925,068 results match your criteria Applied optics[Journal]


The Effect of Vitamin D Supplementation on Prostate Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Clinical Trials.

Horm Metab Res 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Nutrition and Food Security Research Center, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.

Vitamin D has received attention for its potential to disrupt cancer processes. However, its effect in the treatment of prostate cancer is controversial. This study aimed to assess the effect of vitamin D supplementation on patients with prostate cancer. Read More

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December 2018
3 Reads

Virtual Reality Simulation in Peritoneal Dialysis Training: The Beginning of a New Era.

Blood Purif 2018 Dec 6:1-5. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Weltenmacher GmbH, VR Training-Application, Düsseldorf, Germany.

Background/aim: Peritonitis rates in peritoneal dialysis (PD) vary considerably not only across countries but also between centers in the same country. Patient education has been shown to significantly reduce infection rates but up till now training lacks standardization with patients being trained using different methods and media (e.g. Read More

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December 2018
3 Reads

Clinical Drug Response Prediction by Using a Lq Penalized Network-Constrained Logistic Regression Method.

Cell Physiol Biochem 2018 Dec 6;51(5):2073-2084. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Faculty of Information Technology & State Key Laboratory of Quality Research in Chinese Medicines, Macau University of Science and Technology, Macau, China.

Background/aims: One of the most important impacts of personalized medicine is the connection between patients' genotypes and their drug responses. Despite a series of studies exploring this relationship, the predictive ability of such analyses still needs to be strengthened.

Methods: Here we present the Lq penalized network-constrained logistic regression (Lq-NLR) method to meet this need, in which the predictors are integrated into the gene expression data and biological network knowledge and are combined with a more aggressive penalty function. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

In silico Leishmania proteome mining applied to identify drug target potential to be used to treat against visceral and tegumentary leishmaniasis.

J Mol Graph Model 2018 Nov 29;87:89-97. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências da Saúde: Infectologia e Medicina Tropical, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil; Departamento de Patologia Clínica, COLTEC, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Electronic address:

New therapeutic strategies against leishmaniasis are desirable, since the treatment against disease presents problems, such as the toxicity, high cost and/or parasite resistance. As consequence, new antileishmanial compounds are necessary to be identified, as presenting high activity against Leishmania, but low toxicity in mammalian hosts. In the present study, a Leishmania proteome mining strategy was developed, in order to select new drug targets with low homology to human proteins, but that are considered relevant for the parasite' survival. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Simultaneous analysis of acetylcarnitine, proline, hydroxyproline, citrulline, and arginine as potential plasma biomarkers to evaluate NSAIDs-induced gastric injury by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

J Pharm Biomed Anal 2018 Nov 24;165:101-111. Epub 2018 Nov 24.

School of Pharmacy, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Although major adverse effects associated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are gastric injury, assessment of NSAIDs-induced gastrointestinal adverse effects is mostly dependent on endoscopy due to the lack of plasma biomarkers. Several amino acids associated with collagenase activity and gastric mucosal mass have been suggested as plasma biomarker candidates for gastric injury. Therefore, this study aimed to develop a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the plasma biomarker candidates, i. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Intraventricular blood flow with a fully dynamic mitral valve model.

Comput Biol Med 2018 Nov 29;104:197-204. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Applied Science, Delft University of Technology, the Netherlands.

Mitral valve (MV) leaflets affect the formation, growth, and decay of vortices in the left ventricle (LV) during diastolic filling. The shape and motion of MV leaflets are simplified in most studies due to computational restrictions. In this study, we present a newly developed mathematical method to model the dynamic movement of valve leaflets and annulus, which is based on in vivo data obtained with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Does exclusive breastfeeding relate to the longer duration of breastfeeding? A prospective cohort study.

Midwifery 2018 Nov 19;69:163-171. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Department of Nutrition, Harvard TH Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address:

Objectives: Suboptimal breastfeeding contributes to morbidity and mortality in children. Studies in high-income countries (HICs) show that exclusive-breastfeeding (EBF) is associated with longer breastfeeding duration. The aim of this study was to determine whether maternal reports of EBF at six months are associated with longer duration of breastfeeding during the first two years of life in a low and middle-income country (LMIC) setting, and to identify determinants of breastfeeding duration. Read More

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November 2018

Urgency to build a connection: Midwives' experiences of being 'with woman' in a model where midwives are unknown.

Midwifery 2018 Nov 28;69:150-157. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

School of Nursing, Midwifery and Paramedicine, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia.

Objective: The objective of this study was to explore midwives' experiences of being 'with woman' in the intrapartum period within the context of an unknown midwife model.

Design: A descriptive phenomenological design was used with individual in-depth interviews. Transcribed interviews were analysed using thematic analysis that incorporated the data analysis framework offered by Amadeus Giorgi. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Quantifying streamflow response to climate variability, wastewater inflow, and sprawling urbanization in a heavily modified river basin.

Sci Total Environ 2018 Nov 23;656:458-467. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

Department of Hydrology, Faculty of Geography and Regional Studies, University of Warsaw, Krakowskie Przedmieście 30, 00-927 Warsaw, Poland. Electronic address:

Considering the growing recognition that human activity and climate variability are critical stressors influencing river regimes, there is an urgent need to identify the contribution of these fundamental factors. Here we examine the runoff changes of a wastewater-effluent dominated river flowing in a heavily modified urban environment. The study concerns the Utrata River basin (727 km), central Poland, a challenging human-natural system for investigating changes in hydrological processes. Read More

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November 2018

A simple yet sensitive colorimetric nitrite ions assay based on diazotization with p‑Aminobenzoic and coupling with phloroglucinol in acidic medium.

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2018 Aug 25;210:398-404. Epub 2018 Aug 25.

Key Laboratory of Bioelectrochemistry & Analysis of Gansu Province, College of Chemistry& Chemical Engineering, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070, PR China. Electronic address:

Immoderate intake of nitrite (NO) is deleterious human health and may result in causing dangerous diseases. In this study, nitrite detection system was successfully fabricated based on a unique diazo-coupling reaction of p‑Aminobenzoic acid (PABA) and phloroglucinol (1, 3, 5‑trihydroxybenzene). Upon the presence of NO in an acid medium, p‑Aminobenzoic acid could not only form diazonium ion easily but also couple with p‑Aminobenzoic acid, and results forming yellow water-soluble azo dye that shows maximum absorption at 434 nm. Read More

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August 2018
6 Reads

A sensitive biosensing method for detecting of ultra-trace amounts of AFB1 based on "Aptamer/reduced graphene oxide" nano-bio interaction.

Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2018 Dec 1;175:98-105. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

Department of Chemistry, Payame Noor University (PNU), P.O. Box: 19395-4697, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

A simple, low-cost and sensitive label-free aptasensor assembled with assisting reduced graphene oxide nanosheets as the signal amplifier was fabricated and applied for detecting ultra-low levels of Aflatoxin B1(AFB1) through a nano-bio interaction system. The conditions of different modified glassy carbon electrodes as the base of aptasensor were investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV), differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The performance of the fabricated aptasensor was evaluated by FESEM, HRTEM and AFM images. Read More

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December 2018

Using horizontal curve speed reduction extracted from the naturalistic driving study to predict curve collision frequency.

Accid Anal Prev 2018 Dec 3;123:190-199. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Civil Engineering, Carleton University, 1125 Colonel By Drive, Ottawa, Ontario, K1S5B6, Canada. Electronic address:

Many models have been developed to predict collision frequency and evaluate safety performance on horizontal curves. The approach used in data collection or some assumptions made in the analysis methodology might lead to inaccurate results. For example, manual data collection, equipment limitations, and field experiments involving monitoring driving behavior for a specific region for a short-term are potential sources of errors in data collection. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Ultrasonic torsion welding of ageing-resistant Al/CFRP joints: Properties, microstructure and joint formation.

Ultrasonics 2018 Nov 22;93:139-144. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

University of Freiburg, Walter and Ingeborg Herrmann Professorship for Engineering of Functional Materials (EFM), Department for Sustainable Systems Engineering (INATECH), Faculty of Engineering, 79110 Freiburg, Germany.

Ultrasonic metal welding is a promising process for joining light metals with fiber-reinforced thermoplastics. The technique is characterized by high reproducibility, short process times, low energy input, no additional filler materials and finally the possibility of extensive process data logging. With this process, dissimilar aerospace materials are ultrasonically welded and the applied process parameters are optimized by statistical methods. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Proteomic analysis of olfactory bulb suggests CACNA1E as a promoter of CREB signaling in microbiota-induced depression.

J Proteomics 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Institute of Neuroscience and the Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016, China; Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016, China; Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016, China. Electronic address:

Major depressive disorders impact approximately 17% of the population worldwide, whose high morbidity and considerable adversity have resulted in enormous social and economic burden. In addition, clinically depressed patients often show reduced volume of olfactory bulb (OB) and decreased olfactory sensitivity. Although mounting evidence conveyed that the gut microbiota may implicate the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD) via the microbe-gut-brain axis, knowledge about its distinctive molecular mechanism is rudimentary. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Interstitial Lung Disease Onset and Its Risk Factors in Japanese Patients with ALK-positive NSCLC Following Treatment with Crizotinib.

J Thorac Oncol 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Tokyo Medical University Hospital, 6-7-1 Nishishinjuku, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-0023, Japan.

Introduction: The study objective was to determine the incidence and characteristics of drug-induced interstitial lung disease (ILD) associated with an orally available small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor, crizotinib in the real-world clinical setting.

Methods: Post-marketing surveillance was performed in Japan to obtain information on the safety and efficacy of crizotinib. Target patients included all patients with anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who received crizotinib, during the enrollment period between May 2012 and December 2014. Read More

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December 2018
5 Reads

An affinity peptide exerts antiviral activity by strongly binding nervous necrosis virus to block viral entry.

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, Institute of Aquatic Economic Animals and Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Improved Variety Reproduction in Aquatic Economic Animals, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Nervous necrosis virus (NNV) causes viral nervous necrosis (VNN), a disease that leads to almost 100% mortality among larvae and juvenile fish, severely affecting the aquaculture industry. VNN vaccines based on inactivated viruses or virus-like particles (VLPs) are unsuitable for fish fry with immature adaptive immune systems. Here, we applied an anti-NNV strategy based on affinity peptides (AFPs). Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Ivabradine abrogates TNF-α-induced degradation of articular cartilage matrix.

Int Immunopharmacol 2018 Dec 3;66:347-353. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of orthopedics, Affiliated Zhongshan Hospital of Dalian University, Dalian 116001, China. Electronic address:

Ivabradine is most commonly used for the treatment of worsening cardiac failure in patients who cannot tolerate the maximum dose of β-blockers or in whom treatment with β-blockers is contraindicated. While ivabradine is regarded as a highly selective "funny current" (I) inhibitor, the molecular mechanism behind the effect of this drug remains poorly understood. In the present study, we applied ivabradine in the context of osteoarthritis by treating primary human chondrocytes with tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and measuring degradation of the articular cartilage matrix as well as the expression of various enzymes and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Read More

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December 2018
4 Reads

Preparation and optimization of poly (lactic acid) nanoparticles loaded with fisetin to improve anti-cancer therapy.

Int J Biol Macromol 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, PR China. Electronic address:

Fisetin is a natural flavonoid with promising antitumor activity, whereas its clinical application is limited by its hydrophobic property. In this study, we aimed to load fisetin into poly(lactic acid) (PLA) nanoparticles to increase fisetin's solubility and therapeutic efficacy. Based on spontaneous emulsification solvent diffusion (SESD) method, the formulation of PLA nanoparticles was optimized by two successive experimental designs. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Oxidation of cystatin imparted by riboflavin generated free radicals: Spectral analysis.

Int J Biol Macromol 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of life sciences, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, UP 202002, India. Electronic address:

Thiol Protease inhibitors (cystatins) are endogenous natural inhibitors of cysteine proteases. They are present in all mammalians cells and body fluids. Cystatin are allocated into three major families. Read More

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December 2018
3 Reads

Pilot-scale isolation and characterization of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) from cell-free medium of Spirulina sp. LEB-18 cultures under outdoor conditions.

Int J Biol Macromol 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

College of Pharmacy, Federal University of Bahia, Salvador, Brazil.

This objective of this work was to monitor the EPS production during the growth of Spirulina sp. LEB-18, evaluate the productivity and to characterize the exopolymers obtained on pilot-scale under outdoor conditions. The production of crude EPS occurred in all phases of biomass growth and was approximately ten folds higher than that biomass concentration of Spirulina sp. Read More

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December 2018

Graft copolymeric flocculant using functionalized starch towards treatment of blast furnace effluent.

Int J Biol Macromol 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Applied Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology (ISM), Dhanbad 826004, India. Electronic address:

Herein, a novel binary graft copolymeric flocculant [St-g-(PAAm-co-PMETAC)] has been developed using starch, polyacrylamide (PAAm) and poly (2-methacryloyloxy ethyl trimethyl ammonium chloride) (PMETAC). The copolymer has been synthesised by grafting of PAAm and PMETAC chains on starch backbone using free radical polymerization. FTIR and H NMR spectral analyses have been used for structural confirmation of developed copolymer. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Radiation-mediated molecular weight reduction and structural modification in carrageenan potentiates improved photosynthesis and secondary metabolism in peppermint (Mentha piperita L.).

Int J Biol Macromol 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Botany, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002, India.

In an attempt to gain insights into the possible relationship between the irradiation-mediated molecular weight reduction and structural modification and the growth-promotion activity, characterization of the polysaccharide before and after irradiation was carried out through Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR), Ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopic studies. Moreover, graded concentrations of irradiated carrageenan (IC) were applied through foliage to assess the performance of peppermint (Mentha piperita L.). Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Animal Conflicts in Diploid Populations with Sexual Reproduction.

J Theor Biol 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Ruppin Academic Center, School of Engineering, Unit of Engineering & Management, Emek Hefer 40250, Israel. Electronic address:

The classical, monomorphic, evolutionary games analyze competition among phenotypes while implicitly assuming monomorphic transmission of phenotypic attributes to successive generations. The recently formulated polymorphic evolutionary game theory (PEGT), which adds the underlying genetics and sexual reproduction to evolutionary games, has the potential to revolutionize game theoretical modeling of co-evolutionary processes. In this paper, I apply PEGT methods to the analysis of animal conflicts ࣧ the oldest, and one of the best-developed areas of evolutionary game modeling. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Optimal control applied to a temperature dependent schistosomiasis model.

Biosystems 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

School of Life Sciences, College of Agriculture, Engineering and Science, Westville Campus, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa.

Schistosomiasis, the most common water-borne infection worldwide, continues to pose a serious public health challenge in developing nations and to travellers who visit these endemic regions. We apply optimal control on a temperature dependent schistosomiasis model. Our optimal control aims to minimize the pre-patent and patent human population at minimal costs. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Soluble mannose receptor levels in blood correlate to disease severity in patients with community-acquired pneumonia.

Immunol Lett 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of R&D, Hycult Biotechnology, Uden, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Purpose: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is the most common form of pneumonia and is a leading infectious cause worldwide. Identification of patients that are at risk to develop severe disease has proven to be a major challenge. Soluble mannose receptor (sMR; sCD206) is a new serum marker for macrophage activation. Read More

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December 2018
3 Reads

Traces of Statistical Learning in the Brain's Functional Connectivity after Artificial Language Exposure.

Neuropsychologia 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Center for Brain and Cognition, Department of Technology, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, 08018, Barcelona, Spain.

Our environment is full of statistical regularities, and we are attuned to learn about these regularities by employing Statistical Learning (SL), a domain-general ability that enables the implicit detection of probabilistic regularities in our surrounding environment. The role of brain connectivity on SL has been previously explored, highlighting the relevance of structural and functional connections between frontal, parietal, and temporal cortices. However, whether SL can induce changes in the functional connections of the resting state brain has yet to be investigated. Read More

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December 2018

A value proposition for trough level-based anti-TNFα drug dosing.

Clin Chim Acta 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Expert Center Clinical Chemistry Eindhoven, Eindhoven, the Netherlands; Clinical Laboratory, Máxima Medical Center, Veldhoven, the Netherlands.

Treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases and rheumatic disorders with anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) drugs is expensive, while a significant proportion of patients does not show adequate clinical response. Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) enables patient-specific anti-TNFα therapy. The role of laboratory tests in clinical care has recently been described in a value proposition framework. Read More

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December 2018
3 Reads

Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effect of melatonin on recovery from muscular trauma induced in rats.

Exp Mol Pathol 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Universidade Luterana do Brasil - ULBRA - Graduate Program in Genetics and Applied Toxicology, Canoas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil; Universidade Luterana do Brasil - ULBRA - Graduate Program in Cellular and Molecular Biology Applied to Health, Canoas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil; Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul - UFRGS - Graduate Program in Medicine: Medical Sciences, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil; Universidade Luterana do Brasil - Laboratory of Oxidative Stress and Antioxidants, Canoas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil; Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre - HCPA - Laboratory of Experimental Hepatology and Gastroenterology, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Electronic address:

In recent decades, the number of people who practice sports has grown exponentially, increasing the number of muscular injuries. Trauma injury occurs when the muscle is exposed to a sudden compression force. Melatonin (MLT) has often been cited in the literature as a potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Locomotor central pattern generator excitability states and serotonin sensitivity after spontaneous recovery from a neonatal lumbar spinal cord injury.

Brain Res 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Norwegian Center for Stem Cell Research, Oslo University Hospital, Norway. Electronic address:

The spinal locomotor central pattern generator (CPG) in neonatal mice exhibits diverse output patterns, ranging from sub-rhythmic to multi-rhythmic to fictive locomotion, depending on its general level of excitation and neuromodulatory status (Sharples and Whelan, 2017). We have recently reported that the locomotor CPG in neonatal mice rapidly recovers the ability to produce neurochemically induced fictive locomotion following an upper lumbar spinal cord compression injury (Züchner et al., 2018). Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

[Postoperative functional angular anatomy in patients with anterior cruciate ligament with autologous graft].

Acta Ortop Mex 2018 May-Jun;32(3):157-162

Servicio de Cirugía Articular, Hospital Juárez de México, Ciudad de México.

Background: Reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) aims to restore the original anatomy. The clinical outcome could be imperfect when graft placement is not in an anatomical position; moreover, the conventional transtibial reconstruction of the ACL often locates the graft away from the anatomical site, leading to abnormal biomechanical behavior and kinematics of the knee. The objective of this work was to assess the importance of the angular reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament during arthroscopic replacement and to compare the postoperative functional results. Read More

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December 2018

[Continuous vs. intermitent intravenous analgesia for primary total knee replacement: analysis of the quality of the pain control, hospital stay and costs].

Acta Ortop Mex 2018 May-Jun;32(3):134-139

Instituto Allende de Cirugía Reconstructiva de los Miembros, Córdoba-Argentina.

Background: The International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) defines pain as an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage. Total knee arthroplasty is one of the orthopedic surgeries that manifests more pain in the first 24-48 hours, needing a multimodal analgesic therapy. The objective of this work is to compare two different intravenous analgesic modes applied to patients undergoing a primary total knee arthroplasty, analyzing the quality of pain control, hospital stay and costs. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Computer-assisted diagnosis techniques (dermoscopy and spectroscopy-based) for diagnosing skin cancer in adults.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2018 Dec 3;12:CD013186. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston Campus, Birmingham, UK, B15 2TT.

Background: Early accurate detection of all skin cancer types is essential to guide appropriate management and to improve morbidity and survival. Melanoma and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) are high-risk skin cancers which have the potential to metastasise and ultimately lead to death, whereas basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is usually localised with potential to infiltrate and damage surrounding tissue. Anxiety around missing early curable cases needs to be balanced against inappropriate referral and unnecessary excision of benign lesions. Read More

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December 2018
4 Reads

Optical coherence tomography for diagnosing skin cancer in adults.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2018 Dec 3;12:CD013189. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston Campus, Birmingham, UK, B15 2TT.

Background: Early accurate detection of all skin cancer types is essential to guide appropriate management and to improve morbidity and survival. Melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) are high-risk skin cancers, which have the potential to metastasise and ultimately lead to death, whereas basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is usually localised, with potential to infiltrate and damage surrounding tissue. Anxiety around missing early cases needs to be balanced against inappropriate referral and unnecessary excision of benign lesions. Read More

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December 2018
7 Reads

Exfoliative cytology for diagnosing basal cell carcinoma and other skin cancers in adults.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2018 Dec 3;12:CD013187. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston Campus, Birmingham, UK, B15 2TT.

Background: Early accurate detection of all skin cancer types is essential to guide appropriate management, reduce morbidity and improve survival. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is usually localised to the skin but has potential to infiltrate and damage surrounding tissue, while cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) and melanoma have a much higher potential to metastasise and ultimately lead to death. Exfoliative cytology is a non-invasive test that uses the Tzanck smear technique to identify disease by examining the structure of cells obtained from scraped samples. Read More

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December 2018
5 Reads

Visual inspection and dermoscopy, alone or in combination, for diagnosing keratinocyte skin cancers in adults.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2018 Dec 3;12:CD011901. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK, B15 2TT.

Background: Early accurate detection of all skin cancer types is important to guide appropriate management, to reduce morbidity and to improve survival. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is almost always a localised skin cancer with potential to infiltrate and damage surrounding tissue, whereas a minority of cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (cSCCs) and invasive melanomas are higher-risk skin cancers with the potential to metastasise and cause death. Dermoscopy has become an important tool to assist specialist clinicians in the diagnosis of melanoma, and is increasingly used in primary-care settings. Read More

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December 2018
3 Reads

Reflectance confocal microscopy for diagnosing keratinocyte skin cancers in adults.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2018 Dec 3;12:CD013191. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK, B15 2TT.

Background: Early accurate detection of all skin cancer types is important to guide appropriate management and improve morbidity and survival. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is usually a localised skin cancer but with potential to infiltrate and damage surrounding tissue, whereas cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) and melanoma are higher risk skin cancers with the potential to metastasise and ultimately lead to death. When used in conjunction with clinical or dermoscopic suspicion of malignancy, or both, reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) may help to identify cancers eligible for non-surgical treatment without the need for a diagnostic biopsy, particularly in people with suspected BCC. Read More

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December 2018
4 Reads

Teledermatology for diagnosing skin cancer in adults.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2018 Dec 3;12:CD013193. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK, B15 2TT.

Background: Early accurate detection of all skin cancer types is essential to guide appropriate management and to improve morbidity and survival. Melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) are high-risk skin cancers which have the potential to metastasise and ultimately lead to death, whereas basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is usually localised with potential to infiltrate and damage surrounding tissue. Anxiety around missing early curable cases needs to be balanced against inappropriate referral and unnecessary excision of benign lesions. Read More

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December 2018
6 Reads

Smartphone applications for triaging adults with skin lesions that are suspicious for melanoma.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2018 Dec 3;12:CD013192. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK, B15 2TT.

Background: Melanoma accounts for a small proportion of all skin cancer cases but is responsible for most skin cancer-related deaths. Early detection and treatment can improve survival. Smartphone applications are readily accessible and potentially offer an instant risk assessment of the likelihood of malignancy so that the right people seek further medical attention from a clinician for more detailed assessment of the lesion. Read More

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December 2018
4 Reads

Visual inspection for diagnosing cutaneous melanoma in adults.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2018 Dec 3;12:CD013194. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK, B15 2TT.

Background: Melanoma has one of the fastest rising incidence rates of any cancer. It accounts for a small percentage of skin cancer cases but is responsible for the majority of skin cancer deaths. History-taking and visual inspection of a suspicious lesion by a clinician is usually the first in a series of 'tests' to diagnose skin cancer. Read More

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December 2018
4 Reads

High-frequency ultrasound for diagnosing skin cancer in adults.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2018 Dec 3;12:CD013188. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK, B15 2TT.

Background: Early, accurate detection of all skin cancer types is essential to guide appropriate management and to improve morbidity and survival. Melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) are high-risk skin cancers with the potential to metastasise and ultimately lead to death, whereas basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is usually localised, with potential to infiltrate and damage surrounding tissue. Anxiety around missing early curable cases needs to be balanced against inappropriate referral and unnecessary excision of benign lesions. Read More

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December 2018
5 Reads

Dermoscopy, with and without visual inspection, for diagnosing melanoma in adults.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2018 Dec 3;12:CD011902. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK, B15 2TT.

Background: Melanoma has one of the fastest rising incidence rates of any cancer. It accounts for a small percentage of skin cancer cases but is responsible for the majority of skin cancer deaths. Although history-taking and visual inspection of a suspicious lesion by a clinician are usually the first in a series of 'tests' to diagnose skin cancer, dermoscopy has become an important tool to assist diagnosis by specialist clinicians and is increasingly used in primary care settings. Read More

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December 2018
6 Reads

Reflectance confocal microscopy for diagnosing cutaneous melanoma in adults.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2018 Dec 3;12:CD013190. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK, B15 2TT.

Background: Melanoma has one of the fastest rising incidence rates of any cancer. It accounts for a small percentage of skin cancer cases but is responsible for the majority of skin cancer deaths. Early detection and treatment is key to improving survival; however, anxiety around missing early cases needs to be balanced against appropriate levels of referral and excision of benign lesions. Read More

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December 2018
4 Reads

The effect of the configurations of fiducial markers on accuracy of surgical navigation in zygomatic implant placement: An in vitro study.

Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Purpose: Real-time surgical navigation has been increasingly applied in implant placement. The initial registration procedures were found to substantially affect the overall accuracy of the system for zygomatic implant placement, but the exact number and distribution of fiducial markers was yet undetermined. This study aimed to determine the minimal numbers and optimal distributions of fiducial markers to achieve clinically acceptable accuracy in surgical navigation, through systematically analyzing the effects of different setups of fiducial markers on target registration errors (TRE). Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Instrument Selection and Application Used to Probe Dental Implants.

Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Purpose: The purpose of this study is to survey clinicians' choice of peri-implant instrument selection and the application used to probe dental implants as well as to evaluate peri-implant probing force and pressure applied as compared to that reported in current literature.

Materials And Methods: 48 clinicians (16 periodontists/periodontal residents, 16 restorative dentists and 16 hygienists) participated in the study. A questionnaire to determine the frequency and method of probing dental implants was provided and subject to the Chi-square test. Read More

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December 2018
4 Reads

Feasibility of the annulus fibrosus repair with in situ gelating hydrogels - A biomechanical study.

PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0208460. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Orthopedics, Balgrist University Hospital, Zurich, Switzerland.

The surgical standard of care for lumbar discectomy leaves the annulus fibrosus (AF) defect unrepaired, despite considerable risk for a recurrent herniation. Identification of a viable defect repair strategy has until now been elusive. The scope of this ex vivo biomechanical study was to evaluate crosslinking hydrogels as potentially promising AF defect sealants, and provide a baseline for their use in combination with collagen scaffolds that restore disc volume. Read More

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December 2018
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