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    11255 results match your criteria Applied microbiology and biotechnology[Journal]

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    Biobutanol production from apple pomace: the importance of pretreatment methods on the fermentability of lignocellulosic agro-food wastes.
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2017 Sep 20. Epub 2017 Sep 20.
    Centro de Biocombustibles y Bioproductos, Instituto Tecnológico Agrario de Castilla y León (ITACyL), Villarejo de Órbigo, 24358, León, Spain.
    Apple pomace was studied as a possible raw material for biobutanol production. Five different soft physicochemical pretreatments (autohydrolysis, acids, alkalis, organic solvents and surfactants) were compared in a high-pressure reactor, whose working parameters (temperature, time and reagent concentration) were optimised to maximise the amount of simple sugars released and to minimise inhibitor generation. The pretreated biomass was subsequently subjected to a conventional enzymatic treatment to complete the hydrolysis. Read More

    Assessment of molecular detection of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria in different environmental samples using PCR primers based on 16S rRNA and functional genes.
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2017 Sep 20. Epub 2017 Sep 20.
    Laboratory of Environmental Microbiology and Toxicology, School of Biological Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong, People's Republic of China.
    Eleven published PCR primer sets for detecting genes encoding 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA), hydrazine oxidoreductase (HZO), cytochrome cd 1-containing nitrite reductase (NirS), and hydrazine synthase subunit A (HzsA) of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria were assessed for the diversity and abundance of anammox bacteria in samples of three environments: wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), wetland of Mai Po Nature Reserve (MP), and the South China Sea (SCS). Consistent phylogenetic results of three biomarkers (16S rRNA, hzo, and hzsA) of anammox bacteria were obtained from all samples. WWTP had the lowest diversity with Candidatus Kuenenia dominating while the SCS was dominated by Candidatus Scalindua. Read More

    Molecular vaccine prepared by fusion of XCL1 to the multi-epitope protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus enhances the specific humoural immune response in cattle.
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2017 Sep 19. Epub 2017 Sep 19.
    State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS), Lanzhou, 730046, China.
    Targeting antigen to dendritic cells (DCs) is a promising way to manipulate the immune response and to design prophylactic molecular vaccines. In this study, the cattle XCL1, ligand of XCR1, was fused to the type O foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) multi-epitope protein (XCL-OB7) to create a molecular vaccine antigen, and an (△)XCL-OB7 protein with a mutation in XCL1 was used as the control. XCL-OB7 protein specifically bound to the XCR1 receptor, as detected by flow cytometry. Read More

    Performance evaluation and microbial community analysis of the function and fate of ammonia in a sulfate-reducing EGSB reactor.
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2017 Sep 19. Epub 2017 Sep 19.
    State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, No. 163 Xianlin Avenue, Nanjing, 210046, China.
    Ammonia is widely distributed in sulfate-reducing bioreactor dealing with sulfate wastewater, which shows potential effect on the metabolic pathway of sulfate and ammonia. This study investigates the sulfate-reducing efficiency and microbial community composition in the sulfate-reducing EGSB reactor with the increasing ammonia loading. Results indicated that, compared with low ammonia loading (166-666 mg/L), the sulfate and organic matter removal efficiencies were improved gradually with the appropriate ammonia loading (1000-2000 mg/L), which increased from 63. Read More

    A novel method for concentration of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus from the environmental samples using self-aggregating peptide-tagged CD151-binding capture.
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2017 Sep 19. Epub 2017 Sep 19.
    College of Veterinary Medicine, Jiangsu Co-Innovation Center for Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonoses, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, 225009, China.
    Environmental surveillance of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) represents a key issue in control of the disease. CD151 has recently been recognized as one of several receptors for PRRSV. We describe here a novel method for concentration of PRRSV from the environmental samples by CD151-binding capture. Read More

    High-efficiency acetone-butanol-ethanol production and recovery in non-strict anaerobic gas-stripping fed-batch fermentation.
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2017 Sep 19. Epub 2017 Sep 19.
    Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, People's Republic of China.
    Conventional acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation coupled with gas stripping is conducted under strict anaerobic conditions. In this work, a fed-batch ABE fermentation integrated with gas stripping (FAFIGS) system using a non-strict anaerobic butanol-producing symbiotic system, TSH06, was investigated for the efficient production of butanol. To save energy and keep a high gas-stripping efficiency, the integrated fermentation was conducted by adjusting the butanol recovery rate. Read More

    Sophorolipid production by yeasts: a critical review of the literature and suggestions for future research.
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2017 Sep 19. Epub 2017 Sep 19.
    BioPort Group, Centre for Synthetic Biology, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, 9000, Ghent, Belgium.
    Sophorolipids are well-known biosurfactants produced by yeasts, having potential applications ranging from nanomaterials, medicine, and cosmetics to large-volume applications such as cleaning and soil remediation. Because of their environmentally friendly nature, they attained much interest during the past decades as a sustainable and ecological alternative to petroleum-derived surfactants. Stronger yet, research activities and scientific publications on the topic are ever increasing. Read More

    Combining metabolic and process engineering strategies to improve recombinant glycoprotein production and quality.
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2017 Sep 18. Epub 2017 Sep 18.
    Department of Chemical Engineering, École Polytechnique de Montréal, P.O. Box 6079, Succ. Centre-Ville, Montreal, QC, H3C 3A7, Canada.
    Increasing recombinant protein production while ensuring a high and consistent protein quality remains a challenge in mammalian cell culture process development. In this work, we combined a nutrient substitution approach with a metabolic engineering strategy that improves glucose utilization efficiency. This combination allowed us to tackle both lactate and ammonia accumulation and investigate on potential synergistic effects on protein production and quality. Read More

    Keratinolytic protease: a green biocatalyst for leather industry.
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2017 Sep 18. Epub 2017 Sep 18.
    School of Biotechnology, Jiangnan University, 1800 Lihu Road, Wuxi, 214122, China.
    Depilation/unhairing is the crucial but heavy pollution process in leather industry. Traditional inorganic sulfide treatment was the most widely used depilation technique in the past decades, which was usually detrimental to leather quality and resulted in serious environmental pollution. Using biocatalysts to substitute inorganic sulfide showed great advantages in environment protection and unhairing efficiency. Read More

    Diversity of family GH46 chitosanases in Kitasatospora setae KM-6054.
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2017 Sep 18. Epub 2017 Sep 18.
    Centre d'Étude et de Valorisation de la Diversité Microbienne; Département de Biologie; Faculté des Sciences, Université de Sherbrooke, 2500, boul.de l'Université, Sherbrooke, Québec, J1K 2R1, Canada.
    The genome of Kitasatospora setae KM-6054, a soil actinomycete, has three genes encoding chitosanases belonging to GH46 family. The genes (csn1-3) were cloned in Streptomyces lividans and the corresponding enzymes were purified from the recombinant cultures. The csn2 clone yielded two proteins (Csn2BH and Csn2H) differing by the presence of a carbohydrate-binding domain. Read More

    Biotechnological production of value-added compounds by ustilaginomycetous yeasts.
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2017 Sep 18. Epub 2017 Sep 18.
    Laboratory of Bioflavors and Bioactive Compounds, Department of Food Science, Faculty of Food Engineering, University of Campinas, Cidade Universitária "Zeferino Vaz" Barão Geraldo-Campinas, São Paulo, CEP 13083-862, Brazil.
    The use of yeasts in bioprocesses can be considered one of the most relevant strategies in industrial biotechnology, and their potential is recognized due to the ability of these microorganisms for production of diverse value-added compounds. Yeasts from Ustilaginaceae family have been highlighted in the last years as a promising source of industrial interesting compounds, including enzymes, sugars, lipids, organic acids, and biosurfactants. These compounds may exhibit various applications in pharmaceutical, cosmetic, food, medical, and environmental fields, increasing the scientific attention in the study of ustilaginomycetous for biotechnological purposes. Read More

    Expression and purification of an FGF9 fusion protein in E. coli, and the effects of the FGF9 subfamily on human hepatocellular carcinoma cell proliferation and migration.
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2017 Sep 18. Epub 2017 Sep 18.
    School of Pharmaceutical Science, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang, 325035, China.
    Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 9 has oncogenic activity and plays an important role in the development of ovarian, lung, prostate, and gastric cancers. In the present study, with the aim of reducing the cost of utilizing growth factors in cancer research, a simple and efficient method for the preparation of recombinant human (rh)FGF9 in Escherichia coli was established. The rhFGF9 fusion protein (6 × His-TEV-rhFGF9) and the native protein released by tobacco etch virus (TEV) protease were obtained using a Ni-NTA system, with > 95% purity. Read More

    Chemoenzymatic synthesis of 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate coupling with an ATP regeneration system.
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2017 Sep 17. Epub 2017 Sep 17.
    School of Biotechnology and Food Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei, 230009, China.
    3'-Phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS) is the obligate cosubstrate and source of the sulfonate group in the chemoenzymatic synthesis of heparin, a commonly used anticoagulant drug. Previously, using ATP as the substrate, we had developed a one-pot synthesis to prepare PAPS with 47% ATP conversion efficiency. During the reaction, 47% of ATP was converted into the by-product, ADP. Read More

    Molecular basis of Cd(+2) stress response in Candida tropicalis.
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2017 Sep 17. Epub 2017 Sep 17.
    School of Biological Sciences (SBS), University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan.
    This study examines the bioremediation potential and cadmium-induced cellular response on a molecular level in Candida tropicalis 3Aer. Spectroscopic analysis clearly illustrated the involvement of yeast cell wall components in biosorption. Cadmium bioaccumulation was confirmed by TEM, SEM, and EDX examination. Read More

    Exogenous and endogenous increase in fungal GGPP increased fungal Taxol production.
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2017 Sep 16. Epub 2017 Sep 16.
    Faculty of Pharmacy, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt.
    Taxol is an anticancer identified in both endophytic fungus and its host plant. Plant Taxol is a diterpenoid with geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) mediates the biosynthesis of its terpenoid moiety. Previous report has suggested that fungal Taxol may require terpenoid pathway for its biosynthesis. Read More

    The role of major virulence factors of AIEC involved in inflammatory bowl disease-a mini-review.
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2017 Sep 16. Epub 2017 Sep 16.
    College of Veterinary Medicine, Yangzhou University, 12 East Wenhui Road, Yangzhou, 225009, China.
    Adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC) has recently attracted more attention because it is closely related to the pathogenicity of human inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). AIEC possesses a multitude of virulence factors. Considering these virulence factors belonging to various virulence groups, including adhesins, invasins, toxins, protectins, and siderophore-mediated iron acquisition, this review summarizes the current knowledge of how the major virulence factors assisting in AIEC survive in, adhere to, and invade host cells. Read More

    Metabolic engineering of Schizosaccharomyces pombe to produce punicic acid, a conjugated fatty acid with nutraceutic properties.
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2017 Sep 16. Epub 2017 Sep 16.
    Institute of Animal Biochemistry and Genetics, Centre of Biosciences, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dubravska cesta 9, Bratislava, Slovakia.
    Punicic acid (PuA) is a conjugated linolenic acid (C18:3Δ(9c,11t,13c)) with a wide range of nutraceutic effects with the potential to reduce the incidence of a number of health disorders including diabetes, obesity, and cancer. It is the main component of seed oil from Punica granatum and Trichosanthes kirilowii. Previously, production of relatively high levels of this unusual fatty acid in the seed oil of transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plant was accomplished by the use of A. Read More

    Improved DNA purification with quality assurance for evaluation of the microbial genetic content of constructed wetlands.
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2017 Sep 16. Epub 2017 Sep 16.
    Research Center of Hydrobiology, Jinan University, Huangpu Avenue West, Guangzhou, China.
    Efficient isolation of target DNA is a crucial first step of DNA-based metagenomic analyses of environmental samples. Insufficient quantity and purity of DNA isolated using commercial kits result in missing genetic information, especially for large-diameter substrates in constructed wetlands (CWs). Here, we addressed this problem by devising a cost-effective calcium chloride lysozyme-sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) method (CCLS), with key improvements in the steps of humic acid removal and cell lysis. Read More

    Coupled reactions by coupled enzymes: alcohol to lactone cascade with alcohol dehydrogenase-cyclohexanone monooxygenase fusions.
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2017 Sep 15. Epub 2017 Sep 15.
    Molecular Enzymology Group, Groningen Biomolecular Sciences and Biotechnology Institute, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG, Groningen, The Netherlands.
    The combination of redox enzymes for redox-neutral cascade reactions has received increasing appreciation. An example is the combination of an alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) with a cyclohexanone monooxygenase (CHMO). The ADH can use NADP(+) to oxidize cyclohexanol to form cyclohexanone and NADPH. Read More

    Transformation of anaerobic granules into aerobic granules and the succession of bacterial community.
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2017 Sep 15. Epub 2017 Sep 15.
    State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, 163 Xianlin Avenue, Nanjing, 210023, China.
    In this study, we demonstrated that anaerobic granular sludge could be successfully transformed into aerobic granular sludge in a continuous up-flow reactor in 45 days. An aerobic microbial community successfully developed in the granules and high organic matter and nitrogen removal performance was achieved. Under an ammonia nitrogen loading rate of 0. Read More

    Expression of membrane-bound dehydrogenases from a mother of vinegar metagenome in Gluconobacter oxydans.
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2017 Sep 15. Epub 2017 Sep 15.
    Lehrstuhl für Mikrobiologie, Technische Universität München, Emil-Ramann-Straße 4, 85354, Freising, Germany.
    Acetic acid bacteria are well-known for their membrane-bound dehydrogenases rapidly oxidizing a variety of substrates in the periplasm. Since many acetic acid bacteria have not been successfully cultured in the laboratory yet, studying membrane-bound dehydrogenases directly from a metagenome of vinegar microbiota seems to be a promising way to identify novel variants of these enzymes. To this end, DNA from a mother of vinegar was isolated, sequenced, and screened for membrane-bound dehydrogenases using an in silico approach. Read More

    Immunogenicity and antimicrobial effectiveness of Pseudomonas aeruginosa specific bacteriophage in a human lung in vitro model.
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2017 Sep 15. Epub 2017 Sep 15.
    Department of Biology, University of Dayton, Dayton, OH, 45469, USA.
    The rise of antibiotic resistant bacteria is posing a serious threat to human health. For example, resistant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa have resulted in untreatable and potentially lethal infections in both cystic fibrosis and immunocompromised patients. Due to the growing need for alternative treatment options, bacteriophage, or phage, therapy is gaining considerable attention. Read More

    Morphological analysis of the filamentous fungus Penicillium chrysogenum using flow cytometry-the fast alternative to microscopic image analysis.
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2017 Sep 14. Epub 2017 Sep 14.
    CD Laboratory on Mechanistic and Physiological Methods for Improved Bioprocesses, TU Wien, Gumpendorferstrasse 1a/166, 1060, Vienna, Austria.
    An important parameter in filamentous bioreactor cultivations is the morphology of the fungi, due to its interlink to productivity and its dependency on process conditions. Filamentous fungi show a large variety of morphological forms in submerged cultures. These range from dispersed hyphae, to interwoven mycelial aggregates, to denser hyphal aggregates, the so-called pellets. Read More

    Combined effect of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae lag phase and the non-Saccharomyces consortium to enhance wine fruitiness and complexity.
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2017 Sep 14. Epub 2017 Sep 14.
    Univ. Bordeaux, ISVV, Unité de Recherche Œnologie EA 4577, USC 1366 INRA,, Bordeaux INP, 33140, Villenave d'Ornon, France.
    Non-Saccharomyces (NS) species that are either naturally present in grape must or added in mixed fermentation with S. cerevisiae may impact the wine's chemical composition and sensory properties. NS yeasts are prevailing during prefermentation and early stages of alcoholic fermentation. Read More

    Investigation on the anaerobic co-digestion of food waste with sewage sludge.
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2017 Sep 14. Epub 2017 Sep 14.
    Environmental Biotechnology Laboratory, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong, China.
    In this laboratory-scale investigation on the applicability of the co-digestion of food waste with sewage sludge, evaluated were the effects of the single-stage versus two-stage operating modes at the hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 15 days, and the impact of HRTs: 15 days vs. 25 days, on the single-stage operation. An average volatile solid reduction (VSR) of 61% and methane yield of 314 ml/g-VS were achieved in the two-stage operation (HRT 15 days), while comparable VSR of 57% and the methane yield of 325 ml CH4/g-VS could only be detected at a longer HRT at 25 days in the single-stage operation. Read More

    Recent advances on the difructose anhydride IV preparation from levan conversion.
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2017 Sep 13. Epub 2017 Sep 13.
    Research Institute of Functional Food, Anhui Normal University, Wuhu, 241000, Anhui Province, People's Republic of China.
    Difructose anhydride IV (DFA IV) is a cyclic disaccharide consisting of two fructose residues, which is obtained from levan conversion with levan fructotransferase (LFTase) and rarely found in nature as a low-calorie sugar substitute. Some beneficial effects of DFA IV connected with its consumption have been described. The article reviews the properties and physiological functions of DFA IV, levan conversion, resources and properties of LFTase and the produced methods of DFA IV. Read More

    Thermodynamics of enzyme-catalyzed esterifications: II. Levulinic acid esterification with short-chain alcohols.
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2017 Sep 14. Epub 2017 Sep 14.
    Laboratory of Thermodynamics, Department of Biochemical and Chemical Engineering, Technische Universität Dortmund, Emil-Figge-Str. 70, 44227, Dortmund, Germany.
    Levulinic acid was esterified with methanol, ethanol, and 1-butanol with the final goal to predict the maximum yield of these equilibrium-limited reactions as function of medium composition. In a first step, standard reaction data (standard Gibbs energy of reaction Δ (R) g (0) ) were determined from experimental formation properties. Unexpectedly, these Δ (R) g (0) values strongly deviated from data obtained with classical group contribution methods that are typically used if experimental standard data is not available. Read More

    Identification and characterization of a novel (-)-vibo-quercitol 1-dehydrogenase from Burkholderia terrae suitable for production of (-)-vibo-quercitol from 2-deoxy-scyllo-inosose.
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2017 Sep 13. Epub 2017 Sep 13.
    Asahi Kasei Corp., 1-105 Kanda Jinbocho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, 101-8101, Japan.
    (-)-vibo-Quercitol is a deoxyinositol (1L-1,2,4/3,5-cyclohexanepentol) that naturally occurs in oak species, honeydew honey, wines aged in oak barrels, and Gymnema sylvestre and is a potential intermediate for pharmaceuticals. We found that (-)-vibo-quercitol is stereoselectively synthesized from 2-deoxy-scyllo-inosose by the reductive reaction of a novel (-)-vibo-quercitol 1-dehydrogenase found in the proteomes of Burkholderia, Pseudomonas, and Arthrobacter. Among them, Burkholderia terrae sp. Read More

    Double promoter expression systems for recombinant protein production by industrial microorganisms.
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2017 Sep 12. Epub 2017 Sep 12.
    Biochemical Reaction Engineering Laboratory, Department of Chemical Engineering, Middle East Technical University, 06800, Ankara, Turkey.
    Using double promoter expression systems is a promising approach to increase heterologous protein production. In this review, current double promoter expression systems for the production of recombinant proteins (r-proteins) by industrially important bacteria, Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli; and yeasts, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia pastoris, are discussed by assessing their potentials and drawbacks. Double promoter expression systems need to be designed to maintain a higher specific product formation rate within the production domain. Read More

    Transcriptome changes in adaptive evolution of xylose-fermenting industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with δ-integration of different xylA genes.
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2017 Sep 13. Epub 2017 Sep 13.
    Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, College of Architecture and Environment, Sichuan University, No. 24, South Section 1, First Ring Road, Chengdu, Sichuan, 610065, China.
    It is of utmost importance to construct industrial xylose-fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains for lignocellulosic bioethanol production. In this study, two xylose isomerase-based industrial S. cerevisiae strains, O7 and P5, were constructed by δ-integration of the xylose isomerase (XI) gene xylA from the fungus Orpinomyces sp. Read More

    Structural and functional variability in root-associated bacterial microbiomes of Cd/Zn hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii.
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2017 Sep 11. Epub 2017 Sep 11.
    Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecological Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058, China.
    Interactions between roots and microbes affect plant's resistance to abiotic stress. However, the structural and functional variation of root-associated microbiomes and their effects on metal accumulation in hyperaccumulators remain poorly understood. Here, we characterize the root-associated microbiota of a hyperaccumulating (HP) and a non-hyperaccumulating (NHP) genotype of Sedum alfredii by 16S ribosomal RNA gene profiling. Read More

    Identification and characterization of the ficellomycin biosynthesis gene cluster from Streptomyces ficellus.
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2017 Sep 11. Epub 2017 Sep 11.
    Industrial Microbiology Laboratory, College of Biotechnology, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, Tianjin Economic and Technological Development Zone, No. 29, 13 Main Street, Tianjin, 300457, People's Republic of China.
    Ficellomycin is a peptide-like antibiotic which exhibits potent in vitro activity against Penicillium oxalicum and Staphylococcus aureus, even against strains resistant to most clinically used antibiotics. The gene cluster responsible for ficellomycin biosynthesis was cloned from Streptomyces ficellus and sequenced. It was found to contain 26 ORFs and is located within 30 kb of contiguous DNA. Read More

    Advanced microbial analysis for wastewater quality monitoring: metagenomics trend.
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2017 Sep 11. Epub 2017 Sep 11.
    CIEMAT-Plataforma Solar de Almería, Ctra. de Senés s/n, 04200 Tabernas, Almería, Spain.
    Urban Wastewater treatment plants (UWWTPs) have played an important and fundamental role in society for water purification of contaminated human wastewaters over the last decades. Microorganisms are very important in UWWTP as their metabolic activity significantly reduces the organic load of the UWW, although there is an uncertain gap in our knowledge regarding microbial consortium structure and their activity in UWWTP operation on a large scale. On the other hand, effluents of UWWTPs have come to be a new source of fresh water to ease water scarcity in many regions of the world, especially in intensive irrigation practices. Read More

    Variation of mucin adhesion, cell surface characteristics, and molecular mechanisms among Lactobacillus plantarum isolated from different habitats.
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2017 Sep 11. Epub 2017 Sep 11.
    Department of Industrial Biotechnology, Faculty of Agro-Industry, Prince of Songkla University, 15 Kanchanavanich Rd., Hat Yai, Songkhla, 90110, Thailand.
    The adhesion ability to mucin varied greatly among 18 Lactobacillus plantarum isolates depending on their isolation habitats. Such ability remained at high level even though they were sequentially exposed to the gastrointestinal (GI) stresses. The majority of L. Read More

    Oral delivery of staphylococcal nuclease by Lactococcus lactis prevents type 1 diabetes mellitus in NOD mice.
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2017 Sep 9. Epub 2017 Sep 9.
    Minigene Pharmacy Laboratory, School of Life Science and Technology, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, China.
    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is an autoimmune disease characterized by the self-destruction of insulin-producing β cells. Recently, studies have revealed that neutrophils contribute to the early pathological injury to the pancreas, predominantly via the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). To determine whether early intervention targeting NETs with staphylococcal nuclease (SNase) can delay the onset of T1DM, non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice were orally administered recombinant Lactococcus lactis (L. Read More

    Polyhydroxyalkanoate production from sucrose by Cupriavidus necator strains harboring csc genes from Escherichia coli W.
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2017 Sep 9. Epub 2017 Sep 9.
    Bioproducts Research Group, Biotechnology Development Laboratories, KANEKA CORPORATION, 1-8 Miyamae-Cho, Takasago-Cho, Takasago, Hyogo, 676-8688, Japan.
    Cupriavidus necator H16 is the most promising bacterium for industrial production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) because of their remarkable ability to accumulate them in the cells. With genetic modifications, this bacterium can produce poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) (PHBHHx), which has better physical properties, as well as poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) using plant oils and sugars as a carbon source. Considering production cost, sucrose is a very attractive raw material because it is inexpensive; however, this bacterium cannot assimilate sucrose. Read More

    Expression of the lef5 gene from Spodoptera exigua multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus contributes to the baculovirus stability in cell culture.
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2017 Sep 9. Epub 2017 Sep 9.
    Estructura de Recerca Interdisciplinar en Biotecnologia i Biomedicina (ERI BIOTECMED) and Department of Genetics, Universitat de València, 46100, Burjassot, Valencia, Spain.
    Baculoviruses are a broad group of viruses infecting insects, predominately of the order Lepidoptera. They are used worldwide as biological insecticides and as expression vectors to produce recombinant proteins. Baculoviruses replicate in their host, although several cell lines have been developed for in vitro replication. Read More

    CRISPR/Cas9-based genome editing of the filamentous fungi: the state of the art.
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2017 Sep 8. Epub 2017 Sep 8.
    College of Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, No. 30 South Puzhu Road, Nanjing, 211816, People's Republic of China.
    In recent years, a variety of genetic tools have been developed and applied to various filamentous fungi, which are widely applied in agriculture and the food industry. However, the low efficiency of gene targeting has for many years hampered studies on functional genomics in this important group of microorganisms. The emergence of CRISPR/Cas9 genome-editing technology has sparked a revolution in genetic research due to its high efficiency, versatility, and easy operation and opened the door for the discovery and exploitation of many new natural products. Read More

    Study of ChiR function in Serratia marcescens and its application for improving 2,3-butanediol from crystal chitin.
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2017 Sep 8. Epub 2017 Sep 8.
    School of Engineering, Department of Chemical and Life Science Engineering West Hall, Virginia Commonwealth University, Room 422, 601 West Main Street, P.O. Box 843028, Richmond, VA, 23284-3028, USA.
    Microbial utilization of chitin, a potential renewable biomass feedstock, is being pursued as a means of developing novel consolidated bioprocessing for the production of chemicals. Serratia marcescens is a gram-negative bacterium that is known for its chitinolytic capability and as a native 2,3-butanediol producer. In S. Read More

    Synthetic biology for manufacturing chemicals: constraints drive the use of non-conventional microbial platforms.
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2017 Sep 7. Epub 2017 Sep 7.
    Department of Energy, Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Washington University, Saint Louis, MO, 63130, USA.
    Genetically modified microbes have had much industrial success producing protein-based products (such as antibodies and enzymes). However, engineering microbial workhorses for biomanufacturing of commodity compounds remains challenging. First, microbes cannot afford burdens with both overexpression of multiple enzymes and metabolite drainage for product synthesis. Read More

    Natural and engineered polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthase: key enzyme in biopolyester production.
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2017 Sep 7. Epub 2017 Sep 7.
    CAS Key Laboratory of Bio-based Materials, Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao, China.
    With the finite supply of petroleum and increasing concern with environmental issues associated with their harvest and processing, the development of more eco-friendly, sustainable alternative biopolymers that can effectively fill the role of petro-polymers has become a major focus. Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) can be naturally produced by many species of bacteria and the PHA synthase is believed to be key enzyme in this natural pathway. Natural PHA synthases are diverse and can affect the properties of the produced PHAs, such as monomer composition, molecular weights, and material properties. Read More

    Influence of oxygen availability on the metabolism and morphology of Yarrowia lipolytica: insights into the impact of glucose levels on dimorphism.
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2017 Sep 6. Epub 2017 Sep 6.
    LISBP, Université de Toulouse, CNRS, INRA, INSA, Toulouse, France.
    Dynamic behavior of Yarrowia lipolytica W29 strain under conditions of fluctuating, low, and limited oxygen supply was characterized in batch and glucose-limited chemostat cultures. In batch cultures, transient oscillations between oxygen-rich and -deprived environments induced a slight citric acid accumulation (lower than 29 mg L(-1)). By contrast, no citric acid was detected in continuous fermentations for all stress conditions: full anoxia (zero pO2 value, 100% N2), limited (zero pO2 value, 75% of cell needs), and low (pO2 close to 2%) dissolved oxygen (DO) levels. Read More

    Lactic acid bacteria isolated from yak milk show probiotic potential.
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2017 Sep 6. Epub 2017 Sep 6.
    Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), New Delhi, 110020, India.
    Probiotic industries strive for new, efficient and promising probiotic strains that impart a positive impact on consumer health. Challenges are persisting in isolation, screening, and selection of the new indigenous probiotic strains. In the present research, we explored the probiotic potential of 17 lactic acid bacteria isolated from Yak milk in a series of in vitro tests. Read More

    Anti-herpes simplex virus 1 and immunomodulatory activities of a poly-γ- glutamic acid from Bacillus horneckiae strain APA of shallow vent origin.
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2017 Sep 7. Epub 2017 Sep 7.
    The Department of Chemical, Biological, Pharmaceutical and Environmental Sciences, University of Messina, Via F. Stagno d'Alcontres 31, 98166, Messina, Italy.
    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is responsible of common and widespread viral infections in humans through the world, and of rare, but extremely severe, clinical syndromes in the central nervous system. The emergence of resistant strains to drugs actually in use encourages the searching for novel antiviral compounds, including those of natural origin. In this study, the recently described poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA-APA), produced by the marine thermotolerant Bacillus horneckiae strain APA, and previously shown to possess biological and antiviral activity, was evaluated for its anti-HSV-1 and immunomodulatory properties. Read More

    Comparison of EMA-, PMA- and DNase qPCR for the determination of microbial cell viability.
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2017 Sep 5. Epub 2017 Sep 5.
    Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, University of Stellenbosch, Private Bag X1, Stellenbosch, 7602, South Africa.
    Ethidium monoazide (EMA) quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), propidium monoazide (PMA)-qPCR and DNase treatment in combination with qPCR were compared for the determination of microbial cell viability. Additionally, varying EMA and PMA concentrations were analysed to determine which dye and concentration allowed for the optimal identification of viable cells. Viable, heat treated (70 °C for 15 min) and autoclaved cultures of Legionella pneumophila, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis were utilised in the respective viability assays. Read More

    PhzA, the shunt switch of phenazine-1,6-dicarboxylic acid biosynthesis in Pseudomonas chlororaphis HT66.
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2017 Sep 5. Epub 2017 Sep 5.
    State Key Laboratory of Microbial Metabolism, School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.
    Natural phenazines are versatile secondary metabolites that are mainly produced by Pseudomonas and Streptomyces. All phenazine-type metabolites originate from two precursors: phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA) in Pseudomonas or phenazine-1,6-dicarboxylic acid (PDC) in Streptomyces and other bacteria. Although the biosynthesis of PCA in Pseudomonas has been extensively studied, the origin of PDC still remains unclear. Read More

    Preparation, characterization and toxicity evaluation of amphotericin B loaded MPEG-PCL micelles and its application for buccal tablets.
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2017 Sep 3. Epub 2017 Sep 3.
    Department of Pharmacology, Health Science Center, Xi'an Jiaotong University, No. 76 Yanta Westroad, Xi'an, 710061, People's Republic of China.
    Oral candidiasis or thrush is a fungal infection due to Candida albicans, causing discomfort in areas inside mouth or tongue. The clinical application of antifungal reagent amphotericin B (AMB), which is believed to offer a better treatment for oral candidiasis, is greatly compromised by its toxicities (mainly nephrotoxicity) and poor solubility. In order to overcome these issues, we characterized AMB-loaded MPEG-PCL micelles in vitro and in vivo. Read More

    Activity of human beta defensin-1 and its motif against active and dormant Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2017 Aug 30. Epub 2017 Aug 30.
    Department of Biochemistry, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, 160012, India.
    The ineffectiveness of anti-tuberculous therapy against dormant and drug-resistant mycobacteria demands scrutiny of alternative candidates like antimicrobial peptides having different mechanisms of action. The present study was designed to explore the activity of human beta defensin-1 (HBD-1) and its in silico identified short motif Pep-B against active and dormant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) H37Rv. Read More

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