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    11565 results match your criteria Applied microbiology and biotechnology[Journal]

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    Furfural-tolerant Zymomonas mobilis derived from error-prone PCR-based whole genome shuffling and their tolerant mechanism.
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 Feb 21. Epub 2018 Feb 21.
    R&D Center for Petrochemical Technology, Tianjin University, Weijin Road No. 92, Nankai District, Tianjin, 300072, China.
    Furfural-tolerant strain is essential for the fermentative production of biofuels or chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass. In this study, Zymomonas mobilis CP4 was for the first time subjected to error-prone PCR-based whole genome shuffling, and the resulting mutants F211 and F27 that could tolerate 3 g/L furfural were obtained. The mutant F211 under various furfural stress conditions could rapidly grow when the furfural concentration reduced to 1 g/L. Read More

    Detection and cell sorting of Pseudonocardia species by fluorescence in situ hybridization and flow cytometry using 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes.
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 Feb 21. Epub 2018 Feb 21.
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Rice University, 6100 Main Street, Houston, 77005, TX, USA.
    Pseudonocardia spp. are receiving increasing attention due to their ability to biodegrade recalcitrant cyclic ether pollutants (e.g. Read More

    Combining evolutionary and metabolic engineering in Rhodosporidium toruloides for lipid production with non-detoxified wheat straw hydrolysates.
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 Feb 20. Epub 2018 Feb 20.
    Neol Biosolutions, SA, Avicena, 4. Parque Tecnológico de la Salud, 18016, Granada, Spain.
    Improving the yield of carbohydrate to lipid conversion and lipid productivity are two critical goals to develop an economically feasible process to commercialize microbial oils. Lignocellulosic sugars are potential low-cost carbon sources for this process but their use is limited by the toxic compounds produced during biomass pretreatment at high solids loading, and by the pentose sugars (mainly xylose) which are not efficiently metabolized by many microorganisms. Adaptive laboratory evolution was used to select a Rhodosporidium toruloides strain with robust growth in non-detoxified wheat straw hydrolysates, produced at 20% solids loading, and better xylose consumption rate. Read More

    Detection and discrimination of five E. coli pathotypes using a combinatory SYBR® Green qPCR screening system.
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 Feb 20. Epub 2018 Feb 20.
    Platform Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, Scientific Institute of Public Health, J. Wytsmanstraat 14, B-1050, Brussels, Belgium.
    A detection and discrimination system for five Escherichia coli pathotypes, based on a combination of 13 SYBR® Green qPCR, has been developed, i.e., combinatory SYBR® Green qPCR screening system for pathogenic E. Read More

    Biotechnical production of trehalose through the trehalose synthase pathway: current status and future prospects.
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 Feb 19. Epub 2018 Feb 19.
    State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, Jiangsu, 214122, China.
    Trehalose (α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 1)-α-D-glucopyranoside) is a non-reducing disaccharide composed of two glucose molecules linked by an α,α-1,1-glycosidic bond. It possesses physicochemical properties, which account for its biological roles in a variety of prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms and invertebrates. Intensive studies of trehalose gradually uncovered its functions, and its applications in foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals have increased every year. Read More

    Bioenergy production from sweet sorghum stalks via a biorefinery perspective.
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 Feb 19. Epub 2018 Feb 19.
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, 8415683111, Iran.
    Besides free sugars, sweet sorghum stalks contain cellulose and hemicellulose that can be used for biofuel production. The pretreatment of stalks without the extraction of free sugars is more complicated than typical lignocelluloses, because of the degradation of free sugars during most pretreatment processes. In this study, the bioconversion of sweet sorghum stalks into biogas and bioethanol was studied using an improved organosolv pretreatment within a biorefinery framework. Read More

    Inactivation of the indole-diterpene biosynthetic gene cluster of Claviceps paspali by Agrobacterium-mediated gene replacement.
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 Feb 19. Epub 2018 Feb 19.
    Department of Biotechnology and Microbiology, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary.
    The hypocrealean fungus Claviceps paspali is a parasite of wild grasses. This fungus is widely utilized in the pharmaceutical industry for the manufacture of ergot alkaloids, but also produces tremorgenic and neurotoxic indole-diterpene (IDT) secondary metabolites such as paspalitrems A and B. IDTs cause significant losses in agriculture and represent health hazards that threaten food security. Read More

    Heterologous expression of rTsHyal-1: the first recombinant hyaluronidase of scorpion venom produced in Pichia pastoris system.
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 Feb 17. Epub 2018 Feb 17.
    School of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirão Preto, Department of Physics and Chemistry, University of São Paulo, Av. do Café s/n, Monte Alegre, Ribeirão Preto, SP, 14040-903, Brazil.
    In general, hyaluronidases have a broad potential application on medicine and esthetics fields. Hyaluronidases from animal venoms cleave hyaluronan present in the extracellular matrix, acting as spreading factors of toxins into the tissues of the victim. However, the in-depth characterization of hyaluronidase from animal venoms has been neglected due to its instability and low concentration in the venom, which hamper its isolation. Read More

    Biochemical process of ureolysis-based microbial CaCOprecipitation and its application in self-healing concrete.
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 Feb 17. Epub 2018 Feb 17.
    Key Laboratory of Advanced Civil Engineering Materials (Tongji University), Ministry of Education, Shanghai, 201804, China.
    Urea hydrolysis has already been considered as the most effective pathway for microbially induced CaCOprecipitation (MICP). The present work first studied the combination of several key factors including initial pH, temperature, and dosage of urea, which contribute to the biochemical process of MICP. Under an amiable condition of pH and temperature, the dosage of urea has a significant impact on the rate of urea degradation and CaCOprecipitation. Read More

    (Some) current concepts in antibacterial drug discovery.
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 Feb 17. Epub 2018 Feb 17.
    Institute of Pharmaceutical Biology and Biotechnology, Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf, 40225, Dusseldorf, Germany.
    The rise of multidrug resistance in bacteria rendering pathogens unresponsive to many clinical drugs is widely acknowledged and considered a critical global healthcare issue. There is broad consensus that novel antibacterial chemotherapeutic options are extremely urgently needed. However, the development pipeline of new antibacterial drug lead structures is poorly filled and not commensurate with the scale of the problem since the pharmaceutical industry has shown reduced interest in antibiotic development in the past decades due to high economic risks and low profit expectations. Read More

    Transcriptome analysis of wild-type and afsS deletion mutant strains identifies synergistic transcriptional regulator of afsS for a high antibiotic-producing strain of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2).
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 Feb 17. Epub 2018 Feb 17.
    Interdisciplinary Program for Biochemical Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea.
    Most secondary metabolism in Actinobacteria is controlled by multi-layered, gene-regulatory networks. These regulatory mechanisms are not easily identified due to their complexity. As a result, when a strong transcriptional regulator (TR) governs activation of biosynthetic pathways of target antibiotics such as actinorhodin (ACT), additional enhancement of the biosynthesis is difficult in combination with other TRs. Read More

    Comparison of serological and molecular typing methods for epidemiological investigation of Tenacibaculum species pathogenic for fish.
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 Feb 16. Epub 2018 Feb 16.
    Departamento de Microbiología y Parasitología, Edificio CIBUS-Facultad de Biología and Instituto de Investigación y Análisis Alimentarios, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, 15782, Santiago de Compostela, Spain.
    In the present study, the potential of serological methods, the repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR (REP-PCR) and the enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequence PCR (ERIC-PCR) for the typing of the species Tenacibaculum maritimum, Tenacibaculum soleae and Tenacibaculum discolor was evaluated. Moreover, molecular and proteomic techniques were used to assess variability among strains belonging to different serotypes, as well as isolated from different host species and geographical areas. Slide agglutination and dot-blot assays demonstrated the lack of immunological relationships among Tenacibaculum species analyzed. Read More

    Comparative analysis of the mitochondrial genome of the fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, the causal agent of anthracnose in common beans.
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 Feb 16. Epub 2018 Feb 16.
    Laboratório de Genética Molecular de Fungos (LGMF)/BIOAGRO, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Viçosa, Minas Gerais, CEP: 36570-900, Brazil.
    Fungi of the genus Colletotrichum are economically important and are used as models in plant-pathogen interaction studies. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genomes of two Colletotrichum lindemuthianum isolates were sequenced and compared with the mitochondrial genomes of seven species of Colletotrichum. The mitochondrial genome of C. Read More

    Microbiota in fermented feed and swine gut.
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 Feb 16. Epub 2018 Feb 16.
    National Engineering Laboratory of Biological Feed Safety and Pollution Prevention and Control, Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition and Feed, Ministry of Agriculture, Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition and Feed Science of Zhejiang Province, Institute of Feed Science, Zhejiang University, 866 Yuhang Tang Road, Hangzhou, 310058, Zhejiang, People's Republic of China.
    Development of alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters (AGP) used in swine production requires a better understanding of their impacts on the gut microbiota. Supplementing fermented feed (FF) in swine diets as a novel nutritional strategy to reduce the use of AGP and feed price, can positively affect the porcine gut microbiota, thereby improving pig productivities. Previous studies have noted the potential effects of FF on the shift in benefit of the swine microbiota in different regions of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Read More

    Immediate response mechanisms of Gram-negative solvent-tolerant bacteria to cope with environmental stress: cis-trans isomerization of unsaturated fatty acids and outer membrane vesicle secretion.
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 Feb 15. Epub 2018 Feb 15.
    Department of Environmental Biotechnology, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research-UFZ, Permoserstr. 15, 04318, Leipzig, Germany.
    Bacteria have evolved an array of adaptive mechanisms enabling them to survive and grow in the presence of different environmental stresses. These mechanisms include either modifications of the membrane or changes in the overall energy status, cell morphology, and cell surface properties. Long-term adaptations are dependent on transcriptional regulation, the induction of anabolic pathways, and cell growth. Read More

    Influence of membrane fatty acid composition and fluidity on airborne survival of Escherichia coli.
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 Feb 15. Epub 2018 Feb 15.
    Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong.
    Finding ways to predict and control the survival of bacterial aerosols can contribute to the development of ways to alleviate a number of crucial microbiological problems. Significant damage in the membrane integrity of Escherichia coli during aerosolization and airborne suspension has been revealed which has prompted the question of how the membrane fatty acid composition and fluidity influence the survival of airborne bacteria. Two approaches of using isogenic mutants and different growth temperatures were selected to manipulate the membrane fatty acid composition of E. Read More

    A natural variant of arylsulfatase from Kluyveromyces lactis shows no formylglycine modification and has no enzyme activity.
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 Feb 15. Epub 2018 Feb 15.
    Institute of Food Science and Biotechnology, Department of Biotechnology and Enzyme Science, University of Hohenheim, Garbenstr. 25, 70599, Stuttgart, Germany.
    Kluyveromyces lactis is a common fungal microorganism used for the production of enzyme preparations such as β-galactosidases (native) or chymosin (recombinant). It is generally important that enzyme preparations have no unwanted side activities. In the case of β-galactosidase preparations produced from K. Read More

    Xylo- and arabinoxylooligosaccharides from wheat bran by endoxylanases, utilisation by probiotic bacteria, and structural studies of the enzymes.
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 Feb 14. Epub 2018 Feb 14.
    Biotechnology, Department of Chemistry, Lund University, PO Box 124, SE-221 00, Lund, Sweden.
    Xylooligosaccharides (XOS) and arabinoxylooligosaccharides (AXOS) were produced from the insoluble arabinoxylan fraction of pretreated wheat bran by endoxylanases. The glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 10 xylanases GsXyn10A from Geobacillus stearothermophilus and RmXyn10A-CM from Rhodothermus marinus produced the AXOS AX, AXX and AXX in addition to XOS. RmXyn10A-CM also produced XAXX due to its non-conserved aglycone region accommodating additional arabinose substitutions in subsite +2. Read More

    The role of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in stabilizing emulsions of hexadecane in aqueous media.
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 Feb 14. Epub 2018 Feb 14.
    School of Food Engineering, University of Campinas, Rua Monteiro Lobato, 80, Campinas, SP, 13083-862, Brazil.
    During downstream operations involved in the purification of hydrophobic biofuels produced by microorganisms, undesired stable emulsions may be formed. Understanding the mechanisms behind this stability is a pre-requisite for designing cost-effective strategies to break these emulsions. In this work, we aimed at increasing our knowledge on the mechanisms responsible for stabilizing yeast-containing oil-in-water emulsions. Read More

    Surface proteins involved in the adhesion of Streptococcus salivarius to human intestinal epithelial cells.
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 Feb 13. Epub 2018 Feb 13.
    DynAMic, Université de Lorraine, INRA, 54506, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy, France.
    The adhesion properties of 14 Streptococcus salivarius strains to mucus (HT29-MTX) and non-mucus secreting (Caco-2/TC7) human intestinal epithelial cells were investigated. Ability to adhere to these two eukaryotic cell lines greatly differs between strains. The presence of mucus played a major factor in adhesion, likely due to high adhesiveness to mucins present in the native human mucus layer covering the whole cell surface. Read More

    Applications of bacteriophages versus phage enzymes to combat and cure bacterial infections: an ambitious and also a realistic application?
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 Feb 13. Epub 2018 Feb 13.
    Department of Pathogen Biology and Immunology, Institute of Genetics and Microbiology, University of Wroclaw, S. Przybyszewskiego 63/77, 51-148, Wroclaw, Poland.
    Bacteriophages (phages) are viruses that infect bacteria. The "predator-prey" interactions are recognized as a potentially effective way to treat infections. Phages, as well as phage-derived proteins, especially enzymes, are intensively studied to become future alternative or supportive antibacterials used alone or in combination with standard antibiotic regimens treatment. Read More

    Biofuel production with a stress-resistant and growth phase-independent promoter: mechanism revealed by in vitro transcription assays.
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 Feb 13. Epub 2018 Feb 13.
    School of Life Science, Beijing Institute of Technology, 5 South Zhongguancun Street, Haidian District, Beijing, 100081, People's Republic of China.
    The carbon and energy needed for bioconversion processes face trade-offs between cell reproduction and chemical synthesis. In most processes, microbial cells containing overexpressed pathway enzymes were accumulated in exponential phase before the productions of value-added chemicals dominate the carbon and energy fluxes in stationary phase. The pathway enzymes need to be continuously supplied to compensate their degradation, but the promoters driving their overexpressions are downregulated under stationary phase or stressed conditions. Read More

    Real-time monitoring of hyaluronic acid fermentation by in situ transflectance spectroscopy.
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 Feb 13. Epub 2018 Feb 13.
    Department of Biotechnology, Bhupat and Jyoti Mehta School of Biosciences, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai, 600036, India.
    Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a high-value polysaccharide with many biomedical applications. Microbial production of HA is now replacing the traditional extraction method from rooster combs. Production of medical-grade HA with defined characteristics requires controlled process conditions because there are many fermentation process parameters that affect the microbial synthesis of HA. Read More

    Acetamidase as a dominant recyclable marker for Komagataella phaffii strain engineering.
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 Feb 12. Epub 2018 Feb 12.
    Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Departamento de Biologia Celular, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF, 70910-900, Brazil.
    We have investigated the use of the gene coding for acetamidase (amdS) as a recyclable dominant marker for the methylotrophic yeast Komagataella phaffii in order to broaden its genetic toolbox. First, the endogenous constitutive AMD2 gene (a putative acetamidase) was deleted generating strain LA1. A cassette (amdSloxP) was constructed bearing a codon-optimized version of the Aspergillus nidulans amdS gene flanked by loxP sites for marker excision with Cre recombinase. Read More

    Inactivation of an intracellular poly-3-hydroxybutyrate depolymerase of Azotobacter vinelandii allows to obtain a polymer of uniform high molecular mass.
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 Feb 12. Epub 2018 Feb 12.
    Departamento de Microbiología Molecular, Instituto de Biotecnología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apdo Postal 510-3, 62271, Cuernavaca, Morelos, México.
    A novel poly-3-hydroxybutyrate depolymerase was identified in Azotobacter vinelandii. This enzyme, now designated PhbZ1, is associated to the poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) granules and when expressed in Escherichia coli, it showed in vitro PHB depolymerizing activity on native or artificial PHB granules, but not on crystalline PHB. Native PHB (nPHB) granules isolated from a PhbZ1 mutant had a diminished endogenous in vitro hydrolysis of the polyester, when compared to the granules of the wild-type strain. Read More

    Yeast arming systems: pros and cons of different protein anchors and other elements required for display.
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 Feb 12. Epub 2018 Feb 12.
    Departament de Bioquímica i Biologia Molecular, Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de València, Dr. Moliner 50, E-46100 Burjassot, València, Spain.
    Yeast display is a powerful strategy that consists in exposing peptides or proteins of interest on the cell surface of this microorganism. Ever since initial experiments with this methodology were carried out, its scope has extended and many applications have been successfully developed in different science and technology fields. Several yeast display systems have been designed, which all involve introducting into yeast cells the gene fusions that contain the coding regions of a signal peptide, an anchor protein, to properly attach the target to the cell surface, and the protein of interest to be exposed, all of which are controlled by a strong promoter. Read More

    Succession sequence of lactic acid bacteria driven by environmental factors and substrates throughout the brewing process of Shanxi aged vinegar.
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 Feb 11. Epub 2018 Feb 11.
    State Key Laboratory of Food Nutrition and Safety. Key Laboratory of Industrial Fermentation Microbiology, Ministry of Education. College of Biotechnology, Tianjin University of Science & Technology, Tianjin, 300457, People's Republic of China.
    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are essential microbiota for the fermentation and flavor formation of Shanxi aged vinegar, a famous Chinese traditional cereal vinegar that is manufactured using open solid-state fermentation (SSF) technology. However, the dynamics of LAB in this SSF process and the underlying mechanism remain poorly understood. Here, the diversity of LAB and the potential driving factors of the entire process were analyzed by combining culture-independent and culture-dependent methods. Read More

    Impacts of bioprocess engineering on product formation by Acetobacter pasteurianus.
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 Feb 11. Epub 2018 Feb 11.
    State Key Laboratory of Food Nutrition and Safety, Key Laboratory of Industrial Fermentation Microbiology, Ministry of Education, College of Biotechnology, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, Tianjin, 300457, People's Republic of China.
    Aerobic Acetobacter pasteurianus is one of the most widely used bacterial species for acetic acid and vinegar production. The acetic acid condition is the primary challenge to the industrial application of A. pasteurianus. Read More

    Cr(VI) reduction and physiological toxicity are impacted by resource ratio in Desulfovibrio vulgaris.
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 Feb 10. Epub 2018 Feb 10.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT, USA.
    Desulfovibrio spp. are capable of heavy metal reduction and are well-studied systems for understanding metal fate and transport in anaerobic environments. Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough was grown under environmentally relevant conditions (i. Read More

    Effect of ultrasound on lactic acid production by Lactobacillus strains in date (Phoenix dactylifera var. Kabkab) syrup.
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 Feb 9. Epub 2018 Feb 9.
    QOPNA, Chemistry Department, University of Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193, Aveiro, Portugal.
    Date syrup is rich in fermentable sugars and may be used as a substrate for different microbial fermentations, including lactic acid fermentation processes. The beneficial effects of ultrasounds (US) on bioprocesses have been reported for several microorganisms, due to the enhancement of cell growth, as well as improvements in yields and productivities. Therefore, US treatments (30 kHz, 100 W, 10-30 min) were applied to two lactobacilli (Lactobacillus helveticus PTCC 1332 and Lactobacillus acidophilus PTCC 1643), during fermentation using date syrup as substrate. Read More

    The use of extracellular DNA as a proxy for specific microbial activity.
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 Feb 8. Epub 2018 Feb 8.
    Institute of Microbiology, Universität Innsbruck, Technikerstr. 25d, 6020, Innsbruck, Austria.
    The ubiquity and relevance of extracellular DNA (exDNA) are well-known and increasingly gaining importance in many fields of application such as medicine and environmental microbiology. Although sources and types of exDNA are manifold, ratios of specific DNA-molecules inside and outside of living cells can give reliable information about the activity of entire systems and of specific microbial groups or species. Here, we introduce a method to discriminate between internal (iDNA), as well as bound and free exDNA, and evaluate various DNA fractions and related ratios (ex:iDNA) regarding their applicability to be used as a fast, convenient, and reliable alternative to more tedious RNA-based activity measurements. Read More

    Damage to offshore production facilities by corrosive microbial biofilms.
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 Feb 8. Epub 2018 Feb 8.
    School of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Newcastle University, Newcastle Upon Tyne, UK.
    In offshore production facilities, large amounts of deaerated seawater are continuously injected to maintain pressure in oil reservoirs and equivalent volumes of fluids, composed of an oil/gas, and water mixture are produced. This process, brewing billions of liters of biphasic fluids particularly rich in microorganisms, goes through complex steel pipeline networks that are particularly prone to biofilm formation. Consequently, offshore facilities are frequently victims of severe microbiologically influenced corrosion. Read More

    Critical steps in carbon metabolism affecting lipid accumulation and their regulation in oleaginous microorganisms.
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 Feb 8. Epub 2018 Feb 8.
    Unit of Microbiology, Division of Genetics, Cell and Developmental Biology, Department of Biology, University of Patras, 26504, Patras, Greece.
    Oleaginous microorganisms are able to convert numerous agro-industrial and municipal wastes into storage lipids (single cell oil (SCO)) and are therefore considered as potential biofuel producers. While from an environmental and technological point of view the idea to convert waste materials into fuels is very attractive, the production cost of SCO is not currently competitive to that of conventional oils due to the low productivity of oleaginous microorganisms in combination with the high fermentation cost. Current strategies used to optimize the lipid-accumulating capacity of oleaginous microorganisms include the overexpression of genes encoding for key enzymes implicated in fatty acid and triacylglycerol synthesis, such as ATP-dependent citrate lyase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, malic enzyme, proteins of the fatty acid synthase complex, glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase and various acyltransferases, and/or the inactivation of genes encoding for enzymes implicated in storage lipid catabolism, such as lipases and acyl-CoA oxidases. Read More

    Nickel oxide (NiO) nanoparticles disturb physiology and induce cell death in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 Feb 8. Epub 2018 Feb 8.
    Bioengineering Laboratory-CIETI, ISEP-School of Engineering of Polytechnic Institute of Porto, Rua Dr António Bernardino de Almeida, 431, 4200-072, Porto, Portugal.
    The increasing use of nanoparticles (NPs) has spurred concerns about their toxic effects. This work aimed to assess the potential hazards of nickel oxide (NiO) NPs using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a cell model. Yeast cells exposed for 6 h to 100 mg/L NiO NPs presented reduced metabolic activity (esterase activity and FUN-1 dye processing) and enhanced accumulation of reactive oxygen species. Read More

    Murine model to follow hyphal development in invasive pulmonary aspergillosis.
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 Feb 8. Epub 2018 Feb 8.
    Department of Biotechnology and Microbiology, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Debrecen, 1 Egyetem Square, Debrecen, H-4002, Hungary.
    Aspergillus fumigatus is an opportunistic pathogen, the leading cause of invasive and disseminated aspergillosis in systemic immunocompromised patients, and an important cause of mortality. The aim of the present study was to adapt a pulmonary aspergillosis murine model, to determine pathodynamical parameters quantitatively, and to follow the progression of fungal infection in vivo. The nasal inoculation of Aspergillus conidia in mice previously subjected to immunosuppression with cyclophosphamide (CP) turned out to be a more suitable model than that of immunosuppressed with hydrocortisone (HC). Read More

    Identification of the streptothricin and tunicamycin biosynthetic gene clusters by genome mining in Streptomyces sp. strain fd1-xmd.
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 Feb 8. Epub 2018 Feb 8.
    Collaborative Innovation Center for Genetics and Development, State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, Department of Microbiology, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200438, People's Republic of China.
    The genus Streptomyces have been highly regarded for their important source of natural products. Combined with the technology of genome sequencing and mining, we could identify the active ingredients from fermentation broth quickly. Here, we report on Streptomyces sp. Read More

    Yeast-based genotoxicity tests for assessing DNA alterations and DNA stress responses: a 40-year overview.
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 Feb 8. Epub 2018 Feb 8.
    Molecular Genetics Laboratory, Division of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Department of Environmental and Life Sciences, Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Hibarigaoka, Tempaku-cho, Toyohashi, Aichi, 441-8580, Japan.
    By damaging DNA molecules, genotoxicants cause genetic mutations and also increase human susceptibility to cancers and genetic diseases. Over the past four decades, several assays have been developed in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to screen potential genotoxic substances and provide alternatives to animal-based genotoxicity tests. These yeast-based genotoxicity tests are either DNA alteration-based or DNA stress-response reporter-based. Read More

    Production of extracellular heterologous proteins in Streptomyces rimosus, producer of the antibiotic oxytetracycline.
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 Feb 7. Epub 2018 Feb 7.
    Instituto de Biomedicina y Biotecnología de Cantabria (IBBTEC), Universidad de Cantabria, CSIC, C/Albert Einstein, 22, 39011, Santander, Spain.
    Among the Streptomyces species, Streptomyces lividans has often been used for the production of heterologous proteins as it can secrete target proteins directly into the culture medium. Streptomyces rimosus, on the other hand, has for long been used at an industrial scale for oxytetracycline production, and it holds 'Generally Recognised As Safe' status. There are a number of properties of S. Read More

    Role and mechanism of cell-surface hydrophobicity in the adaptation of Sphingobium hydrophobicum to electronic-waste contaminated sediment.
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 Feb 7. Epub 2018 Feb 7.
    Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Microbial Culture Collection and Application, Guangdong Institute of Microbiology, 100 Central Xianlie Road, Guangzhou, 510070, China.
    Sphingomonads are isolated at exceptionally high frequency from organic polluted environments and assumed to be more hydrophobic than other Gram-negative bacteria. However, the potential roles of cell-surface hydrophobicity (CSH) in the cell survival in polluted environment, as well as the mechanisms underlying the CSH of sphingomonads, remain unclear. Sphingobium hydrophobicum C1is a highly hydrophobic sphingomonad isolated from electronic-waste contaminated sediment. Read More

    New cost-effective bioconversion process of palm kernel cake into bioinsecticides based on Beauveria bassiana and Isaria javanica.
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 Feb 7. Epub 2018 Feb 7.
    Instituto de Química, Departamento de Bioquímica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Av. Athos da Silveira Ramos 149, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, 21941-909, Brazil.
    The present study aimed to add value to palm oil by-products as substrates to efficiently produce conidia of Beauveria bassiana and Isaria javanica (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae) for biological control of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), through a solid-state fermentation process using palm kernel cake and palm fiber as nutrient source and solid matrix, respectively. The optimum culture conditions yielded high concentrations of viable conidia after air-drying, when the fungi were grown on palm kernel cake (B. bassiana 7. Read More

    Modulation of gut microbiota by dietary supplementation with tuna oil and algae oil alleviates the effects of D-galactose-induced ageing.
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 Feb 7. Epub 2018 Feb 7.
    School of Marine Science, Ningbo University, 818 Fenghua Road, Ningbo, 315211, Zhejiang Province, People's Republic of China.
    Previous studies have shown that dietary supplementation with tuna oil and algae oil can alleviate the effects of ageing on learning and memory in mouse models, but the mechanism of this effect remains unknown. This study aimed to determine whether dietary oil supplementation alters the composition of the gut microbiota during the prevention of age-related effects on cognition. Ageing mice received dietary oil supplementation continuously for 12 weeks. Read More

    Engineering of the Trichoderma reesei xylanase3 promoter for efficient enzyme expression.
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 Feb 7. Epub 2018 Feb 7.
    Department of Bioengineering, Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1, Kamitomioka, Nagaoka, Niigata, 940-2188, Japan.
    The GH10 xylanase XYNIII is expressed in the hyper-cellulase-producing mutant PC-3-7, but not in the standard strain QM9414 of Trichoderma reesei. The GH11 xylanase gene xyn1 is induced by cellulosic and xylanosic carbon sources while xyn3 is induced only by cellulosic carbon sources in the PC-3-7 strain. In this study, we constructed a modified xyn3 promoter in which we replaced the cis-acting region of the xyn3 promoter by the cis-acting region of the xyn1 promoter. Read More

    Multiplicity of enzymatic functions in the CAZy AA3 family.
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 Feb 6. Epub 2018 Feb 6.
    Food Biotechnology Laboratory, Department of Food Science and Technology, BOKU-University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna, Muthgasse 11, A-1190, Wien, Austria.
    The CAZy auxiliary activity family 3 (AA3) comprises enzymes from the glucose-methanol-choline (GMC) family of oxidoreductases, which assist the activity of other AA family enzymes via their reaction products or support the action of glycoside hydrolases in lignocellulose degradation. The AA3 family is further divided into four subfamilies, which include cellobiose dehydrogenase, glucose oxidoreductases, aryl-alcohol oxidase, alcohol (methanol) oxidase, and pyranose oxidoreductases. These different enzymes catalyze a wide variety of redox reactions with respect to substrates and co-substrates. Read More

    Aerogel from chemo-enzymatically oxidized fenugreek gum: an innovative delivery system of isothiazolinones biocides.
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 Feb 6. Epub 2018 Feb 6.
    Istituto di Chimica del Riconoscimento Molecolare (ICRM), C.N.R, Via Mario Bianco 9, 20131, Milan, Italy.
    Aerogels of chemo-enzymatically oxidized, lyophilized fenugreek gum (EOLFG) were evaluated as "delivery system" (DS) of the microbiocide mix 5-chloro-2-methyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (CIT) and 2-methyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (MIT). These biocides have a broad activity spectrum and a low MIC (minimal inhibitory concentration) in the ppm range. They are approved under the EU Biocidal Product Directive for various applications, including cosmetics, are classified as skin sensitizers, and are under increasing scrutiny to limit or eliminate their use. Read More

    A novel biological recovery approach for PHA employing selective digestion of bacterial biomass in animals.
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 Mar 6;102(5):2117-2127. Epub 2018 Feb 6.
    School of Biological Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800, Penang, Malaysia.
    Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) is a family of microbial polyesters that is completely biodegradable and possesses the mechanical and thermal properties of some commonly used petrochemical-based plastics. Therefore, PHA is attractive as a biodegradable thermoplastic. It has always been a challenge to commercialize PHA due to the high cost involved in the biosynthesis of PHA via bacterial fermentation and the subsequent purification of the synthesized PHA from bacterial cells. Read More

    Formation of Se(0), Te(0), and Se(0)-Te(0) nanostructures during simultaneous bioreduction of selenite and tellurite in a UASB reactor.
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 Feb 4. Epub 2018 Feb 4.
    UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education, Westvest 7, 2611, AX, Delft, the Netherlands.
    Simultaneous removal of selenite and tellurite from synthetic wastewater was achieved through microbial reduction in a lab-scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor operated with 12 h hydraulic retention time at 30 °C and pH 7 for 120 days. Lactate was supplied as electron donor at an organic loading rate of 528 or 880 mg COD L day. The reactor was initially fed with a synthetic influent containing 0. Read More

    Anaerobiosis revisited: growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae under extremely low oxygen availability.
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 Mar 3;102(5):2101-2116. Epub 2018 Feb 3.
    School of Food Engineering, University of Campinas, Rua Monteiro Lobato 80, Campinas, SP, 13083-862, Brazil.
    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae plays an important role in biotechnological applications, ranging from fuel ethanol to recombinant protein production. It is also a model organism for studies on cell physiology and genetic regulation. Its ability to grow under anaerobic conditions is of interest in many industrial applications. Read More

    Halotolerant microbial consortia able to degrade highly recalcitrant plant biomass substrate.
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 Feb 3. Epub 2018 Feb 3.
    Department of Microbial Ecology, Groningen Institute for Evolutionary Life Sciences, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 7, 9747 AG, Groningen, The Netherlands.
    The microbial degradation of plant-derived compounds under salinity stress remains largely underexplored. The pretreatment of lignocellulose material, which is often needed to improve the production of lignocellulose monomers, leads to high salt levels, generating a saline environment that raises technical considerations that influence subsequent downstream processes. Here, we constructed halotolerant lignocellulose degrading microbial consortia by enriching a salt marsh soil microbiome on a recalcitrant carbon and energy source, i. Read More

    Identification of cyclosporin C from Amphichorda felina using a Cryptococcus neoformans differential temperature sensitivity assay.
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 Mar 2;102(5):2337-2350. Epub 2018 Feb 2.
    Texas Therapeutics Institute, The Brown Foundation Institute of Molecular Medicine, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, 1881 East Road, 3SCR6.4676, Houston, TX, 77054, USA.
    We used a temperature differential assay with the opportunistic fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans as a simple screening platform to detect small molecules with antifungal activity in natural product extracts. By screening of a collection extracts from two different strains of the coprophilous fungus, Amphichorda felina, we detected strong, temperature-dependent antifungal activity using a two-plate agar zone of inhibition assay at 25 and 37 °C. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the crude extract followed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) identified cyclosporin C (CsC) as the main component of the crude extract responsible for growth inhibition of C. Read More

    Impact of gut-associated bifidobacteria and their phages on health: two sides of the same coin?
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 Mar 2;102(5):2091-2099. Epub 2018 Feb 2.
    Laboratory of Probiogenomics, Department of Chemical Sciences, Life Sciences and Environmental Sustainability, University of Parma, Parma, Italy.
    Bifidobacteria are among the first microbial colonisers of the human infant gut post-partum. Their early appearance and dominance in the human infant gut and the reported health-promoting or probiotic status of several bifidobacterial strains has culminated in intensive research efforts that focus on their activities as part of the gut microbiota and the concomitant implications for human health. In this mini-review, we evaluate current knowledge on the genomics of this diverse bacterial genus, and on the genetic and functional adaptations that have underpinned the success of bifidobacteria in colonising the infant gut. Read More

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