Search our Database of Scientific Publications and Authors

I’m looking for a

    31992 results match your criteria Applied and Environmental Microbiology[Journal]

    1 OF 640

    High microbial diversity promotes soil ecosystem functioning.
    Appl Environ Microbiol 2018 Feb 16. Epub 2018 Feb 16.
    UMR 1347 Agroécologie, AgroSup Dijon, INRA, Univ. Bourgogne Franche-Comté, Dijon, France.
    In soil, the link between microbial diversity and carbon transformations is challenged by the concept of functional redundancy. Here, we hypothesized that functional redundancy may decrease with increasing carbon source recalcitrance, and that coupling of diversity with C-cycling may change accordingly. We manipulated microbial diversity to examine how diversity decrease affects the decomposition of easily degradable (allochthonous plant residues)recalcitrant (autochthonous organic matter) C-sources. Read More

    Plant-microbe and abiotic factors influencingsurvival and growth on alfalfa sprouts and Swiss chard microgreens.
    Appl Environ Microbiol 2018 Feb 16. Epub 2018 Feb 16.
    Division of Microbiology, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, College Park, MD 20740
    Microgreens, like sprouts, are relatively fast growing, and generally consumed raw. Moreover, as observed in sprouts, microbial contamination from preharvest sources could also be present in the production of microgreens. In this study, twoserovars (Hartford and Cubana) applied, at multiple inoculation levels, were evaluated for survival and growth on alfalfa sprouts and Swiss chard microgreens using the most probable number (MPN) method. Read More

    The gills of reef fish support a distinct microbiome influenced by host-specific factors.
    Appl Environ Microbiol 2018 Feb 16. Epub 2018 Feb 16.
    School of Biological Sciences, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, USA.
    Teleost fish represent the most diverse of the vertebrate groups and play important roles in food webs, as ecosystem engineers, and as vectors for microorganisms. However, the microbial ecology of fishes remains underexplored for most host taxa, and for certain niches on the fish body. This is particularly true for the gills, the key sites for respiration and waste exchange in fishes. Read More

    Integrated Metabolomics and Morphogenesis Reveals Volatile Signaling of the Nematode-Trapping Fungus.
    Appl Environ Microbiol 2018 Feb 16. Epub 2018 Feb 16.
    State Key Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Bio-Resources & Key Laboratory for Microbial Resources of the Ministry of Education, School of life Sciences, Yunnan University, Kunming, 650091, People's Republic of China
    The adjustment of metabolic patterns is fundamental to fungal biology and plays vital roles in adaption to diverse ecological challenges. Nematode trapping fungi can switch lifestyles from saprophytic to pathogenic by developing specific trapping devices induced by nematodes to infect their prey as a response to nutrient depletion in nature. However, the chemical identity of the specific fungal metabolites used during the switch remains poorly understood. Read More

    Bacterial Community Shift and Coexisting/Coexcluding Patterns Revealed by Network Analysis in A Bioreduced Uranium Contaminated Site after Reoxidation.
    Appl Environ Microbiol 2018 Feb 16. Epub 2018 Feb 16.
    Department of Civil Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
    A site in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA, has sediments that contain >3% iron oxides and is contaminated with uranium (U). The U(VI) was bioreduced to U(IV) and immobilizedthrough intermittent injections of ethanol. Then it was allowed to reoxidize via the invasion of low-pH (3. Read More

    Enzyme activities of two recombinant heme-including peroxidasesDyP1 andVP2 identified from the secretome of.
    Appl Environ Microbiol 2018 Feb 16. Epub 2018 Feb 16.
    INRA, Aix-Marseille Université, UMR1163, Biodiversité et Biotechnologie Fongiques, Marseille, France.
    is a wood inhabiting Agaricomycete known for its ability to cause strong white rot decay on hardwood and for its high tolerance toward phenolic compounds. The goal of the present work was to give insights on the molecular biology and biochemistry of heme-including class-II and dye-decolorizing peroxidases secreted from this fungus. Proteomic analysis of the secretome ofBRFM1218 grown on oak wood revealed a set of 200 secreted proteins among which were a dye-decolorizing peroxidaseDyP1 and a versatile peroxidaseVP2. Read More

    Insights into the fundamental physiology of the uncultured Fe-oxidizing bacterium.
    Appl Environ Microbiol 2018 Feb 16. Epub 2018 Feb 16.
    Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences, East Boothbay, Maine, 04544 USA.
    is known for producing large volumes of iron-oxyhydroxide sheaths that alter wetland biogeochemistry. For over a century, these delicate structures have fascinated microbiologists and geoscientists. Becausestill resists long-termculture, the debate regarding its metabolic classification dates back to 1885. Read More

    Molecular and functional study of a branching sucrase-like glucansucrase reveals an evolutionary intermediate between two subfamilies of the GH70 enzymes.
    Appl Environ Microbiol 2018 Feb 16. Epub 2018 Feb 16.
    State Key Laboratory of Dairy Biotechnology, Shanghai Engineering Research Center of Dairy Biotechnology, Dairy Research Institute, Bright Dairy & Food Co., Ltd., Shanghai 200436, China
    Family GH70 glucansucrases (GSs) catalyze the synthesis of α-glucans from sucrose, a reaction widely seen in lactic acid bacteria (LAB). These enzymes have been implicated in many aspects of the microbial life. Products of GSs have great commercial value as food supplements and medical materials, therefore these enzymes have attracted much attention from both fields of science and industry. Read More

    A new cell extraction method reveals hemolymph microbiome of three aquatic invertebrates.
    Appl Environ Microbiol 2018 Feb 16. Epub 2018 Feb 16.
    Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Marine Biotechnology, Shantou University, Shantou 515063, China
    Symbiotic microorganisms have been found in the hemolymph (blood) of many aquatic invertebrates, such as crabs, shrimps and oysters. Hemolymph is a critical site in host immune response. Currently, studies on hemolymph microorganisms are mostly performed with culture-dependent strategies using selective media (e. Read More

    Common hydraulic fracturing fluid additives alter the structure and function of anaerobic microbial communities.
    Appl Environ Microbiol 2018 Feb 16. Epub 2018 Feb 16.
    U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA 20191.
    The development of unconventional oil and gas (UOG) resources results in production of large volumes of wastewater containing a complex mixture of hydraulic fracturing chemical additives and components from the formation. Release of these wastewaters into the environment poses potential risks that are poorly understood. Microbial communities in stream sediments form the base of the food chain, and may serve as sentinels for changes in stream health. Read More

    Anthropogenic N deposition alters the composition of expressed class II fungal peroxidases.
    Appl Environ Microbiol 2018 Feb 16. Epub 2018 Feb 16.
    School for Environment and Sustainability, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI.
    Here, we present evidence that20 yrs of experimental N deposition altered the composition of lignin-decaying class II peroxidases expressed by forest floor fungi, a response which has occurred concurrently with reductions in plant-litter decomposition and a rapid accumulation of soil organic matter. This finding suggests that anthropogenic N deposition has induced changes in the biological mediation of lignin-decay, the rate limiting step in plant litter decomposition. Thus, altered composition of transcripts for a critical gene that is associated with terrestrial C-cycling may explain increased soil C storage under long-term increases in anthropogenic N deposition. Read More

    A facile Arsenazo III based assay for monitoring rare earth element depletion from cultivation media of methanotrophic and methylotrophic bacteria.
    Appl Environ Microbiol 2018 Feb 16. Epub 2018 Feb 16.
    Department of Chemistry, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Germany
    Recently, methanotrophic and methylotrophic bacteria were found to utilize rare earth elements (REE). To monitor the REE-content in culture media of these bacteria we have developed a rapid screening method using the Arsenazo III (AS III) dye for spectrophotometric REE-detection in the low μM (0.1-10 μM) range. Read More

    Structural characterization and directed evolution of a novel acetyl xylan esterase reveals thermostability determinants of the Carbohydrate Esterase 7 family.
    Appl Environ Microbiol 2018 Feb 16. Epub 2018 Feb 16.
    Centre for Microbial Ecology and Genomics, Department of Genetics, University of Pretoria, South Africa
    A hot desert hypolith metagenomic DNA sequence dataset was screenedfor genes annotated as acetyl xylan esterases (AcXEs). One of the genes identified encoded a ∼36 kDa protein (Axe1). The synthesised gene was cloned, expressed and the resulting protein, purified. Read More

    Endophyte-mediated modulation of defense-responsive genes and systemic resistance in(L.) Dunal understress.
    Appl Environ Microbiol 2018 Feb 16. Epub 2018 Feb 16.
    Division of Plant Microbe Interaction, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research-National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow, 226001 India.
    Endophytes have been explored to perform an important role in plant health. However, their effects on the host physiological function and disease management remains elusive. The present study was aimed to assess the potential of endophytes singly as well as in combination on various physiological parameters and systemic defense mechanism againstin(L. Read More

    Development of a versatile Cas9-driven subpopulation-selection toolbox in.
    Appl Environ Microbiol 2018 Feb 16. Epub 2018 Feb 16.
    NIZO B.V., Kernhemseweg 2, 6718 ZB, Ede, The Netherlands.
    CRISPR-Cas9 technology has been exploited for the removal or replacement of genetic elements in a wide range of prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Here we describe the extension of the Cas9 application toolbox to the industrially important dairy speciesThe Cas9 expression vector pLABTarget was constructed, encoding theCas9 under control of a constitutive promoter, and allowing plug and play introduction of sgRNA sequences to target specific genetic loci. Introduction of a-targeting derivative of pLABTarget intoMG1363 led to a strong reduction in the number of transformants obtained, which did not occur in adeletion derivative of the same strain, demonstrating the specificity and lethality of the Cas9 mediated double strand breaks in the lactococcal chromosome. Read More

    Assembly of synthetic functional cellulosomal structures onto thecell surface - a potent member of the gut microbiome.
    Appl Environ Microbiol 2018 Feb 16. Epub 2018 Feb 16.
    Faculty of Natural Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 8499000 Israel
    Heterologous display of enzymes on microbial cell surfaces is an extremely desirable approach, since it enables the engineered microbe to interact directly with the plant-wall extracellular polysaccharide matrix. In recent years, attempts have been made to endow non-cellulolytic microbes with genetically engineered cellulolytic capabilities for improved hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass and for advanced probiotics. Thus far, however, owing to the hurdles of secreting and assembling large, intricate complexes on the bacterial cell wall, only free cellulases or relatively simple cellulosome assemblies have been introduced into live bacteria. Read More

    Ecology and biotechnological potential of bacteria belonging to thegenus.
    Appl Environ Microbiol 2018 Feb 16. Epub 2018 Feb 16.
    Division of Microbial Ecology, Department of Microbiology and Ecosystem Science, Vienna, Austria.
    Bacteria belonging to the genushave been isolated worldwide from a great variety of marines sources as both free living and host associated. So far, the available data depict a group of Alphaproteobacteria characterized by a versatile metabolism, which allows them to use a variety of substrates to meet their carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorous requirements. Additionally,-related bacteria have been shown to proliferate under extreme oligotrophic conditions, tolerate high heavy metal concentrations, and metabolize potentially toxic compounds. Read More

    Accumulation and dissolution of magnetite crystals in a magnetically responsive ciliate.
    Appl Environ Microbiol 2018 Feb 9. Epub 2018 Feb 9.
    CNRS/CEA/Aix-Marseille Université, UMR7265 Biosciences and Biotechnologies Institute of Aix-Marseille, 13108, Saint Paul lez Durance, France
    Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) represent a group of microorganisms that are widespread in aquatic habitats and thrive at the oxic-anoxic interfaces. They are able to scavenge high concentrations of iron thanks to the biomineralization of magnetic crystals in their unique organelle, the so-called magnetosome chain. Although their biodiversity has been intensively studied in recent years, their ecology and impact on iron cycling remain largely unexplored. Read More

    Deposition of Bacteria and Bacterial Spores by Bathroom Hot Air Hand Dryers.
    Appl Environ Microbiol 2018 Feb 9. Epub 2018 Feb 9.
    Department of Molecular Biology and Biophysics, UConn Health, Farmington, CT 06030-3305
    Hot air hand dryers in multiple men's and women's bathrooms in 3 basic science research areas in an academic health center were screened for their deposition on plates of: i) total bacteria, some of which were identified; and ii) a kanamycin resistantstrain, PS533, spores of which are produced in large amounts in one basic science research laboratory. Plates exposed to hand dryer air for 30 seconds averaged 18-60 colonies/plate but interior hand dryer nozzle surfaces had minimal bacterial levels, plates exposed to bathroom air for 2 minutes with hand dryers off averaged ≤1 colony, and plates exposed to bathroom air moved by a small fan for 20 minutes had averages of 15 and 12 colonies/plate in two buildings tested. Retrofitting hand dryers with HEPA filters reduced bacterial deposition by hand dryers ∼4-fold, and potential human pathogens were recovered from plates exposed to hand dryer air whether or not a HEPA filter was present, and from bathroom air moved by a small fan. Read More

    Study of DNA translocases inby single molecule tracking reveals strikingly different dynamics of SftA, SpoIIIE and FtsA.
    Appl Environ Microbiol 2018 Feb 9. Epub 2018 Feb 9.
    SYNMIKRO, LOEWE Center for Synthetic Microbiology, and Department of Chemistry, Philipps Universität Marburg, Germany
    Like many bacteria,possesses two DNA translocases that affect chromosome segregation at different steps. Prior to septum closure, non-segregated DNA is moved into opposite cell halves by SftA, while septum-entrapped DNA is rescued by SpoIIIE. We have used single molecule microscopy (SMT) experiments to describe the dynamics of the two different DNA translocases, cell division protein FtsA, and glycolytic enzyme PfkA, in real time. Read More

    Comparison of Microbial Ribosomal RNA Synthesis and Growth through Quantitative Stable Isotope Probing with HO.
    Appl Environ Microbiol 2018 Feb 9. Epub 2018 Feb 9.
    Center for Ecosystem Science and Society, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ, USA.
    Growing bacteria have a high concentration of ribosomes to ensure sufficient protein synthesis, which is necessary for genome replication and cellular division. To elucidate whether metabolic activity of soil microorganisms is coupled with growth, we investigated the relationship between rRNA and DNA synthesis in a soil bacterial community using quantitative stable isotope probing (qSIP) with HO. Most soil bacterial taxa were metabolically active and grew, and there was no significant difference between the isotopic composition of DNA and RNA extracted from soil incubated with HO. Read More

    Phylogenetic evidence for the existence of multiple strains ofin the New World.
    Appl Environ Microbiol 2018 Feb 9. Epub 2018 Feb 9.
    Rickettsial Zoonoses Branch, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA
    The bacteriumhas been reported infecting ticks of the 'species complex' in the New World, where it causes spotted fever illness in humans. In South America, three additional rickettsial strains, namely Atlantic rainforest, NOD, and Parvitarsum have been isolated from the ticksandrespectively. These three strains are phylogenetically closely related toandHerein, we performed a robust phylogenetic analysis encompassing 5 genes () and 3 intergenic spacers (ITS) from 41 rickettsial isolates, including different isolates ofand strains Atlantic rainforest, NOD, and Parvitarsum. Read More

    Display of Recombinant Proteins on Bacterial Outer Membrane Vesicles Using Protein Ligation.
    Appl Environ Microbiol 2018 Feb 9. Epub 2018 Feb 9.
    Abera Bioscience AB, Stockholm, Sweden
    Thevirulence factor Hemoglobin protease (Hbp) has been engineered into a surface display system that can be expressed to high density on liveandTyphimurium bacteria or derived Outer Membrane Vesicles (OMVs). Multiple antigenic sequences can be genetically fused into the Hbp core structure for optimal exposure to the immune system. Although the Hbp display platform is relatively tolerant, increasing the number, size and complexity of integrated sequences generally lowers the expression of the fused constructs and limits the density of display. Read More

    Exponentially increased thermal resistance ofandat reduced water activity.
    Appl Environ Microbiol 2018 Feb 9. Epub 2018 Feb 9.
    School of Food Science, Washington State University, Pullman, WA, USA.
    exhibited prolonged survivability and high tolerance to heat in low-moisture foods. Reported thermal resistance parameters ofspp. in low-moisture foods is unpredictable due to various factors. Read More

    The stress-response protein BolA influences fitness and promotesTyphimurium virulence.
    Appl Environ Microbiol 2018 Feb 9. Epub 2018 Feb 9.
    ITQB-Instituto de Tecnologia Química e Biológica António Xavier, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2780-157 Oeiras, Portugal
    The intracellular pathogenTyphimurium has emerged as a major cause of foodborne illness, representing a severe clinical and economical concern worldwide. The capacity of this pathogen to efficiently infect and survive inside the host depends on its ability to synchronize a complex network of virulence mechanisms. Therefore, the identification of new virulence determinants has become determinant in the search of new targets for drug development. Read More

    Variable membrane protein A of flavescence dorée phytoplasma binds the midgut perimicrovillar membrane ofand promotes adhesion to its epithelial cells.
    Appl Environ Microbiol 2018 Feb 9. Epub 2018 Feb 9.
    INRA, Univ. Bordeaux, UMR 1332 de Biologie du Fruit et Pathologie, CS20032, 33882, Villenave d'Ornon Cedex, France.
    Phytoplasmas are uncultivated plant pathogens and cell wall-less bacteria and are transmitted from plant to plant by hemipteran insects. Phytoplasmas' circulative propagative cycle in insects requires the crossing of the midgut and salivary glands, and primary adhesion to cells is an initial step towards the invasion process. The flavescence dorée phytoplasma possesses a set of variable membrane proteins (Vmps) exposed to its surface, and this pathogen is suspected to interact with insect cells. Read More

    Comparative genomics showsmigration and expansion has preceded the rise of Buruli ulcer in south-eastern Australia.
    Appl Environ Microbiol 2018 Feb 9. Epub 2018 Feb 9.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
    Since 2012, cases of the neglected tropical disease Buruli ulcer, caused by infection withhave increased 100-fold since 2000 around Melbourne, (population 4.4 million) the capital of Victoria in temperate south-eastern Australia. The reasons for this increase are unclear. Read More

    Profiles of enzyme activities, production of oxalic acid, and Fe-reducing metabolites secreted by the Polyporales brown-rot species.
    Appl Environ Microbiol 2018 Feb 9. Epub 2018 Feb 9.
    Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
    Basidiomycota fungi in the order Polyporales are specified to decomposition of dead wood and woody debris, and thereby, are crucial players in degradation of organic matter and cycling of carbon in the forest ecosystems. Polyporales wood-decaying species comprise of both white-rot and brown-rot fungi, based on their mode of wood decay. While the white-rot fungi are able to attack and decompose all the lignocellulose biopolymers, the brown-rot species mainly cause destruction of wood polysaccharides with minor modification of the lignin units. Read More

    PccD regulates branched-chain amino acid degradation, and exerts a negative effect on erythromycin production in.
    Appl Environ Microbiol 2018 Feb 9. Epub 2018 Feb 9.
    Lab of Biosystems and Microanalysis, State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237, China
    Branched chain amino acid (BCAA) degradation is a major source of propionyl-CoA, a key precursor of erythromycin biosynthesis inIn this study, we found thatoperon, responsible for BCAA degradation, was regulated directly by PccD, a transcriptional regulator of propionyl-CoA carboxylase genes. The transcriptional level ofoperon was upregulated 5-fold in pccD gene deletion strain (ΔpccD) and decreased 3-fold in pccD overexpression strain (WT/pIB-pccD), demonstrating that PccD was a negative transcriptional regulator of the operon. The deletion ofsignificantly improved ΔpccD growth rate, whereasoverexpression repressed WT/pIB-growth rate, in basic Evans medium with 30 mM valine as the sole carbon and nitrogen source. Read More

    A novel dual-motif enables two-way autoregulation of CcpA in.
    Appl Environ Microbiol 2018 Feb 2. Epub 2018 Feb 2.
    Key Laboratory of Synthetic Biology, CAS Center for Excellence in Molecular Plant Sciences, Shanghai Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200032, China
    The master regulator CcpA (catabolite control protein A) manages a large and complex regulatory network that is essential for cellular physiology and metabolism in gram-positive bacteria. Although CcpA can affect the expression of target genes by binding to a-acting catabolite responsive element (), whether and how the expression of CcpA is regulated remains poorly explored. Here, we report a novel dual-motif that is employed by the CcpA in, a typical solventogenicspecies, for autoregulation. Read More

    New insights into the function and global distribution of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) degrading bacteria and enzymes in marine and terrestrial metagenomes.
    Appl Environ Microbiol 2018 Feb 2. Epub 2018 Feb 2.
    Department of Microbiology and Biotechnology, Biocenter Klein Flottbek, University of Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany
    Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is one of the most important synthetic polymers used nowadays. Unfortunately, the polymers accumulate in nature and until now, no highly active enzymes are known that can degrade it at high velocity. Enzymes involved in PET degradation are mainly α/β-hydrolases like cutinases and related enzymes (E. Read More

    Multiple environmental factors influence the importance of the phosphodiesterase DipA uponswarming.
    Appl Environ Microbiol 2018 Feb 2. Epub 2018 Feb 2.
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Earth Sciences, University of Notre Dame.
    exhibits flagellar-mediated swimming in liquid and swarming on hydrated surfaces under diverse nutrient conditions. Prior studies have implicated a phosphodiesterase, DipA, in regulating these flagella-mediated motilities, but collectively, the necessity for DipA was unclear. In this study, we find that the media composition conditionally constrains the influence of DipA on flagellar motility. Read More

    The madness of microbiome: Attempting to find consensus "best practice" for 16S microbiome studies.
    Appl Environ Microbiol 2018 Feb 2. Epub 2018 Feb 2.
    The Roslin Institute and Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom.
    The development and continuous improvement of high-throughput sequencing platforms has stimulated interest in the study of complex microbial communities. Currently, the most popular sequencing approach to study microbial community composition and dynamics is targeted 16S rRNA gene metabarcoding. To prepare samples for sequencing, there are a variety of processing steps, each with the potential to introduce bias at the data analysis stage. Read More

    Mycotoxin biosynthesis and central metabolism are two interlinked pathways in, as demonstrated by the extensive metabolic changes induced by caffeic acid exposure.
    Appl Environ Microbiol 2018 Feb 2. Epub 2018 Feb 2.
    INRA, UR1264 MycSA, 71 Avenue Edouard Bourlaux, 33140 Villenave d'Ornon cedex, France.
    is a major plant pathogen that causes devastating diseases of cereals and produces type B trichothecene mycotoxins (TCTB) in infected grains. A comprehensive understanding of the molecular and biochemical mechanisms underlying the regulation of TCTB biosynthesis is required for improving strategies to control the TCTB contamination of crops and ensuring that these strategies do not favor the production of other toxic metabolites byElucidation of the association of TCTB biosynthesis with other central and specialized processes was the focus of this study. CombinedH-NMR and LC-QTOF-MS analyses were used to compare the exo- and endo- metabolomes ofgrown in toxin-inducing and repressing caffeic acid-conditions. Read More

    Effect of laser irradiation on cell function and its implications in Raman spectroscopy.
    Appl Environ Microbiol 2018 Feb 2. Epub 2018 Feb 2.
    School of Engineering, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, UK
    Lasers are instrumental in advanced bioimaging and Raman spectroscopy. However, they are also well known for their destructive effects on living organisms, leading to concerns about the adverse effects of laser technologies. To implement Raman spectroscopy for cell analysis and manipulation, such as Raman activated cell sorting, it is crucial to identify non-destructive conditions for living cells. Read More

    Geographic and host-associated variations in bacterial communities on the floret surfaces of field-grown broccoli.
    Appl Environ Microbiol 2018 Feb 2. Epub 2018 Feb 2.
    Department of Food Bioengineering, Jeju National University, 102 Jejudaehak-ro, Jeju 63243, Republic of Korea
    Fresh vegetables harbor diverse bacterial populations on their surfaces. However, information on this microbiota is limited to a few types of fresh vegetables, and little is known about how it varies with geography and host condition. Here, we analyzed bacterial communities on the floret surfaces of 66 field-grown broccolis collected from 22 farms in four farming regions of Jeju Island using 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA amplicons, and determined their relationship to farming region and host-associated factors. Read More

    Dissociation between iron and heme biosynthesis is largely accountable for respiration defects ofmutants.
    Appl Environ Microbiol 2018 Feb 2. Epub 2018 Feb 2.
    Institute of Microbiology and College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, 310058, China
    Iron, a major protein cofactor, is essential for most organisms but can be toxic simultaneously. Iron homeostasis thus has to be effectively maintained under a range of iron regimes. This may be particularly true with, a representative of dissimilatory metal-reducing bacteria (DMRB) capable of respiring a variety of chemicals as electron acceptors (EAs), including iron ores. Read More

    ResDE two-component regulatory system mediates oxygen limitation-induced biofilm formation inSQR9.
    Appl Environ Microbiol 2018 Feb 2. Epub 2018 Feb 2.
    Jiangsu Provincial Key Lab for Organic Solid Waste Utilization, National Engineering Research Center for Organic-based Fertilizers, Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center for Solid Organic Waste Resource Utilization, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, 210095, P.R. China
    Efficient biofilm formation and root colonization capabilities facilitate the ability of beneficial plant rhizobacteria to promote plant growth and antagonize soil-borne pathogens. Biofilm formation by plant-beneficialstrains is triggered by environmental cues, including oxygen deficiency, but the pathways that sense these environmental signals and regulate biofilm formation have not been thoroughly elucidated. In this study, we showed that the ResDE two-component regulatory system in the plant growth-promoting rhizobacteriumSQR9 senses the oxygen deficiency signal and regulates biofilm formation. Read More

    The effect of environmental and management associated factors on prevalence and diversity ofin clinically healthy pig herds of China and UK.
    Appl Environ Microbiol 2018 Feb 2. Epub 2018 Feb 2.
    State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology and Key Laboratory of Veterinary Diagnosis (Ministry of Agriculture), College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China
    (), a global zoonosis of pigs, shows regional differences in prevalence of human associated disease for Asian and non-Asian countries. The isolation rate and diversity ofon tonsils of healthy slaughter pigs in China and the UK were studied for effects of geography, temperature, pig age and farm type. Isolates underwent analysis of molecular serotype, multilocus sequence type, and virulence-associated genotyping. Read More

    Relative abundance ofandinco-culture biofilms impacts biofilm structure and formation.
    Appl Environ Microbiol 2018 Feb 2. Epub 2018 Feb 2.
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, USA
    is a member of the normal human microbiota and often resides on mucosal surfaces such as the oral cavity or the gastrointestinal tract. In addition to their commensality,species can opportunistically become pathogenic if the host microbiota is disrupted or if the host immune system becomes compromised. An important factor forpathogenesis is its ability to form biofilm communities. Read More

    Nitrogen Cycle Evaluation (NiCE) Chip for the Simultaneous Analysis of Multiple N-Cycle Associated Genes.
    Appl Environ Microbiol 2018 Feb 2. Epub 2018 Feb 2.
    Department of Soil, Water, and Climate; BioTechnology Institute, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN
    Various microorganisms play key roles in the Nitrogen (N) cycle. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) and PCR-amplicon sequencing of the N cycle functional genes allow us to analyze the abundance and diversity of microbes responsible in the N transforming reactions in various environmental samples. However, analysis of multiple target genes can be cumbersome and expensive. Read More

    Targeting Bacteria and Methanogens to Understand the Role of Residual Slurry as an Inoculant in Stored Liquid Dairy Manure.
    Appl Environ Microbiol 2018 Jan 26. Epub 2018 Jan 26.
    School of Environmental Sciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, N1G 2W1, ON, Canada
    Microbial communities in residual slurry left after removal of stored liquid dairy manure have been presumed to increase methane emission during new storage, but these microbes have not been studied. While actual manure storage tanks are filled gradually, pilot- and farm-scale studies on methane emissions from such systems often use a batch approach. In this study, six pilot-scale outdoor storage tanks with (10% and 20%) and without residual slurry were filled (gradually- or in batch) with fresh dairy manure, and methane and methanogenic and bacterial communities were studied during 120 days of storage. Read More

    Genome analysis ofSP5, a planctomycete with confirmed chitinolytic capability.
    Appl Environ Microbiol 2018 Jan 26. Epub 2018 Jan 26.
    Winogradsky Institute of Microbiology, Research Center of Biotechnology of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 119071, Russia.
    Members of the bacterial orderhave often been observed in associations with Crustacea. The ability to degrade chitin, however, has never been reported for any of the cultured planctomycetes, although utilization of N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) as sole carbon and nitrogen source is well-recognized for these bacteria. Here, we demonstrate the chitinolytic capability of a member of the family,SP5, which was isolated from a peat bog. Read More

    Asia lineage is maintained betweenand sika deer in Hokkaido, Japan.
    Appl Environ Microbiol 2018 Jan 26. Epub 2018 Jan 26.
    School of Veterinary Medicine, Rakuno-Gakuen University, Hokkaido, Japan.
    Asia lineage parasites, which are closely related toin Europe andsp. MO1 in the United States, was recently reported in sika deer () in eastern Japan. To identify the tick vector(s) for this parasite, we conducted a field survey in Hokkaido, Japan where the infection rate in sika deer is the highest in the country. Read More

    Structure, variation, and assembly of the deterioration-associated microbiome of stone monuments.
    Appl Environ Microbiol 2018 Jan 26. Epub 2018 Jan 26.
    Chinese Academy of Cultural Heritage, Beijing, China.
    Research on the microbial communities that colonize stone monuments may provide a new understanding of stone biodeterioration and microbe-induced carbonate precipitation. This work investigates the seasonal variation of microbial communities in 2016 and 2017, as well as its effects on stone monuments. We determined the bacterial and fungal composition of 12 samples from 4 well-separated geographic locations using 16S rRNA and ITS gene amplicon sequencing. Read More

    The Novel Cell Wall Hydrolase CwlC fromis Essential for Mother Cell Lysis.
    Appl Environ Microbiol 2018 Jan 26. Epub 2018 Jan 26.
    State Key Laboratory for Biology of Plant Diseases and Insect Pests, Institute of Plant Protection, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100193, China
    In this study, a sporulation-specific gene (tentatively named) involved in mother cell lysis inwas characterized. The encoded CwlC protein consists of an N-terminal-acetylmuramoyl-l-alanine amidase (MurAc-LAA) domain and a C-terminal amidase02 domain. The recombinant histidine-tagged CwlC proteins purified fromwere able to directly bind to and digestcell wall. Read More

    Methanogens are major contributors to nitrogen fixation in soils of the Florida Everglades.
    Appl Environ Microbiol 2018 Jan 26. Epub 2018 Jan 26.
    Soil and Water Sciences Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL USA 32611
    The objective of this study was to investigate the interaction of the nitrogen cycle (N-cycle) with methane production in the Florida Everglades, a large freshwater wetland. This study provides an initial analysis of the distribution and expression of N-cycling genes in Water Conservation Area 2A (WCA-2A), a section of the marsh that underwent P loading for many years due to runoff from upstream agricultural activities. The elevated P resulted in increased primary productivity and an N limitation in P-enriched areas. Read More

    Whole-genome sequencing and genetic analysis reveals novel stress responses against individual constituents of essential oils in.
    Appl Environ Microbiol 2018 Jan 26. Epub 2018 Jan 26.
    Tecnología de los Alimentos. Departamento de Producción Animal y Ciencia de los Alimentos, Facultad de Veterinaria, Instituto Agroalimentario de Aragón (IA2), Universidad de Zaragoza-CITA, Zaragoza, Spain
    Food preservation by the use of essential oils (EOs) is being extensively studied, because of the antimicrobial properties of their individual constituents (ICs). Three resistant mutants (termed CAR, CIT and LIM) ofMG1655 were selected by subculturing with the ICs carvacrol, citral and (+)-limonene oxide, respectively. These derivative strains showed increased MIC values to ICs and concomitant enhanced resistance to various antibiotics (ampicillin, trimethoprim, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, kanamycin, novobiocin, norfloxacin, cephalexin and nalidixic acid) compared with the parental strain (WT). Read More

    The fate of urinary tract virus BK human polyomavirus in source-separated urine.
    Appl Environ Microbiol 2018 Jan 26. Epub 2018 Jan 26.
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA
    Human polyomaviruses are emerging pathogens that infect a large percentage of the human population and are excreted in urine. Consequently, urine that is collected for fertilizer production often has high concentrations of polyomavirus genes. We studied the fate of infectious double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) BK human polyomavirus (BKPyV) in hydrolyzed source-separated urine with infectivity assays and qPCR. Read More

    1 OF 640