11,878 results match your criteria Applied microbiology and biotechnology[Journal]


Redox-stat bioreactors for elucidating mobilisation mechanisms of trace elements: an example of As-contaminated mining soils.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 Jun 21. Epub 2018 Jun 21.

Institute for Ecopreneurship, School of Life Sciences, University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland, Gründenstrasse 40, 4132, Muttenz, Switzerland.

The environmental fate of major (e.g. C, N, S, Fe and Mn) and trace (e. Read More

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In vitro and computational studies on the effects of ARE deletion and targeted mutations on the expression of interferon beta-1a in HEK293T cells.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 Jun 21. Epub 2018 Jun 21.

Division of Genetics, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, 81746-73441, Iran.

Interferon beta (IFNβ) is transiently expressed in response to viral infections and widely used to treat relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS). We introduced mutations in the IFNβ gene (in the 27th and 101st codons and in the Kozak sequence, and also deletion of 3' and 5' unstable, untranslated region, UTR) with the aim of increasing the expression of IFNβ. Computational analyses of mutant and wild-type RNAs and proteins of IFNβ by RNAfold, ASAView, HOPE and Ramachandran plot, and iStable web servers showed that the mutations could decrease RNA stability, protein solvent accessibility, and protein stability but could not change correct folding. Read More

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Chitinolytic functions in actinobacteria: ecology, enzymes, and evolution.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 Jun 21. Epub 2018 Jun 21.

Département de biologie, Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, QC, J1K 2R1, Canada.

Actinobacteria, a large group of Gram-positive bacteria, secrete a wide range of extracellular enzymes involved in the degradation of organic compounds and biopolymers including the ubiquitous aminopolysaccharides chitin and chitosan. While chitinolytic enzymes are distributed in all kingdoms of life, actinobacteria are recognized as particularly good decomposers of chitinous material and several members of this taxon carry impressive sets of genes dedicated to chitin and chitosan degradation. Degradation of these polymers in actinobacteria is dependent on endo- and exo-acting hydrolases as well as lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases. Read More

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Distinct impacts of reductive soil disinfestation and chemical soil disinfestation on soil fungal communities and memberships.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 Jun 21. Epub 2018 Jun 21.

School of Geography Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, 210023, China.

Soil disinfestation is an important agricultural practice to conquer soil-borne diseases and thereby ensure crop productivity. Reductive soil disinfestation (RSD) had been developed as an environmentally friendly alternative to chemical soil disinfestation (CSD). However, the differences between CSD and RSD on soil-borne pathogen suppression and fungal community structure remain poorly understood. Read More

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June 2018
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Rerouting carbon flux for optimized biosynthesis of mesaconate in Escherichia coli.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 Jun 21. Epub 2018 Jun 21.

Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA.

Mesaconate, a branched unsaturated dicarboxylic acid, has drawn great interest because of its versatile applications. In this work, we optimized the fermentation efficiency of Escherichia coli to produce mesaconate from glucose. We first drove the carbon flux to 2-ketoglutarate by overexpressing genes involved in TCA precursor pathway and anaplerotic pathways. Read More

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June 2018
3 Reads

Biotechnological production of cellulose by acetic acid bacteria: current state and perspectives.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 Jun 20. Epub 2018 Jun 20.

Department of Life Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Via G. Amendola, 2, Pad. Besta, 42122, Reggio Emilia, Italy.

Bacterial cellulose is an attractive biopolymer for a number of applications including food, biomedical, cosmetics, and engineering fields. In addition to renewability and biodegradability, its unique structure and properties such as chemical purity, nanoscale fibrous 3D network, high water-holding capacity, high degree of polymerization, high crystallinity index, light transparency, biocompatibility, and mechanical features offer several advantages when it is used as native polymer or in composite materials. Structure and properties play a functional role in both the biofilm life cycle and biotechnological applications. Read More

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Tailor-made mannosylerythritol lipids: current state and perspectives.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 Jun 20. Epub 2018 Jun 20.

Research Institute for Sustainable Chemistry, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba Central 5-2, 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8565, Japan.

Mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) are a type of glycolipid biosurfactant produced by basidiomycetous yeasts, most notably those belonging to the genera Pseudozyma and Ustilago. Mannosylerythritol lipids are environmentally friendly and possess many unique functions, such as gene delivery, bio-activation, and human skin repair, and thus have potential applications in cosmetic, pharmaceutical, agriculture, food, and environmental industries. However, MELs will require overcoming same issues related to the commercialization, e. Read More

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June 2018
1 Read

Enhanced redox conductivity and enriched Geobacteraceae of exoelectrogenic biofilms in response to static magnetic field.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 Jun 20. Epub 2018 Jun 20.

Department of Biological and Ecological Engineering, Oregon State University, 116 Gilmore Hall, Corvallis, Oregon, 97331, USA.

A possible approach to enhance the performance of microbial electrochemical system such as microbial fuel cells is to increase the conductivity of catalytic biofilms and thereby the direct extracellular electron transfer within the biofilms and from the electrode. In the present study, we evaluated the impact of static low-intensity magnetic field on the anodic biofilms in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). Results demonstrated that the application of a low-intensity magnetic field (105 and 150 mT) can significantly shorten the startup time and enhance the overall performance of single-chamber MFCs in terms of current density (300%) and power density (150%). Read More

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Improvement of butanol production by the development and co-culture of C. acetobutylicum TSH1 and B. cereus TSH2.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 Jun 18. Epub 2018 Jun 18.

Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, China.

Butanol fermentation comprises two successive and distinct stages, namely acidogenesis and solventogenesis. The current lack of clarity regarding the underlying metabolic regulation of fermentation impedes improvements in biobutanol production. Here, a proteomics study was performed in the acidogenesis phase, the lowest pH point (transition point), and the solventogenesis phase in the butanol-producing symbiotic system TSH06. Read More

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Increased flux through the TCA cycle enhances bacitracin production by Bacillus licheniformis DW2.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 Jun 18. Epub 2018 Jun 18.

Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Green Transformation of Bio-Resources, Environmental Microbial Technology Center of Hubei Province, Hubei Key Laboratory of Industrial Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences, Hubei University, Wuhan, 430062, People's Republic of China.

The dodecapeptide antibiotic bacitracin, produced by several strains of Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus subtilis, is widely used as an antibacterial animal feed additive. Several genetic strategies were explored to enhance its production. The availability of building block amino acids for bacitracin production was found to play an important role in its synthesis. Read More

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June 2018
1 Read

Improved and adopted murine models to combat pulmonary aspergillosis.

Authors:
Gaspar Banfalvi

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 Jun 17. Epub 2018 Jun 17.

Department of Biotechnology and Microbiology, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Debrecen, 1 Egyetem Street, Debrecen, H-4002, Hungary.

The insufficient basic and clinical knowledge about invasive mold infections necessitated to review aspergillosis rodent models. The scope of this review has two major aspects. (1) It briefly summarizes Aspergillus toxicoses, the adverse effects of Aspergillus mycotoxins, the virulence factors of Aspergillus fumigatus, and how mild Aspergillus infections can turn to immunosuppressive diseases, ultimately to lethal invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Read More

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Efficient removal of atrazine from aqueous solutions using magnetic Saccharomyces cerevisiae bionanomaterial.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 Jun 17. Epub 2018 Jun 17.

College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University and Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control, Hunan University, Ministry of Education, Changsha, 410082, Hunan, China.

A novel bionanomaterial comprising Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) and FeO nanoparticles encapsulated in a sodium alginate-polyvinyl alcohol (SA-PVA) matrix was synthesized for the efficient removal of atrazine from aqueous solutions. The effects of the operating parameters, nitrogen source, and glucose and Fe contents on atrazine removal were investigated, and the intermediates were detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Read More

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June 2018
2 Reads

The βγ-crystallin domain of Lysinibacillus sphaericus phosphatidylinositol phospholipase C plays a central role in protein stability.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 Jun 16. Epub 2018 Jun 16.

CONICET y Departamento de Tecnología, Facultad de Ciencias Bioquímicas y Farmacéuticas, Instituto de Procesos Biotecnológicos y Químicos (IPROBYQ), Universidad Nacional de Rosario (UNR), Suipacha 531, 2000, Rosario, Argentina.

βγ-crystallin has emerged as a superfamily of structurally homologous proteins with representatives across all domains of life. A major portion of this superfamily is constituted by microbial members. This superfamily has also been recognized as a novel group of Ca-binding proteins with a large diversity and variable properties in Ca binding and stability. Read More

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Future direction in marine bacterial agarases for industrial applications.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 Jun 16. Epub 2018 Jun 16.

Department of Marine Biology, Faculty of Marine Science and Technology, University of Hormozgan, P.O. Box 7931674576, Bandar Abbas, Iran.

The marine ecosystem has been known to be a rich source of novel enzymes. Agarase is a key enzyme that can hydrolyze agar in the marine environment. Marine bacterial agarase has been isolated from various sources, such as sediments, coastal water, and deep sea and from the surface of crustaceans and seaweeds. Read More

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Functions and impact of tal-like genes in animals with regard to applied aspects.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 Jun 16. Epub 2018 Jun 16.

School of Biology & Basic Medical Science, Soochow University, Suzhou, 215123, China.

A large number of DNAs in eukaryote genomes can code for atypical transcripts, and their functions are controversial. It has been reported that the transcripts contain many small open reading frames (sORFs), which were originally considered as non-translatable RNAs. However, increasing evidence has suggested that some of these sORFs can encode for small peptides and some are conserved across large evolutionary distances. Read More

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Back to the past-forever young: cutting-edge biochemical and microbiological tools for cultural heritage conservation.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 Jun 8. Epub 2018 Jun 8.

Department of Life Sciences and Systems Biology, Università of Turin, Via Accademia Albertina 13, 10123, Turin, Italy.

Ancient documents and milestones of human history such as manuscripts and textiles are fragile and during aging undergo chemical, physical, and biological deterioration. Among the different causes of damage, also human intervention plays a role since some restoration strategies proved to be transient and/or they generated further damage. Outdoor monuments undergo deterioration since they are exposed to pollution, weathering, microbial attack (giving rise to undesired pigmentation, discoloration or true dissolution, corrosion, and overall decay), as well as man-made damage (i. Read More

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June 2018
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Comparative analysis of fermentation and enzyme expression profiles among industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 Jun 7. Epub 2018 Jun 7.

Department of Bioinformatic Engineering, Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, Osaka University, 1-5 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka, 565-0871, Japan.

Industrial diploid strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are selected from natural populations and then domesticated by optimizing the preferred properties for producing products such as bread, wine, and sake. In this study, for comparing the fermentation performance of various industrial yeasts, seven diploid strains of S. cerevisiae, namely, BY4947 (laboratory yeast derived from S288C), Kyokai7 and Kyokai9 (sake yeasts), Red Star and NBRC0555 (bread yeasts), and QA23 and EC1118 (wine yeasts), were cultivated in a synthetic medium. Read More

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June 2018
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Role of plant phytochemicals and microbial enzymes in biosynthesis of metallic nanoparticles.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 Jun 7. Epub 2018 Jun 7.

Department of Bioengineering, Rice University, Houston, TX, USA.

Metal-based nanoparticles have gained tremendous popularity because of their interesting physical, biological, optical, and magnetic properties. These nanoparticles can be synthesized using a variety of different physical, chemical, and biological techniques. The biological means are largely preferred as it provides an environmentally benign, green, and cost-effective route for the biosynthesis of nanoparticles. Read More

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June 2018
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Effects of the histone-like protein HU on cellulose degradation and biofilm formation of Cytophaga hutchinsonii.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 Jun 6. Epub 2018 Jun 6.

State Key Laboratory of Microbial Technology, School of Life Science, Shandong University, Jinan, 250100, China.

Cytophaga hutchinsonii, belonging to Bacteroidetes, is speculated to use a novel cell-contact mode to digest cellulose. In this study, we identified a histone-like protein HU, CHU_2750, in C. hutchinsonii, whose transcription could be induced by crystalline but not amorphous cellulose. Read More

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June 2018
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EcXyl43 β-xylosidase: molecular modeling, activity on natural and artificial substrates, and synergism with endoxylanases for lignocellulose deconstruction.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 Jun 6. Epub 2018 Jun 6.

Instituto de Biotecnología, CICVyA, Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria (INTA), Dr. N. Repetto y Los Reseros s/n, Hurlingham (1686), Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Biomass hydrolysis constitutes a bottleneck for the biotransformation of lignocellulosic residues into bioethanol and high-value products. The efficient deconstruction of polysaccharides to fermentable sugars requires multiple enzymes acting concertedly. GH43 β-xylosidases are among the most interesting enzymes involved in hemicellulose deconstruction into xylose. Read More

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June 2018
2 Reads

The discovery and development of microbial bleomycin analogues.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 Jun 6. Epub 2018 Jun 6.

Xiangya International Academy of Translational Medicine, Central South University, Tongzipo Road, #172, Yuelu District, Changsha, 410013, Hunan, China.

The bleomycins (BLMs) belong to a subfamily of glycopeptide antibiotics and are clinically applied in combination chemotherapy regimens to treat various malignancies. But the therapeutic applications of BLMs are restricted by the accompanied dose-dependent lung toxicity and potential incidence of lung fibrosis. Many efforts have been devoted to develop novel BLM analogues, for seeking of drug leads with improved antitumor activity and/or reduced lung toxicity. Read More

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June 2018
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The impacts of Lachancea thermotolerans yeast strains on winemaking.

Authors:
Santiago Benito

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 Jun 6. Epub 2018 Jun 6.

Department of Chemistry and Food Technology, Polytechnic University of Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria S/N, 28040, Madrid, Spain.

At one time, Saccharomyces spp. yeasts were the only option for use in winemaking due to their unique abilities to metabolize all grape juice sugars to ethanol. However, during the previous decade, several commercial non-Saccharomyces yeast products appeared in the biotechnology market. Read More

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June 2018
2 Reads

Comprehensive optimization of the metabolomic methodology for metabolite profiling of Corynebacterium glutamicum.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 Jun 6. Epub 2018 Jun 6.

Tianjin Institute of Industrial Biotechnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Tianjin, 300308, China.

Metabolomics has been a potential tool for strain improvement through analyzing metabolite changes in the context of different conditions. However, the availability of a universal metabolite profiling analysis is still a big challenge. In this study, we presented an optimized liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry-based metabolomics methodology for Corynebacterium glutamicum, an important industrial workhorse. Read More

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June 2018
5 Reads

Transposon-based identification of a negative regulator for the antibiotic hyper-production in Streptomyces.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 Jun 6. Epub 2018 Jun 6.

Institute of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058, China.

Production of secondary metabolites in Streptomyces is regulated by a complex regulatory network precisely, elaborately, and hierarchically. One of the main reasons for the low yields of some high-value secondary metabolites is the repressed expression of their biosynthetic gene clusters, supposedly by some gene cluster out-situated negative regulators. Identification of these repressors and removal of the inhibitory effects based on the regulatory mechanisms will be an effective way to improve their yields. Read More

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June 2018
2 Reads

Characterization of an atypical, thermostable, organic solvent- and acid-tolerant 2'-deoxyribosyltransferase from Chroococcidiopsis thermalis.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 Jun 5. Epub 2018 Jun 5.

Applied Biotechnology Group, Universidad Europea de Madrid, Urbanización El Bosque, c/ Tajo, s/n, Villaviciosa de Odón, 28670, Madrid, Spain.

In our search for thermophilic and acid-tolerant nucleoside 2'-deoxyribosyltransferases (NDTs), we found a good candidate in an enzyme encoded by Chroococcidiopsis thermalis PCC 7203 (CtNDT). Biophysical and biochemical characterization revealed CtNDT as a homotetramer endowed with good activity and stability at both high temperatures (50-100 °C) and a wide range of pH values (from 3 to 7). CtNDT recognizes purine bases and their corresponding 2'-deoxynucleosides but is also proficient using cytosine and 2'-deoxycytidine as substrates. Read More

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June 2018
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Biotechnological applications of occlusion bodies of Baculoviruses.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 Jun 5. Epub 2018 Jun 5.

Instituto de Biotecnología, Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria (INTA), Hurlingham, Argentina.

The ability of Baculoviruses to hyper-express very late genes as polyhedrin, the major component of occlusion bodies (OBs) or polyhedra, has allowed the evolution of a system of great utility for biotechnology. The main function of polyhedra in nature is to protect Baculovirus in the environment. The possibility of incorporating foreign proteins into the crystal by fusing them to polyhedrin (POLH) opened novel potential biotechnological uses. Read More

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June 2018
1 Read

Decay of sewage-associated bacterial communities in fresh and marine environmental waters and sediment.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 Jun 5. Epub 2018 Jun 5.

CSIRO Land and Water, Lucas Heights, NSW, 2234, Australia.

Understanding the microbial quality of recreational waters is critical to effectively managing human health risks. In recent years, the development of new molecular methods has provided scientists with alternatives to the use of culture-based fecal indicator methods for investigating sewage contamination in recreational waters. Before these methods can be formalized into guidelines, however, we must investigate their utility, including strengths and weaknesses in different environmental media. Read More

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June 2018
1 Read

Hematite and multi-walled carbon nanotubes stimulate a faster syntrophic pathway during methanogenic beet sugar industrial wastewater degradation.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 Jun 4. Epub 2018 Jun 4.

State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, No. 73, Huanghe Road, Nangang District, Harbin, 150090, China.

The quest to understand and subsequently improve the role played by bacteria and archaea in the degradation of organic matter both in natural and engineered anaerobic ecosystems has intensified the utilization of nanoparticles. Microbial communities are known to syntrophically cooperate during the anaerobic conversion of substrates into methane gas via the direct exchange of electrons. In this study, the role of hematite (FeO-750 mg/L) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs-1500 mg/L) during the degradation of beet sugar industrial wastewater (BSIW) in a batch experiment was investigated. Read More

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June 2018
2 Reads

Biocatalytic hydrogenation of the C=C bond in the enone unit of hydroxylated chalcones-process arising from cyanobacterial adaptations.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 Jun 4. Epub 2018 Jun 4.

Department of Analytical and Ecological Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Opole, Oleska 48, 45-052, Opole, Poland.

To verify the hypothesis that cyanobacteria naturally biosynthesising polyphenolic compounds possess an active enzymatic system that enables them to transform these substances, such an ability of the biocatalytic systems of whole cells of these biota was assessed for the first time. One halophilic strain and seven freshwater strains of cyanobacteria representing four of the five taxonomic orders of Cyanophyta were examined to determine the following: (i) whether they contain polyphenols, including flavonoids; (ii) the resistance of their cultures when suppressed by the presence of exogenous hydroxychalcones-precursors of flavonoid biosynthesis and (iii) whether these photoautotrophs can transform hydroxylated chalcones. All examined strains were found to contain polyphenols and flavonoids, and the growth of their cultures was inhibited in the presence of 2'-hydroxychalcone, 2″-hydroxychalcone and 4″-hydroxychalcone. Read More

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June 2018
2 Reads

Back to the past: "find the guilty bug-microorganisms involved in the biodeterioration of archeological and historical artifacts".

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 Jun 4. Epub 2018 Jun 4.

Dipartimento di Scienze della Vita e Biologia dei Sistemi, Università di Torino, Via Accademia Albertina 13, 10123, Torino, Italy.

Microbial deterioration accounts for a significant percentage of the degradation processes that occur on archeological/historical objects and artworks, and identifying the causative agents of such a phenomenon should therefore be a priority, in consideration of the need to conserve these important cultural heritage items. Diverse microbiological approaches, such as microscopic evaluations, cultural methods, metabolic- and DNA-based techniques, as well as a combination of the aforementioned methods, have been employed to characterize the bacterial, archaeal, and fungal communities that colonize art objects. The purpose of the present review article is to report the interactions occurring between the microorganisms and nutrients that are present in stones, bones, wood, paper, films, paintings, and modern art specimens (namely, collagen, cellulose, gelatin, albumin, lipids, and hydrocarbons). Read More

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June 2018
2 Reads

Diverse roles of Hcp family proteins in the environmental fitness and pathogenicity of Aeromonas hydrophila Chinese epidemic strain NJ-35.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 Jun 3. Epub 2018 Jun 3.

Joint International Research Laboratory of Animal Health and Food Safety, College of Veterinary Medicine, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, China.

The type VI secretion system (T6SS) has been considered as a crucial factor in bacterial competition and virulence. The hemolysin co-regulated protein (Hcp) is the hallmark of T6SS. The secretion of Hcp in Aeromonas hydrophila Chinese epidemic strain NJ-35 indicated a functional T6SS. Read More

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June 2018
3 Reads

Diet simplification selects for high gut microbial diversity and strong fermenting ability in high-altitude pikas.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 Jun 3. Epub 2018 Jun 3.

Key Laboratory of Environmental and Applied Microbiology, CAS; Environmental Microbiology Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu, 610041, Sichuan, People's Republic of China.

The gut microbiota in mammals plays a key role in host metabolism and adaptation. However, relatively little is known regarding to how the animals adapts to extreme environments through regulating gut microbial diversity and function. Here, we investigated the diet, gut microbiota, short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) profiles, and cellulolytic activity from two common pika (Ochotona spp. Read More

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June 2018
2 Reads

Sludge flotation, its causes and control in granular sludge upflow reactors.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 Jun 3. Epub 2018 Jun 3.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Chinese National Engineering Research Center for Control and Treatment of Heavy Metal Pollution, and Water Technology Center, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong, China.

Sludge flotation is a commonly reported and long-standing issue hindering not only the widespread implementation of upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB)-type bioreactors in wastewater treatment but also the development of novel anaerobic/anoxic treatment processes such as anammox, partial denitrification, and biological sulfate reduction. This review attempts to address the instability of UASB-type bioreactors due to sludge flotation. Possible causes of sludge flotation are classified into intrinsic and extrinsic ones. Read More

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June 2018
1 Read

Phage display-derived antibody fragments against conserved regions of VacA toxin of Helicobacter pylori.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 Jun 3. Epub 2018 Jun 3.

Research Center for Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology, Biomedicine Institute, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Infection with Helicobacter pylori may result in the emergence of gastric adenocarcinoma. Among various toxins assisting pathogenesis of H. pylori, the vacuolating cytotoxin A (VacA) is one of the most potent toxins known as the major cause of the peptic ulcer and gastric adenocarcinoma. Read More

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June 2018
2 Reads

The link between the microbial ecology, gene expression, and biokinetics of denitrifying polyphosphate-accumulating systems under different electron acceptor combinations.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 Jun 2. Epub 2018 Jun 2.

UCIBIO-REQUIMTE, Departamento de Química, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal.

The emission of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (NO) can occur during biological nutrient removal. Denitrifying enhanced biological phosphorus removal (d-EBPR) systems are an efficient means of removing phosphate and nitrogen, performed by denitrifying polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (d-PAOs). The aim of this work was to study the effect of various combinations of electron acceptors, nitrate (NO), nitrite (NO), and NO, on the denitrification pathway of a d-EBPR system. Read More

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June 2018
1 Read

13-Docosenamide release by bacteria in response to glucose during growth-fluorescein quenching and clinical application.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 Jun 2. Epub 2018 Jun 2.

Centre for Biotechnology, Anna University, Sardar Patel Road, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, 600025, India.

Our investigations on extracellular biochemical events to find readily and sensitively detectable/measurable molecular targets for developing easier, simpler, and quicker diagnostic methods and tools for bacterial pathogens led to the observation that bacteria grown in the presence of glucose produced a compound capable of quenching fluorescein. Under the experimental conditions, among various sugars, glucose was found to induce maximum amount of the quencher when Escherichia coli was grown in presence of 50 mM glucose in rarified LB. The release of quencher closely following bacterial growth significantly from fourth hour after moderate inoculation. Read More

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June 2018
1 Read

A novel technique for aflatoxin M1 detoxification using chitin or treated shrimp shells: in vitro effect of physical and kinetic parameters on the binding stability.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 Jun 2. Epub 2018 Jun 2.

Laboratory of Microbiology, Department of Life and Earth Sciences, Faculty of Sciences I, Lebanese University, Hadat Campus, Beirut, Lebanon.

This study aimed to investigate the ability of chitin and heat-treated shrimp shells to bind aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in liquid matrix. Several concentrations of chitin or shrimp shells (grinded and ungrinded) were incubated in AFM1-contaminated phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) at different incubation times. The stability of the formed adsorbent-AFM1 complex was also tested in milk at different incubation times and temperatures. Read More

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June 2018
1 Read

Synthesis and production of the antitumor polyketide aurovertins and structurally related compounds.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 Jun 2. Epub 2018 Jun 2.

State Key Laboratory of Mycology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100101, China.

Aurovertins belong to a family of highly reducing polyketides sharing a polyene α-pyrone-type structure. These compounds comprise aurovertin, asteltoxin, avertoxin, citreoviridin, verrucosidin, and their derivatives, which exihibit potent antitumor, antiviral, and antibacterial activities. Until now, over 40 aurovertins and structurally related compounds have been found in the fungal kingdom. Read More

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June 2018
3 Reads

Inducible promoters and functional genomic approaches for the genetic engineering of filamentous fungi.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 Jun 2. Epub 2018 Jun 2.

Lehrstuhl für Allgemeine und Molekulare Botanik, Ruhr-University Bochum, Universitätsstr. 150, 44780, Bochum, Germany.

In industry, filamentous fungi have a prominent position as producers of economically relevant primary or secondary metabolites. Particularly, the advent of genetic engineering of filamentous fungi has led to a growing number of molecular tools to adopt filamentous fungi for biotechnical applications. Here, we summarize recent developments in fungal biology, where fungal host systems were genetically manipulated for optimal industrial applications. Read More

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June 2018
2 Reads

Nerol-induced apoptosis associated with the generation of ROS and Ca overload in saprotrophic fungus Aspergillus flavus.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 Jun 2. Epub 2018 Jun 2.

College of Life Science, Jiangsu Normal University, Xuzhou, 221116, Jiangsu Province, People's Republic of China.

The contamination of food with Aspergillus flavus and subsequent aflatoxins is one of the most serious safety problems in the world. In this study of nerol (NEL)'s antifungal mechanism of action, we observed morphological and physiological changes in Aspergillus flavus. We found that NEL resulted in elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and calcium ions (Ca). Read More

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June 2018
3 Reads

Process optimization for the rapid production of adenoviral vectors for clinical trials in a disposable bioreactor system.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 Jun 2. Epub 2018 Jun 2.

State Key Laboratory for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Disease, Collaborative Innovative Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, 310003, China.

Recombinant adenoviral (Ad) vectors are highly efficient gene transfer vectors widely used in vaccine development and immunotherapy. To promote the industrial application of Ad vectors, studies focusing on reducing the cost of manufacturing, shortening the preclinical research period, and improving the quality of products are needed. Here, we describe a highly efficient and economical process for producing Ad vector in a novel, single-use bioreactor system suitable for clinical trials. Read More

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June 2018
1 Read

Extracellular DNA in natural environments: features, relevance and applications.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 Jun 1. Epub 2018 Jun 1.

Universität Innsbruck, Institute of Microbiology, Technikerstr. 25d, 6020, Innsbruck, Austria.

Extracellular DNA (exDNA) is abundant in many habitats, including soil, sediments, oceans and freshwater as well as the intercellular milieu of metazoa. For a long time, its origin has been assumed to be mainly lysed cells. Nowadays, research is collecting evidence that exDNA is often secreted actively and is used to perform a number of tasks, thereby offering an attractive target or tool for biotechnological, medical, environmental and general microbiological applications. Read More

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June 2018
1 Read

Acyl-coenzyme A:(holo-acyl carrier protein) transacylase enzymes as templates for engineering.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 Jun 1. Epub 2018 Jun 1.

Roy J. Carver Department of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Molecular Biology, Iowa State University, 2437 Pammel Drive, Molecular Biology Building, rm 4210, Ames, IA, 50011, USA.

This review will cover the structure, enzymology, and related aspects that are important for structure-based engineering of the transacylase enzymes from fatty acid biosynthesis and polyketide synthesis. Furthermore, this review will focus on in vitro characteristics and not cover engineering of the upstream or downstream reactions or strategies to manipulate metabolic flux in vivo. The malonyl-coenzyme A(CoA)-holo-acyl-carrier protein (holo-ACP) transacylase (FabD) from Escherichia coli serves as a model for this enzyme with thorough descriptions of structure, enzyme mechanism, and effects of mutation on substrate binding presented in the literature. Read More

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June 2018
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Comparative transcription profiling of two fermentation cultures of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris B100 sampled in the growth and in the stationary phase.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 Jun 1. Epub 2018 Jun 1.

Center for Biotechnology (CeBiTec), Bielefeld University, Universitätsstr. 27, 33615, Bielefeld, Germany.

The ɣ-proteobacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc) is the producer of the biopolymer xanthan, a polysaccharide which is used as a thickener in numerous industrial applications. In this study, we present a global transcriptome profiling of two Xcc strain B100 cultures obtained from fermentation during the growth phase and the subsequent stationary phase associated with xanthan biosynthesis. Read More

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June 2018
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Microbial production of toxins from the scorpion venom: properties and applications.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 Jun 1. Epub 2018 Jun 1.

Department of Physics and Chemistry, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Av. Do Café, s/n, Ribeirão Preto, SP, 14040-903, Brazil.

Scorpion venom are composed mainly of bioactive proteins and peptides that may serve as lead compounds for the design of biotechnological tools and therapeutic drugs. However, exploring the therapeutic potential of scorpion venom components is mainly impaired by the low yield of purified toxins from milked venom. Therefore, production of toxin-derived peptides and proteins by heterologous expression is the strategy of choice for research groups and pharmaceutical industry to overcome this limitation. Read More

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June 2018
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Cold plasma treatment triggers antioxidative defense system and induces changes in hyphal surface and subcellular structures of Aspergillus flavus.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 Jun 1. Epub 2018 Jun 1.

Department of Experimental Physics, Faculty of Mathematics, Physics, and Informatics, Comenius University, Bratislava, Slovakia.

The cold atmospheric-pressure plasma (CAPP) has become one of the recent effective decontamination technologies, but CAPP interactions with biological material remain the subject of many studies. The CAPP generates numerous types of particles and radiations that synergistically affect cells and tissues differently depending on their structure. In this study, we investigated the effect of CAPP generated by diffuse coplanar surface barrier discharge on hyphae of Aspergillus flavus. Read More

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June 2018
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Role of anaerobic bacteria in biological soil disinfestation for elimination of soil-borne plant pathogens in agriculture.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 Jun 1. Epub 2018 Jun 1.

Faculty of Agriculture, Yamagata University, 1-23, Wakaba-machi, Tsuruoka, Yamagata, 997-8555, Japan.

Biological soil disinfestation (BSD) or reductive soil disinfestation (RSD) is an environmental biotechnology to eliminate soil-borne plant pathogens based on functions of indigenous microbes. BSD treatments using different types of organic materials have been reported to effectively control a wide range of plant pathogens. Various studies have shown that development of reducing or anoxic conditions in soil is the most important aspect for effective BSD treatments. Read More

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June 2018
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Abundance and diversity of anammox bacteria in a mainstream municipal wastewater treatment plant.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 Jun 1. Epub 2018 Jun 1.

The Galilee Society Institute of Applied Research, 20200, Shefa-Amr, Israel.

Among the factors that obstruct the application of anammox-based technology for nitrogen removal from mainstream municipal wastewater is the water's high organic loads. We hypothesized that some anammox species can adapt and grow in mainstream wastewater in which a minimal temperature of 13-15 °C is maintained. Using the AMX368F and AMX820R PCR-primers, anammox bacteria were detected in influent wastewater (COD/N ratio > 13) and in the anaerobic, anoxic, and aerobic chambers of a full-scale municipal wastewater treatment plant, reaching 10 copies/g VSS of the16S rRNA gene. Read More

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June 2018
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A combinatorial approach for robust transgene delivery and targeted expression in mammary gland for generating biotherapeutics in milk, bypassing germline gene integration.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 Jul 1;102(14):6221-6234. Epub 2018 Jun 1.

Embryo Biotechnology Laboratory, National Institute of Immunology, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi, 110067, India.

Protein expression in the milk of transgenic farmed animals offers a cost-effective system for producing therapeutics. However, transgenesis in farmed animals is not only cumbersome but also involves risk of potential hazard by germline gene integration, due to interruptions caused by the transgene in the native genome. Avoiding germline gene integration, we have delivered buffalo β-casein promoter-driven transgene construct entrapped in virosomes directly in the milk gland through intraductal perfusion delivery. Read More

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July 2018
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Characterization of the caprolactam degradation pathway in Pseudomonas jessenii using mass spectrometry-based proteomics.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 May 31. Epub 2018 May 31.

Biochemical Laboratory, Groningen Biomolecular Sciences and Biotechnology Institute, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Some bacterial cultures are capable of growth on caprolactam as sole carbon and nitrogen source, but the enzymes of the catabolic pathway have not been described. We isolated a caprolactam-degrading strain of Pseudomonas jessenii from soil and identified proteins and genes putatively involved in caprolactam metabolism using quantitative mass spectrometry-based proteomics. This led to the discovery of a caprolactamase and an aminotransferase that are involved in the initial steps of caprolactam conversion. Read More

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May 2018
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