9,231 results match your criteria Applied Radiation And Isotopes[Journal]

Improvements in the radiochemical method for separating Ra in solid samples through coprecipitation with BaSO.

Appl Radiat Isot 2022 Jun 16;187:110321. Epub 2022 Jun 16.

IES Virgen de la Paloma, 28039, Madrid, Spain.

The aim of this work was to improve the commonly used method for Ra determination in water and to establish its application in solid samples. This method is based on the coprecipitation of Ra with BaSO and gross alpha counting of the precipitate. An exhaustive study of the coprecipitation behaviour of the most abundant cations present in solid samples was performed to avoid incorrect radiochemical yields. Read More

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Development of a portable TDCR system at NIM, China.

Appl Radiat Isot 2022 Jun 8;187:110315. Epub 2022 Jun 8.

National Institute of Metrology, Beijing, 100029, PR China. Electronic address:

In order to meet the demand of on-site measurement for radionuclides, a portable liquid scintillation TDCR system was developed at National Institute of Metrology (NIM), China. The system consists small size TDCR counter for the measurement of liquid scintillation sources, and digital electronics for pulse signal processing. The optical chamber adopts Teflon material with high diffuse reflection efficiency. Read More

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A new-designed system for continuous measurement of radon in water.

Appl Radiat Isot 2022 Jun 16;187:110320. Epub 2022 Jun 16.

State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing, 100871, China.

On-line continuous monitoring of radon concentration in water is of great significance for its environmental application as a radioactive tracer, for example, as a potential precursor for earthquake forecast and volcanic eruption. To realize on-line continuous measurement on radon in complex water body, a compact measurement system mainly consisted of a simple degassing device and an electrostatic radon monitor is newly developed. The sensitivity of the measurement system is 73 ± 5 cph/(Bq/L), and the detection limit is 0. Read More

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Microstructure of gamma-ray developed polymeric nanocomposite respecting cesium and cobalt removal from aqueous solutions.

Appl Radiat Isot 2022 Jun 9;187:110323. Epub 2022 Jun 9.

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

The nanoparticles of fly ash (FA) were obtained by high energy ball milling of their parent Class C kind for subsequent synthesis of poly(acrylamide-acrylic acid)/fly ash (poly(AM-AA)/FA) nanocomposite. The gamma-radiation induced polymerization was applied to achieve this concern. Different techniques were utilized to characterize such nanocomposite. Read More

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Relationships between natural radionuclides activity concentration in soils of the State of Alagoas, Brazil and WRB/FAO soil classification, types of parental rocks and rainfall variability.

Appl Radiat Isot 2022 Jun 1;187:110309. Epub 2022 Jun 1.

Geological Survey of Brazil (CPRM), Av. Pasteur, 404, Urca, 22290-240, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Climate, soil type and geology that can influence the activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in soils. For this, 41 samples were collected in the first 25 cm of soil from the state of Alagoas, Northeast Brazil. This sample collection represents the mains soils classifications, parental rocks, and rainfall variability in this locality. Read More

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First principles calculation for generating new thermal neutron scattering data for Zirconium hydride.

Appl Radiat Isot 2022 Jun 9;187:110313. Epub 2022 Jun 9.

ERSN, Faculty of sciences, Abdelmalek Essaadi University, Tetouan, Morocco.

Lattice parameters of materials have the same magnitude as the energy of thermal neutrons in reactors, which directly affects the neutron cross section and its energy. While they are thermalized, incident neutrons can lose or gain energy during their interactions with materials components. Since several decades, methods and models were developed in the aim to generate nuclear data sub-libraries required in correcting neutrons interactions cross sections at thermal energies. Read More

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Investigation the effect of a magnetic field on the dose distribution of I-125, Ir-192, Yb-169, and Co-60 brachytherapy sources by Monte Carlo simulation.

Appl Radiat Isot 2022 Jun 12;187:110332. Epub 2022 Jun 12.

Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR, USA; Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA23219, USA. Electronic address:

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) during brachytherapy may alter the dose distribution of radioactive sources implanted in the tumor. This study investigates the impact of a magnetic field of 1.5 T, 3 T, and 7 T strengths on the dose distribution of high dose rate Co-60, Ir-192, and Yb-169, and low dose rate I-125 sources, using Geant4 Monte Carlo toolkit. Read More

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Generation of cross section for neutron induced nuclear reaction on iridium and tantalum isotope using machine learning technique.

Appl Radiat Isot 2022 May 26;187:110306. Epub 2022 May 26.

Department of Fundamental & Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi Petronas, Seri Iskandar, 32610, Perak, Malaysia; Centre of Innovative Nanostructure and Nanodevices, Universiti Teknologi Petronas, Seri Iskandar, 32610, Perak, Malaysia.

In this work, we proposed a new approach in generating nuclear data using machine learning techniques. This paper focused on generation of nuclear cross section for neutron induced-nuclear reaction on iridium isotopes (Ir-191) and tantalum isotopes (Ta-181) target, specifically Ir (n,p)Os and Ta (n, 2n)Ta using random forest algorithms. The input consists of experimental datasets obtained from EXOR and simulated datasets from TALYS 1. Read More

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Activation analysis and evaluation of the radionuclide inventories, decay heat for European DEMO divertor components.

Appl Radiat Isot 2022 Jun 7;187:110314. Epub 2022 Jun 7.

Lithuanian Energy Institute, Laboratory of Nuclear Installation Safety, Breslaujos Str. 3, LT-44403, Kaunas, Lithuania.

This work presents neutron flux calculation results and specific decay heat and activity for the European DEMO reactor divertor structure. Two DEMO 2017 models were used in calculations; one with a homogenised WCLL breeder blanket and the other with a homogenised HCPB breeder blanket. The neutron flux calculations were performed using MCNP6 code with JEFF 3. Read More

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Evaluation of brass alloy density as tissue equivalence bolus using electron density phantom and optical density method.

Appl Radiat Isot 2022 Jun 8;187:110310. Epub 2022 Jun 8.

Advanced Medical Dental Institute, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia.

The brass mesh bolus alloy has been shown to be a promising substitute for tissue-equivalent bolus to increase the surface dose during breast cancer radiotherapy treatment. This study is aimed to evaluate the brass alloy density in order to better understand the brass qualities as a bolus in radiotherapy. The mass density of brass alloy determined in this work are using solid approaches, i) traditional density method, ii) Computed Tomography (CT) number using electron density phantom and CT scan and iii) mean pixel value via ImageJ software. Read More

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Validation of deterministic code OpenNTP for the analysis of the C5G7-1D benchmark with different configurations.

Appl Radiat Isot 2022 Jun 9;187:110317. Epub 2022 Jun 9.

Radiations and Nuclear Systems Laboratory, ERSN, Faculty of Sciences, Abdelmalek Essaadi University, Tetuan, Morocco.

This study was conducted with the aim of verifying that the OpenNTP (Open Neutron Transport Package) code is capable of reproducing high-performance and exact calculation results. Therefore, a thorough analysis of the One-dimensional C5G7 benchmark with different configuration of control rods was performed. This benchmark was chosen because of its strong heterogeneity. Read More

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Improvement of doxorubicin radioiodination and in-vivo cancer suppression via loading in nanosilver system.

Appl Radiat Isot 2022 May 16;187:110288. Epub 2022 May 16.

Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutics, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

This study aimed at improving the radioiodination of doxorubicin (DOX) and its localization in cancer cell for theranostic purposes. To achieve this goal, a composite of DOX with polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was prepared. Both DOX and (DOX/PVP/AgNPs) were radiolabelled with iodine-125 [I] and optimized using iodogen as a preferable oxidizing agent. Read More

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Intermetallic cobalt-gallium targets for production of germanium radioisotopes.

Appl Radiat Isot 2022 May 28;187:110307. Epub 2022 May 28.

University of Wisconsin-Madison School of Medicine and Public Health, Department of Medical Physics, USA; University of Wisconsin-Madison School of Medicine and Public Health, Department of Radiology, USA. Electronic address:

Increasing interest in targeted radionuclide therapy motivates the development of new radionuclides. The unique emission spectrum from Ge make it an ideal candidate for probing microdosimetric effects of low energy electrons absent confounding photon dose. This work reports a novel intermetallic target of Co and Ga for accelerator production of no-carrier-added Ge and a new method to isolate the Ge in high yields and purities. Read More

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Differential effects of cancer modifying agents during radiation therapy on Ehrlich solid tumor-bearing mice: A comparative investigation of metformin and ascorbic acid.

Appl Radiat Isot 2022 May 22;187:110305. Epub 2022 May 22.

Veterinary Hygiene and Management Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt.

Background: This work was carried out to compare the modifying roles of ascorbic and metformin during Ehrlich (ESC) tumor-bearing mice irradiation.

Methods: Fifty Swiss albino male mice were segmented into seven groups, including one control group and six Ehrlich induced tumors treated with ascorbic, ascorbic plus radiation, metformin, metformin plus radiation, and radiation only. Many tests, including behavioral, biochemical, immunohistochemistry, gene expression, DNA fragmentation, oxidative stress markers, and EPR, were performed to interrogate the modifying effects on tumor and liver tissues. Read More

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Radiological consequence analysis for hypothetical accidental release from Nigerian Research Reactor-1.

Appl Radiat Isot 2022 Jun 2;186:110308. Epub 2022 Jun 2.

Department of Physics, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria.

Radiological dispersion study is a key element in safety analysis report (SAR) of every nuclear facility for the purpose of emergency response planning. In this work, computational approach was used to determine the total effective dose and ground deposition at critical positions onsite and offsite of the Nigerian Research Reactor-1 (NIRR-1) facility which will be useful in the ongoing development of final SAR for NIRR-1 Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) core. In the methodology used, NIRR-1 LEU core was depleted with TRITON module of SCALE 6. Read More

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Analysis of gamma spectra from burnup measurement in HTR-10.

Appl Radiat Isot 2022 May 20;186:110298. Epub 2022 May 20.

School of Energy Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001, China.

HTR-10, the 10 MW pebble-bed High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor-Test Module designed by Tsinghua University, achieved its first criticality in 2000. One of the unique features of HTR-10 is the continuous fuel feeding achieved by its fuel cycle system, in which the fuel sphere is allowed to pass through the core several times before discharged out. During the fuel circulation, the on-line burnup measurement system is used to ensure fuel credit. Read More

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Investigation of the dosimetric parameters of I BEBIG IsoSeed® I25.S06 source: GATE 8.2 Monte Carlo code.

Appl Radiat Isot 2022 May 27;186:110294. Epub 2022 May 27.

Moulay Ismail University, Faculty of Sciences, Department of Chemistry, Meknès, Morocco. Electronic address:

Permanent implantation of the iodine-125 brachytherapy sources is an irradiation technique for the treatment of the localized cancer. As described by the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) Task group 43 (TG-43U1), it is crucial to determine the dose distribution around the brachytherapy seed before its effective clinical practice or even before releasing the sources for the treatment. In the present work, according to TG-43U1 report, the dosimetric parameters of BEBIG iodine-125 Low Dose Rate brachytherapy IsoSeed® I25. Read More

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UV/Vis dose response of a reusable PMMA-NaCl polymer composite.

Appl Radiat Isot 2022 May 20;186:110293. Epub 2022 May 20.

Department of Nuclear Medicine, Radiotherapy & Oncology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia; Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia. Electronic address:

Purpose: Two-dimensional dosimeters are convenient tools for quickly checking the radiation profile in radiotherapy. The currently used solution is costly, especially in busy institutions with extensive quality control procedures. This study fabricates a reusable 2-mm-thick PMMA-NaCl polymer composite sheet and assesses its dosimetric properties. Read More

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Aerial gamma-ray spectrometric survey data as a guide for probable hydrocarbon accumulations at Abu-Zeneima/Al-Tur area, Southwestern Sinai, Egypt.

Appl Radiat Isot 2022 May 20;186:110290. Epub 2022 May 20.

Nuclear Materials Authority, Cairo, Egypt.

A method using surface and aerial gamma-ray spectral measurements to explore the hydrocarbon accumulations in Abu-Zeneima/Al-Tur area of Southwestern Sinai, Egypt, was selected due to both its structural setting and its location in close proximity to the Gulf of Suez, which represents one of the important sites of oil production in Egypt. Examination of the normalized potassium map (KD %) shows low concentrations above Abu-Alaqah, Thebes, and Kariem formations, while normalized equivalent uranium map (eUD %) shows a high concentration above these formations. The Deviation of Radio-Active Derivative (DRAD) map shows some of the delineated high positive DRAD anomalies, which are elongated in the NW-SE direction and related to Abu-Alaqah, Thebes, and Kariem formations. Read More

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Boron concentration prediction from Compton camera image for boron neutron capture therapy based on generative adversarial network.

Appl Radiat Isot 2022 May 25;186:110302. Epub 2022 May 25.

School of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing, 210094, China.

Prompt gamma monitoring for the prediction of boron concentration is valuable for the dose calculation of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). This work proposes to use generative adversarial network (GAN) to predict the boron distribution based on Compton camera (CC) imaging quickly and provide a scientific basis for its application in BNCT. The BNCT and Compton imaging process was simulated, then the image reconstructed from the simulation and the contour of skin from CT are used as input, and the distribution of boron concentration from PET data is set as the output to train the network. Read More

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Comparison between NIS and TNC channels for the detection of nickel in soil samples.

Appl Radiat Isot 2022 May 27;186:110303. Epub 2022 May 27.

Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran, 31261, Saudi Arabia.

The prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) is a significant technique for determining the quantities of a variety of elements in natural materials, whether online or in situ, regardless of their chemical compounds. This study focused on evaluating the performance of a portable PGNAA setup based on a Genie 16 DD neutron generator to determine the minimum detectable concentration (MDC) of nickel in soil samples. Two separate reaction mechanisms were used to activate the samples. Read More

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Simulation of a new neutron calibration laboratory in Brazil using MCNP5.

Appl Radiat Isot 2022 May 24;186:110289. Epub 2022 May 24.

Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, 14040-900, São Paulo, Brazil.

Metrobras, a private company in Brazil, is developing a new laboratory for the calibration of neutron detectors in collaboration with the National Laboratory for Metrology of Ionizing Radiation (LNMRI). This work aimed at assessing neutron spectra, ambient dose equivalent rates, and neutron scattering in the calibration room of Metrobras Neutron Detectors Calibration Laboratory (LCDNM) using Monte Carlo simulation with MCNP5. Three models were simulated: vacuum, air, and the complete with the several materials employed in the actual room. Read More

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Preliminary study on the thermally stimulated luminescence characterization of UVC and beta irradiated tridymite.

Appl Radiat Isot 2022 May 20;186:110300. Epub 2022 May 20.

CIEMAT, Av. Complutense 22, 28040, Madrid, Spain.

Thermoluminescence (TL) emission of tridymite, a quartz-like mineral, could be used for a variety purposes, including basic research, ceramic technology, traditional/medical industry, and dating. The current study focused on the investigation of the thermal effects on both the luminescence emission and structural properties of natural tridymite. Thermally stimulated luminescence of beta and UVC irradiated samples exhibits complex glow curves indicating simultaneous physical-chemistry processes such as phase transitions, dehydration, dehydroxylation or redox reactions involving intrinsic defects (O vacancies giving rise to F and F-type centers, Schottky and Frenkel defects), extrinsic defects (dopants) and structural defects (stacking fault defects, linear and planar defects or dislocations). Read More

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An investigation of corium in Fukushima Daiichi Unit-1 accident.

Appl Radiat Isot 2022 May 16;186:110264. Epub 2022 May 16.

Reactors Department, Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority (EAEA), Cairo, Egypt. Electronic address:

The core melt composition resulting from the Fukushima Daiichi Unit1 Nuclear Power Plant (FD-U1) accident is essential for the corium characterization phase before decommissioning or handling of radioactive waste. Several models were applied by different research groups for the estimation of corium composition. In this paper, the investigation of the isotopic composition, and radioactivity of the radio-nuclides in the corium10 and 50 years post-accident were calculated using Monte Carlo code, MCNPX 2. Read More

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Performance evaluation of a European wide proficiency test on gross alpha/beta activity determination in drinking water.

Appl Radiat Isot 2022 May 21;186:110304. Epub 2022 May 21.

European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC), Retieseweg 111, 2440, Geel, Belgium.

JRC-Geel organised a Europe-wide proficiency test on gross alpha/beta activity concentration measurements in water with 154 participants from the field of environmental radioactivity monitoring. The performance of the participants was evaluated by comparing their results to the reference value using percentage deviation, z-score and zeta-score. Many of the participants' results deviated several orders of magnitude from the reference values regardless of the techniques used suggesting that the radioactivity monitoring of drinking water using gross-counting in Europe is unsatisfactory. Read More

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Development of a rapid technique for sequential separation of plutonium/americium in nasal swab using solvent extraction and liquid scintillation spectrometry.

Appl Radiat Isot 2022 May 21;186:110297. Epub 2022 May 21.

Health Physics Division, BARC, Trombay, Mumbai, 400085, India.

A rapid radiochemical method has been developed for estimation of plutonium and americium in nasal swab using extractive liquid scintillation spectrometry. The method involves solvent extraction of plutonium and americium from pre-treated nasal swab using 0.2 M Di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoricacid prepared in toluene scintillator & back extraction of americium in aqueous phase using 0. Read More

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Mouthpiece polymer-gel dosimeter for in vivo oral dosimetry during head and neck radiotherapy.

Appl Radiat Isot 2022 May 20;186:110301. Epub 2022 May 20.

Department of Radiological Sciences, Ibaraki Prefectural University of Health Sciences, 4669-2, Ami-machi, Inashiki-gun, Ibaraki, 300-3094, Japan.

In this study, we developed a mouthpiece-type gel dosimeter to prevent the oral mucositis caused by the perturbation effect of dental alloys in the radiotherapy of the head and neck regions and to enable in vivo dosimetry. Understanding the dose distribution in the oral cavity during radiotherapy helps identify the possible site for oral mucositis during treatment. Here agarose, which has a higher melting point than gelatin, was added as a coagulant to stabilize the shape of the dosimeter. Read More

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Calculation of the half life for the thermoluminescent signal of Beryllium oxide.

Appl Radiat Isot 2022 May 17;186:110291. Epub 2022 May 17.

Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Mexico City, Mexico.

Half-life is one of the fundamental parameters to characterize the thermoluminescent (TL) response in ionizing radiation dosimetry. In general, there are two types of important half-lives to model the phenomenon of thermoluminescence (TL). The first type of half-life is the time required for the concentration of trapped charge carriers in a single trap to decrease to half its initial value; this type of half-life is generally denoted as τ. Read More

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Thermoluminescence glow curve analysis of CaYBO phosphor prepared using combustion method.

Appl Radiat Isot 2022 May 20;186:110299. Epub 2022 May 20.

Jazan University, Physics Department, P.O. Box 114, 45142, Jazan, Saudi Arabia. Electronic address:

CaYBO (CBYO) phosphor was synthesized using a gel combustion method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurement confirmed a single-phase structure (space group Pnma (62)) of synthesized compound. TL measurements were conducted between room temperature (RT) and 450 °C at a heating rate of 2 °Cs. Read More

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Defining an equivalent geometry for Monte Carlo calculations of a high-purity Ge detector with high relative efficiency using a genetic algorithm.

Appl Radiat Isot 2022 May 18;186:110295. Epub 2022 May 18.

Hacettepe University, Nuclear Engineering Department, 06800, Ankara, Turkey.

Detailed geometric information of a high-purity Ge (HPGe) detector is a very important issue for Monte Carlo simulation of the detector. Commonly, users have no geometric information about the detector and information given by the manufacturer is not completely valid for simulation. An equivalent geometry of detector, the parameters of which can be used for Monte Carlo simulation, is optimised using a genetic algorithm for a large-volume HPGe detector in this study. Read More

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