134,796 results match your criteria Applicable Algebra In Engineering Communication And Computing[Journal]


Nested-block self-attention multiple resolution residual network for multi-organ segmentation from CT.

Med Phys 2022 May 21. Epub 2022 May 21.

Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue NY 1006 New York.

Background: Fast and accurate multi-organs segmentation from CT scans is essential for radiation treatment planning. Self-attention based deep learning methodologies provide higher accuracies than standard methods but require memory and computationally intensive calculations, which restricts their use to relatively shallow networks.

Purpose: Our goal was to develop and test a new computationally fast and memory efficient bi-directional self-attention method called nested block self attention (NBSA), which is applicable to shallow and deep multi-organ segmentation networks. Read More

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Precision Medicine: In Vivo CAR Therapy as a Showcase for Receptor-Targeted Vector Platforms.

Mol Ther 2022 May 20. Epub 2022 May 20.

Molecular Biotechnology and Gene Therapy, Paul-Ehrlich-Institut, Paul-Ehrlich-Straße 51-59, 63225 Langen, Germany;; Frankfurt Cancer Institute (FCI), Goethe-University, Paul-Ehrlich-Straße 42-44, 60596 Frankfurt am Main, Germany. Electronic address:

Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells are a cancer immunotherapy of extremes: Unprecedentedly effective, but complex and costly to manufacture, they are not yet a therapeutic option for all who would benefit. This disparity has motivated worldwide efforts to simplify treatment. Among the proposed solutions, the generation of CAR T cells directly in the patient, i. Read More

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Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) clinical practice guidelines on the management of lumbar spinal stenosis, 2021 - Secondary publication.

J Orthop Sci 2022 May 18. Epub 2022 May 18.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Keio University, Japan.

Background: The Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) guideline for the management of lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) was first published in 2011. Since then, the medical care system for LSS has changed and many new articles regarding the epidemiology and diagnostics of LSS, conservative treatments such as new pharmacotherapy and physical therapy, and surgical treatments including minimally invasive surgery have been published. In addition, various issues need to be examined, such as verification of patient-reported outcome measures, and the economic effect of revised medical management of patients with lumbar spinal disorders. Read More

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Modelling coronary flows: impact of differently measured inflow boundary conditions on vessel-specific computational hemodynamic profiles.

Comput Methods Programs Biomed 2022 May 13;221:106882. Epub 2022 May 13.

Polito(BIO)Med Lab, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Politecnico di Torino, Torino, Italy.

Background And Objectives: The translation of hemodynamic quantities based on wall shear stress (WSS) or intravascular helical flow into clinical biomarkers of coronary atherosclerotic disease is still hampered by the assumptions/idealizations required by the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of the coronary hemodynamics. In the resulting budget of uncertainty, inflow boundary conditions (BCs) play a primary role. Accordingly, in this study we investigated the impact of the approach adopted for in vivo coronary artery blood flow rate assessment on personalized CFD simulations where blood flow rate is used as inflow BC. Read More

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A novel solar-powered electrochemical mineralization system for persistent remediation of uranium-contaminated groundwater.

J Environ Radioact 2022 May 18;250:106909. Epub 2022 May 18.

School of Resource & Environment and Safety Engineering, University of South China, Hengyang, 421001, China. Electronic address:

Reduction of the migratory ability of uranium via reduction, co-precipitation or immobilization is a widely used technology for remediation of uranium contaminated groundwater (UCG). However, the re-released uranium due to environmental alterations such as oxidation, acid dissolution, or microbial decomposition limits the long-term effect of UCG remediation. Here, we developed a novel solar-powered electrochemical mineralization (SPEM) system for persistent remediation of UCG under laboratory conditions. Read More

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Height-based equations as screening tools for high blood pressure in pediatric practice, the GENOBOX study.

J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) 2022 May 21. Epub 2022 May 21.

Growth Exercise, Nutrition and Development (GENUD) Research group, Universidad de Zaragoza, Instituto de Investigación Sanitartia de Aragón (IIS Aragón), Instituto Agroalimentario de Aragón-IA2 (Universidad de Zaragoza-CITA), Zaragoza, Spain.

Due to the absence of easily applicable cut-off points to determine high blood pressure or hypertension in children, as in the adult population, blood pressure is rarely measured in the pediatrician's clinical routine. This has led to an underdiagnosis of high blood pressure or hypertension in children. For this reason, the present study evaluate the utility of five equations for the screening of high blood pressure in children: blood pressure to height ratio, modified blood pressure to height ratio, new modified blood pressure to height ratio, new simple formula and height-based equations. Read More

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Adapting strategies for effective and efficient pediatric HIV case finding in low prevalence countries: risk screening tool for testing children presenting at high-risk entry points in Ethiopia.

BMC Infect Dis 2022 May 20;22(1):480. Epub 2022 May 20.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

Background: Implementing effective and efficient case-finding strategies is crucial to increasing pediatric antiretroviral therapy coverage. In Ethiopia, universal HIV testing is conducted for children presenting at high-risk entry points including malnutrition treatment, inpatient wards, tuberculosis (TB) clinics, index testing for children of positive adults, and referral of orphans and vulnerable children (OVC); however, low positivity rates observed at inpatient, malnutrition and OVC entry points warrant re-assessing current case-finding strategies. The aim of this study is to develop HIV risk screening tool applicable for testing children presenting at inpatient, malnutrition and OVC entry points in low-HIV prevalence settings. Read More

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Physical Activity and Perceived Barriers in Individuals with Moderate-to-Severe Traumatic Brain Injury.

PM R 2022 May 20. Epub 2022 May 20.

Department of Neurology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX.

Introduction: Regular physical activity (PA), especially aerobic exercise, may benefit cognitive function in middle-aged and older adults, but promoting regular PA in individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains a challenge.

Objective: To characterize PA and perceived barriers to PA in younger (<45 years) and middle age and older (≥45 years) individuals >1 year after moderate-to-severe TBI.

Design: Multi-center survey study SETTING: Community PARTICIPANTS: Persons who met the following criteria were included in the study: 1) 18 years and older; 2) English speaking; 3) History of moderate-to-severe TBI; 4) Followed in a TBI Model Systems Center for at least 1 year; and 5) Able to complete the survey independently. Read More

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The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the well-being of individuals with persistent post-concussive symptoms: a qualitative study.

PM R 2022 May 20. Epub 2022 May 20.

Department of Family Medicine, University of Calgary.

Introduction: In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, public health measures were implemented that closed essential businesses, mandated social distancing, and imposed substantial changes to the routine care experienced by patients with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and persistent post-concussive symptoms (PPCS). Patients with PPCS often rely on a comprehensive care team, requiring in-person treatments and consistent care. Little information exists regarding how access to these services have been impacted by public health measures, and what outcome the measures have had on the recovery of patients with PPCS. Read More

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Validation of disease-specific biomarkers for the early detection of bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

Pediatr Res 2022 May 20. Epub 2022 May 20.

Member of the German Lung Research Center (DZL), Institute for Lung Biology and Disease and Comprehensive Pneumology Center with the CPC-M bioArchive, bioArchive, Helmholtz Zentrum München, Munich, Germany.

Objective: To demonstrate and validate the improvement of current risk stratification for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) early after birth by plasma protein markers (sialic acid-binding Ig-like lectin 14 (SIGLEC-14), basal cell adhesion molecule (BCAM), angiopoietin-like 3 protein (ANGPTL-3)) in extremely premature infants.

Methods And Results: Proteome screening in first-week-of-life plasma samples of n = 52 preterm infants <32 weeks gestational age (GA) on two proteomic platforms (SomaLogic, Olink-Proteomics) confirmed three biomarkers with significant predictive power: BCAM, SIGLEC-14, and ANGPTL-3. We demonstrate high sensitivity (0. Read More

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How advances in low-g plumbing enable space exploration.

NPJ Microgravity 2022 May 20;8(1):16. Epub 2022 May 20.

NASA Johnson Space Center, 2101 E. NASA Pkwy, Houston, TX, 77058, USA.

In many ways, plumbing is essential to life support. In fact, the advance of humankind on Earth is directly linked to the advance of clean, healthy, reliable plumbing solutions. Shouldn't this also be true for the advancement of humankind in space? Unfortunately, the reliability of even the simplest plumbing element aboard spacecraft is rarely that of its terrestrial counterpart. Read More

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Whole exome sequencing identifies a novel FRAS1 mutation and aids in vitro fertilization with preimplantation genetic diagnosis in Fraser syndrome.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2022 May;61(3):521-524

Division of Genetics, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Pediatrics, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan; Department of Genomic Medicine, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Objective: To demonstrate the picture of a woman who had three times of pregnancies but fetuses were complicated with Fraser syndrome, a rare genetic disorder with multiple congenital anomalies.

Case Report: Here are three complicated pregnancies with predominant features of severe oligohydramnios and other variable intrafamilial presentations. We made a definite diagnosis, Fraser syndrome, with the assistance of whole exome sequencing (WES) via umbilical blood of the second and third fetus. Read More

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Validation of an allosteric binding site of Src kinase identified by unbiased ligand binding simulations.

J Mol Biol 2022 May 17:167628. Epub 2022 May 17.

Department of Pharmacological Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794, USA. Electronic address:

Allostery plays a primary role in regulating protein activity, making it an important mechanism in human disease and drug discovery. Identifying allosteric regulatory sites to explore their biological significance and therapeutic potential is invaluable to drug discovery; however, identification remains a challenge. Allosteric sites are often "cryptic" without clear geometric or chemical features. Read More

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The development, internal construct and uni-dimensionality of the Tetraplegia Upper Limb Activities Questionnaire, TUAQ. Part 1.

Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2022 May 17. Epub 2022 May 17.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Musculoskeletal Medicine, University of Otago, Christchurch, New Zealand.

Objective: This study aims to develop a patient reported outcome measure that focuses on relevant daily activities relying on upper extremity for individuals with tetraplegia.

Design: Cross-sectional study.

Setting: SCI units in two countries. Read More

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Immune-based therapeutic approaches in COVID-19.

Biomed Pharmacother 2022 May 16;151:113107. Epub 2022 May 16.

Research Center for Immunodeficiencies, Children's Medical Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Network of Immunity in Infection, Malignancy and Autoimmunity (NIIMA), Universal Scientific Education and Research Network (USERN), Tehran, Iran; Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a viral disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), a member of the Coronaviridae family. On March 11, 2020 the World Health Organization (WHO) has named the newly emerged rapidly-spreading epidemic as a pandemic. Besides the risk-reduction measures such as physical and social distancing and vaccination, a wide range of treatment modalities have been developed; aiming to fight the disease. Read More

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A universal synthesis of MOF-Hydroxyl for highly active oxygen evolution.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2022 May 13;623:318-326. Epub 2022 May 13.

Hebei Key Laboratory of Applied Chemistry, School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004, China. Electronic address:

Since of their adjustable pore structure and variety of metal sites, MOFs materials have infinite possibilities, but their low intrinsic activity hinders them from being employed in electrolytic water. The sulfurization and oxidation of MOFs has proven to be a feasible technique for producing highly active catalytic materials. Here, the MOFs are completely converted to hydroxide by treatment with alkaline solutions only. Read More

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Lipid-Nanoparticle-Based Delivery of CRISPR/Cas9 Genome-Editing Components.

Mol Pharm 2022 May 20. Epub 2022 May 20.

Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of British Columbia, 2405 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z3, Canada.

Gene editing mediated by CRISPR/Cas9 systems is due to become a beneficial therapeutic option for treating genetic diseases and some cancers. However, there are challenges in delivering CRISPR components which necessitate sophisticated delivery systems for safe and effective genome editing. Lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) have become an attractive nonviral delivery platform for CRISPR-mediated genome editing due to their low immunogenicity and application flexibility. Read More

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Hierarchical twinning governed by defective twin boundary in metallic materials.

Sci Adv 2022 May 20;8(20):eabn8299. Epub 2022 May 20.

Center of Electron Microscopy and State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, P. R. China.

Dense networks of deformation twins endow metals and alloys with unprecedented mechanical properties. However, the formation mechanism of these hierarchical twin structures remains under debate, especially their relations with the imperfect nature of twin boundaries (TBs). Here, we investigate the intrinsic deformability of defective TBs in face-centered cubic metallic materials, where the inherent kinks on a set of primary TBs are demonstrated to facilitate the formation of secondary and hierarchical nanotwins. Read More

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Gelation of highly entangled hydrophobic macromolecular fluid for ultrastrong underwater in situ fast tissue adhesion.

Sci Adv 2022 May 20;8(20):eabm9744. Epub 2022 May 20.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2, Canada.

Although strong underwater bioadhesion is important for many biomedical applications, designing adhesives to perform in the presence of body fluids proves to be a challenge. To address this, we propose an underwater and in situ applicable hydrophobic adhesive (UIHA) composed of polydimethylsiloxane, entangled macromolecular silicone fluid, and a reactive silane. The hydrophobic fluid displaced the boundary water, formed an in situ gel, bonded to tissues, and achieved exceptional underwater adhesion strength. Read More

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Towards the Application of Machine Learning in Emergency Informatics.

Stud Health Technol Inform 2022 May;291:3-16

Peter L. Reichertz Institute for Medical Informatics of TU Braunschweig and Hannover Medical School, Braunschweig, Germany.

Emergency care is one of the cornerstone parts of the world health organization's action plan. Rapid response and immediate care are considered in agile emergency care. Artificial intelligence (AI) and informatics have been applied to fulfill these requirements through automated emergency technology. Read More

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Once a reservoir, always a reservoir? Seasonality affects the pathogen maintenance potential of amphibian hosts.

Ecology 2022 May 20:e3759. Epub 2022 May 20.

Ecology, Evolution and Marine Biology, University of California, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA.

Host species that can independently maintain a pathogen in a host community and contribute to infection in other species are important targets for disease management. However, the potential of host species to maintain a pathogen is not fixed over time, and an important challenge is understanding how within- and across-season variability in host maintenance potential affects pathogen persistence over longer time scales relevant for disease management (e.g. Read More

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Input layer regularization for magnetic resonance relaxometry biexponential parameter estimation.

Magn Reson Chem 2022 May 20. Epub 2022 May 20.

National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A.

Many methods have been developed for estimating the parameters of biexponential decay signals, which arise throughout magnetic resonance relaxometry (MRR) and the physical sciences. This is an intrinsically ill-posed problem so that estimates can depend strongly on noise and underlying parameter values. Regularization has proven to be a remarkably efficient procedure for providing more reliable solutions to ill-posed problems, while, more recently, neural networks have been used for parameter estimation. Read More

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Clinical Combinatorial Treatments Based on Cancer Vaccines: Combination with Checkpoint Inhibitors and Beyond.

Curr Drug Targets 2022 Apr 21. Epub 2022 Apr 21.

Institute of Molecular Medicine, Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Moscow, Russia.

Cancer vaccine efficacy is influenced by several factors, but one of the most important is the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment, which can attenuate treatment effects. The combination of therapeutic cancer vaccines with other immunotherapies or conventional therapeutic approaches can promote vaccine efficacy by increasing immune surveillance and tumor immunogenicity and modulating immune escape in the tumor microenvironment. Inhibitory checkpoints have a significant role in the modulation of anticancer immune responses, and according to preclinical and clinical trials, administration of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) in combination with cancer vaccines can markedly improve their therapeutic effects, considering their low clinical efficacy. Read More

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Chemical potential, derivative discontinuity, fractional electrons, jump of the Kohn-Sham potential, atoms as thermodynamic open systems, and other (mis)conceptions of the density functional theory of electrons in molecules.

Authors:
E J Baerends

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2022 May 20. Epub 2022 May 20.

Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Many references exist in the density functional theory (DFT) literature to the chemical potential of the electrons in an atom or a molecule. The origin of this notion has been the identification of the Lagrange multiplier = ∂/∂ in the Euler-Lagrange variational equation for the ground state density as the chemical potential of the electrons. We first discuss why the Lagrange multiplier in this case is an arbitrary constant and therefore cannot be a physical characteristic of an atom or molecule. Read More

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A Novel PCR-Based Methodology for Viral Detection Utilizing Mechanical Homogenization.

Bio Protoc 2022 Mar 5;12(5):e4349. Epub 2022 Mar 5.

Jeevan Biosciences LLC, Tucker, GA, USA.

The impact of viral diseases on human health is becoming increasingly prevalent globally with the burden of disease being shared between resource-rich and poor areas. As seen in the global pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2, there is a need to establish viral detection techniques applicable to resource-limited areas that provide sensitive and specific testing with a logistically conscious mindset. Herein, we describe a direct-to-PCR technology utilizing mechanical homogenization prior to viral PCR detection, which allows the user to bypass traditional RNA extraction techniques for accurate detection of human coronavirus. Read More

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Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support and total thyroidectomy in patients with refractory thyroid storm: case series and literature review.

J Surg Case Rep 2022 May 17;2022(5):rjac131. Epub 2022 May 17.

Department of Surgery, Trauma and Vascular Surgery, Hamad Medical Corporation, Qatar.

Thyroid storm (TS) is a rare but life-threatening complication of hyperthyroidism in which multiorgan failure (MOF) is the most common cause of death. Early diagnosis and treatment of TS are challenging. We presented two cases with refractory TS complicated with arrhythmia, cardiac arrest, cardiogenic shock and MOF and were not responding to medical treatment, therapeutic plasma exchange or continuous renal replacement therapy. Read More

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A Longitudinal Study of E-Cigarette, Cigarette, and Marijuana Use Sequence in Youth.

Tob Use Insights 2022 11;15:1179173X221101813. Epub 2022 May 11.

Oregon Research Institute, Eugene, OR, USA.

Objective: There is evidence linking youth use of electronic (e-) cigarettes to subsequent cigarette and marijuana use, raising public health concerns. We examined the sequence of use of e-cigarettes, conventional cigarettes, and marijuana in a longitudinal sample of adolescents, to determine if use of e-cigarettes often preceded use of other substances.

Methods: We collected self-reports from 1123 Oregon adolescents (52% female; 37% Hispanic) longitudinally from 8 to 11 grade (8 total surveys) regarding their lifetime (ever use) and current use (last 30 days) of e-cigarettes, cigarettes, and marijuana. Read More

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Mechanical limitation of bacterial motility mediated by growing cell chains.

Biophys J 2022 May 18. Epub 2022 May 18.

Department of Biological Sciences, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA, 24060; Fralin Life Sciences Institute, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA, 24060. Electronic address:

Contrasting most known bacterial motility mechanisms, a bacterial sliding motility discovered in at least two Gram-positive bacterial families does not depend on designated motors. Instead, the cells maintain end-to-end connections following cell divisions to form long chains and exploit cell growth and division to push the cells forward. To investigate the dynamics of this motility mechanism, we constructed a mechanical model that depicts the interplay of the forces acting on and between the cells comprising the chain. Read More

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Corrosion Damage to Joints of Lattice Towers Designed from Weathering Steels.

Materials (Basel) 2022 May 9;15(9). Epub 2022 May 9.

Department of Building Structures, Faculty of Civil Engineering, VSB-Technical University of Ostrava, 708 00 Ostrava, Czech Republic.

The article dealt with the load-bearing capacity and durability of power line lattice towers designed from weathering steel. Attention was paid in particular to the bolted lap joints. The article evaluates the static and corrosion performance of bolted lap joints in long-term operating towers, and also presents and evaluates design measures that can be applied in the design of new lattice towers, or in the reconstruction of already operating structures. Read More

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