214,680 results match your criteria Anxiety Disorders


[Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) for obsessive-compulsive disorder: A new treatment option?]

Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Klinik und Poliklinik für Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie, Klinikum der Universität München.

More than 40 % of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) do not respond to established treatments despite advances in psychopharmacology and psychotherapy. Since a couple of years, non-invasive brain stimulation techniques gain importance in the treatment of psychiatric disorders. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) uses weak constant direct current to modulate neuronal activation and changes the function of neuronal networks. Read More

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December 2018

Palliative Care in Patients with Hematological Malignancies.

Authors:
Karin Oechsle

Oncol Res Treat 2018 Dec 12;42(1-2). Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Patients with hematologic malignancies (HM) nowadays rarely receive palliative or hospice care, and studies on potential effects of integrated palliative care are rare. This narrative review provides a comprehensive overview on their current end-of-life care, first data on integrated specialist palliative care (SPC) and potential barriers. Symptom burden and distress in patients with HM seem to be comparable to other cancer patients, but their performance status and specific symptoms are even worse. Read More

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December 2018

Cardiovascular toxicity and anxiety-like behavior induced by deltamethrin in zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae.

Chemosphere 2018 Dec 5;219:155-164. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

State Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemical Biology, The Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials, Ministry of Education, College of Life Science, Nankai University, Tianjin, 300071, China. Electronic address:

Deltamethrin is widely used because of its low toxicity and high efficiency. Although its potential toxicity has been reported, its effects on cardiovascular system and motor behavior and its underlying mechanisms have remained unclear. In this study, the effects of deltamethrin on the development, cardiovascular system and motor behavior of zebrafish larvae and their possible mechanisms were evaluated using the transgenic zebrafish Tg (kdrl:mCherry) and Tg(myl7:GFP). Read More

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December 2018

Insomnia as a predictor of mental disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Sleep Med Rev 2018 Nov 16;43:96-105. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Medical Center - University of Freiburg, Faculty of Medicine University of Freiburg, Germany.

Previous research has identified insomnia as a predictor for the onset of depression. The aim of this meta-analysis is to investigate whether insomnia also predicts the onset of other mental disorders. Longitudinal studies were eligible for inclusion if they investigated insomnia at baseline (including nighttime- and daytime-symptoms) as a predictor of the later onset of psychopathology within a follow-up time-frame of at least 12 mo. Read More

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November 2018

Cross-border and domestic surrogacy in the UK context: an exploration of practical and legal decision-making.

Hum Fertil (Camb) 2018 Dec 11:1-12. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

b NGA Law and Brilliant Beginnings , London , UK.

This study aimed to explore UK intending parent's reasons for cross-border and domestic surrogacy, their preparations for the birth and the practical and legal challenges faced after the birth. An online survey was completed by 203 participants, of which 132 had a child born through surrogacy, 33 were in the process of surrogacy and 38 were planning a surrogacy arrangement. The most common reason for pursuing surrogacy in the UK was wanting a relationship with the surrogate (43%; n = 17) and for conducting surrogacy in the USA was because of a better legal framework (97%; n = 60). Read More

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December 2018

Genes known to escape X chromosome inactivation predict co-morbid chronic musculoskeletal pain and posttraumatic stress symptom development in women following trauma exposure.

Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Institute for Trauma Recovery, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.

Co-morbid chronic musculoskeletal pain (CMSP) and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) are frequent sequelae of motor vehicle collision, are associated with greater disability than either outcome alone, and are more prevalent in women than men. In the current study we assessed for evidence that gene transcripts originating from the X chromosome contribute to sex differences in vulnerability to CMSP and PTSS after motor vehicle collision. Nested samples were drawn from a longitudinal study of African American individuals, and CMSP (0-10 numeric rating scale) and PTSS (impact of events scale, revised) outcomes were assessed 6 months following motor vehicle collision. Read More

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December 2018
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Linear mixed models for association analysis of quantitative traits with next-generation sequencing data.

Genet Epidemiol 2018 Dec 9. Epub 2018 Dec 9.

Computational and Statistical Genomics Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, Maryland.

We develop linear mixed models (LMMs) and functional linear mixed models (FLMMs) for gene-based tests of association between a quantitative trait and genetic variants on pedigrees. The effects of a major gene are modeled as a fixed effect, the contributions of polygenes are modeled as a random effect, and the correlations of pedigree members are modeled via inbreeding/kinship coefficients. -statistics and χ likelihood ratio test (LRT) statistics based on the LMMs and FLMMs are constructed to test for association. Read More

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December 2018

Genetic and environmental contributions to the association between mood disorder and periodontal disease: a cross-sectional study amongst female twins in the UK.

J Clin Periodontol 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Department of Twin Research and Genetic Epidemiology, School of Life Course Sciences, King's College London, London, UK.

Aim: This study aimed to investigate the factors associated with periodontal traits considering genetic and environmental background in predominantly older female twins.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional study using self-reported questionnaires for periodontal traits in TwinsUK. Age-adjusted and age-stratified multivariate analyses were conducted for all twins. Read More

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December 2018

A bias of self-reports among repressors: Examining the evidence for the validity of self-relevant and health-relevant personal reports.

Int J Psychol 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Psychology, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.

Studies have shown that repressors tend to respond to self-report tools in a positive fashion which distorts the findings of studies based on questionnaires. The present study aimed to examine the way repressors respond to "Self-relevant" scales (which assess variables related to adaptive self-function) in comparison to "Health-relevant" scales (which assess physical and psychological health). Iranian university students (N = 271) responded to the Weinberger Adjustment Inventory (to differentiate between repressors and self-assured individuals), Mindful Attention and Awareness Scale, Self-control Scale, Integrative Self-knowledge Scale and Self-compassion Scale (to measure self-relevant variables), Bartone Symptoms checklist and the Depression and Anxiety Subscales of Depression, Anxiety and Stress Subscale (DASS-21) (to measure health-relevant variables). Read More

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December 2018

Brain connection pattern under interoceptive attention state predict interoceptive intensity and subjective anxiety feeling.

Hum Brain Mapp 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Key Laboratory of Cognition and Personality (SWU), Ministry of Education, Chongqing, China.

Interoception involves the processing of a variety of different types of information ascending from the body. Accumulating evidence has indicated that interoception plays a fundamental role in cognitive and emotional processes, such as anxiety, but how different functional connectivity patterns contribute to emotions and visceral feelings during an interoceptive attention state is still unclear. In the present study, an interoceptive attention task was performed during functional magnetic resonance imaging of healthy subjects, and the participants' subjective ratings of the intensity of interoception and feelings of anxiety were recorded. Read More

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December 2018

Determinants for Meaningful Clinical Improvement of Pain and Health-Related Quality of Life After Spinal Cord Stimulation for Chronic Intractable Pain.

Neuromodulation 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Center for Applied Neuroscience (CeNAp), University Hospital (HU), Federal University of Santa Catarina State (UFSC), Florianópolis, SC, Brazil.

Objectives: Previous studies demonstrated significant improvement in mean pain scores and quality of life (QOL) scales in patients with chronic pain who underwent spinal cord stimulation (SCS). However, the number of individuals who experience relevant improvements in QOL, termed the meaningful clinical improvement (MCI), is not known. The present study investigated changes in pain measurements based on MCI after SCS. Read More

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December 2018

Maternal Perinatal and Concurrent Anxiety and Mental Health Problems in Early Childhood: A Sibling-Comparison Study.

Child Dev 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Norwegian Institute of Public Health and University of Oslo.

Do associations between maternal anxiety symptoms and offspring mental health remain after comparing differentially exposed siblings? Participants were 17,724 offspring siblings and 11,553 mothers from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort study. Mothers reported anxiety and depressive symptoms at 30 weeks' gestation, and 0.5, 1. Read More

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December 2018

Safeguarding older adults with dementia, depression, and delirium in a temporary disaster shelter.

Nurs Forum 2018 Dec 9. Epub 2018 Dec 9.

Center of Innovation in Long-Term Services and Supports, Providence VA Medical Center, Providence, RI.

Natural disasters impact people of every age in the communities where they occur, with older adults being a vulnerable subset of the population. Most disaster shelter volunteer nurses are experienced in addressing common health needs of older adult clients such as diabetes, hypertension, and pulmonary disease. These nurses also have the requisite training to respond to more acute medical events, including the symptoms of a heart attack or stroke. Read More

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December 2018
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A game of colours, changing emotions in children: a pilot study.

Eur Arch Paediatr Dent 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, I.T.S-CDSR, Muradnagar, Ghaziabad, India.

Aim: To analyse the effect of colours on children's emotions and variations in anxiety levels using six different coloured attires, white, pink, yellow, green, purple and black.

Methods: Seventy-two children aged between 5-9 years old who had come for restorative treatment in the Department of Paediatric and Preventive Dentistry, I.T. Read More

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December 2018

Prevalence of Depression, Anxiety and PTSD in People with Dementia: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Neuropsychol Rev 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

School of Psychology, Faculty of Health & Medical Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia, 5005, Australia.

There appears to be a link between depression/anxiety/PTSD and dementia, although the evidence is incomplete and the reason is unclear. Mental illness may cause dementia or may be prodromal or comorbid with dementia, or dementia may trigger a relapse of symptoms in individuals with a history of mental illness. This study examined the link between depression/anxiety/PTSD and dementia by evaluating the prevalence of these disorders in people with dementia, relative to their healthy peers. Read More

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December 2018

NOP Ligands for the Treatment of Anxiety and Mood Disorders.

Handb Exp Pharmacol 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Department of Medical Sciences, Section of Pharmacology, and National Institute of Neuroscience, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy.

Many studies point toward the nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) and the N/OFQ peptide receptor (NOP) as targets for the development of innovative drugs for treating anxiety- and mood-related disorders. Evidence supports the view that the activation of NOP receptors with agonists elicits anxiolytic-like effects, while its blockade with NOP antagonists promotes antidepressant-like actions in rodents. Genetic studies showed that NOP receptor knockout mice display an antidepressant-like phenotype, and NOP antagonists are inactive in these animals. Read More

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December 2018

The Open Field Test for Measuring Locomotor Activity and Anxiety-Like Behavior.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1916:99-103

Laboratory of Psychiatric Neuroscience, Australian Institute of Tropical Health and Medicine, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD, Australia.

The open field test is used in studies of the neurobiological basis of anxiety and screening for novel drug targets and anxiolytic compounds. This test uses a camera to measure movement of the test animal in the peripheral and central zones of a 42 × 42 × 42 cm polyvinyl chloride box. This chapter describes a protocol for carrying out the open-field test for assessment of locomotion and anxiety-like behavior in mice. Read More

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January 2019

The Elevated Plus Maze Test for Measuring Anxiety-Like Behavior in Rodents.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1916:69-74

Laboratory of Psychiatric Neuroscience, Australian Institute of Tropical Health and Medicine, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD, Australia.

The elevated plus maze test is used to measure anxiety-like behavior in rodents. It can be used to gain insight into conditions such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other conditions marked by anxious behavior. It can also be used as a component in screening of novel compounds for anxiolytic properties. Read More

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January 2019

General and Specific Predictors of Comorbid Substance Use and Internalizing Problems from Adolescence to Age 33.

Prev Sci 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Social Development Research Group, School of Social Work, University of Washington, 9725 3rd Ave. NE, Suite 401, Seattle, WA, 98115, USA.

The current study examines the continuity in comorbidity between substance use and internalizing mental health problems from adolescence to adulthood and investigates the general and specific predictors of comorbidity across development. Participants were drawn from the Seattle Social Development Project (N = 808), a gender-balanced, ethnically diverse longitudinal panel. Structural equation modeling was used to examine risk factors for comorbid substance use and internalizing problems in family and peer social environments; substance use- and mental health-specific social environments (family tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use; family history of depression); and individual risk factors (behavioral disinhibition). Read More

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December 2018

The Effects of Group Prenatal Care on Infant Birthweight and Maternal Well-Being: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

Mil Med 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

John Muir Physician Network Clinical Research Center, 2700 Grant St., Suite 202, Concord, CA.

Introduction: Group prenatal care models have been in use in the USA for over 20 years and have shown benefits in reducing rates of preterm birth and low birth weight infants in high-risk civilian populations. Group prenatal care has been widely implemented at military treatment facilities, despite a lack of high-quality evidence for improved perinatal outcomes in this population.

Materials And Methods: In this randomized, controlled trial, 129 patients at a military treatment facility received either traditional one-on-one prenatal care or group prenatal care using the CenteringPregnancy model. Read More

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December 2018

Acupuncture in Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

Inflamm Bowel Dis 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition, Department of Inflammation and Immunity, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio.

Scientific research into the effects and mechanisms of acupuncture for gastrointestinal diseases including inflammatory bowel disease has been rapidly growing in the past several decades. In this review, we discuss the history, theory, and methodology of acupuncture and review potentially beneficial mechanisms of action of acupuncture for managing inflammatory bowel disease. Acupuncture has been shown to decrease disease activity and inflammation via increase of vagal activity in inflammatory bowel disease. Read More

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December 2018

Trajectories of sleep quality from late pregnancy to 36 months postpartum and association with maternal mood disturbances: a longitudinal and prospective cohort study.

Sleep 2018 Dec;41(12)

Department of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, Pediatric Translational Medicine Institution, Shanghai Childrenges Medical Center, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, China.

Study Objectives: To examine trajectories of poor sleep quality from late pregnancy to 36 months postpartum, baseline indicators, and association with prospective maternal mood disturbances.

Methods: A cohort of 262 nonclinical women was followed at late pregnancy, 42 days, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, 24, and 36 months postpartum. Sleep quality was measured with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index at all time points, and mood disturbances were assessed at late pregnancy and 36 months postpartum. Read More

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December 2018

Cognitive Performance in Episodic Cluster Headache.

Pain Med 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Neurology Department, University Clinical Hospital Lozano Blesa, Instituto Aragonés de Ciencias de la Salud, Grupo de Estudio de Trastornos del Movimiento y Cefaleas (GIIS070), Zaragoza, Spain; Neurology Department, University Clinical Hospital Lozano Blesa, Zaragoza, Spain.

Background. : Cluster headache is one of the most disabling of all headache conditions. Although some studies have investigated the psychological profile of patients with cluster headache, research on its impact on cognitive function in patients with episodic cluster headache outside the cluster bout is scant. Read More

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December 2018

Adolescent Paranoia: Prevalence, Structure, and Causal Mechanisms.

Schizophr Bull 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Background: Adolescence can be a challenging time, characterized by self-consciousness, heightened regard for peer acceptance, and fear of rejection. Interpersonal concerns are amplified by unpredictable social interactions, both online and offline. This developmental and social context is potentially conducive to the emergence of paranoia. Read More

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December 2018

Reproductive and Behavior Dysfunction Induced by Maternal Androgen Exposure and Obesity Is Likely Not Gut Microbiome-Mediated.

J Endocr Soc 2018 Dec 15;2(12):1363-1380. Epub 2018 Oct 15.

Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine and metabolic disorder of unclear etiology in women and is characterized by androgen excess, insulin resistance, and mood disorders. The gut microbiome is known to influence conditions closely related with PCOS, and several recent studies have observed changes in the stool microbiome of women with PCOS. The mechanism by which the gut microbiome interacts with PCOS is still unknown. Read More

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December 2018

Costs and consequences of chronic pain due to musculoskeletal disorders from a health system perspective in Chile.

Pain Rep 2018 Sep-Oct;3(5):e656. Epub 2018 Sep 10.

Health Technology Assessment Unit, Center of Clinical Research, Faculty of Medicine, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile.

Background: Chronic pain is a prevalent and distressing condition caused by an unceasing pain lasting more than 3 months or a pain that persists beyond the normal healing time. There is evidence of inadequate management partly explained by the unawareness regarding the magnitude of the problem.

Objectives: To estimate the annual expected costs and consequences of chronic pain caused by musculoskeletal diseases from the health system perspective in Chile. Read More

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September 2018

Pharmacological profile of the neuropeptide S receptor: Dynamic mass redistribution studies.

Pharmacol Res Perspect 2018 Dec 3;6(6):e00445. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Medical Sciences Section of Pharmacology National Institute of Neuroscience University of Ferrara Ferrara Italy.

Neuropeptide S (NPS) is the endogenous ligand of the neuropeptide S receptor (NPSR). NPS modulates several biological functions including anxiety, wakefulness, pain, and drug abuse. The aim of this study was the investigation of the pharmacological profile of NPSR using the dynamic mass redistribution (DMR) assay. Read More

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December 2018

Influence of the requirement for abdominal pain in the diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome with constipation (IBS-C) under the Rome IV criteria using data from a large Japanese population-based internet survey.

Biopsychosoc Med 2018 5;12:18. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

4Department of Behavioral Medicine, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan.

Background: Rome III was revised to Rome IV in May 2016. One important change in the Rome IV criteria is that abdominal pain must be present for a diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Under Rome III, in contrast, patients with abdominal discomfort only could be diagnosed with IBS, but these cases under Rome IV are now classified as unspecified functional bowel disorder (FBD). Read More

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December 2018

Severe tinnitus in a patient with acquired deafness for over 50 years: a case report.

Biopsychosoc Med 2018 26;12:17. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

2Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinamomachi, Shinjuku, Tokyo, 1608582 Japan.

Background: There have been many reports on the treatment effect of cochlear implantation and hearing aids in the treatment of tinnitus in patients with severe hearing loss. However, as far as we are aware, there are no reports of investigation of treatment approaches for the tinnitus of deaf patients whose communication is solely carried out in sign language due to a long duration of deafness.

Case Presentation: We experienced a case of severe tinnitus with bilateral deafness for more than 50 years. Read More

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November 2018

Comparison of nitrous oxide/midazolam and nitrous oxide/promethazine for pediatric dental sedation: A randomized, cross-over, clinical trial.

Dent Res J (Isfahan) 2018 Nov-Dec;15(6):411-419

Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Dental School, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran.

Background: This study compared the safety and efficacy of nitrous oxide (NO)/midazolam and NO/promethazine for dental treatment of uncooperative children.

Materials And Methods: In this randomized, cross-over, clinical trial investigation Eighteen healthy uncooperative children with a pair of similar teeth requiring the same treatment were included. Combination of NO/midazolam was given in one visit, where NO/promethazine was administrated in the other appointment for each patient in a cross-over manner. Read More

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December 2018

A cross-sectional evaluation of children preference for dentist attire and syringe type in reduction of dental anxiety.

Dent Res J (Isfahan) 2018 Nov-Dec;15(6):391-396

Department of Pedodontics, Malabar Dental Dental College and Research Centre, Malappuram, Kerala, India.

Background: Fear of a dental child is most commonly associated with dentist attire and usage of syringe. The objective of the study was to evaluate the preference of dentist's attire and kind of syringe (conventional or camouflage) among different age groups of children.

Materials And Methods: In this cross-sectional study A total of 750 children aged 4-14 years were included in the study. Read More

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December 2018

Validation of the Substance Use Risk Profile Scale (SURPS) With Bulgarian Substance Dependent Individuals.

Front Psychol 2018 26;9:2296. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Institute for Drug and Alcohol Studies, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, United States.

The Substance Use Risk Profile Scale (SURPS) is a 23-item self-report questionnaire that assesses four well-validated personality risk factors for substance misuse (Impulsivity, Sensation Seeking, Anxiety Sensitivity, and Hopelessness). While the SURPS has been used extensively with adolescents at risk for substance dependence, its properties with adult substance-dependent populations have been understudied. Further, the validity of the Bulgarian version of the SURPS has not been evaluated. Read More

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November 2018

Decreased Blood Levels of Oxytocin in Ketamine-Dependent Patients During Early Abstinence.

Front Psychiatry 2018 26;9:633. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Heaven, CT, United States.

Ketamine, an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, is a common drug of abuse worldwide. Existing evidence suggest a disruption of oxytocin system involves in the development of addiction. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of oxytocin in ketamine addiction by measuring the blood oxytocin levels in ketamine-dependent (KD) patients. Read More

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November 2018

Intimate Partner Violence and Psychiatric Comorbidity in Infertile Women - A Cross-Sectional Hospital Based Study.

Indian J Psychol Med 2018 Nov-Dec;40(6):540-546

Department of Psychiatry, The Oxford Medical College, Hospital and Research Centre, Bangalore, Karnataka, India.

Background And Aim: In Asian countries, child bearing is a social obligation. Experience of infertility profoundly affects the personal well-being of women. Women with infertility are at a higher risk of anxiety, depression, and Intimate partner violence (IPV). Read More

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December 2018

Emergency department patients' clinical and demographic characteristics regarding Hospital Anxiety subscale.

Turk J Emerg Med 2018 Dec 11;18(4):162-166. Epub 2018 Jan 11.

Dept. of Emergency Medicine, Istanbul Education and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey.

Objective: To evaluate clinical and demographic characteristics of the emergency department (ED) patients using Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) which includes anxiety (HAD-A) subscale.

Materials And Methods: In this cross-sectional study, all consecutive adult patients admitted to the community hospital-based ED in the study period were enrolled prospectively. HAD-A items were responded by the patients themselves. Read More

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December 2018

Patient-Reported Outcomes Over 5 Years After Whole- or Partial-Breast Radiotherapy: Longitudinal Analysis of the IMPORT LOW (CRUK/06/003) Phase III Randomized Controlled Trial.

J Clin Oncol 2018 Dec 11:JCO1800982. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Indrani S. Bhattacharya, Joanne S. Haviland, Anna M. Kirby, Penelope Hopwood, John R. Yarnold, and Judith M. Bliss, The Institute of Cancer Research; Anna M. Kirby, Royal Marsden National Health Service Foundation Trust, London; Cliona C. Kirwan, University of Manchester and University Hospital of South Manchester, Manchester; and Charlotte E. Coles, Cambridge University, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

Purpose: IMPORT LOW demonstrated noninferiority of partial-breast and reduced-dose radiotherapy versus whole-breast radiotherapy for local relapse and similar or reduced toxicity at 5 years. Comprehensive patient-reported outcome measures collected at serial time points are now reported.

Patients And Methods: IMPORT LOW recruited women with low-risk breast cancer after breast-conserving surgery. Read More

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December 2018

Dismissing the fallacies of childhood eczema management: case scenarios and an overview of best practices.

Drugs Context 2018 3;7:212547. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Pediatrics, The University of Calgary, Alberta Children's Hospital, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

Background: Eczema or atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common relapsing childhood dermatologic illness. Treatment of AD is primarily topical with emollients and corticosteroid/calcineurin inhibitor, which is efficacious for the majority of patients. However, AD is often complicated and difficult to manage in many Asian cities. Read More

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December 2018

Cognitive Behavioural Therapy through PowerPoint: Efficacy in an Adolescent Clinical Population with Depression and Anxiety.

Int J Pediatr 2018 8;2018:1396216. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

Department of Psychiatry, Queen's University, Providence Care Hospital, 752 King Street West, Postal Bag 603, Kingston, Ontario, K7L 7X3, Canada.

Background: Limited help-seeking behaviours, among adolescents with mental health concerns and many barriers to accessing mental health services, make innovative approaches to administering mental health therapies crucial. Therefore, this study evaluated the efficacy of e-CBT given via PowerPoint slides to treat adolescents with anxiety and/or depression.

Method: 15 adolescents referred to an outpatient adolescent psychiatry clinic to treat a primary DSM-IV diagnosis of anxiety and/or depression chose between 8 weeks of e-CBT (n=7) or 7 weeks of live CBT (n=8). Read More

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November 2018

The Role of the Eukaryotic Translation Initiation Factor 4E (eIF4E) in Neuropsychiatric Disorders.

Front Genet 2018 23;9:561. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

Centre for Discovery Brain Sciences, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom.

Protein synthesis in eukaryotic cells is a complex, multi-step and tightly regulated process. Translation initiation, the rate limiting step in protein synthesis, is dependent on the activity of eukaryotic translation Initiation Factor 4E (eIF4E). eIF4E is the cap-binding protein which, in synergy with proteins such as the helicase eIF4A and the scaffolding protein eIF4G, binds to mRNA, allowing the recruitment of ribosomes and translation initiation. Read More

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November 2018

Abnormal Topology of the Structural Connectome in the Limbic Cortico-Basal-Ganglia Circuit and Default-Mode Network Among Primary Insomnia Patients.

Front Neurosci 2018 23;12:860. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

Department of Medical Imaging, Guangdong Second Provincial General Hospital, Guangzhou, China.

Primary insomnia (PI) is the second most common mental disorder. However, the topologic alterations in structural brain connectome in patients with PI remain largely unknown. A total of 44 PI patients and 46 age-, gender-, and education level matched healthy control (HC) participants were recruited in this study. Read More

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November 2018

Gut thinking: the gut microbiome and mental health beyond the head.

Authors:
Grace Lucas

Microb Ecol Health Dis 2018 30;29(2):1548250. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

School of Health Sciences, City, University of London, London, UK.

In recent decades, dominant models of mental illness have become increasingly focused on the head, with mental disorders being figured as brain disorders. However, research into the active role that the microbiome-gut-brain axis plays in affecting mood and behaviour may lead to the conclusion that mental health is more than an internalised problem of individual brains. This article explores the implications of shifting understandings about mental health that have come about through research into links between the gut microbiome and mental health problems such as depression and anxiety. Read More

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November 2018

Intergenerational Transmission of DNA Methylation Signatures Associated with Early Life Stress.

Curr Genomics 2018 Dec;19(8):665-675

1Department of Genetic Medicine and Development, University of Geneva Hospitals and Faculty of Medicine, Geneva, Switzerland; 2Department of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, University of Geneva Hospitals and Faculty of Medicine, Geneva, Switzerland; 3Department of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA.

Early life stress in humans (i.e. maltreatment, violence exposure, loss of a loved one) and in rodents (i. Read More

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December 2018

Anxiety, depression symptoms, and physical activity levels of eutrophic and excess-weight Brazilian elite police officers: a preliminary study.

Psychol Res Behav Manag 2018 14;11:589-595. Epub 2018 Nov 14.

Institute of Primary Care, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Background: Police officers are subjected to high work-related stress. This scenario of irregular and insalubrious working conditions may be related to an increase in psychiatric disorders and overweight. In particular, low levels of physical activity and high work stress levels may predispose police officers to obesity, poor lifestyles, and, consequently, major risk of psychological disorders. Read More

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November 2018

Activation of ERK/CREB/BDNF pathway involved in abnormal behavior of neonatally Borna virus-infected rats.

Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 2018 15;14:3121-3132. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

Department of Neurology, Yongchuan Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 402460, China,

Background: Neuropsychiatric disorders are devastating illnesses worldwide; however, the potential involvement of viruses in the pathophysiological mechanisms of psychiatric diseases have not been clearly elucidated. Borna disease virus (BDV) is a neurotropic, noncytopathic RNA virus.

Materials And Methods: In this study, we infected neonatal rats intracranially with BDV Hu-H1 and Strain V within 24 hours of birth. Read More

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November 2018

Students from single-sex schools are more gender-salient and more anxious in mixed-gender situations: Results from high school and college samples.

PLoS One 2018 7;13(12):e0208707. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Psychology, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China.

Gender segregation exists in all walks of life. One of the most common forms of institutionalized gender segregation is perhaps single-sex schooling. Because schooling experience has important influence on students' psychosocial development, interest in gender-segregated education has been reviving over the globe. Read More

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December 2018

A randomized controlled trial of a transdiagnostic cognitive-behavioral intervention for Afro-descendants' survivors of systemic violence in Colombia.

PLoS One 2018 10;13(12):e0208483. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of International Health and Department of Mental Health, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, United States of America.

Background: Exposure to violence has negative consequences on mental health. Armed-conflict in Colombia has widely affected Afro-descendants in the Pacific region. Evidence regarding effectiveness of mental health interventions is lacking in low-income settings, especially in areas with active conflict. Read More

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December 2018

Impaired anandamide/palmitoylethanolamide signaling in hippocampal glutamatergic neurons alters synaptic plasticity, learning, and emotional responses.

Neuropsychopharmacology 2018 Nov 15. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

Institute of Physiological Chemistry, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Duesbergweg 6, 55128, Mainz, Germany.

Endocannabinoid signaling via anandamide (AEA) is implicated in a variety of neuronal functions and considered a promising therapeutic target for numerous emotion-related disorders. The major AEA degrading enzyme is fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). Genetic deletion and pharmacological inhibition of FAAH reduce anxiety and improve emotional responses and memory in rodents and humans. Read More

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November 2018

Neurostructural correlate of math anxiety in the brain of children.

Transl Psychiatry 2018 Dec 10;8(1):273. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Center for MR-Research, University Children's Hospital, Zurich, Switzerland.

Adequate mathematical competencies are currently indispensable in professional and social life. However, mathematics is often associated with stress and frustration and the confrontation with tasks that require mathematical knowledge triggers anxiety in many children. We examined if there is a relationship between math anxiety and changes in brain structure in children with and without developmental dyscalculia. Read More

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December 2018

[Prevention of cognitive dysfunction in elderly cancer patients operated on the pelvic organs in conditions of multimodal anesthesia].

Khirurgiia (Mosk) 2018 (11):44-48

FGBU 'Rostov Research Institute of Oncology' of the Ministry of Health of the Russia, Rostov-on-Don, Russia.

The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of various variants of multimodal anesthesia on the cognitive functions of elderly patients after surgical interventions on pelvic organs, the development of preventive measures for POCD.

Material And Methods: A study was conducted in 76 elderly patients aged 62 to 84 years with an increased risk of developing POCD. Of these, 46 women and 30 men. Read More

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January 2018