73 results match your criteria Apraxia of Lid Opening

Macaque monkey trigeminal blink reflex circuits targeting levator palpebrae superioris motoneurons.

J Comp Neurol 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Neurobiology and Anatomical Sciences, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, Mississippi, USA.

For normal viewing, the eyes are held open by the tonic actions of the levator palpebrae superioris (levator) muscle raising the upper eyelid. This activity is interrupted during blinks, when the eyelid sweeps down to spread the tear film or protect the cornea. We examined the circuit connecting the principal trigeminal nucleus to the levator motoneurons by use of both anterograde and retrograde tracers in macaque monkeys. Read More

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Apraxia of Lid Opening in Subthalamic Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation for Parkinson's Disease-Frequency, Risk Factors and Response to Treatment.

Mov Disord Clin Pract 2021 May 12;8(4):587-593. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Comprehensive Care Centre for Movement Disorders Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology Thiruvananthapuram Kerala India.

Background: New-onset apraxia of lid opening (ALO) is reported to occur in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients following Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS). There are only few systematic studies on this uncommon disorder of eyelid movements.

Objectives: We aimed to examine the frequency, temporal evolution, predisposing factors and response to treatment, of new-onset ALO in PD patients who underwent bilateral subthalamic nucleus (STN) DBS. Read More

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Myotomy In Situ for Essential Blepharospasm Refractory to Botulinum Toxin.

Ann Plast Surg 2020 01;84(1S Suppl 1):S74-S79

Department of Neurology, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

Background: Full myectomy is recommended for benign essential blepharospasm (BEB) refractory to botulinum toxin (BT) treatment, but long-term swelling, scar contracture, hollow appearance, and unnatural contour of the eyelids are common postoperative complications. We present myotomy in situ to minimize these adverse outcomes.

Methods: The redundant eyelid skin with its underlying muscle is resected first, and myotomy in situ is performed by completely cutting the residual orbicularis oculi muscles into multiple cubes and down to the subcutaneous layer, and then cutting the procerus and corrugator muscles down to the periosteum. Read More

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January 2020

Mini-incisional entropion repair for correcting involutional entropion: Full description and surgical outcome.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2019 Aug;98(33):e16731

Department of Ophthalmology, Research Institute of Medical Science, Konkuk University Medical Center, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

The aim of the study was to report the surgical outcome of mini-incisional correction method to treat involutional entropion.This is a retrospective interventional case series of 46 eyelids in 31 patients with involutional entropion and significant ocular irritation. In this technique, after turning the lower eyelid inside out, threads are introduced into it through the conjunctiva close to the inferior fornix. Read More

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Oxybuprocaine for apraxia of lid opening in Parkinson's disease: A placebo-controlled pilot trial.

Mov Disord 2018 03 23;33(3):494-495. Epub 2017 Nov 23.

Clinical Research Center and Department of Neurology, National Hospital Organization Utano Hospital, Kyoto, Japan.

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Botulinum toxin for treating unilateral apraxia of eyelid opening in a patient with congenital myotonia.

Arq Bras Oftalmol 2017 Sep-Oct;80(5):330-331

Department of Ophthalmology, Rio Hortega University Hospital, Dulzaina St, Valladolid, Spain.

A 37-year-old female presented with severe apraxia of lid opening (ALO) affecting the right upper lid associated with Becker congenital myotonia (MC). The patient had a history of right upper lid ptosis for 25 years that was exacerbated over the previous month with severe incapacity to open her right eye. No other associated neurological or ophthalmic symptoms were observed. Read More

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December 2017

I-FP-CIT SPECT imaging in blepharospasm.

Rev Neurol (Paris) 2017 Dec 16;173(10):645-649. Epub 2017 Jun 16.

Neurology, CHU Caremeau, place du Professeur-Debré, 30000 Nîmes, France.

Introduction: Blepharospasm is a focal dystonia characterized by involuntary cocontraction of the eyelid protractors, causing spasmodic closure of the eyelids. Apraxia of eyelid opening is caused by an inability to initiate lid opening without paralytic abnormality. Some studies suggest that patients with either pure blepharospasm or blepharospasm associated with apraxia of eyelid opening are more prone to developing Parkinson's disease. Read More

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December 2017

Frontalis suspension surgery to treat patients with blepharospasm and eyelid opening apraxia: long-term results.

J Neural Transm (Vienna) 2017 02 5;124(2):253-257. Epub 2016 Nov 5.

Department of Ear-, Nose and Throat, Universitätsmedizin Göttingen (UMG), Göttingen, Germany.

Blepharospasm may be accompanied by eyelid opening apraxia (EOA) reducing the efficacy of botulinum toxin (BT) therapy. The frontalis suspension operation (FSO) is then the only effective treatment option available. We want to report the first long-term results with FSO. Read More

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February 2017

Bilateral ptosis: Lesion in the oculomotor nuclei or supranuclear lesion?

NeuroRehabilitation 2015 ;36(3):323-7

Département des Neurosciences cliniques, Unité de Neuro-Réhabilitation Aigüe, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Background: Bilateral ptosis is a very interesting clinical challenge for doctors because of the multiple possible localizations of a lesion which can lead to this neurological sign.

Objectives: Through this case report, we aim to determine the difference between an apraxia of lid opening (ALO) with difficulty in initiating the act of lid elevation, in spite of adequate understanding, motor control and cranial nerve pathways, and a bilateral ptosis with a lesion in the oculomotor nucleus or blepharospasm.

Methods: The case report of a 50-year-old patient presenting bilateral ptosis and multiple ischemic lesions in the brainstem and bilateral frontal lobe lesions after the emergency removal of a large frontal tumor. Read More

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Frontalis suspension surgery to treat patients with essential blepharospasm and apraxia of eyelid opening-technique and results.

Head Face Med 2014 Oct 22;10:44. Epub 2014 Oct 22.

ENT-Department, University of Göttingen Medical Center, Göttingen, Germany.

Introduction: We describe the results of 15 patients suffering from essential blepharospasm with apraxia of eyelid opening who underwent frontalis suspension surgery.

Material And Methods: Patients with apraxia of eyelid opening and unresponsive to botulinum toxin injections were studied. Bilateral frontalis suspension surgery was performed (sling operation) using polytetrafluoroethylene (Gore-Tex®) sutures. Read More

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October 2014

Combination of blepharospasm and apraxia of eyelid opening: a condition resistant to treatment.

Acta Neurol Belg 2012 Mar 24;112(1):95-6. Epub 2012 Jan 24.

Parkinson's Clinic of Eastern Toronto and Movement Disorders Centre, 404-2863 Ellesmere Rd, Toronto, ON M1E5E9, Canada.

Blepharospasm is seen in many cases of Parkinsonism including progressive supranuclear palsy. These patients usually respond well to botulinum toxin, however some patients subsequently fail to respond to even higher doses of botulinum toxin after an initial good response. They should not be considered failure of treatment with botulinum toxin, as a significant number of these patients have underlying apraxia of eyelid opening in addition to blepharospasm, which may be the cause of failure to respond to botulinum toxin. Read More

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Effects of varying subthalamic nucleus stimulation on apraxia of lid opening in Parkinson's disease.

J Neurol 2012 Sep 17;259(9):1944-50. Epub 2012 Feb 17.

Département de Neurologie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Grenoble, Grenoble, France.

Apraxia of lid opening (ALO) is a non-paralytic inability to open the eyes or sustain lid elevation at will. The exact pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the syndrome are still unknown. ALO has been reported in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) after subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS), suggesting a possible involvement of the basal ganglia. Read More

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September 2012

[Clinical characteristics and treatment of dystonia].

Takahiro Mezaki

Rinsho Shinkeigaku 2011 Jul;51(7):465-70

Department of Neurology, Sakakibara Hakuho Hospital.

Dystonia is defined as a syndrome of sustained muscle contractions, frequently causing twisting and repetitive movements, or abnormal postures. Its diagnosis is based on clinical characteristics. In dystonia, the pattern of abnormal posture or movement tends to be constant during the short term even if its severity fluctuates. Read More

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Normal and abnormal lid function.

Janet C Rucker

Handb Clin Neurol 2011 ;102:403-24

Departments of Neurology and Ophthalmology, The Mount Sinai Medical Center, New York, NY 10029, USA.

This chapter on lid function is comprised of two primary sections, the first on normal eyelid anatomy, neurological innervation, and physiology, and the second on abnormal eyelid function in disease states. The eyelids serve several important ocular functions, the primary objectives of which are protection of the anterior globe from injury and maintenance of the ocular tear film. Typical eyelid behaviors to perform these functions include blinking (voluntary, spontaneous, or reflexive), voluntary eye closure (gentle or forced), partial lid lowering during squinting, normal lid retraction during emotional states such as surprise or fear (startle reflex), and coordination of lid movements with vertical eye movements for maximal eye protection. Read More

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The pre-supplementary and primary motor areas generate rhythm for voluntary eye opening and closing movements.

Tohoku J Exp Med 2010 Oct;222(2):97-104

Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Tokyo Medical and Dental University Graduate School, Tokyo, Japan.

Blinking and opening/closing of the eyelid are considered to be different movements with independent control mechanisms. Apraxia of lid opening (ALO) is a clinical syndrome in which patients experience difficulty in opening their eyes voluntarily. Our previous study with fluorodeoxyglucose and positron emission tomography (PET) has suggested that functional impairments in the supplementary motor area (SMA) and the anterior cingulate gyrus may be involved in the pathophysiology of ALO. Read More

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October 2010

Visual signs and symptoms of progressive supranuclear palsy.

Clin Exp Optom 2011 Mar;94(2):150-60

Vision Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham, United Kingdom.

Progressive supranuclear palsy is a rare, degenerative brain disorder and the second most common syndrome in which the patient exhibits 'parkinsonism', that is, a variety of symptoms involving problems with movement. General symptoms include difficulties with gait and balance; the patient walking clumsily and often falling backwards. The syndrome can be difficult to diagnose and visual signs and symptoms can help to separate it from closely related movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease, multiple system atrophy, dementia with Lewy bodies and corticobasal degeneration. Read More

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Involuntary eyelid closure after STN-DBS: evidence for different pathophysiological entities.

J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2010 Sep 20;81(9):1002-7. Epub 2010 Jun 20.

Center of Neurology, Hertie Institute for Clinical Brain Research, and German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE), University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.

Objective: Involuntary eyelid closure (IEC) may occur after deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS) in Parkinson's disease (PD) and is often categorised as apraxia of lid opening (ALO), albeit the appropriateness of this term is under debate. To gain insight into the hitherto undefined pathophysiology of IEC after STN-DBS, we performed a comprehensive clinical and electrophysiological characterisation of lid function in a total of six PD patients.

Methods: The study was carried out in six PD patients who developed IEC after STN-DBS. Read More

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September 2010

Apraxia of lid opening mimicking ptosis in compound heterozygosity for A467T and W748S POLG1 mutations.

Mov Disord 2008 Jul;23(9):1286-8

Department of Neurology, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany.

Patients harboring A467T and W748S POLG1 mutations present with a broad variety of neurological phenotypes, including cerebellar ataxia, progressive external ophthalmoplegia (PEO), myoclonus, epilepsy, and peripheral neuropathy. With exception of ataxia and myoclonus, movement disorders are not typical features of POLG1 associated disorders. We report on two affected siblings compound heterozygous for A467T and W748S mutations, one suffering from choreoathetosis and apraxia of lid opening due to focal eyelid dystonia that mimicked progression of ptosis, resulting in functional blindness. Read More

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Upper eyelid myectomy in blepharospasm with associated apraxia of lid opening.

Am J Ophthalmol 2008 Mar 11;145(3):541-547. Epub 2008 Jan 11.

Moran Eye Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84102, USA.

Purpose: To assess the impact of upper eyelid myectomy surgery on blepharospasm with associated apraxia of lid opening (ALO), dry eye, photophobia, and daily functioning in patients who are refractory to botulinum toxin treatment.

Design: Noncomparative, consecutive, interventional case series.

Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed to identify 100 consecutive patients beginning on January 1, 2000, who underwent upper eyelid myectomy surgery for blepharospasm and fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Read More

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Exacerbation of blepharospasm associated with craniocervical dystonia after placement of bilateral globus pallidus internus deep brain stimulator.

Mov Disord 2008 Feb;23(3):454-6

Center for Facial Appearances, Salt Lake City, Utah 84102, USA.

To report a case of exacerbation of blepharospasm after bilateral globus pallidus internus (GPi) deep brain stimulator (DBS) placement. A 69-year-old male presented after bilateral GPi DBS placement for blepharospasm and craniocervical dystonia with worsening eyelid spasms and associated apraxia of lid opening (ALO). Numerous attempts to adjust DBS parameters were ineffective. Read More

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February 2008

Apraxia of lid opening.

Br J Ophthalmol 2007 Jul;91(7):854

Eye Department, Worthing Hospital, Worthing BN11 2DH, UK.

We describe eyelid movement abnormalities in an 80-year-old man with apraxia of lid opening (ALO), resulting from involuntary levator palpebrae inhibition (ILPI) and pretarsal orbicularis oculi (OO) contraction. He was unable to open his lids at will following closure. Attempted eye opening resulted in forceful contraction of the frontalis muscle, backward thrusting of the head and lengthened lid closure. Read More

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Dystonia redefined as central non-paretic loss of control of muscle action: a concept including inability to activate muscles required for a specific movement, or 'negative dystonia'.

Takahiro Mezaki

Med Hypotheses 2007 4;69(6):1309-12. Epub 2007 Jun 4.

Department of Neurology, Sakakibara Hakuho Hospital, 5630 Sakakibara-cho, Tsu City, Mie 514-1251, Japan.

Dystonia is defined as a syndrome of sustained muscle contractions, frequently causing twisting and repetitive movements, or abnormal postures. Although this definition comprises an essential feature of dystonia, the clinical observation indicates that there is an additional aspect of dystonia; failure to adequately activate muscles required for specific movement, exemplified by the lack of contractions of the levator palpebrae superioris muscles in apraxia of lid opening, as well as by inability to activate appropriate muscles in cervical dystonia or in the paretic form of writer's cramp, and possibly by dropped head syndrome or camptocormia seen in parkinsonian patients without apparent truncal dystonia or rigidity. Taking this "negative dystonia" into consideration, the author proposes a revised definition of dystonia as a symptom characterized by the central non-paretic loss of voluntary control of muscle activities, which may result in either excessive or deficient contractions of muscles, frequently causing twisting and repetitive movements, limitation of movements, or abnormal postures. Read More

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January 2008

Apraxia of eyelid opening: clinical features and therapy.

E Kerty K Eidal

Eur J Ophthalmol 2006 Mar-Apr;16(2):204-8

Department of Neurology, Rikshospitalet, University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.

Purpose: Botulinum toxin injection is the treatment of choice in cases of benign essential blepharospasm. However, about 10% of the patients do not get sufficient effect from this treatment, and many of them have concomitant apraxia of lid opening.

Methods: Over a 3-year period we treated 12 patients. Read More

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[A 54-year-old man with familial parkinsonism, gaze palsy, and dementia].

No To Shinkei 2005 Dec;57(12):1104-12

Department of Neurology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo, Japan.

We report a Japanese man with familial parkinsonism who died at age 54. His younger brother, his mother, the mother's 4 brothers, and their mother were also affected with similar parkinsonism. The patient had had nystagmus since adolescence. Read More

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December 2005

[A 65-year-old man with rigid-bradykinetic parkinsonism, vertical gaze palsy, difficulty of eye-lid opening, and marked pseudo-bulbar palsy].

No To Shinkei 2005 Jan;57(1):73-86

Department of Neurology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

We report a 65-year-old man with rigid-bradykinetic parkinsonism, vertical gaze palsy, difficulty in eye-lid opening, and marked pseudo-bulbar palsy. He felt difficulty of it, hand movement at 59 years old. When he was 60 years old, monotonous speech and slowness of movement appeared. Read More

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January 2005

[Blepharospasm and blepharocolysis. Different sides of the same coin].

Rev Neurol 2005 Mar 1-15;40(5):298-302

Servicio de Neurofisiología, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, Madrid, Spain.

Introduction: The eyelid movements are mediated mainly by the orbicularis oculi (OO) and the levator palpebrae superioris (LPS) muscles. Dissociated upper lid functions exhibit different counterbalanced action of these muscles, and in blinking they show a strictly reciprocal innervation. The disturbance of this close LPS-OO relationship likely leads to many of the central lid movement disorders. Read More

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December 2005

Improvement of apraxia of lid opening by STN-stimulation in a 70-year-old patient with Parkinson's disease. A case report.

Minim Invasive Neurosurg 2004 Feb;47(1):58-60

Department of Neurology, Saarland University, Homburg/Saar, Germany.

We report on a 70-year-old female patient with Parkinson's disease, who showed an improvement of a preexisting apraxia of lid opening on electrical impulses, so-called deep brain stimulation (DBS) delivered to the subthalamic nucleus (STN). This was not described by any other authors before. Up to now, the appearance of apraxia of lid opening was observed only as a side effect after deep brain stimulation in the nucleus subthalamicus. Read More

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February 2004