Hospital Reports (London, 1841). Consequently, perhaps would it be necessary to do justice to its French discoverer, and to name from now on this nosological entity the "syndrome of Marandel"? Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00276-019-02232-9DOI Listing

Underwater ritual offerings in the Island of the Sun and the formation of the Tiwanaku state.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2019 Apr 1. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Institute for the Advanced Study of Culture and the Environment, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33620

Considerable debate surrounds the economic, political, and ideological systems that constitute primary state formation. Theoretical and empirical research emphasize the role of religion as a significant institution for promoting the consolidation and reproduction of archaic states. The Tiwanaku state developed in the Lake Titicaca Basin between the 5th and 12th centuries CE and extended its influence over much of the south-central Andes of South America. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1820749116DOI Listing

Poliomyelitis in ancient Greece (5th century BC)?

Neurology 2019 Apr;92(14):678-679

From Centre for Cretan Archaeology (E.V.), Department of Humanities (DISUM), University of Catania; National Etruscan Museum of Villa Giulia (V.N.), Rome; Santa Lucia Clinic-Polydiagnostic Medical Centre (E.V., F.M.G.), Siracusa, Italy; and Archaeology (F.M.G.)., College of Humanities, Arts and Social Sciences, Flinders University, Adelaide, Australia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000007350DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Three-dimensional analysis of sexual dimorphism in ribcage kinematics of modern humans.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2019 Apr 1. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Universite de Bordeaux, CNRS, MCC, De la Prehistoire a l'Actuel: Culture, Environnement et Anthropologie, (PACEA), Pessac, France.

Objectives: Sexual dimorphism is an important biological factor underlying morphological variation in the human skeleton. Previous research found sex-related differences in the static ribcage, with males having more horizontally oriented ribs and a wider lower ribcage than females. Furthermore, a recent study found sex-related differences in the kinematics of the human lungs, with cranio-caudal movements of the caudal part of the lungs accounting for most of the differences between sexes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.23829DOI Listing

Growth of ancestry DNA testing risks huge increase in paternity issues.

Nat Hum Behav 2019 Jan;3(1)

Laboratory of Forensic Genetics and Molecular Archaeology, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41562-018-0499-9DOI Listing
January 2019

Food Income and the Evolution of Forager Mobility.

Sci Rep 2019 Apr 1;9(1):5438. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Research Department of Genetics, Evolution & Environment, University College London, Darwin Building, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT, UK.

Forager mobility tends to be high, although ethnographic studies indicate ecological factors such as resource abundance and reliability, population density and effective temperature influence the cost-to-benefit assessment of movement decisions. We investigate the evolution of mobility using an agent-based and spatially explicit cultural evolutionary model that considers the feedback between foragers and their environment. We introduce Outcomes Clustering, an approach to categorizing simulated system states arising from complex stochastic processes shaped by multiple interacting parameters. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-42006-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6443647PMC

Applications and challenges of forensic proteomics.

Forensic Sci Int 2019 Apr 22;297:350-363. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

Statistical Modeling and Experimental Design Group, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington, USA.

Mass spectrometry-based proteomics has been a useful tool for addressing numerous questions in basic biology research for many years. This success, combined with the maturity of mass spectrometric instrumentation, the ever-increasing availability of protein sequence databases derived from genome sequencing, and the growing sophistication of data analysis methods, places proteomics in a position to have an important role in biological forensics. Because proteins contain information about genotype (sequence) and phenotype (expression levels), proteomics methods can both identify biological samples and characterize the conditions that produced them. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2019.01.022DOI Listing

A bioarchaeological and biocultural investigation of Chinese footbinding at the Xuecun archaeological site, Henan Province, China.

Authors:
Christine Lee

Int J Paleopathol 2019 Mar 27;25:9-19. Epub 2019 Mar 27.

California State University, 5151 State University Drive, Los Angeles, CA 90032-8220, United States. Electronic address:

From 2005-2006 the Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology, Henan Province, excavated the Xuecun cemetery as part of a salvage archaeology project associated with the South to North Water Diversion Project. This gave a unique opportunity to examine burials from the Ming-Qing Dynasties (1360-1911). Burials from this period are seldom excavated as the Chinese, do not want to disturb their direct ancestors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpp.2019.03.001DOI Listing

Making sense of medieval mouths: Investigating sex differences of dental pathological lesions in a late medieval Italian community.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2019 Mar 28. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

Department of Archaeology, Foggia University, Foggia, Italy.

Objectives: Bioarchaeological investigations of sex-based differences in the prevalence of dental pathological lesions, particularly caries, have drawn considerable attention, and out of this work, two dominant models have emerged. Traditionally, the first model interprets sex-related patterns in caries as a product of gendered differences in diet. A more recent model interprets a generally higher propensity for caries prevalence in females in light of reproductive ecology. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/ajpa.23821
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.23821DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads
2.379 Impact Factor

Peak Chromium Pollution in Summer and Winter Caused by High Mobility of Chromium in Sediment of a Eutrophic Lake: In Situ Evidence from High Spatiotemporal Sampling.

Environ Sci Technol 2019 Apr 9. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

International Network for Environment and Health, School of Geography and Archaeology , National University of Ireland , Galway H91 CF50 , Ireland.

To study the mechanisms of chromium (Cr) mobilization in sediments of eutrophic lakes, monthly sampling was performed in the Meiliang Bay of Lake Taihu, China, combined with laboratory experiments. High-resolution dialysis and diffusive gradients in thin film (DGT) sampling techniques were used. Results indicated that in July 2016 and January 2017, the concentrations of soluble Cr and DGT-labile Cr(VI) in the overlying water exceeded both drinking and fishery water quality standards, resulting from the high mobility of Cr in sediments. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.8b07060DOI Listing

Divergence in gut microbial communities mirrors a social group fission event in a black-and-white colobus monkey (Colobus vellerosus).

Am J Primatol 2019 Mar 28:e22966. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

Institute of Ecology and Evolution, University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon.

Host behavior and social factors have increasingly been implicated in structuring the composition of gut microbial communities. In social animals, distinct microbial communities characterize different social groups across a variety of taxa, although little longitudinal research has been conducted that demonstrates how this divergence occurs. Our study addresses this question by characterizing the gut microbial composition of an African Old World monkey, the black-and-white colobus (Colobus vellerosus), before and after a social group fission event. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajp.22966DOI Listing

Assessment of biodegradation in ancient archaeological wood from the Middle Cemetery at Abydos, Egypt.

PLoS One 2019 27;14(3):e0213753. Epub 2019 Mar 27.

Department of Plant Pathology, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, Minnesota, United States of America.

Abydos is a large, complex archaeological site located approximately 500 km south of Cairo in Upper Egypt. The site has served as a cemetery for thousands of years and is where most of the Early Dynastic royal tombs are located. North Abydos includes the Middle Cemetery and the North Cemetery, which are separated from each other by a wadi. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0213753PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6436709PMC

Climate change reduces resilience to fire in subalpine rainforests.

Glob Chang Biol 2019 Mar 25. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), Lucas Heights, NSW, Australia.

Climate change is affecting the distribution of species and the functioning of ecosystems. For species that are slow growing and poorly dispersed, climate change can force a lag between the distributions of species and the geographic distributions of their climatic envelopes, exposing species to the risk of extinction. Climate also governs the resilience of species and ecosystems to disturbance, such as wildfire. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/gcb.14609DOI Listing

Ancient trash mounds unravel urban collapse a century before the end of Byzantine hegemony in the southern Levant.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2019 Mar 25. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

Dangoor Research Accelerator Mass Spectrometer Radiocarbon Laboratory, Weizmann Institute of Science, 76100 Rehovot, Israel.

The historic event of the Late Antique Little Ice Age (LALIA) was recently identified in dozens of natural and geological climate proxies of the northern hemisphere. Although this climatic downturn was proposed as a major cause for pandemic and extensive societal upheavals in the sixth-seventh centuries CE, archaeological evidence for the magnitude of societal response to this event is sparse. This study uses ancient trash mounds as a type of proxy for identifying societal crisis in the urban domain, and employs multidisciplinary investigations to establish the terminal date of organized trash collection and high-level municipal functioning on a city-wide scale. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1900233116DOI Listing
March 2019
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Ionisation bias undermines the use of MALDI for estimating peptide deamidation: synthetic peptide studies demonstrate ESI gives more reliable response ratios.

Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 2019 Mar 25. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

Department of Chemistry, University of York, York.

Rationale: Although mass spectrometry is routinely used to determine deamination in peptide mixtures, the effects of ionisation source choice have not yet been investigated. In particular, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation (MALDI) has become a popular tool with which to measure levels of glutamine deamidation in ancient proteins. Here we use model synthetic peptides to rigorously compare MALDI and electrospray ionisation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/rcm.8441DOI Listing
March 2019
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Zinc pollution in zones dominated by algae and submerged macrophytes in Lake Taihu.

Sci Total Environ 2019 Mar 13;670:361-368. Epub 2019 Mar 13.

International Network for Environment and Health, School of Geography and Archaeology and Ryan Institute, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland.

Zinc (Zn) contamination in lake zones dominated by algae and macrophytes in Lake Taihu was analyzed through diffusive gradient in thin films (DGT) and dialysis (HR-Peeper) methods. It was found that in both zones Zn contamination varied by season. In July and October, dissolved Zn was present in high concentrations, and in July, high concentrations of labile Zn were found in sediments. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00489697193115
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.03.167DOI Listing
March 2019
3 Reads

Mind the (Middle Pleistocene) gap?

Authors:
Julien Favreau

J Hum Evol 2019 Apr 2;129:62-66. Epub 2019 Mar 2.

Department of Anthropology and Archaeology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada T2N 1N4. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhevol.2019.01.001DOI Listing

Introduction to Special Section of Journal of Religion and Health, 'Mental Health, The Mind and Consciousness: Tibetan and Western Approaches'.

J Relig Health 2019 Mar 20. Epub 2019 Mar 20.

Department of Religion and Theology, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10943-019-00795-wDOI Listing
March 2019
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Complex societies precede moralizing gods throughout world history.

Nature 2019 Apr 20;568(7751):226-229. Epub 2019 Mar 20.

Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, USA.

The origins of religion and of complex societies represent evolutionary puzzles. The 'moralizing gods' hypothesis offers a solution to both puzzles by proposing that belief in morally concerned supernatural agents culturally evolved to facilitate cooperation among strangers in large-scale societies. Although previous research has suggested an association between the presence of moralizing gods and social complexity, the relationship between the two is disputed, and attempts to establish causality have been hampered by limitations in the availability of detailed global longitudinal data. Read More

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http://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-019-1043-4
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-019-1043-4DOI Listing
April 2019
5 Reads