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    2239 results match your criteria Antiviral Therapy[Journal]

    1 OF 45

    A pharmacokinetic/viral kinetic model to evaluate treatment of chronic HCV infection with a non-nucleoside polymerase inhibitor.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Jan 10. Epub 2017 Jan 10.
    Theoretical Biology and Biophysics, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM, USA.
    Background: Viral kinetic models have proven useful in characterizing treatment effectiveness during HCV therapy with interferon (IFN) as well as with direct acting antivirals (DAAs).

    Methods: Here we use a pharmacokinetic/viral kinetic (PK/VK) model to describe HCV RNA kinetics during treatment with setrobuvir, a non-nucleosidic inhibitor of the HCV NS5B polymerase enzyme. Using PK data from 3 studies in healthy volunteers and PK and VK data from a phase 1 study, where setrobuvir was administered for 3 days, we fitted a two-compartment PK model with first-order absorption and lag-time, an Emax pharmacodynamics model and a standard biphasic viral kinetic model. Read More

    Uptake of tenofovir-based antiretroviral therapy among HIV-HBV-coinfected patients in the EuroSIDA study.
    Antivir Ther 2018 Jan 5. Epub 2018 Jan 5.
    CHIP, Department of Infectious Diseases, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Background: According to guidelines all HIV/HBV co-infected patients should receive tenofovir-based combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). We aimed to investigate uptake and outcomes of tenofovir-based cART among HIV/HBV patients in the EuroSIDA study.

    Methods: All HBsAg+ patients followed up after 1 March 2002 were included. Read More

    Sofosbuvir-ledipasvir with or without ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C genotypes 1 and 6: real-world experience in Vietnam.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Jan 5. Epub 2017 Jan 5.
    Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
    Background: Therapy with Sofosbuvir-ledipasvir (SOF-LDV) has been very effective in chronic HCV genotype 1 in clinical trials and several real-world cohorts. However, the safety and efficacy data of SOF-LDV for HCV genotype 6 is quite limited.

    Methods: This open-label, clinical experience evaluated the safety and efficacy of SOF-LDV with or without ribavirin (RBV) for 12-24 weeks in patients with HCV genotype 1 (n=356) and genotype 6 (n=175) in Vietnam during September 2015 and May 2017. Read More

    A systematic review of Zika virus: hurdles toward vaccine development and the way forward.
    Antivir Ther 2018 Jan 4. Epub 2018 Jan 4.
    School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine at Tulane University, New Orleans, LA, USA.
    The Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic has recently emerged as public health threat due to its teratogenic nature and association with the serious neurological condition Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). To date, no approved antiviral therapeutics or vaccines are available to confront ZIKV. In order to develop effective anti-ZIKV vaccines, improved animal models and a better understanding of immunological correlates of protection against ZIKV are required. Read More

    The relevance of drug-drug interactions in clinical practice: the case of concomitant boosted protease inhibitors plus alpha1-blocker administration.
    Antivir Ther 2018 Jan 4. Epub 2018 Jan 4.
    Gestione Ambulatoriale Politerapie (GAP) outpatient clinic, ASST Fatebenefratelli Sacco University Hospital, Milan, Italy.

    JNJ-63623872 treatment in adult volunteers experimentally inoculated with live influenza virus: a Phase IIa, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Dec 15. Epub 2017 Dec 15.
    Janssen Research & Development LLC, Titusville, NJ, USA.
    Background: JNJ-63623872 is a novel, non-nucleoside polymerase complex inhibitor with in vitro activity against influenza A virus, including pandemic 2009 H1N1, H7N9, H5N1 strains as well as neuraminidase-and amantadine-resistant strains.

    Methods: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, Phase 2a study. Healthy volunteers (N = 104) were inoculated with an influenza A/Wisconsin/67/2005 (H3N2) challenge virus. Read More

    Pharmacokinetics of favipiravir during continuous venovenous haemofiltration in a critically ill patient with influenza.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Nov 29. Epub 2017 Nov 29.
    Intensive Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands.
    Favipiravir is a novel antiviral drug approved for influenza treatment in Japan. Little is known about favipiravir pharmacokinetics in critically ill patients. Here, we report a patient with influenza treated with favipiravir and undergoing continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH) on the Intensive Care Unit of a tertiary hospital in the Netherlands. Read More

    Frailty: is thy name…..universal? Evolving challenges of managing effectively treated older people living with HIV.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Nov 24. Epub 2017 Nov 24.
    Division of Geriatrics, McGill University Health Center, Montreal, QC, Canada.
    The increased survival of treated people living with HIV (PLWH) represents a tremendous accomplishment. However, this has not been accompanied by uniform improvements in quality of life. Many PLWH prematurely develop age-related complications and traditional geriatric syndromes, including frailty. Read More

    Inflammation investigated as a source of pharmacokinetic variability of atazanavir in AIDS Clinical Trials Group protocol A5224s.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Nov 24. Epub 2017 Nov 24.
    AIDS Clinical Trials Group Pharmacology Specialty Laboratory, New York State Center of Excellence in Bioinformatics and Life Sciences, School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, USA.
    Background: Inflammation is associated with the downregulation of drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters. Thus, we investigated the chronic inflammatory state associated with HIV-infection as a source of pharmacokinetic variability of atazanavir. We also explored the association of total bilirubin concentrations with markers of inflammation and endothelial activation. Read More

    Correlation between entecavir penetration in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and HBV DNA decay during treatment of HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Nov 23. Epub 2017 Nov 23.
    University of Turin, Department of Medical Sciences, 'Amedeo di Savoia' Hospital, Turin, Italy.
    Background: Recently, due to its high effectiveness and tolerability, the treatment of chronic hepatitis B with entecavir became a standard practice. However, limited knowledge is currently available about its pharmacokinetic behavior and intracellular disposition. Recently, our group reported an inverse correlation between entecavir plasma concentrations and the HBV DNA decay at the first and third month of treatment, respectively. Read More

    Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate as pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention in women with osteoporosis: a case report and review of the literature.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Nov 23. Epub 2017 Nov 23.
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Brown University, Providence, RI, USA.
    Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), using tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), can effectively prevent HIV acquisition. However, TDF can cause changes in bone mineral density (BMD). There is little information on the use of PrEP among patients with bone disease. Read More

    Drug-drug interaction potential of the hepatitis B and hepatitis D virus entry inhibitor myrcludex B assessed in vitro.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Nov 14. Epub 2017 Nov 14.
    Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Pharmacoepidemiology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Background: Myrcludex B is a first-in-class virus entry inhibitor for patients with chronic hepatitis B or B/D infections. In patients it will be co-administered with drugs needed for the disease or comorbidities. We aimed to define the risk of drug-drug interactions by characterizing the influence of myrcludex B on relevant drug transporting and metabolizing enzymes in vitro. Read More

    Real-world evidence for nucleoside/nucleotide analogues in a 5-year multicentre study of antiviral-naive chronic hepatitis B patients in China: 52-week results.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Nov 8. Epub 2017 Nov 8.
    Bristol-Myers Squibb, Shanghai, China.
    Background: In China, the clinical management of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is complicated by the use of various nucleos(t)ide analogue (NUC) regimens in treatment-naïve patients, including NUCs with low genetic barriers to resistance, with/without add-on therapy and de novo NUC combinations. This longitudinal observational study therefore investigated the real-world clinical management and efficacy of NUC therapy in treatment-naïve CHB patients in China.

    Methods: Treatment-naïve CHB patients initiated on NUC therapy were enrolled from 63 hospitals in tier-2 Chinese cities. Read More

    Peramivir susceptibilities of recombinant influenza A and B variants selected with various neuraminidase inhibitors.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Mar 22. Epub 2017 Mar 22.
    Research Center in Infectious Diseases of the CHUQ-CHUL and Laval University, Québec City, QC, Canada.
    Background: Peramivir is a parenteral neuraminidase inhibitor (NAI) approved for treating influenza infections in a few countries. We determined peramivir susceptibilities of several uncharacterized influenza A and B neuraminidase (NA) and haemagglutinin (HA) mutants selected with different NAIs.

    Methods: Recombinant wild-type (WT) and mutant NA proteins were expressed in 293T cells and susceptibility to peramivir, oseltamivir and zanamivir was determined by NA inhibition assay using the MUNANA substrate. Read More

    Characterization of HCV resistance from a 3-day monotherapy study of voxilaprevir, a novel pangenotypic NS3/4A protease inhibitor.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Oct 24. Epub 2017 Oct 24.
    Gilead Sciences, Inc., Foster City, CA, USA.
    Background: Voxilaprevir (VOX, GS-9857) is a pangenotypic hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3/4A protease inhibitor (PI) with potent antiviral activity against HCV genotypes (GTs) 1-6 and improved coverage of GT1 NS3 resistance-associated substitutions (RASs) associated with other HCV PIs. In a 3-day phase 1b monotherapy study in patients infected with HCV GT1a, 1b, 2, 3 and 4, VOX was well tolerated and resulted in maximal mean viral load reduction >3 log10 IU/ml at the 100 mg dose across all genotypes evaluated. This report characterizes the HCV NS3 RASs in the study. Read More

    Meticulous plasma isolation is essential to avoid false low-level viraemia in Roche Cobas HIV-1 viral load assays.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Oct 24. Epub 2017 Oct 24.
    AIDS Reference Laboratory, Department of Clinical Chemistry, Microbiology and Immunology, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.
    Background: Pre-analytical sample processing is often overlooked as a potential cause of inaccurate assay results. Here we demonstrate how plasma, extracted from standard EDTA- containing blood collection tubes, may contain traces of blood cells consequently resulting in a false low-level HIV-1 viral load when using Roche Cobas HIV-1 assays.

    Methods: The presence of human DNA in Roche Cobas 4800 RNA extracts and in RNA extracts from the Abbott HIV-1 RealTime assay was assessed by quantifying the human albumin gene by means of qPCR. Read More

    Primary HIV infection in patients with acute hepatitis B: a report of two cases.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Oct 12. Epub 2017 Oct 12.
    Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences 'Luigi Sacco', University of Milan, Italy.
    We describe 2 patients admitted to our Institution with a diagnosis of sexually acquired acute hepatitis B who also had underlying hyper acute Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection. Both individuals reported high rates of condomless sex. Antiviral therapy active against Hepatitis B virus and HIV was started within days after diagnosis. Read More

    HIV-1 viral load and resistance in genital secretions in patients taking protease-inhibitor-based second-line therapy in Africa.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Oct 11. Epub 2017 Oct 11.
    MRC Clinical Trials Unit at University College London, London, United Kingdom.
    Background: HIV is transmitted primarily through sexual intercourse, and the objective of this study was therefore to assess whether there is occult viral replication and resistance in genital secretions in patients on protease inhibitor (PI)-based second-line therapy.

    Methods: HIV-infected adults taking ritonavir-boosted lopinavir with either two NRTIs, raltegravir, or as monotherapy for 96 weeks were enrolled at seven clinical sites in Uganda. Viral load (VL) was measured in cervico-vaginal secretions or semen and in a corresponding plasma sample. Read More

    Vitamin D supplementation decreases immune activation and exhaustion in HIV-1-infected youth.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Oct 10. Epub 2017 Oct 10.
    Rainbow Babies & Children's Hospital and Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH, USA.
    Background: Heightened immune activation and exhaustion drive HIV disease progression and co-morbidities. Vitamin D has pleiotropic immunomodulatory effects, but little is known about the effects of supplementation in HIV. Our study investigates changes in immune activation and exhaustion markers after 12 months of supplementation in virologically-suppressed HIV-infected youth with vitamin D insufficiency. Read More

    Pharmacokinetics of rilpivirine and 24-week outcomes after switching from efavirenz in virologically-suppressed HIV-1-infected adolescents.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Oct 10. Epub 2017 Oct 10.
    Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand.
    Background: Rilpivirine (RPV), a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor drug, could be a favorable drug for maintenance therapy in HIV-infected adolescents because it has few long-term side effects. However, data among adolescents switching from efavirenz (EFV) to RPV are limited. This study investigated the pharmacokinetics (PK), safety and efficacy of RPV in virologically-suppressed HIV-1-infected adolescents after switching from EFV. Read More

    Quantitative measurement of HCV core antigen for management of interferon-free therapy in HCV infected patients.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Oct 10. Epub 2017 Oct 10.
    Department of Infectious Diseases and Hepatology, Medical University of Bialystok, Bialystok, Poland.
    Background: According to current recommendations diagnosis and management of HCV infection need detection and quantification of nucleic acids. In the era of direct acting antivirals (DAA) it is essential to develop inexpensive and simple method replacing polymerase chain reaction. Since there is no available data on HCV core antigen (HCVcAg) versus HCV RNA kinetics in the early phase of treatment with DAA, we carried out this study to evaluate possible application of HCVcAg quantitative measurement for management of HCV infection. Read More

    Viro-immunological response of drug-naive HIV-1-infected patients starting a first-line regimen with viraemia >500,000 copies/ml in clinical practice.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Sep 22. Epub 2017 Sep 22.
    Department of Tropical and Infectious Diseases, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Careggi, Florence, Italy.
    Background: Virological success (VS) and immunological reconstitution (IR) of antiretroviral-naïve HIV-1 infected patients with pre-therapy viral load (VL) >500,000 copies/mL was assessed after 12 months of treatment according to initial drug-class regimens.

    Methods: An observational multicenter retrospective study was performed. VS was defined as the first VL <50 copies/mL from treatment start. Read More

    Durability of antiretroviral therapy regimens and determinants for change in HIV-1-infected patients in the TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database (TAHOD-LITE).
    Antivir Ther 2017 Sep 21. Epub 2017 Sep 21.
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Institute of Infectious Diseases and Epidemiology, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore.
    Background: The durability of first line regimen is important to achieve long term treatment success for the management of HIV infection. Our analysis describes the duration of sequential ART regimens and identifies the determinants leading to treatment change in HIV-positive patients initiating in Asia.

    Methods: All HIV-positive adult patients initiating first-line ART in 2003-2013, from eight clinical sites among seven countries in Asia. Read More

    The association between serum cytokine and chemokine levels and antiviral response by entecavir treatment in chronic hepatitis B patients.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Sep 21. Epub 2017 Sep 21.
    Department of Gastroenterology and Metabolism, Graduate School of Biomedical & Health Sciences, Applied Life Sciences, Institute of Biomedical & Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima, Japan.
    Background: Although Nucleos(t)ide analogue therapy is thought to suppress chronic hepatitis B(CHB) via regulation of inflammatory cytokines/chemokines, the mechanism is still unclear. In this study, serum cytokine/chemokine levels were measured in CHB patients treated with entecavir, and the association with antiviral response was analyzed.

    Methods: Seventy-eight Japanese patients with CHB were enrolled, and serum cytokine/chemokine levels were measured at baseline and at 12, 24, and 48 weeks of entecavir treatment using the MULTIPLEX kit. Read More

    Longitudinal study of falls among HIV-infected and uninfected women: the role of cognition.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Sep 21. Epub 2017 Sep 21.
    Department of Medicine, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY, USA.
    Background: Although fracture rates are higher in HIV+ than HIV- women, whether HIV infection increases risk of falls is unclear. We determined the longitudinal occurrence and risk factors for falls in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS), and explored associations with cognitive complaints.

    Methods: Recent (prior 6 months) self-reported falls were collected in 1816 (1250 HIV+; 566 HIV-) women over 24 months. Read More

    Epicardial adipose tissue volume and cardiovascular risk indices among asymptomatic women with and without HIV.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Jul 21. Epub 2017 Jul 21.
    Program in Nutritional Metabolism, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.
    Background: Mechanisms underlying the heightened myocardial infarction risk among HIV-infected women (versus non-HIV-infected women) remain unclear. Our objectives were to assess epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) volume and its associations among asymptomatic women with and without HIV.

    Methods: A total of 55 HIV-infected and 27 non-HIV-infected women without known cardiovascular disease who underwent cardiac CT and metabolic/immune phenotyping were included. Read More

    A meta-analysis of laninamivir octanoate for treatment and prophylaxis of influenza.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Sep 4. Epub 2017 Sep 4.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Osaka Anti-Tuberculosis Association Osaka Hospital, Neyagawa City, Osaka, Japan.
    Background: Laninamivir octanoate is a recently developed inhaled neuraminidase inhibitor for treating influenza virus infection. We performed meta-analyses to clarify the efficacy of laninamivir octanoate on influenza treatment and prevention.

    Methods: MEDLINE and CENTRAL were searched to identify eligible studies. Read More

    3-Year efficacy and durability of simplification to single tablet regimens: a comparison between co-formulated efavirenz/emtricitabine/tenofovir and rilpivirine/emtricitabine/tenofovir.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Aug 11. Epub 2017 Aug 11.
    Clinic of Infectious Diseases, San Gerardo Hospital - ASST Monza, Monza, Italy.
    Background: Few data are available about efficacy and durability of simplification from multi-tablet antiretroviral regimens to co-formulated efavirenz (EFV)/emtricitabine (FTC)/tenofovir (TDF) versus rilpivirine (RPV)/FTC/TDF in virologically suppressed HIV-1-infected patients.

    Methods: We retrospectively analysed HIV-infected patients with HIV RNA <50 copies/ml switching to co-formulated EFV/FTC/TDF or RPV/FTC/TDF at five Italian centres. Patients were followed from time of switch until regimen discontinuation or a maximum of 3-years follow-up. Read More

    Sustained virological response by direct antiviral agents in HCV leads to an early and significant improvement of liver fibrosis.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Aug 11. Epub 2017 Aug 11.
    Internal Medicine and Hepatology Division, Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Salerno, Salerno, Italy.
    Background: Direct antiviral agents (DAA) demonstrated high efficacy among HCV-infected patients in registered trials. Nevertheless, the impact of these therapies on liver stiffness measurement (LSM) and liver functionality in 'real-life' is not well-known. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the sustained virological response (SVR) impact on LSM and clinical parameters of DAA-therapy on a real-life population of HCV patients with F3/F4 fibrosis. Read More

    Frailty in men living with HIV: a cross-sectional comparison of three frailty instruments.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Jul 21. Epub 2017 Jul 21.
    Department of Infectious Diseases, The Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, Australia.
    Background: Potent antiretroviral treatment has resulted in near normal life expectancy for people living with HIV. Consequently, there is an increased focus on comorbidities, frailty and quality of life.

    Methods: We assessed and compared the prevalence of frailty, associated factors and relationship with quality of life in older Australian men living with HIV in a cross-sectional study using three frailty measurements. Read More

    Epicardial adipose tissue volume and cardiovascular risk indices among asymptomatic women with and without HIV.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Jul 21. Epub 2017 Jul 21.
    Program in Nutritional Metabolism, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.
    Background: Mechanisms underlying the heightened myocardial infarction risk among HIV-infected women (versus non-HIV-infected women) remain unclear. Our objectives were to assess epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) volume and its associations among asymptomatic women with and without HIV.

    Methods: A total of 55 HIV-infected and 27 non-HIV-infected women without known cardiovascular disease who underwent cardiac CT and metabolic/immune phenotyping were included. Read More

    In vitro susceptibility of geographically and temporally distinct Zika viruses to favipiravir and ribavirin.
    Antivir Ther 2017 11;22(7):613-618. Epub 2017 Jul 11.
    Research Center in Infectious Diseases of the CHU of Québec and Laval University, Québec City, QC, Canada.
    Background: Zika virus, a previously neglected mosquito-borne virus, is prompting worldwide concern because of its connection with congenital defects, Guillain-Barré syndrome, meningoencephalitis and myelitis in infected individuals. However, no specific antiviral therapy is available at present. In this study, we investigated the in vitro susceptibility of geographically and temporally distinct Zika viruses against the RNA polymerase inhibitors, favipiravir (T-705) and ribavirin. Read More

    The ultra-short virological dynamics in response to entecavir or lamivudine during chronic hepatitis B with spontaneous severe acute exacerbation.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Jul 3. Epub 2017 Jul 3.
    Division of Gastroenterology & Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan.
    Background: Nucleoside/nucleotide analogue (NA) therapy could be life-saving in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) with spontaneous severe acute exacerbation (SAE). We aimed to investigate the ultra-short virological responses to NA.

    Methods: We conducted a randomized controlled trial in which CHB patients with spontaneous SAE were randomized to receive lamivudine (LVD) or entecavir (ETV) between July 2012 and April 2016 (ClinicalTrials. Read More

    Long-term persistence of HCV NS5A resistance associated substitutions after treatment with the HCV NS5A inhibitor, ledipasvir, without sofosbuvir.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Jun 26. Epub 2017 Jun 26.
    Gilead Sciences, Inc., Foster City, CA, USA.
    Background: Data on persistence of NS5A resistance associated substitutions (RASs) may have implications for resistance testing approaches and selection of initial and retreatment strategies.

    Methods: Long-term persistence of NS5A RASs in HCV genotype (GT) 1 infected subjects (n=76) who did not achieve sustained virologic response after receiving ledipasvir (LDV) without sofosbuvir (SOF) and were subsequently enrolled in an ongoing 3-year follow-up registry study was investigated by population or deep sequencing.

    Results: Of the 76 subjects enrolled, 67 and 9 subjects had GT1a and GT1b infection, respectively. Read More

    Association of the S267F variant on NTCP gene and treatment response to pegylated interferon in patients with chronic hepatitis B: a multicentre study.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Jun 21. Epub 2017 Jun 21.
    Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University and King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Thai Red Cross Society, Bangkok, Thailand.
    Background: Sodium taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide (NTCP) is a cell receptor for HBV. The S267F variant on the NTCP gene is inversely associated with the chronicity of HBV infection, progression to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma in East Asian populations. The aim of this study was to determine whether the S267F variant was associated with response to pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) in patients with chronic HBV infection. Read More

    The association between detected drug resistance mutations and CD4+ T-cell decline in HIV-positive individuals maintained on a failing treatment regimen.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Jun 19. Epub 2017 Jun 19.
    Department of Infection and Population Health, UCL, London, UK.
    Background: To analyse the effect of drug resistance mutations (DRM) on CD4 cell trends in HIV-positive people maintained on virologically failing antiretroviral therapy (ART).

    Methods: Individuals from two large cohorts experiencing virological failure (VF) while maintained on ART with >1 CD4 count and >1 resistance test were included. CD4 cell slopes were estimated using linear mixed models. Read More

    Pooled analysis of HCV genotype 1 resistance-associated substitutions in NS5A, NS3 and NS5B pre-and post-treatment with 12 weeks of daclatasvir, asunaprevir and beclabuvir.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Jun 8. Epub 2017 Jun 8.
    Toranomon Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.
    Background: Daclatasvir (DCV; non-structural [NS]5A inhibitor) plus asunaprevir (ASV; NS3 inhibitor) plus beclabuvir (BCV; non-nucleoside NS5B inhibitor) is an approved regimen for hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype (GT)-1 treatment in Japan. A comprehensive analysis of pre-treatment and treatment-emergent HCV resistance to this regimen ± ribavirin (RBV) was performed.

    Methods: Data were pooled from five Phase 2/3 studies of DCV+ASV+BCV±RBV given for 12 weeks to GT-1a- or GT-1b-infected patients. Read More

    Antiviral drug resistance and hepatitis B: a continuing public health problem.
    Antivir Ther 2017 May 15. Epub 2017 May 15.
    Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity, Melbourne, Australia.
    The use of selective antiviral therapy has been very successful in controlling HBV replication in individuals, leading to a reduction in disease progression and mortality. However, the use of first-generation therapies, often the only available option in low-resource settings, can result in a high prevalence of drug resistance mutations. Variants selected by antiviral therapies targeting the viral polymerase can also result in variants in the viral envelope. Read More

    Antibacterial effects of antiretrovirals, potential implications for microbiome studies in HIV.
    Antivir Ther 2017 May 12. Epub 2017 May 12.
    Division of Infectious Diseases and Hospital Epidemiology, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Background: Despite being used by more than 18 million people our understanding of the extent of the effects of antiretrovirals on the human body and other organisms remains incomplete. In addition, the direct effect of antiretrovirals on the gut microbiota of HIV-infected individuals has been largely overlooked in microbiome studies concerned with HIV-infected individuals.

    Methods: Here we tested 25 antiretrovirals on Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli using a broth microdilution assay to assess whether these drugs have an antibacterial effect. Read More

    Antiviral therapy reduces risk of haemorrhagic stroke in patients with HCV infection: a nationwide cohort study.
    Antivir Ther 2017 May 4. Epub 2017 May 4.
    Department of Neurology and Neuroscience Research Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, and Chang Gung University, Linkou, Taiwan.
    Background: The tendency for haemorrhagic stroke in patients with chronic HCV infection has emerged recently but the finding may be confounded by comorbidities. Proving the causality between HCV infection and haemorrhagic stroke is mandatory. Our study was designed to investigate the incidence of intracranial haemorrhage in HCV-infected patients with and without treatment. Read More

    Metabolic profiles of individuals switched to second-line antiretroviral therapy after failing standard first-line therapy for treatment of HIV-1 infection in a randomized, controlled trial.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Apr 27. Epub 2017 Apr 27.
    The Kirby Institute, UNSW, Sydney, Australia.
    Background: To investigate metabolic changes associated with second-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) following virological failure of first-line ART.

    Methods: SECOND-LINE was an open-label randomized controlled trial. Participants were randomized 1:1 to receive ritonavir-boosted lopinavir (LPV/r) with 2-3 nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (N[t]RTI group) or raltegravir (RAL group). Read More

    Impacts of HBV rtH55R polymerase substitution on viral replication and rtM204I/V resistance to nucleoside/nucleotide antiviral drugs.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Apr 25. Epub 2017 Apr 25.
    Department of Microbiology and Center of Infectious Disease, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing, China.
    Background: High genetic variability at the reverse transcriptase (RT) region of HBV could confer resistance to nucleoside/nucleotide analogues (NUCs). The aim of this study was to identify new RT amino acid (AA) substitutions related to NUC resistance.

    Methods: HBV RT sequences of genotype C from 501 chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients were analysed to identify potential RT substitutions related to NUC resistance. Read More

    Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate monotherapy is superior to entecavir-adefovir combination therapy in patients with suboptimal response to lamivudine-adefovir therapy for nucleoside-resistant HBV: a 96-week prospective multicenter trial.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Apr 24. Epub 2017 Apr 24.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Chungnam National University Hospital, Daejeon, Korea.
    Background: A complete virologic response is closely related to the long-term outcome of patients with chronic hepatitis B and prevention of emerging hepatitis B virus (HBV) mutations. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) monotherapy compared to entecavir-adefovir dipivoxil (ETV-ADV) combination therapy in patients with suboptimal responses to long-term lamivudine-adefovir dipivoxil (LAM-ADV) therapy for nucleoside analogue-resistant chronic hepatitis B.

    Methods: Patients (n = 60) were randomized to TDF monotherapy or ETV-ADV combination therapy for 96 weeks. Read More

    Real-world efficacy and safety of ritonavir-boosted paritaprevir, ombitasvir, dasabuvir ± ribavirin for hepatitis C genotype 1 - final results of the REV1TAL study.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Apr 19. Epub 2017 Apr 19.
    Department of Gastroenterology, Alfred Health, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.
    Background: Limited data exist on the outcomes of ritonavir-boosted paritaprevir with ombitasvir and dasabuvir (PrOD) ± ribavirin in a real-world setting. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of PrOD-based therapy in hepatitis C genotype 1 patients with and without cirrhosis, and to explore pre-treatment factors predictive of sustained viral response (SVR) and serious adverse events (SAEs) on treatment.

    Methods: 451 patients with hepatitis C genotype 1 treated in 20 centres across Australia were included. Read More

    Antiviral activity of nobiletin against chikungunya virus in vitro.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Apr 13. Epub 2017 Apr 13.
    Center for Infectious Diseases, Discovery Biology, SRI International, Harrisonburg, VA, USA.
    Background: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), a highly contagious re-emerging virus, is transmitted by infected mosquitoes. CHIKV is prevalent in tropical countries and is continuing to creep farther north into temperate areas. CHIKV is responsible for induction of chikungunya fever (CF) and severe joint stiffness with the capability of developing into bilateral and systemic arthralgia or even encephalitis. Read More

    Dolutegravir/abacavir/lamivudine versus current ART in virally suppressed patients (STRIIVING): a 48-week, randomized, non-inferiority, open-label, Phase IIIb study.
    Antivir Ther 2017 12;22(4):295-305. Epub 2017 Apr 12.
    ViiV Healthcare, Brentford, UK.
    Background: Simplified dosing regimens are important for patients who face challenges in adhering to HIV-1 therapy. We investigated the safety and virological efficacy of switching to once-daily abacavir/dolutegravir/lamivudine (ABC/DTG/3TC).

    Methods: The STRIIVING study was a randomized, open-label, Phase IIIb study in adults with HIV-1 RNA <50 copies/ml on antiretroviral therapy (ART) at enrolment (ClinicalTrials. Read More

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