Aquat Sci 2020 Mar;82(2):1-44
Office of Research and Development, Center for Environmental Measurement and Modeling, Watershed and Ecosystem Characterization Division, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH, USA.
Our understanding of how ecosystems function has changed from an equilibria-based view to one that recognizes the dynamic, fluctuating, nonlinear nature of aquatic systems. This current understanding requires that we manage systems for resilience. In this review, we examine how resilience has been defined, measured and applied in aquatic systems, and more broadly, in the socioecological systems in which they are embedded. Read More