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    46861 results match your criteria Applied optics[Journal]

    1 OF 938

    Computer-generated hologram using binary phase with an aperture.
    Appl Opt 2017 Nov;56(32):9126-9131
    Computer-generated holograms (CGHs) have attracted more and more attention in some application fields, such as 3D displays, optical security, and beam shaping. In this paper, a strategy is presented for optical information verification based on CGH using binary phase (1 bit) with an aperture. The input is encoded into the cascaded phase-only masks based on CGH via iterative phase retrieval, and one extracted phase mask is binarized in which one part is selected according to an aperture and further embedded into a random binary-phase host mask. Read More

    Manipulating and detecting the chirpiness of spatial chirp signals via fractional Fourier lenses designed by transformation optics.
    Appl Opt 2017 Nov;56(32):9119-9125
    Estimating the chirpiness of a spatial chirp signal is important in many optical engineering applications. With the help of transformation optics, a new kind of fractional Fourier transform lens is designed by deforming the conventional graded index lens through conformal mapping, which can manipulate the chirpiness of the input chirp signal. The low-input chirpiness is magnified by the transformation material, and the error of the detection is kept approximately the same; thus, the designed lens has enhanced chirpiness detection precision and distinguishability for low chirpiness. Read More

    Watt-level tunable 1.5  μm narrow linewidth fiber ring laser based on a temperature tuning π-phase-shifted fiber Bragg grating.
    Appl Opt 2017 Nov;56(32):9114-9118
    A watt-level tunable 1.5 μm narrow linewidth fiber ring laser using a temperature tuning π-phase-shifted fiber Bragg grating (π-PSFBG) is demonstrated here, to the best of our knowledge, for the first time. The π-PSFBG is employed as both a narrow band filter and a wavelength tuning component, and its central wavelength is thermally tuned by a thermo-electric cooler. Read More

    Impact of the scattering phase function on the bulk reflectance of a turbid medium with large-scale inhomogeneities.
    Appl Opt 2017 Nov;56(32):9105-9113
    We study the total bulk reflectance of a turbid medium with large (as compared to the light wavelength) inhomogeneities at grazing angles of light incidence. To model highly forward scattering in the medium, we take advantage of the Reynolds-McCormick scattering phase function. Using the scaling analysis for the small-angle radiative transfer equation, we derive simple analytical formulas for the total reflectance. Read More

    Positive dwell time algorithm with minimum equal extra material removal in deterministic optical surfacing technology.
    Appl Opt 2017 Nov;56(32):9098-9104
    In deterministic computer-controlled optical surfacing, accurate dwell time execution by computer numeric control machines is crucial in guaranteeing a high-convergence ratio for the optical surface error. It is necessary to consider the machine dynamics limitations in the numerical dwell time algorithms. In this paper, these constraints on dwell time distribution are analyzed, and a model of the equal extra material removal is established. Read More

    Microwave photonic filter-based interrogation system for multiple fiber Bragg grating sensors.
    Appl Opt 2017 Nov;56(32):9074-9078
    Fiber optic sensors based on fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) find potential use in condition monitoring because their spectral properties change according to external environmental and/or physical factors. We propose and demonstrate a technique for interrogating multiple FBG-based sensors based on microwave photonic (MWP) filtering. In particular, we exploit the spectrum-slicing properties of two different FBG Fabry-Perot cavities to implement a double passband MWP filter. Read More

    Astigmatism-free Czerny-Turner compact spectrometer with cylindrical mirrors.
    Appl Opt 2017 Nov;56(32):9069-9073
    A modified optical design for a broadband, high resolution, astigmatism-free Czerny-Turner spectrometer is proposed. Astigmatism is corrected by using cylindrical mirrors over a broad spectral range. The theory and method for astigmatism correction are thoroughly analyzed. Read More

    Multi-element direct design using a freeform surface for a compact illumination system.
    Appl Opt 2017 Nov;56(32):9090-9097
    An iterative optimization algorithm is introduced to address the surface iterative errors as well as source extension issues in a freeform illumination system for producing satisfactory illumination distribution. A unique two-parameter coordinate system is utilized to represent the emitted ray directions. Then, the direction vector for the incident rays, which propagate through several surfaces, is obtained using ray-tracing techniques. Read More

    Compact single-shot d-scan setup for the characterization of few-cycle laser pulses.
    Appl Opt 2017 Nov;56(32):9084-9089
    We present a compact implementation of the ultrashort pulse measurement technique based on dispersion scans (d-scan), allowing single-shot measurement of few-cycle pulses. The main novelty in our design, making our setup extremely compact and simple, is the use, after a prism, of a spherical mirror in an off-axis geometry. The intentionally introduced strong astigmatism makes it possible to image the output of the crystal in one direction while focusing it in the other direction, resulting in the output face of the prism being imaged into a line in the second-harmonic crystal. Read More

    Elimination of self-mode-locking pulses in high-power continuous-wave Yb-doped fiber lasers with external feedback.
    Appl Opt 2017 Nov;56(32):9079-9083
    Sustained self-pulsing and self-mode-locking (SML) are detrimental to the performance of continuous-wave (CW) fiber lasers. We demonstrate an all-fiber method to eliminate SML pulsing by employing a low-reflectivity fiber Bragg grating (FBG) outside of a laser cavity to provide feedback. A narrow-bandwidth FBG is used to form an external cavity with the output coupler FBG, which suppresses the SML up to a certain output power level, at which point, the laser emission linewidth is still within the bandwidth of the FBG. Read More

    Frequency and timing stability of an airborne injection-seeded Nd:YAG laser system for direct-detection wind lidar.
    Appl Opt 2017 Nov;56(32):9057-9068
    We report on the design and performance of the laser deployed in the airborne demonstrator Doppler wind lidar for the Aeolus mission of the European Space Agency (ESA). The all-solid-state, diode-pumped and frequency-tripled Nd:YAG laser is realized as a master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) system, generating 60 mJ of single-frequency pulses at 355 nm wavelength, 50 Hz repetition rate and 20 ns pulse duration. For the measurement of the Doppler frequency shift over several accumulated laser shots, the frequency stability of the laser is of crucial importance. Read More

    Wide area mapping of liquid crystal devices with passive and active command layers.
    Appl Opt 2017 Nov;56(32):9050-9056
    We track the non-uniformity of a wide area liquid crystal device using multiple cross-polarized intensity measurements. They give us not only accurate estimates of the core physical liquid crystal parameters, such as elastic constants, but also spatial maps of the device properties, including the liquid crystal thickness and pretilt angle. A bootstrapping statistical analysis, coupled with the multiple measurements, gives us reliable error bars on all the measured parameters. Read More

    Effect of graded bandgap structure on photoelectric performance of transmission-mode AlxGa1-xAs/GaAs photocathode modules.
    Appl Opt 2017 Nov;56(32):9044-9049
    The graded bandgap AlxGa1-xAs/GaAs photocathode with graded composition and exponential doping structure has shown great potential for improving photoemission capability. In order to better study the performance of transmission-mode AlxGa1-xAs/GaAs photocathode with the complex graded bandgap structure, the experimental optical properties and quantum efficiency are measured by comparison with uniform composition and exponential doping Al0.7Ga0. Read More

    Tailoring lens functionality by 3D laser printing.
    Appl Opt 2017 Nov;56(32):9038-9043
    Conversion of a Gaussian beam into a top-hat beam or to an annular beam is demonstrated using 3D direct laser printing. Micron-scale refractive phase elements were designed and printed directly on standard commercially available lenses. These structures modify the phase of the incoming beam into either three intensity-flattened profiles, having line, square, or circular shapes, or to an annular beam profile. Read More

    3D shape, deformation, and vibration measurements using infrared Kinect sensors and digital image correlation.
    Appl Opt 2017 Nov;56(32):9030-9037
    Consumer-grade red-green-blue and depth (RGB-D) sensors, such as the Microsoft Kinect and the Asus Xtion, are attractive devices due to their low cost and robustness for real-time sensing of depth information. These devices provide the depth information by detecting the correspondences between the captured infrared (IR) image and the initial image sent to the IR projector, and their essential limitation is the low accuracy of 3D shape reconstruction. In this paper, an effective technique that employs the Kinect sensors for accurate 3D shape, deformation, and vibration measurements is introduced. Read More

    Laser display system for multi-depth screen projection scenarios.
    Appl Opt 2017 Nov;56(32):9023-9029
    Proposed is a laser projection display system that uses an electronically controlled variable focus lens (ECVFL) to achieve sharp and in-focus image projection over multi-distance three-dimensional (3D) conformal screens. The system also functions as an embedded distance sensor that enables 3D mapping of the multi-level screen platform before the desired laser scanned beam focused/defocused projected spot sizes are matched to the different localized screen distances on the 3D screen. Compared to conventional laser scanning and spatial light modulator (SLM) based projection systems, the proposed design offers in-focus non-distorted projection over a multi-distance screen zone with varying depths. Read More

    Automatic obscuration elimination for off-axis mirror systems.
    Appl Opt 2017 Nov;56(32):9014-9022
    The degree of automation in optical design has always been improving, and several human-competitive automatic lens design programs have been developed. However, to the best of our knowledge, no such work on off-axis systems has been reported, which we think is largely due to the complicated unfeasible conditions caused by obscuration. Here, we propose a model to detect and evaluate the degree of obscuration for off-axis mirror systems and also a method to automatically eliminate the obscuration by structural optimization. Read More

    Improvement of temperature-induced spectrum characterization in a holographic sensor based on N-isopropylacrylamide photopolymer hydrogel.
    Appl Opt 2017 Nov;56(32):9006-9013
    A novel thermo-sensitive N-isopropylacrylamide photopolymer was developed for improving the temperature and humidity responses of holographic sensors. Diffraction spectra of holographic volume gratings recorded in the materials were characterized to explore the sensing response capacity. A dependence of peak wavelength on the temperature was observed and provided a quantitative strategy for holographic sensing applications. Read More

    Refractive index measurement of suspended cells using opposed-view digital holographic microscopy.
    Appl Opt 2017 Nov;56(32):9000-9005
    Opposed-view digital holographic microscopy (OV-DHM) with autofocusing and out-of-focus background suppression was demonstrated and applied to measure the refractive index (RI) of suspended HeLa cells. In OV-DHM, a specimen is illuminated from two sides in a 4π-like configuration. The generated two opposite-view object waves, which have orthogonal polarization orientations, interfere with a common reference wave, and the generated holograms are recorded by a CMOS camera. Read More

    Two-dimensional coherent random laser in photonic crystal fiber with dye-doped nematic liquid crystal.
    Appl Opt 2017 Nov;56(32):8969-8972
    A random laser of a photonic crystal fiber (PCF) with holes filled with laser dye-doped nematic liquid crystal (NLC) is reported. When the excitation polarization was along the PCF axis, the measured laser threshold was 80  μJ/mm(2) per pulse, which is much lower than the previously reported random laser of PCF filled with laser dye-doped organic solvent. This low threshold is due to the high refractive index of the NLC, which produces a greater scattering efficiency. Read More

    Efficient signal design and optimal power allocation for visible light communication attocell systems.
    Appl Opt 2017 Nov;56(32):8959-8968
    In this paper, we investigate visible light communication (VLC) attocell systems in which any two neighboring attocells overlap. An efficient signal design for VLC called time superposition reuse (TSR) is proposed to mitigate interference and improve spectral efficiency. In the scheme, two neighboring cells are allocated with two time slots that have superposition in the time domain. Read More

    Edge effect correction using ion beam figuring.
    Appl Opt 2017 Nov;56(32):8950-8958
    The edge effect is regarded as one of the most difficult technical issues for fabricating large primary mirrors, as it can greatly reduce the key performance of the optical system. Ion beam figuring (IBF) has the advantage of no edge effect, so we can use it to remove high points on the edge and improve surface accuracy. The edge local correction method (ELCM) of IBF processes only the surface edge zone, and is very different from the current full caliber figuring method (FCFM). Read More

    Generation of long-range curved-surface plasmonic modes and their propagation through thin metal films in a tandem array.
    Appl Opt 2017 Nov;56(32):8996-8999
    We describe the generation of plasmonic modes that propagate in a curved trajectory. This is performed by masking a metal surface with two screens containing a randomly distributed set of holes that follow a Gaussian statistic. The diameter of the holes is less than the wavelength of the illuminating plane wave. Read More

    Comparison of photoemission characteristics between square and circular wire array GaAs photocathodes.
    Appl Opt 2017 Nov;56(32):8991-8995
    Two types of negative electron affinity gallium arsenide (GaAs) wire array photocathodes were fabricated by reactive ion etching and inductively coupled plasma etching of bulk GaAs material. High density GaAs wire arrays with high periodicity and good morphology were verified using scanning electron microscopy, and photoluminescence spectra confirmed the wire arrays had good crystalline quality. Reflection spectra showed that circular GaAs wire arrays had superior light trapping compared with square ones. Read More

    Improved back-projection method for circular-scanning-based photoacoustic tomography with improved tangential resolution.
    Appl Opt 2017 Nov;56(32):8983-8990
    While photoacoustic computed tomography (PACT) is generally built with planar transducers of finite size, most current reconstruction algorithms assume the transducer to be an ideal point, which leads to a spinning blur in the consequently obtained PACT images due to the model mismatch. In this work, we put forward an improved back-projection method that factors in the geometry of the transducers to improve the tangential resolution for the reconstruction of 2D circular-scanning-based photoacoustic tomography. Extensive simulations and experiments were carried out to study the adaptability and stability of the proposed method. Read More

    Carrier frequency tuning of few-cycle light pulses by a broadband attenuating mirror.
    Appl Opt 2017 Nov;56(32):8978-8982
    We demonstrate the performance of a novel multilayer dielectric reflective thin-film attenuator capable of reshaping the super-octave spectrum of near-single-cycle visible laser pulses without deteriorating the phase properties of the reflected light. These novel broadband attenuating mirrors reshape in a virtually dispersion-free manner the incident spectrum such that the carrier wavelength of the reflected pulses shifts from ∼700  nm (Eγ=1.77  eV) to ∼540  nm (Eγ=2. Read More

    Automatic, high-accuracy image registration in confocal microscopy.
    Appl Opt 2017 Nov;56(32):8924-8930
    We proposed a high-accuracy image registration method of confocal microscopy for a large field of view and high resolution. The spatial information (edge information) and the entropy correlation coefficient have been both taken into account for higher accuracy of registration. The edge information is introduced to calculate the normalization correlation coefficient of the image. Read More

    Speckle pattern sequential extraction metric for estimating the focus spot size on a remote diffuse target.
    Appl Opt 2017 Nov;56(32):8941-8949
    The speckle pattern (line by line) sequential extraction (SPSE) metric is proposed by the one-dimensional speckle intensity level crossing theory. Through the sequential extraction of received speckle information, the speckle metrics for estimating the variation of focusing spot size on a remote diffuse target are obtained. Based on the simulation, we will give some discussions about the SPSE metric range of application under the theoretical conditions, and the aperture size will affect the metric performance of the observation system. Read More

    Tunable graphene plasmonic Y-branch switch in the terahertz region using hexagonal boron nitride with electric and magnetic biasing.
    Appl Opt 2017 Nov;56(32):8931-8940
    A tunable graphene plasmonic Y-branch switch at THz wavelengths is proposed. The effects of magnetic and electric biasing are studied to harness the transmission of the transverse electric and magnetic guided mode resonances. In the structure, hexagonal boron nitride is utilized as a substrate for graphene. Read More

    Dielectric metalenses with engineered point spread function.
    Appl Opt 2017 Nov;56(32):8917-8923
    High-index silicon nanoblocks support excitation of both electric and magnetic resonance modes at telecommunication wavelengths. At frequencies where both electric and magnetic resonance modes are excited simultaneously, changing the geometrical dimensions of the silicon cubes creates a 2π full span over the phase of the transmitted light in different amplitude ranges. We take advantage of the additional power-flux modulation of the scattered signal to focus the incident light with desired full width at half maximum (FWHM) and side lobe levels (SLLs) in both the lateral and axial directions. Read More

    Performance analysis of UV multiple-scatter communication system with height difference.
    Appl Opt 2017 Nov;56(32):8908-8916
    Based on the Monte Carlo (MC) method, a non-coplanar ultraviolet (UV) multiple-scatter propagation model with a height difference between the transmitter (Tx) and receiver (Rx) was presented. We focused on the relationship between bit error rate (BER) and the height difference between the Tx and Rx. We also studied the impact of the elevation angle and the off-axis angle of the Tx and Rx on the BER under the condition that the height difference is not zero. Read More

    Application of spatially modulated near-infrared structured light to study changes in optical properties of mouse brain tissue during heatstress.
    Appl Opt 2017 Nov;56(32):8880-8886
    Heat stress (HS) is a medical emergency defined by abnormally elevated body temperature that causes biochemical, physiological, and hematological changes. The goal of the present research was to detect variations in optical properties (absorption, reduced scattering, and refractive index coefficients) of mouse brain tissue during HS by using near-infrared (NIR) spatial light modulation. NIR spatial patterns with different spatial phases were used to differentiate the effects of tissue scattering from those of absorption. Read More

    Co-phasing experiment of a segmented mirror using a combined broadband and two-wavelength algorithm.
    Appl Opt 2017 Nov;56(32):8871-8879
    In this paper, a broadband phasing algorithm is combined with a two-wavelength phasing algorithm to detect the piston error of a segmented mirror with the advantages of long range, high precision, and fast detection. Moreover, an active optics co-phasing experimental system of the segmented mirror is built to verify the algorithm's effectiveness. The segmented mirror consists of four hexagonal segments, with flat-to-flat lengths of 100 mm and radii of curvature of 2000 mm. Read More

    Analysis of illumination uniformity affected by small-scale self-focusing of a pump beam in the radial smoothing scheme.
    Appl Opt 2017 Nov;56(32):8902-8907
    In the radial smoothing (RS) scheme, small-scale self-focusing (SSSF) can degrade beam quality of a pump beam with a Gaussian pulse train, resulting in the degradation of the smoothing performance of the RS scheme. Considering SSSF of the pump beam in an optical Kerr medium (OKM), the propagation model of the laser beam in the RS scheme has been developed, and the effects of the characteristics of the pump beam and the thickness of the optical Kerr medium on the RS performance have further been numerically simulated and analyzed. The results show that SSSF decreases the illumination uniformity in the RS scheme by inducing distorted wavefront modulation of the pump beam. Read More

    Learning-based single-shot superresolution in diffractive imaging.
    Appl Opt 2017 Nov;56(32):8896-8901
    We present a method of retrieving a superresolved object field from a single captured intensity image in diffraction-limited diffractive imaging based on machine learning. In this method, the inverse process of diffractive imaging is regressed by using a number of pairs, each consisting of object and captured images. The proposed method is experimentally demonstrated by using a lensless imaging setup with or without scattering media. Read More

    Analysis and elimination of bias error in a fiber-optic current sensor.
    Appl Opt 2017 Nov;56(32):8887-8895
    Bias error, along with scale factor, is a key factor that affects the measurement accuracy of the fiber-optic current sensor. Because of polarization crosstalk, the coherence of parasitic interference signals could be rebuilt and form an output independent of the current to be measured, i.e. Read More

    Self-recalibration of a robot-assisted structured-light-based measurement system.
    Appl Opt 2017 Nov;56(32):8857-8865
    The structured-light-based measurement method is widely employed in numerous fields. However, for industrial inspection, to achieve complete scanning of a work piece and overcome occlusion, the measurement system needs to be moved to different viewpoints. Moreover, frequent reconfiguration of the measurement system may be needed based on the size of the measured object, making the self-recalibration of extrinsic parameters indispensable. Read More

    Fine-filter method for Raman lidar based on wavelength division multiplexing and fiber Bragg grating.
    Appl Opt 2017 Nov;56(31):8851-8856
    Atmospheric temperature is one of the important parameters for the description of the atmospheric state. Most of the detection approaches to atmospheric temperature monitoring are based on rotational Raman scattering for better understanding atmospheric dynamics, thermodynamics, atmospheric transmission, and radiation. In this paper, we present a fine-filter method based on wavelength division multiplexing, incorporating a fiber Bragg grating in the visible spectrum for the rotational Raman scattering spectrum. Read More

    Wet etching technique for fabrication of a high-quality plastic optical fiber sensor.
    Appl Opt 2017 Nov;56(31):8845-8850
    In this study, a simple wet etching technique is developed by employing aqueous solutions of acetic acid and ultrasonic irradiation for the fabrication of a high-quality plastic optical fiber (POF) sensor. The effects of acetic acid concentration and temperature and ultrasonic power on the etching rate and surface morphology of the etched POFs are investigated. The transmission spectrum and sensitivity of the etched POF sensors are evaluated using glucose solutions. Read More

    Measurement of the absolute velocity of blood flow in early-stage chick embryos using spectral domain optical coherence tomography.
    Appl Opt 2017 Nov;56(31):8832-8837
    Doppler optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive imaging modality that provides quantitative flow information with high spatial and temporal resolution. However, it is only sensitive to the flow velocity vector parallel to the incident beam. To calculate the absolute velocity, it is necessary to obtain the angle between the incident beam and flow field. Read More

    Graphene-oxide-coated interferometric optical microfiber ethanol vapor sensor.
    Appl Opt 2017 Nov;56(31):8828-8831
    A graphene-oxide-coated interferometric microfiber-sensor-based polarization-maintaining optical fiber is proposed for highly sensitive detecting for ethanol vapor concentration at room temperature in this paper. The strong sensing capability of the sensor to detect the concentration of ethanol vapor is demonstrated, taking advantage of the evanescent field enhancement and gas absorption of a graphene-oxide-coated microfiber. The transmission spectrum of the sensor varies with concentrations of ethanol vapor, and the redshift of the transmission spectrum has been analyzed for the concentration range from 0 to 80 ppm with sensitivity as high as 0. Read More

    Flat metaform near-eye visor.
    Appl Opt 2017 Nov;56(31):8822-8827
    A near-eye visor is one of the most vital components in a head-mounted display. Currently, freeform optics and waveguides are used to design near-eye visors, but these structures are complex and their field of view is limited when the visor is placed near the eye. In this paper, we propose a flat, freeform near-eye visor that uses a subwavelength patterned metasurface reflector. Read More

    Design of diffractive optical elements for subdiffraction spot arrays with high light efficiency.
    Appl Opt 2017 Nov;56(31):8816-8821
    Spot arrays beyond the diffraction limit are required in many optical applications, and the shaping of a light beam into subdiffraction spot arrays can be implemented by diffractive optical elements (DOEs). However, the low light efficiency of spot arrays is undesired in many applications. In this paper, a modified Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm is presented for generating DOEs to realize subdiffraction spot arrays with higher light efficiency. Read More

    Planar broad-band and wide-angle hybrid plasmonic IMI filters with induced transmission for visible light applications.
    Appl Opt 2017 Nov;56(31):8751-8758
    This work presents a technique for the design of visible optical filters using a hybrid plasmonic insulator-metal-insulator (IMI) structure. The proposed IMI visible light filter exhibits high transmission (∼91%) and an insertion loss of ∼0.4  dB with almost an omnidirectional field-of-view (0°-70°), a feature that is important for light collection in miniaturized devices. Read More

    Field imaging near to the surface of terahertz reflective optics using a vector network analyzer.
    Appl Opt 2017 Nov;56(31):8746-8750
    A vector network analyzer-based quasi-optical measurement system that is suitable for mapping electric field intensity and phase near to the surface of terahertz reflective optics is presented. The system uses a fixed five parabolic mirror and transmitter/receiver head arrangement that has the benefit of requiring only the sample to be swept during measurement. The system has been tested with a micromilled aluminum zone plate reflector used as an exemplar structure. Read More

    Dual use architecture for innovative lidar and free space optical communications.
    Appl Opt 2017 Nov;56(31):8811-8815
    An innovative and effective architecture for lidar systems is presented and experimentally demonstrated. The proposed scheme can also be easily exploited for optical communications. In particular, the system includes an innovative lidar software-defined architecture based on optically coherent detection, overcoming current drawbacks of time of flight incoherent systems. Read More

    Technique developments and performance analysis of chirped-probe-pulse femtosecond coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering combustion thermometry.
    Appl Opt 2017 Nov;56(31):8797-8810
    This work characterizes the state of the art in the analysis of high-repetition-rate, ultrafast combustion thermometry using chirped-probe-pulse femtosecond coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CPP fs-CARS). Several key aspects of the CARS spectroscopy system are described, including: (1) the ultrafast laser source, (2) use of the frequency-doubled idler versus signal from the optical parametric amplifier, (3) the geometry constraints for phase matching, and (4) spectral fitting for single-shot temperature measurements. A frequency-dependent instrument response function (IRF) for the detection system was modeled as a variable-width Gaussian and implemented through a frequency convolution of synthetic spectra. Read More

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