8,837 results match your criteria Applied Radiation And Isotopes[Journal]


Measurement of the Li(p,p'γ)Li reaction cross-section and 478 keV photon yield from a thick lithium target at proton energies from 0.7 to 1.85 MeV.

Appl Radiat Isot 2021 Jun 9;175:109821. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk, Russia; Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk, Russia. Electronic address:

The Li (p,p'γ)Li reaction cross section and photon yield from a thick lithium target at proton energies from 0.7 to 1.85 MeV have been measured with a HPGe gamma-ray spectrometer. Read More

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Synthesis and photoluminescence characteristics of a novel Eu and Tb doped LiMoO phosphor.

Appl Radiat Isot 2021 Jun 9;175:109820. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Jazan University, Physics Department, P.O. Box 114, 45142, Jazan, Saudi Arabia; Department of Physics, Manisa Celal Bayar University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Muradiye, Manisa, 45010, Turkey. Electronic address:

LiMoO:x Eu and LiMoO:xTb phosphors, where x = 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 5 and 7 wt%, were synthesized through a gel-combustion method. The XRD data reveals that Eu and Tb doped LiMoO phosphors exhibit a Rhombohedral structure belonging to the space group R3 which matched well with the standard JCPDS files (No. Read More

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Bayesian inference of 1D activity profiles from segmented gamma scanning of a heterogeneous radioactive waste drum.

Appl Radiat Isot 2021 Jun 9;175:109803. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Dismantling, Decontamination and Waste, Institute for Environment, Health and Safety, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK CEN), Belgium. Electronic address:

We present a Bayesian approach to probabilistically infer vertical activity profiles within a radioactive waste drum from segmented gamma scanning (SGS) measurements. Our approach resorts to Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling using the state-of-the-art Hamiltonian Monte Carlo (HMC) technique and accounts for two important sources of uncertainty: the measurement uncertainty and the uncertainty in the source distribution within the drum. In addition, our efficiency model simulates the contributions of all considered segments to each count measurement. Read More

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Determination of ultra-trace levels of uranium and thorium in electrolytic copper using radiochemical neutron activation analysis.

Appl Radiat Isot 2021 Jun 9;175:109801. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Informatics, Comenius University, 84248, Bratislava, Slovakia.

Uranium and thorium as natural radioactive elements are present everywhere in the environment. Their trace levels are also present in various materials, such as copper, used as a shielding material in gamma-ray spectrometry, usually located very close to the detector. Ultra-low levels of uranium and thorium in electrolytic copper were determined in this study using radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) via their induced nuclides U-239/Np-239 and Pa-233, respectively. Read More

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GAMOS/GEANT4 simulation and comparison study of X-ray narrow-spectrum series at the national Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory of Morocco.

Appl Radiat Isot 2021 May 27;175:109789. Epub 2021 May 27.

LPMS, Faculty of Sciences, University of Ibn Tofail, Kenitra, Morocco.

This study aimed to simulate the X-ray Irradiator narrow-spectrum series and compare the results with experimental and recommended values in ISO standards. X-Ray beam qualities of N-40 to N-300 were established experimentally at the national Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL) of Morocco in purpose of calibrating radiation protection- level. The variations between the first half-value layer (1 HVL) and the second (2 HVL) for experimental were within 5%. Read More

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Initial and volume recombination losses in gamma versatile ionization chamber VGIC for gamma ray dosimetry.

Appl Radiat Isot 2021 Jun 4;175:109794. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Reactor Chemistry Department, Nuclear Research Centre of Birine, P.o. Box 180, Ain Oussera, 17200, Djelfa, Algeria. Electronic address:

A versatile gamma ionization chamber (VGIC) has been designed, developed and characterized, in order to study experimentally its characteristics according to the geometry of the electrodes, the volume and pressure of the filler gas for the design of a gamma sealed chamber. The tests were conducted under the IEC (International Electro-technical Commission). The results obtained in various nuclear tests of the characterization and calibration of the ionization chamber gamma VGIC developed at our laboratory were presented in this paper. Read More

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A new algorithm for evaluating reservoir density based on X-ray logging technology.

Appl Radiat Isot 2021 Jun 4;175:109793. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

School of Geosciences, China University of Petroleum, Qingdao, 266580, China.

Rock density is an important parameter to provide critical information for evaluating both conventional and unconventional reservoirs. During the drilling process, it's a huge challenge to eliminating the negative effects of irregular mud cake formed in drilling fluid deposition to evaluating reservoir information accurately. However, the calibration of density measurement by correction charts would usually generate large errors, and the parameters that need to be corrected are often unpredictable. Read More

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Experimental determination of Gd dose enhancement and Gd dose sparing by Ir brachytherapy source with Gafchromic EBT3 dosimeter.

Appl Radiat Isot 2021 Jun 2;175:109787. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Hospital Regional Dr. Guillermo Grant Benavente, Concepción, Chile.

This work evaluates experimentally the dose enhancement factor (DEF) and dose sparing factor (DSF) due to radiation self-shielding, produced by Gd infused in tumor phantom irradiated with brachytherapy HDR Ir source by Gafchromic EBT3 dosimeter. The phantom was made of a set of solid water slabs (30 × 30 × 1.0) cm and three acrylic slabs of (30 × 30 × 0. Read More

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Radon gas build up using alpha scintillation cell: Experimentally and theoretically.

Appl Radiat Isot 2021 Jun 3;175:109796. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Najran University, Najran, Saudi Arabia; Unit of Radiation Protection, Najran University, Najran 1101, Saudi Arabia.

Due to their high efficiency and speed of use, alpha scintillation cell is being increasingly utilized for detection of radon (222Rn) in soil gas. The calibration factor of the 110 A active radon cell has been addressed and thoroughly discussed. The sensitivity and the efficiency have been determined. Read More

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Development of a non-invasive method for monitoring variations in salt concentrations of seawater using nuclear technique and Monte Carlo simulation.

Appl Radiat Isot 2021 Aug 20;174:109784. Epub 2021 May 20.

Nuclear Engineering Institute - IEN/CNEN, Hélio de Almeida Street, Number 75, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, 21941-906, Brazil.

In the oil production industry, water is used as a fluid injected into the well to raise the oil when the well is depressurized. Water thus produced presents variations in the concentrations of dissolved salts, as there is a mixture of different types of water, related to its origin (such as connate water, sea water). Because it is reused in oil production, water needs to be monitored to maintain the standard suitable for its use as it can be hypersaline, contributing to the encrustation of pipes and contamination of underground water reservoirs. Read More

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Development of implantation substrates for the collection of radionuclides of medical interest produced via ISOL technique at INFN-LNL.

Appl Radiat Isot 2021 May 30;175:109795. Epub 2021 May 30.

Legnaro National Laboratories, National Institute of Nuclear Physics, 35020, Legnaro, Italy.

Accelerator-based techniques with electromagnetic mass separation are considered among the most innovative and promising strategies to produce non-conventional radionuclides for nuclear medicine. Such approach was successfully used at CERN, where the dedicated MEDICIS facility was built, and at TRIUMF, where the ISAC radioactive beam facility was used to produce unconventional α-emitters. In such framework, the Legnaro National Laboratories of the Italian Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN-LNL) proposed the ISOLPHARM project (ISOL technique for radioPHARMaceuticals), which will exploit radionuclides producible with the SPES (Selective Production of Exotic Species) ISOL (Isotope Separation On-Line) facility to develop novel radiopharmaceuticals. Read More

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The potential of decorative building materials (marble) for retrospective thermoluminescence dosimetry.

Appl Radiat Isot 2021 May 21;175:109782. Epub 2021 May 21.

Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia.

Among the various types of decorative materials used in Bangladeshi dwellings, the marble/marble stone is one of the most common ones that used largely for enhancing the beauty and/or aristocracy of the dwelling environment. In this study, the most commonly used, six types of marble stones, have been analyzed for retrospective accident dosimetry. With the interest of characterizing several key thermoluminescence properties to examine their potentiality for dosimetry, annealing - irradiation - readout steps have been done chronologically which comprises the analysis of glow curves, relative sensitivity, dose dependence, repeatability and fading. Read More

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Preliminary study on spallation target characteristics in an Accelerator-Driven system.

Appl Radiat Isot 2021 May 28;175:109792. Epub 2021 May 28.

Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Science, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, 30013, Taiwan, ROC. Electronic address:

This study aims to investigate the neutronic characteristics of spallation targets for Accelerator-Driven subcritical System (ADS) and find the optimal target design for reducing the strength of the required beam current. All the calculations were conducted using the MCNP6.1 with cross-section library ENDF/B-VII. Read More

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Impact of radiobiological models on the calculation of the therapeutic parameters of Grid therapy for breast cancer.

Appl Radiat Isot 2021 Aug 13;174:109776. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Nuclear Engineering, Faculty of Nuclear Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran.

Therapeutic advantages of Grid therapy have been demonstrated in several theoretical studies using the standard linear-quadratic (LQ) model. However, the suitability of the LQ model when describing cell killing at highly modulated radiation fields has been questioned. In this study, we have applied an extended LQ model to recalculate therapeutic parameters of Grid therapy. Read More

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Tabulation of organ dose conversion factors for terrestrial radioactivity monitoring program.

Appl Radiat Isot 2021 Aug 25;174:109791. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310, Skudai, Joho Bahru, Johor, Malaysia.

Terrestrial radioactivity monitoring of U and Th series, and K in soil is an essential practice for radioactivity and radiation measurement of a place. In conventional practice, only basic data can be in-situ measured using a survey instrument, for example radioactivity concentration in soil and ambient dose equivalent rate. For other physical quantities, for example organ absorbed dose and organ equivalent dose, the measurement is impossible to be performed and can only be computed using Monte Carlo radiation transport simulations. Read More

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Determination of a Pu-Be source neutron spectrum at Czech Metrology Institute.

Appl Radiat Isot 2021 May 20;175:109786. Epub 2021 May 20.

Czech Metrology Institute, Okružní 31, 638 00, Brno, Czech Republic.

Contrary to the radionuclide neutron sources of Cf and Am-Be type, which are most widely used for the dosimetric instrumentation calibrations, the spectral source strength and spectrum averaged fluence to dose equivalent conversion coefficients of Pu-Be source are not recommended by an international standard. This work describes the determination of those parameters for the Pu-Be source used at Czech Metrology Institute (CMI) by means of a Bonner spectrometer in combination with neutron emission rate measurement in a manganese bath. Read More

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Neutron guide optimization for the Moroccan PGAA system.

Appl Radiat Isot 2021 Aug 25;174:109783. Epub 2021 May 25.

National Centre for Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology (CNESTEN), B.P. 1382, R.P. 10001, Rabat, Morocco.

The Moroccan TRIGA Mark II research reactor is to be equipped with a PGAA (Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis) facility to assist the country's progression in socioeconomic areas such as the environment and geochemistry, agriculture, health, industry, cultural heritage, and human sciences. The requirements of the PGAA facility include a very high thermal to fast neutron flux ratio and a focused, thin beam. Supermirror neutron guides are generally used to meet such requirements due to their ability to reflect neutrons with a specific energy and scattering angle. Read More

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Optimization and validation of a LaBr(Ce) detector model for use in Monte Carlo simulations.

Appl Radiat Isot 2021 Aug 25;174:109790. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Hydrology and Hydraulic Engineering, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), Pleinlaan 2, BE-1050, Brussels, Belgium.

A reliable detector model is needed for Monte Carlo efficiency calibration. A LaBr(Ce) detector model was optimized and verified using different radioactive sources (Am,Ba,Cs,Co andEu) and geometries (point, extended and surface). PENELOPE and MCNP were used for Monte Carlo simulations. Read More

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Micro and nano BiO filled epoxy composites: Thermal, mechanical and γ-ray attenuation properties.

Appl Radiat Isot 2021 Aug 14;174:109780. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Physics and Electronics, CHRIST (Deemed to be University), Bangalore Central Campus, Bengaluru, 560029, Karnataka, India.

Polymer composites have attracted considerable attention as potential light-weight and cost-effective materials for radiation shielding and protection. In view of this, the present work focusses on development of lead-free composites of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) epoxy resin with micro (~ 10 μm) and nano (~ 20 nm) bismuth (III) oxide (BiO) fillers, using solution casting technique. Thermal, mechanical and γ-ray attenuation properties of the composites were studied by varying the filler loading. Read More

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An alternative method for sourceless density measurement with boron sleeve gamma detectors.

Appl Radiat Isot 2021 Aug 23;174:109785. Epub 2021 May 23.

College of Geophysics and Petroleum Resources, Yangtze University, Wuhan, 430100, China.

Neutron gamma density measurement using dual gamma detectors (NGD-GD) is a popular density measurement method. Compared with other NGD methods, the NGD-GD method has many advantages in tool optimization, cost control, and density precision; however, it is easily affected by the salinity of formation water. To improve the NGD-GD method, the influence mechanism of formation water salinity was discussed, and a feasible improvement scheme using characteristic gamma information was proposed. Read More

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Design of a controllable Am-Be neutron source: A Geant4 simulation.

Appl Radiat Isot 2021 Aug 23;174:109775. Epub 2021 May 23.

Department of Nuclear Science and Technology, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing, 211106, China.

In this work, a controllable Am-Be neutron source with self-safety structure was developed. The basic design of the neutron source is composed of AmO layer, air layer and Be layer. The AmO layer and Be layer are placed parallelly in a stainless-steel tank. Read More

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Determination of the gamma and X-ray emission intensities of terbium-161.

Appl Radiat Isot 2021 Aug 23;174:109770. Epub 2021 May 23.

Institute of Radiation Physics, Lausanne, Switzerland.

In this study, the gamma and X-ray emission intensities of Tb were determined using a high-purity germanium spectrometer. The samples used were previously standardised by coincidence counting and Triple to Double Coincidence Ratio (TDCR) methods. A total of 28 gamma-rays and 4 X-rays were measured and compared with previous measurements performed more than 30 years ago. Read More

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A benchmarking study of Geant4 for Auger electrons emitted by medical radioisotopes.

Appl Radiat Isot 2021 Aug 12;174:109777. Epub 2021 May 12.

Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, Australia; Illawarra Health and Medical Research Institute, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, Australia.

Auger emitting radioisotopes are of great interest in targeted radiotherapy because, once internalised in the tumour cells, they can deliver dose locally to the radiation sensitive targets, while not affecting surrounding cells. Geant4 is a Monte Carlo code widely used to characterise the physics mechanism at the basis of targeted radiotherapy. In this work, we benchmarked the modelling of the emission of Auger electrons in Geant4 deriving from the decay of I, I, I radionuclides against existing theoretical approaches. Read More

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Activity standardisation of Ra.

Appl Radiat Isot 2021 Aug 24;174:109788. Epub 2021 May 24.

Institut de Radiophysique, Lausanne, Switzerland.

We report here on the primary activity standardisation of aRa dichloride solution in equilibrium with its decay daughters. Both the triple-to-double-coincidence-ratio (TDCR) method with an in-house TDCR detector and the CIEMAT-NIST efficiency tracing (CNET) technique with a commercial counter were used. The liquid scintillation efficiencies for both methods are about 6 while the activities they predict with about 0. Read More

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Graphite sheets in study of radiation dosimetry and associated investigations of damage.

Appl Radiat Isot 2021 Aug 21;174:109769. Epub 2021 May 21.

Department of Radiological Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, PO Box 10219, Riyadh, 11433, Saudi Arabia.

Present work builds upon prior investigations concerning the novel use of graphite-rich polymer pencil-lead for passive radiation dosimetry. Working with photon-mediated interactions at levels of dose familiar in radiotherapy, exploratory investigations have now been made using graphite produced commercially in the form of 50 μm thick sheets. Focusing on the relationship between absorbed radiation energy and induced material changes, investigations have been made of thermo- and photoluminescence dose dependence, also of alterations in Raman spectroscopic features. Read More

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Photonic crystal fibre as a potential medium for radiotherapy dosimetry.

Appl Radiat Isot 2021 Aug 21;174:109771. Epub 2021 May 21.

Centre for Applied Physics and Radiation Technologies, School of Engineering and Technology, Sunway University, 47500, Bandar Sunway, Selangor, Malaysia; Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH, United Kingdom.

Present study concerns the key thermoluminescence (TL) properties of photonic crystal fibres (PCFs), seeking development of alternatively structured TL materials that are able to offer a advantages over existing passive dosimeters. In terms of their internal structure and light guiding properties the PCFs, collapsed and structured, differ significantly from that of conventional optical fibres. To investigate the dosimetric parameters of the PCFs use was made of a linear accelerator producing a 6 MV photon beam, delivering doses ranging from 0. Read More

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Evaluating the radioprotective effect of single dose and daily oral consumption of green tea, grape seed, and coffee bean extracts against gamma irradiation.

Appl Radiat Isot 2021 Aug 23;174:109781. Epub 2021 May 23.

Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Yasuj University of Medical Sciences, Yasuj, Iran. Electronic address:

Introduction: The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the radio-protective effect of green tea, grape seed, and coffee bean extracts in different oral consumption methods in mice.

Materials And Methods: In this experimental-quantitative study 150 mice in 15 equally sized groups were used. For each extract, two groups received 200 mg/kg of herbal extracts' combination for 7 and 30 consecutive days before irradiation, and one group received 800 mg/kg of the extract 2 h before irradiation (3 Gy gamma-rays of Co-60). Read More

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Study of cross sections for (n,p) reactions on Hf, Ta and W isotopes.

Authors:
Mustafa Yiğit

Appl Radiat Isot 2021 Aug 19;174:109779. Epub 2021 May 19.

Faculty of Science and Arts, Physics Dept., Aksaray University, Aksaray, Turkey. Electronic address:

In the nuclear energy applications, hafnium, tantalum and tungsten are desirable materials in the production of super alloys for design of a nuclear power plant. In this study, cross sections calculations via TALYS-1.95, CEM03. Read More

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Evaluation of two calibration methods for MRI-based polymer gel dosimetry.

Appl Radiat Isot 2021 Aug 5;174:109754. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA.

Polymer gel dosimetry (PGD) can provide three-dimensional (3D) dose data for evaluation of the dose calculation algorithms used by treatment planning systems (TPS). Although the PGD technique, particularly with MRI, is now ready for clinical applications, an accurate calibration method is vital for treatment validation in 3D. This study evaluated the single-phantom electron beam (SPE) method that used the depth-dose data of a 9 MeV electron beam. Read More

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Influences of γ-ray irradiation on physico-chemical, structural, X-ray diffraction, thermal and antimicrobial activity of some γ-irradiated N',N'''-((Z)-ethane-1,2-diylidine)bis(2-aminobenzohydrazide) metal complexes.

Appl Radiat Isot 2021 Aug 13;174:109774. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Menoufia University, Shebin El-Kom, Egypt.

A series of Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Th(IV) and UO(II) complexes have been synthesized from reaction of nitrogen based ligand (L) i.e. N',N'''-((Z)-ethane-1,2-diylidine)bis(2-aminobenzohydrazide)(L) with their salts. Read More

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