7,910 results match your criteria Applied Radiation And Isotopes[Journal]


Development of LEU-based targets for radiopharmaceutical manufacturing: A review.

Appl Radiat Isot 2019 Mar 18;148:225-231. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

University of Wollongong, Australia.

Mo is an essential medical isotope that comprises of at least 70% of radioactive procedures globally. Currently an essential component of Mo manufacturing is the uranium target from which Mo is produced by fission. As the world moves towards low enriched uranium (LEU) targets due to non-proliferation concerns it is becoming of interest to find methods to increase the efficiency of the LEU targets in order to reduce the ever increasing nuclear waste levels of which a long term solution for disposal or treatment has yet to be satisfactorily found. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apradiso.2019.03.019DOI Listing
March 2019
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Commercial kitchenware glass as a potential thermoluminescent media for retrospective dosimetry.

Appl Radiat Isot 2019 Apr 7;148:218-224. Epub 2019 Apr 7.

Centre for Biomedical Physics, School of Healthcare and Medical Sciences, Sunway University, 47500, Bandar Sunway, Selangor, Malaysia; Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey, GU2 7XH, UK.

Study has been made of the thermoluminescence (TL) yield of various glass-based commercial kitchenware (Reko-China, Skoja-France, Godis-China, Glass Tum-Malaysia, Lodrat-France). Interest focuses on their potential for retrospective dosimetry. Use was made of aCo gamma-ray irradiator, delivering doses in the range 2-10 Gy. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S09698043183121
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apradiso.2019.04.001DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Radiosynthesis and pre-clinical evaluation of [Ga] labeled antimicrobial peptide fragment GF-17 as a potential infection imaging PET radiotracer.

Appl Radiat Isot 2019 Apr 10;149:9-21. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Department of Nuclear Medicine, Klinikum Rechts Der Isar, Technical University of Munich, Ismaninger Str. 22, 81675, Munich, Germany.

The antimicrobial peptide fragment GF-17 was synthesized in-house and conjugated with DOTA and measured molecular mass of DOTA-GF-17 conjugate was 2489 Da. The peptide conjugate was purified and labeled with [Ga]. The best radiolabeling efficiency (95. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apradiso.2019.04.008DOI Listing

Validation of gamma scanning method for optimizing NaI(Tl) detector model in Monte Carlo simulation.

Appl Radiat Isot 2019 Apr 10;149:1-8. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Nuclear Technique Laboratory, University of Science, VNU-HCM, Viet Nam; Department of Nuclear Physics, Faculty of Physics and Engineering Physics, University of Science, VNU-HCM, Viet Nam. Electronic address:

The aim of this study is the validation of gamma scanning method for optimizing NaI(Tl) detector model in Monte Carlo simulation. The experimental procedure involved: scanning on front and lateral surfaces of the detector with collimated low-energy photon beam; calibrating the efficiency with energies between 31-1408 keV for point sources at distances of 0 cm and 30 cm from source to the detector. The Monte Carlo code used for the simulations was MCNP6. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apradiso.2019.04.009DOI Listing

Spiperone: Tritium labelling at high specific activity.

Appl Radiat Isot 2019 Feb 5;147:211-214. Epub 2019 Feb 5.

PerkinElmer Health Sciences Inc., 940 Winter Street, Waltham, MA, 02451, USA.

An efficient method is described to tritiate spiperone at high specific activity. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S09698043183107
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apradiso.2019.02.008DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Development of a detector for the measurement of ambient dose equivalent, H(10) at low and medium photon energies.

Appl Radiat Isot 2019 Apr 6;148:213-217. Epub 2019 Apr 6.

Radiation Safety Systems Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai-85, India; Homi Bhabha National Institute, Anushaktinagar, Mumbai-94, India.

Ionization chambers are used as secondary standards for the dosimetric measurement of photon radiation as the current generated in it are directly proportional to the conventional true value of the monitoring quantity (i.e. air kerma, dose or ambient dose equivalent). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apradiso.2019.03.042DOI Listing

Designing a new graphite illuminator for imaging facility of INUS to improve neutron beam uniformity and intensity.

Appl Radiat Isot 2019 Apr 9;148:204-212. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Tehran, Iran.

A cylindrical graphite illuminator with a thickness of 6.5 cm and diameter of 18 cm was installed inside the collimator of INUS (Instalatie de Neutronografie UScata) neutron imaging facility in the past. The graphite illuminator is usually utilized inside the collimator of neutron imaging facility to provide an intense and approximately uniform beam of neutrons at the outlet of collimator. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apradiso.2019.04.012DOI Listing

Synthesis and luminescence characterization of microcrystalline Nd-doped calcium sulfate.

Appl Radiat Isot 2019 Apr 6;148:197-203. Epub 2019 Apr 6.

Çukurova University, Arts-Sciences Faculty, Physics Department, 01330, Adana, Turkey.

In the present study, the precipitation method was used to synthesize microcrystalline Nd-doped CaSO phosphor. Structural and morphological analysis of the phosphor samples were performed by using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) methods. In addition, luminescent properties of the samples were characterized by thermoluminescence (TL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) methods. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S09698043183117
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apradiso.2019.04.005DOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads

Measurement of neutron capture cross section of W for production of W.

Appl Radiat Isot 2019 Apr 5;148:191-196. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

Isotopes and Fuel Cycle Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, 37831, United States.

Tungsten-188 (t = 69.4 d) is routinely produced by double neutron capture using highly enriched W target, W(n,γ)W(n,γ)W reaction, at the ORNL 85 MWt High Flux Isotope Reactor. While the thermal neutron cross section for the first reaction, W(n,γ)W, is well known, the single reported 64 b cross-section for the second reaction, W(n,γ)W, cannot be validated by experimental results that yield lower than expected activities of W. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apradiso.2019.03.039DOI Listing
April 2019
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Preparation of Lu-Trastuzumab injection for treatment of breast cancer.

Appl Radiat Isot 2019 Apr 3;148:184-190. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Radiopharmaceuticals Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, 400085, India; Homi Bhabha National Institute, Anushakti Nagar, Mumbai, 400 094, India.

The objective of this study was the facile preparation of Lu-CHX-A''-DTPA-Trastuzumab injection for breast cancer therapy. Trastuzumab conjugated with CHX-A''-DTPA-NCS was radiolabeled with Lu in >95% radiochemical purity. In vitro studies in SKBR3 and MDA-MB-453 cells confirmed specificity of Lu-CHX-A''-DTPA-Trastuzumab to HER2 positive cells. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S09698043183084
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apradiso.2019.04.002DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads
1.056 Impact Factor

Production of [C]Formaldehyde by the XeF mediated oxidation of [C]Methanol and its application in the labeling of α-(N-[C]Methylamino)isobutyric acid.

Appl Radiat Isot 2019 Mar 31;148:178-183. Epub 2019 Mar 31.

Klinik für Nuklearmedizin, Universitätsklinikum Essen (AöR), Hufelandstraße 55, D-45147, Essen, Germany.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apradiso.2019.03.032DOI Listing
March 2019
3 Reads

Ga-labeled dimeric and trimeric cyclic RGD peptides as potential PET radiotracers for imaging gliomas.

Appl Radiat Isot 2019 Mar 28;148:168-177. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

School of Health Sciences, Purdue University, IN, 47907, USA. Electronic address:

Ga-labeled cyclic RGD dimers and trimer were evaluated as PET radiotracers. It was found that the linker group had little impact on αβ binding affinity of RGD dimers, which share similar αβ binding affinity with the RGD trimer despite of their different multiplicity. Biodistribution properties of Ga radiotracers depend on RGD peptides and radiometal chelates. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apradiso.2019.03.033DOI Listing
March 2019
5 Reads
1.056 Impact Factor

Analysis of trends, periodicities, and correlations in the beryllium-7 time series in Northern Europe.

Appl Radiat Isot 2019 Apr 1;148:160-167. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Belgrade, Bulevar oslobođenja 18, 11000, Belgrade, Serbia. Electronic address:

The activity concentrations of beryllium-7, a natural radiotracer that is considered as a tracer of the stratospheric-tropospheric exchange, shows a distinct behaviour in Northern Europe compared to the central and southern parts of the continent. In this study, we use the measurements collected at four sampling stations in Scandinavia (Ivalo, Umea, Kista, Risoe) between 2001 and 2010 and investigate their trends, periodicities and residuals with the aim to further understand the common features in the beryllium-7 data records in northern sampling sites. The beryllium-7 activity concentrations exhibit statistically significant positive trends that range from an average value of 1. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apradiso.2019.03.038DOI Listing

Evaluation of 5-[F]fluoro-2'-deoxycytidine as a tumor imaging agent: A comparison of [F]FdUrd, [F]FLT and [F]FDG.

Appl Radiat Isot 2019 Mar 27;148:152-159. Epub 2019 Mar 27.

Isotope Application Division, Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Longtan District, Taoyuan City, Taiwan. Electronic address:

One of the hallmarks of cancer is increased cell proliferation. Measurements of cell proliferation by estimation of DNA synthesis with several radiolabeled nucleosides have been tested to assess tumor growth. Deoxycytidine can be phosphorylated by deoxycytidine kinase (dCK) and is incorporated into DNA. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apradiso.2019.03.034DOI Listing
March 2019
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The design of a direct charge nuclear battery with high energy conversion efficiency.

Appl Radiat Isot 2019 Apr 1;148:147-151. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Key Laboratory of Neutronics and Radiation Safety, Institute of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui, 230031, China.

Direct charging nuclear batteries (DCNB) have the potential of being widely used to meet the special requirements in the area of aerospace and ocean. The current application of direct charging nuclear batteries is restricted by the low energy conversion efficiency, commonly less than 10%. This low efficiency is limited mainly by issues of low source efficiency and shunt factor among others, such as collection and geometry factors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apradiso.2019.03.040DOI Listing

Thermoluminescence dosimetric properties of silicon carbide (SiC) used in industrial applications.

Appl Radiat Isot 2019 Mar 29;148:138-146. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Sulaimani Polytechnic University, Electrical Power Engineering, 46001, Sulaimani, Kurdistan, Iraq.

Silicon Carbide (SiC), also known as carborundum, has been found to be widely useful as a substrate and wide band gap semiconductor in radiation resistant optoelectronic devices. The aim of this study is to discuss the thermoluminescence (TL) properties of silicon carbide (SiC) used in industrial applications for dosimetric purposes. Basic TL properties of these materials such as dose response, heating rate, fading effect and reproducibility have also been investigated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apradiso.2019.03.036DOI Listing
March 2019
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Theory and experiment of optical absorption of platinum nanoparticles synthesized by gamma radiation.

Appl Radiat Isot 2019 Feb 22;147:204-210. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Putra Malaysia (UPM), 43400, UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

Platinum nanoparticles were synthesized using the gamma radiolytic technique in an aqueous solution containing Platinum tetraammine chloride in presence of poly vinyl pyrrolidone, isopropanol, tetrahydrofuran and deionized water. The gamma irradiation was carried out in aCo gamma source chamber and the particle size was found to decrease from 4.88 to 3. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apradiso.2019.02.015DOI Listing
February 2019

Feasibility study on evaluating uranium enrichment with the High Resolution Gamma-Ray Spectrometry and X-ray fluorescence.

Appl Radiat Isot 2019 Mar 27;148:132-137. Epub 2019 Mar 27.

Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Yuseong-daero 1534, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 34054, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

The uranium enrichment of the environmental sample should be analyzed to verify the declared information for the nuclear safeguards. The High-Resolution Gamma Spectrometry (HRGS) and Monochromatic Micro X-ray Fluorescence (MMXRF) is able to analyze the sample with a short detection time and high reproducibility. These are the advantage to measure the samples for screening before laboratory analysis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apradiso.2019.03.031DOI Listing

Angular and impact energy dependence of intensity ratio of K x-rays to underneath bremsstrahlung radiation emitted from 15 to 25 keV electrons incident on a pure thick Cu (Z=29) target.

Appl Radiat Isot 2019 Mar 18;148:126-131. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Atomic Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Institute of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, 221005, India. Electronic address:

We present new results on angular and impact energy dependence of the relative intensity ratios of K and K characteristic (CS) x-ray lines to their respective underneath bremsstrahlung (BS) radiation produced from 15-25 keV electrons incident on a thick polycrystalline pure target of Cu (Z = 29). The angular distributions of relative intensity ratios were carried out by measuring the radiations emitted at incidence angle θ that varied from 15° to 75° in reflection geometry mode of the target. The x-rays emerging from the target surface were detected by an energy dispersive Si PIN photodiode detector. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apradiso.2019.03.022DOI Listing
March 2019
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Model design of a compact delayed gamma-ray moderator system using Cf for safeguards verification measurements.

Appl Radiat Isot 2019 Jan 19;148:114-125. Epub 2019 Jan 19.

Integrated Support Center for Nuclear Nonproliferation and Nuclear Security, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki-ken 319-1118, Japan.

Delayed gamma-ray spectroscopy (DGS) is an active-interrogation nondestructive assay technique that can be used to determine the composition of a nuclear material sample by comparing the ratios of fission product gamma-ray peak intensities. However, high-radioactivity nuclear material (HRNM) contains long-lived fission products that can overwhelm a detector and shielding must be used to reduce the count rate, while minimally affecting those gamma rays from short-lived fission products with energy above 3-MeV. To compensate for the signal loss through the shielding, low-energy neutrons are required to induce more fission events from the high thermal cross-section of fissile nuclides. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apradiso.2019.01.002DOI Listing
January 2019
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A new study on pre-equilibrium and equilibrium effects of excitation functions of alpha-induced reactions on V, Mn and Co nuclei.

Authors:
Mustafa Yiğit

Appl Radiat Isot 2019 Mar 18;148:108-113. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Arts, Aksaray University, Aksaray, Turkey. Electronic address:

In this article, the cross section simulations of V(α,n)Mn, Mn(α,n)Co, Mn(α,2n)Co, Co(α,2n)Cu and Co(α,α2n)Co nuclear reactions were carried out using the pre-equilibrium and equilibrium models. TALYS 1.9 and ALICE/ASH codes for the above nuclear reactions were used to describe the formation of the reaction process. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apradiso.2019.03.020DOI Listing

Assessment of nano-sized stannic silicomolybdate for the removal of Cs, Sr, and Ce radionuclides from radioactive waste solutions.

Appl Radiat Isot 2019 Mar 22;148:91-101. Epub 2019 Mar 22.

Hot Laboratories Center, Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority, P.O. Box 13759, Cairo, Egypt. Electronic address:

Synthesized nano-sized stannic silicomolybdate was tested for the adsorption of Cs, Sr, and Ce radionuclides from radioactive waste solutions using batch experimentations in single metal solution. The sorption examinations were performed under the effect of some key parameters such as (pH, contact time, initial metal concentration, adsorbent weight, and temperature). Isothermal records were found to be well fitted with Langmuir adsorption model. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apradiso.2019.03.029DOI Listing

Half-life measurement of Ga with γ-spectroscopy.

Appl Radiat Isot 2019 Mar 20;148:87-90. Epub 2019 Mar 20.

Institute of Nuclear Research (Atomki), H-4001, Debrecen, POB.51., Hungary.

The literature half-life value of Ga is based on only one experiment carried out more than 60 years ago and it has a relatively large uncertainty. In the present work this half-life is determined based on the counting of the γ-rays following the β-decay of Ga. Our new recommended half-life is t = (15. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apradiso.2019.03.021DOI Listing

Determination of neutron flux parameters (f, α, φ and φ) of the irradiation sites of Isfahan MNSR reactor using empirical and MCNPX2.6 simulation approaches.

Appl Radiat Isot 2019 Jan 29;148:80-86. Epub 2019 Jan 29.

Reactor Research and Nuclear Safety Department, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute (NSTRI), Tehran, Iran.

Miniature Neutron Source reactors (MNSRs) are ideal for applications such as nuclear research, neutron activation analysis, etc., provided that their neutron flux parameters (φ, φ, f and α) are known. This paper present the results of the neutron flux parameters at inner and outer irradiation sites of Isfahan MNSR reactor determined through simulation with MCNPX2. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apradiso.2019.01.023DOI Listing
January 2019

Synthesis and thermoluminescence characterization of self-agglomerating CaSO exposed to beta radiation.

Appl Radiat Isot 2019 Mar 20;148:76-79. Epub 2019 Mar 20.

Departamento de Ingeniería Química, Universidad de Sonora, Hermosillo, Sonora, 83000, Mexico.

The synthesis and thermoluminescence (TL) characterization of self-agglomerating pellet-shaped CaSO phosphors, through a low cost and environmentally friendly method is reported. In order to investigate their TL features, some samples were exposed to beta particle irradiation in the dose range from 0.07 to 10 Gy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apradiso.2019.03.024DOI Listing

Modeling and simulation of a TRIGA MARK-II research reactor using WIMSD-5B and CITATION codes.

Appl Radiat Isot 2019 Feb 1;148:64-75. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

Radiations and Nuclear Systems Laboratory, University Abdelmalek Essaadi, Faculty of Sciences of Tetouan, Morocco.

The main objective of this study is to analyse neutronic safety parameters of the Moroccan TRIGA Mark-II research reactor using the WIMSD-5B and CITATION computer codes. New 172-group libraries of multi-group constants for the lattice code WIMSD-5B have been generated for all isotopes presented in the TRIGA reactor core by processing nuclear data from ENDFB-VII.1, JENDL-4. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apradiso.2019.01.034DOI Listing
February 2019

Neutron depth profiling system at CARR.

Appl Radiat Isot 2019 Mar 23;148:102-107. Epub 2019 Mar 23.

China Institute of Atomic Energy, Xinzhen, Fangshan District, Beijing, 102413, China.

A neutron depth profiling (NDP) device was developed on China advanced research reactor (CARR) of China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE). The CARR-NDP device uses cold neutron beams transmitted by a neutron guide from the cold neutron source of CARR, and it is composed of a neutron beam collimator, and a vacuum target chamber containing a beam stopper and a detection system. The neutron flux at 1 m from the end of neutron guide is about 4. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apradiso.2019.02.003DOI Listing

Ni activity measurements a bilateral intercomparison.

Appl Radiat Isot 2019 Mar 20;148:60-63. Epub 2019 Mar 20.

Radiation Safety Systems Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, 400 085, India.

To assess the accuracy and capabilities of BARC, for standardization of Ni before participating in larger scale trial exercise to implement and test the methods for the extension of the SIR to β emitters, a bilateral intercomparison was organised with National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ), Japan. Standardization of Ni was carried out and the results were compared with those obtained from NMIJ to assess the accuracy and capabilities of the laboratories. The CIEMAT/NIST efficiency tracing technique based on H standard was used for measurement of Ni activity concentration at BARC, India whereas Triple to Double Coincidence Ratio (TDCR) method was used at NMIJ, Japan. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apradiso.2019.03.025DOI Listing

3D spatial distribution of ore mineral phases using high resolution synchrotron micro-computed tomography (μCT) combined with optical microscopy.

Appl Radiat Isot 2019 Mar 11;148:49-59. Epub 2019 Mar 11.

UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, University Campus, Khandwa Road, Indore, India.

Ore minerals in dolomites and Graphite Mica Schist (GMS) were studied by synchrotron radiation micro-computed tomography (SR-μCT) and optical microscopy. High resolution μCT images of ore minerals were obtained at Imaging Beamline (BL-4), Indus-2 synchrotron radiation source for the comprehensive volume characterization of minerals. Optical microscopy was used for mineral identification, mineral/rock characterization and quantification of ore mineral assemblages was also confirmed by XRD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apradiso.2019.03.013DOI Listing

Monitoring the spectral composition of bremsstrahlung during the exposure.

Appl Radiat Isot 2019 Mar 20;148:45-48. Epub 2019 Mar 20.

Orenburg State University, Russia.

The problem of taking into account the spectral characteristics of generating sources of radiation during radiation interactions is discussed in the article. We propose a technique for reconstructing spectral distributions along absorption curves. It is shown experimentally that the spectral composition of the radiation can change during the exposure at a constant dose rate. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apradiso.2019.03.028DOI Listing

Luminescent properties and characterisation of LaBO:Eu phosphor synthesized using the combustion method.

Authors:
Y Z Halefoglu

Appl Radiat Isot 2019 Mar 11;148:40-44. Epub 2019 Mar 11.

Department of Ceramic, Faculty of Arts, Cukurova University, 01330, Adana, Turkey. Electronic address:

Luminescent host materials which have LaBO crystal structure were prepared and their structural and luminescent properties were analysed using the combustion method. Therefore, the measurements were performed at various temperatures. Phase impurity and optimum conditions were particularly determined at 900 °C for the host material prepared. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apradiso.2019.03.011DOI Listing

Determination of Se using a volatilisation method and liquid scintillation spectrometry.

Appl Radiat Isot 2019 Mar 20;148:35-39. Epub 2019 Mar 20.

Department of Nuclear Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Comenius University, Mlynska Dolina, Ilkovičova 6, 842 15, Bratislava, Slovakia.

The operation of nuclear power plants generates large quantities of radioactive materials or waste, which need to be characterised before decommissioning or for final disposal in radioactive waste repositories. The nuclear operators in Slovakia must declare 19 critical radionuclides in all radioactive waste before storage in the regional waste repository. This article describes a simple and rapid method for the determination of one critical radionuclide, Se, in radioactive waste. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apradiso.2019.03.027DOI Listing

The Fe half-life measured with a pressurised proportional counter.

Appl Radiat Isot 2019 Jan 29;148:27-34. Epub 2019 Jan 29.

European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC), Directorate for Nuclear Safety and Security, Retieseweg 111, B-2440, Geel, Belgium.

The half-life of Fe has been measured accurately by following the decay curve of three sources with a large pressurised proportional counter. An argon(90%)-methane(10%) mixture was used as counter gas, at atmospheric pressure (∼1 × 10 Pa) and at enhanced pressures of 5 × 10 Pa and 8 × 10 Pa (for 1 source), respectively. The first measurements were performed in 2001, but the experiment was executed more systematically between 2005 and 2018, covering a period of about 5 half-lives. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apradiso.2019.01.008DOI Listing
January 2019

Offshore concentration of caesium radioisotopes from large volume seawater samples using KNiFC-PAN.

Appl Radiat Isot 2019 Feb 6;147:197-203. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

Department of Nuclear Chemistry, Czech Technical University, CZ-11519, Prague 1, Czech Republic.

A method for caesium concentration from North Sea and Baltic Sea seawater samples was tested and optimised for offshore concentration of radiocaesium and seawater volumes up to 150 L. The composite ion-exchanger PotassiumNickel Hexacyanoferrate in a Polyacrylnitrile binding matrix (KNiFC-PAN) with 80% of powdered KNiFC per gram of dry residue was used for this study. The optimised method achieved recoveries of around 99% with a bed volume (BV) of 50 mL of KNiFC-PAN and average flow rates of seawater of around 182 BV per hour (e. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S09698043173123
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apradiso.2019.01.029DOI Listing
February 2019
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Determination of isotopes activity ratio using gamma ray spectroscopy based on neural network model.

Appl Radiat Isot 2019 Mar 14;148:19-26. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Experimental Nuclear Physics Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo, 13759, Egypt. Electronic address:

The uranium isotopes activity-ratio was determined using in-situ γ-ray spectroscopic measurements and an artificial neural network model. The method was developed to use forward-learn multilayer algorithm. Each layer consists of a perceptron, that controls the forward-learn process, and a mean-square-error mapping for the spectral data from the set of fired perceptrons. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apradiso.2019.03.014DOI Listing

Opto-electric and physio-chemical changes in oxygen ion irradiated natural Vermiculite mineral.

Appl Radiat Isot 2019 Mar 6;148:7-12. Epub 2019 Mar 6.

Department of Physics, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, 143005, Punjab, India.

The influence of 80 MeV O ion on Vermiculite mineral in terms of its optical, dielectric, structural, chemical, and thermoluminescence (TL) properties have been reported in this paper for the first time. The structural disorder was computed from Urbach energy using Cody model, and was applied to reveal the variation of optical band gap with ion fluence. The ac conductivity (σ) in both pristine and irradiated samples was found to obey Jonscher's power law. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apradiso.2019.03.004DOI Listing

A realistic solution of overcoming disadvantage of Compton suppression spectrometer.

Appl Radiat Isot 2019 Mar 12;148:13-18. Epub 2019 Mar 12.

Radiation Protection Bureau, Health Canada, 775 Brookfield Road, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 1C1, Canada.

To achieve low detection limits for radionuclide analysis, Compton continuum suppression gamma-ray spectrometer has been used for several decades. The most serious disadvantage arises when radionuclides measured have cascade gamma emissions. This is a major limitation of the technique in environmental sample analysis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apradiso.2019.03.017DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Study of X-ray scattered in a phantom as function of its maximum energy during bimodal PET/CT imaging.

Appl Radiat Isot 2019 Mar 6;148:1-6. Epub 2019 Mar 6.

Unidad Académica de Estudios Nucleares, Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas, Zacatecas, Zac, Mexico.

In a simultaneous Bimodal System with Positron Emission Tomography and Computed Tomography, the X-rays from a collimated X-ray tube are scattered over an anatomical region on the patient being scanning and cause a contamination effect on the signal received by the detectors distributed in the shape of a ring of the PET system. To study this phenomenon, each of the components of a bimodal system was modeled and simulated by the Monte Carlo method in Geant4 an X-ray beam produced in a RTW tube MCBM 65B with typical fluences used in medical diagnosis of small animals hitting a cylindrical phantom with a diameter greater than Field of View (FOV) in the tomographic center. The number of ionization events that occur in each of the phoswich detectors of the PET were obtained, the spatial distribution of the scattered X-rays was studied according to three maximum energies of the spectrum and calculation was made to find a filter that was located at the input of the phoswich detector that attenuates the X-rays by 98% and that would allow transmitting the gamma rays of annihilation also by 98%. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apradiso.2019.03.002DOI Listing

A fuel for generation IV nuclear energy system: Isotopic composition and radiation characteristics.

Appl Radiat Isot 2019 Mar 6;147:189-196. Epub 2019 Mar 6.

National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, Russian Federation.

This paper reports on an important issue of designing appropriate nuclear fuel of a high-temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactor operating in a thorium-plutonium nuclear fuel cycle. The neutronic calculations for a fuel of specific isotopic composition were performed before the analyses were done on the alpha emission probabilities, and on the neutron and photon sources as a result of (α,n) reaction. The main focus was on the quantitative evaluation of the neutron yield and the neutron energy spectrum for the generated neutrons through (α,n) reaction on light nuclei of dispersed nuclear fuel. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apradiso.2019.03.005DOI Listing

Determination of homogeneity of the top surface deadlayer in an old HPGe detector.

Appl Radiat Isot 2019 Mar 4;147:182-188. Epub 2019 Mar 4.

SCK, CEN, Boeretang, 2400, Mol, Belgium.

A collimated source of Am was scanned over the endcap of a 21 year old coaxial HPGe-detector that had spent about 75% of its life at room temperature (and the remaining time at 77 K). The detector response was recorded and used as a measure of the relative thickness of the top deadlayer. This thickness was not homogeneous and was thicker near to the outer surface of the crystal compared to the centre, which could be a result of increased diffusion of Li atoms during times the detector was kept at room temperature. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apradiso.2019.02.019DOI Listing

Thermoluminescence spectra of Tm doped ZnBO phosphor prepared via a wet-chemical synthesis.

Appl Radiat Isot 2019 Mar 12;147:177-181. Epub 2019 Mar 12.

Department of Physics, Manisa Celal Bayar University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Muradiye-Manisa, 45010, Turkey; Physics Department, Jazan University, P.O. Box 114, 45142, Jazan, Saudi Arabia. Electronic address:

In this paper we describe the thermoluminescence (TL) characteristics of 0.8 mol% Tm doped ZnBOphosphors prepared by a wet-chemical method. The TL glow curves of the phosphor sample consisted of three peaks located at 181 °C, 213 °C and 351 °C. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S09698043193009
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apradiso.2019.03.016DOI Listing
March 2019
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Construction and evaluation of a real-time personal dosemeter based on a Si sensor for eye-dose measurement.

Appl Radiat Isot 2019 Feb 16;147:171-176. Epub 2019 Feb 16.

Medical Radiation Physics Malmö, Department of Translational Medicine, Lund University, Skåne University Hospital, SE-205 02, Malmö, Sweden.

The objective was to design a thin, flex card based personal dosemeter with low angular and energy dependence. It is based on silicon diodes that can measure the personal dose equivalent. Anisotropic conducting adhesive was used to connect the Si sensor to the flex card. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apradiso.2019.02.011DOI Listing
February 2019

Manganese-52 production cross-section measurements via irradiation of natural chromium targets up to 20 MeV.

Appl Radiat Isot 2019 Mar 1;147:165-170. Epub 2019 Mar 1.

Department of Radiology, The University of Alabama at Birmingham, USA; Department of Biomedical Engineering, The University of Alabama at Birmingham, USA. Electronic address:

Manganese-52g, 54 and Chromium-51 production cross-section measurements were conducted using natural chromium foils and copper monitor foils. Proton beam energies between 10 and 20 MeV were used for target bombardment. After bombardment, the irradiated foils were allowed to decay for at least 48 h and radioactivity was quantified using a high-purity germanium detector. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apradiso.2019.02.017DOI Listing

Synthesis and thermoluminescent response to γ-rays and neutrons of MgBO:Dy and MgBO:Dy,Na.

Appl Radiat Isot 2019 Mar 6;147:159-164. Epub 2019 Mar 6.

Unidad Académica de Física de la Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas, C. Solidaridad, Col. Hidráulica, 98068, Zacatecas, Zac, Mexico.

MgBO doped with rare earths and alkaline elements has been reported as a good TLD because of its high sensitivity, effective atomic number close to that of biological tissue and low fading. In this work, thermoluminescent matrices were synthesized of MgBO:Dy and MgBO:Dy, Na to evaluate their thermoluminescent response (TL) when exposed to γ-rays and neutrons. The amount of Dy was studied in a concentration range of 0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apradiso.2019.03.001DOI Listing

Transfer of natural radioactive nuclides from soil to plant crops.

Appl Radiat Isot 2019 Mar 7;147:152-158. Epub 2019 Mar 7.

School of Medicine, Koya University, Danielle Mitterrand Boulevard, Koya KOY45, Erbil, Iraq.

In this study, we determined the activity concentrations of naturally occurring radioactive nuclides in plant crops and the corresponding soil collected from greenhouses and agricultural fields in Erbil city in the Iraqi Kurdistan Region by using a high purity germanium detector. The soil-to-plant crops transfer factors were determined for radioactive nuclides. The results showed that the activity concentration ranges for Ra, Th, and K in agricultural soils were (11. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apradiso.2019.03.010DOI Listing

Cross sections of (n,x) reactions on cerium isotopes induced by D-T neutrons.

Appl Radiat Isot 2019 Mar 9;147:144-151. Epub 2019 Mar 9.

School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, China; Division of Sustainable Energy and Environmental Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871, Japan. Electronic address:

Neutron induced reaction cross sections of Cerium isotopes (Ce, Ce, Ce, Ce) were investigated for the (n, 2n), (n, α), (n, p) and (n, γ) reactions in the neutron energy around 14 MeV. Experimental cross sections have been obtained for Ce(n, 2n)Ce, Ce(n, 2n)Ce, Ce(n, 2n)Ce, Ce(n, 2n)Ce, Ce(n, p)La, Ce(n, p)La, Ce(n, α)Ba, Ce(n, α)Ba and Ce(n, γ)Ce reactions. The measured values were compared with the literature data as well as the evaluated nuclear data from ENDF/B-VII. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apradiso.2019.03.012DOI Listing

Neutron spectrum unfolding using three artificial intelligence optimization methods.

Appl Radiat Isot 2019 Mar 7;147:136-143. Epub 2019 Mar 7.

Wuhan Second Ship Design and Research Institute, Wuhan, 430064, China.

Many methods have been proposed and developed in research into neutron spectrum unfolding. In this work, three artificial intelligence optimization methods-genetic algorithms, radial basis function neural networks and generalized regression neural networks-were developed on the basis of former research to retrieve the neutron spectrum. Sixty-three neutron spectra were unfolded on the basis of the same response functions with the three methods, and three indexes-the mean squared error, the spectral quality and the sphere reading quality-were applied with the aim to compare the generalized unfolding performance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apradiso.2019.03.009DOI Listing

Nuclear pulse generator embedded in FPGA.

Appl Radiat Isot 2019 Mar 6;147:129-135. Epub 2019 Mar 6.

Unidad Académica de Estudios Nucleares de la Universidad Autonomía de Zacatecas, Ciprés 10; Frac. La Peñuela. 98060 Zacatecas, Zac. Mexico.

This manuscript presents the design and implementation of an intellectual property core, which acts as a generator of nuclear pulses. The design is embedded in a Field programmable gate array. It is capable of forming pulses with an exponential shape such as those from a radiation detector or Gaussian-shaped pulses such as those provided by a spectroscopy amplifier. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apradiso.2019.03.003DOI Listing

Developing a new target design for producing Mo in a MTR reactor.

Appl Radiat Isot 2019 Mar 7;147:121-128. Epub 2019 Mar 7.

Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute (NSTRI), Reactor and Nuclear Safety School, 14399-51113, Tehran, Iran.

Mo is an important radioisotope and mainly produced using uranium fission reaction in a nuclear reactor. Investigation for probable improvements, especially on target geometry and in-core location of target is the main goal of this research. This is for producing more efficient of Mo in a typical Material Testing Reactors (MTRs). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apradiso.2019.03.006DOI Listing
March 2019
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Experimental study of the influence of dental restorations on thermal and fast photo-neutron production in radiotherapy with a high-energy photon beam.

Appl Radiat Isot 2019 Mar 8;147:113-120. Epub 2019 Mar 8.

Medical Physics Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

In head and neck radiation therapy, the presence of dental restorations can increase unwanted neutron dose to the patient. This study aimed at the measurement of secondary neutron production induced by irradiation of a healthy tooth, Amalgam, Ni-Cr alloy and Ceramco with a photon beam generated in the treatment head of a Siemens Primus linac at a voltage of 15 MV. The irradiation field amounted to 10 × 10 cm. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S09698043183082
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apradiso.2019.03.007DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads