Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback 2017 Nov 10. Epub 2017 Nov 10.
National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, Singapore.
Heart rate variability (HRV) is commonly used in sport science for monitoring the physiology of athletes but not as an indicator of physiological state from a psychological perspective. Since HRV is established to be an indicator of emotional responding, it could be an objective means of quantifying an athlete's subjective physiological state before competition. A total of 61 sport shooters participated in this study, of which 21 were novice shooters, 19 were intermediate shooters, and 21 were advanced level shooters. Read More