2,316 results match your criteria Antiviral Therapy[Journal]


Patients with HCV genotype-1 who have failed a direct-acting antiviral regimen: virological characteristics and efficacy of retreatment.

Antivir Ther 2019 Feb 13. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Laboratory for the Identification of Prognostic Factors of Response to the Treatment Against Infectious Diseases, University of Campania L. Vanvitelli, Naples, Italy.

Background: This real-world clinical-setting study characterized the virological patterns in genotype-1 patients failing IFN-free regimens and evaluated the efficacy of re-treatment.

Methods: Seventy-three consecutive patients failing IFN-free regimens were enrolled (17 genotype 1a and 56 1b). At failure Sanger sequencing of NS3, NS5A and NS5B regions was performed by home-made protocols. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3851/IMP3296DOI Listing
February 2019

Inhibitory effect of iota-carrageenan on porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in vitro.

Antivir Ther 2019 Feb 12. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou Higher Education Mega Center, Guangzhou, PR China.

Background: Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an economically important pathogen and causes significant economic losses to the swine industry worldwide each year. Current vaccination strategies do not effectively prevent and control the virus. Consequently, it is necessary to develop novel antiviral strategies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3851/IMP3295DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Durability of first-line antiretroviral regimens in the era of integrase inhibitors: a cohort of HIV-positive individuals in Spain, 2014-2015.

Antivir Ther 2019 Feb 12. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Hospital Universitario Ramon y Cajal, Madrid, Spain.

Background: We compared time to treatment change (TC), viral suppression (VS) and change in CD4+ T-cell counts of first-line antiretroviral regimens (ART).

Methods: We analyzed HIV treatment-naïve adults from the Cohort of the Spanish HIV/AIDS Research Network (CoRIS) initiating the most commonly used ART regimens from September 2014 to November 2015. We used proportional hazards models on the sub-distribution hazard to estimate sub-distribution hazard ratios (sHR) for time to TC, logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) for VS (viral load<50 copies/ml), and linear regression to assess mean differences in CD4 changes from ART initiation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3851/IMP3297DOI Listing
February 2019

Provincial and national prevalence estimates of transmitted HIV-1 drug resistance in South Africa measured using two WHO-recommended methods.

Antivir Ther 2019 Feb 11. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA.

Introduction: Sentinel surveillance of transmitted HIV drug resistance (TDR) among recently infected populations within a country was recommended by the World Health Organization from 2004-2015.

Methods: Serum specimens collected as part of the 2010, 2011 and 2012 National Antenatal Sentinel HIV Prevalence Surveys were used to estimate provincial and national TDR prevalence in South Africa.

Results: Moderate (5-15%) levels of transmitted non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI) drug class resistance were detected in 3 of 5 provinces surveyed in 2010 and 2011 (Eastern Cape, Free State and KwaZulu-Natal). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3851/IMP3294DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Therapeutic drug monitoring of darunavir/ritonavir in pregnancy.

Antivir Ther 2019 Feb 7. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

School of Medicine and Medical Science, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.

Background: Physiological changes during pregnancy can have a significant impact on antiretroviral pharmacokinetics (PK), which may result in reduced drug efficacy. Here we describe the PK of darunavir/ritonavir (DRV/r) 800/100 QD in a cohort of pregnant women undergoing routine therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) as well as transplacental passage of DRV by measuring and comparing cord blood and maternal blood samples at delivery.

Methods: Pregnant HIV-positive women received DRV/r as part of routine pre-natal care. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3851/IMP3291DOI Listing
February 2019

Polypharmacy and drug-drug interactions in older and younger people living with HIV: the POPPY study.

Antivir Ther 2019 Jan 31. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom.

Background: Polypharmacy (use of ≥ 5 medications) increases the risk of drug-drug interactions and can lead to negative health outcomes. This study aimed to review the medications of people living with HIV (PLWH) and HIV negative controls in the POPPY study and evaluate the frequency of polypharmacy and potential drug-drug interactions (PDDI).

Methods: Potential drug-drug interactions between non-antiretroviral (ARV) drugs were analysed using the Lexicomp® database, and PDDI between non-ARV and ARV drugs using the Liverpool drug interaction database. Read More

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https://www.intmedpress.com/journals/avt/abstract.cfm?id=329
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3851/IMP3293DOI Listing
January 2019
4 Reads
3.020 Impact Factor

Cost-effectiveness of second-generation direct-acting antiviral agents in chronic HCV infection: a systematic literature review.

Antivir Ther 2019 Jan 16. Epub 2019 Jan 16.

Syreon Research Institute, Budapest, Hungary.

Background: Our objectives were to review the economic modelling methods and cost-effectiveness of second generation direct-acting antiviral agents for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus infection.

Methods: A systematic literature search was performed in February 2017 using Scopus and OVID to review relevant publications between 2011 to present. Two independent reviewers screened potential papers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3851/IMP3290DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Behaviour of occult HBV infection in HCV-infected patients under treatment with direct-acting antivirals.

Antivir Ther 2019 Jan 10. Epub 2019 Jan 10.

Department of Human Pathology, University Hospital of Messina, Messina, Italy.

Background: There are controversial data on possible occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation in hepatitis C virus (HCV) patients successfully treated with direct-acting antivirals (DAA). However, diagnosis of occult HBV infection (OBI) was not performed by gold standard procedures in any study.

Methods: By using several highly sensitive assays, we examined serially collected serum samples from 40 HBV-surface-negative DAA-treated HCV patients with OBI identified by testing liver biopsy specimens through nested-PCR technique. Read More

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https://www.intmedpress.com/journals/avt/abstract.cfm?id=328
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3851/IMP3288DOI Listing
January 2019
9 Reads

Impact of three decades of antiretroviral therapy in a longitudinal population cohort study.

Antivir Ther 2019 Jan 7. Epub 2019 Jan 7.

S Alberta HIV Clinic and University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada.

Background: We have used a comprehensive HIV population to characterize antiretroviral therapy (ART), drug class selection, pill burden, drug costs and health outcomes over the entire span of the HIV epidemic.

Methods: Antiretroviral (ARV) use (drugs, classes, formulations) and both the laboratory and clinical outcomes (HIV1-RNA, CD4 cell count, and mortality) were determined for all patients in Southern Alberta, Canada, at each year-end between 1986 and 2017. Pill burden, cumulative drug exposure and costs were calculated for each year. Read More

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https://www.intmedpress.com/journals/avt/abstract.cfm?id=328
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3851/IMP3287DOI Listing
January 2019
6 Reads

Frailty as a predictor of falls in HIV-infected and uninfected women.

Antivir Ther 2019 Jan 3. Epub 2019 Jan 3.

Department of Medicine, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY, USA.

Background: Frailty and falls occur commonly and prematurely in HIV-infected populations. Whether frailty in middle-age predicts future falls among HIV-infected women is unknown.

Methods: We evaluated associations of frailty with single and recurrent falls 10 years later among 729 HIV-infected and 326 uninfected women in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) with frailty measured in 2005 and self-reported falls in 2014-2016. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3851/IMP3286DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Disparate effects of cytotoxic chemotherapy on the antiviral activity of antiretroviral therapy: implications for treatments of HIV-infected cancer patients.

Antivir Ther 2018 Dec 21. Epub 2018 Dec 21.

Institute of Human Virology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Background: Cancer is a leading cause of death in HIV-infected patients in the era of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Yet, there are no specific guidelines for the combined use of cART and chemotherapy in HIV-infected cancer patients. The cellular enzyme thymidylate synthase (TS) catalyzes the conversion of dUMP to TMP, which is converted to TDP and ultimately to TTP, a building block in DNA synthesis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3851/IMP3285DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Tenofovir plus hepatitis B immunoglobulin treatment resulted in a rapid HBV DNA load decline in high-risk pregnant women who missed the optimal time window of antiviral prophylaxis.

Antivir Ther 2018 Dec 20. Epub 2018 Dec 20.

Department of Infectious Diseases, First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an City, China.

Background: Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) administration in the third trimester for pregnant women with high HBV DNA load has been accepted as a wise practice to prevent mother-to-infant transmission (MTIT). However, for those women who missed the optimal time window of antiviral prophylaxis, the emergent treatment is lacked in the current clinical guidelines.

Methods: Forty-eight pregnant women who did not receive antiviral prophylaxis before 28 weeks of gestation were screened and were administrated with TDF plus hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG, TDF+HBIG group) or TDF alone (TDF group). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3851/IMP3284DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Hindsight is 20/20 - the importance of knowing! Know your patients' HBV status.

Antivir Ther 2018 ;23(6):471-473

Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3851/IMP3260DOI Listing
January 2018
1 Read

Efavirenz pharmacokinetics during pregnancy and infant washout.

Antivir Ther 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Departments of Pharmacy and Pharmacology and Toxicology, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Background: Limited data exist on efavirenz pharmacokinetics in HIV-positive pregnant women and neonatal washout.

Methods: HIV-infected pregnant women receiving 600 mg efavirenz once daily had intensive steady-state 24-hour pharmacokinetics profiles during the second trimester (2T), third trimester (3T) and 6-12 weeks postpartum (PP). Maternal and umbilical cord blood samples were drawn at delivery and neonatal washout pharmacokinetics were determined. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3851/IMP3283DOI Listing
December 2018
9 Reads

Association of serum total cholesterol with pegylated interferon-α treatment in HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B patients.

Antivir Ther 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, China.

Background: Recent studies suggest that serum lipids are associated with pegylated interferon-alpha (PEG-IFN-α) treatment response in chronic hepatitis C patients. However, the role of serum lipids in influencing the outcome of HBV treatment is not well understood. This study aims to investigate the association of serum lipids with the response to interferon-alpha treatment for chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3851/IMP3282DOI Listing
December 2018
7 Reads

HSV susceptibility to acyclovir - genotypic and phenotypic characterization.

Antivir Ther 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Manipal Centre for Virus Research, Manipal Academy of Higher Education (MAHE), Karnataka, India.

Background: Infections due to drug-resistant herpes simplex viruses (HSV) represent an important clinical concern, especially in the immunocompromised patients. The present study was aimed at detecting acyclovir (ACV) susceptibility in HSV clinical samples.

Methods: A total of 13 HSV-positive clinical samples (five HSV-1 and eight HSV-2) recovered from patients (one immunocompromised, and 12 of unknown immune status) were included in the study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3851/IMP3279DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Automated nucleic acid isolation methods for HDV viral load quantification can lead to viral load underestimation.

Antivir Ther 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Endocrinology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany.

Background: Hepatitis D virus (HDV) infection is a cause of severe liver disease. Diagnosis and monitoring of HDV RNA are important to patient management. Since 2012 a WHO standard for HDV RNA quantification is available, however, the impact of RNA extraction methods on HDV viral load quantification has never been evaluated. Read More

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https://www.intmedpress.com/journals/avt/abstract.cfm?id=328
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3851/IMP3281DOI Listing
December 2018
12 Reads

Monitoring of serum HBV RNA, HBcrAg, HBsAg and anti-HBc levels in patients during long-term nucleoside/nucleotide analogue therapy.

Antivir Ther 2018 Dec 4. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Institute of Infectious Diseases, Beijing 302 Hospital, Beijing, China.

Background: This study was aimed at evaluating the clinical significance of serum HBV RNA, hepatitis B core-related antigen (HBcrAg) and hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc) levels in chronic hepatitis B patients with undetectable HBV DNA during nucleoside/nucleotide analogue (NA) treatment.

Methods: Fifty-seven patients who received long-term NA treatment of median 5.83 (25%, 75% percentiles 4. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3851/IMP3280DOI Listing
December 2018
5 Reads

Expert opinion on managing chronic HCV infection in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Antivir Ther 2018 ;23(Suppl 2):11-21

Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7211, and Inflammation-Immunopathology-Biotherapy Department (DHU i2B), Paris, France.

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been identified as an extrahepatic manifestation of chronic HCV infection. Conversely, in the context of chronic HCV infection, T2DM can accelerate the course of HCV-induced liver disease leading to increased risk of fibrosis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The presence of T2DM negatively impacts the efficacy of interferon-based antiviral therapy, but real-world data with high-efficacy direct-acting antiviral therapies suggest high viral clearance rates in T2DM patients. Read More

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https://www.intmedpress.com/journals/avt/abstract.cfm?id=325
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3851/IMP3255DOI Listing
January 2018
9 Reads

Expert opinion on the management of renal manifestations of chronic HCV infection.

Antivir Ther 2018 ;23(Suppl 2):57-67

Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7211, and Inflammation-Immunopathology-Biotherapy Department (DHU i2B), Paris, France.

Chronic HCV infection is a non-traditional (but modifiable) risk factor for chronic kidney disease and has been implicated in glomerular injury and nephrosclerotic disease. Three HCV direct-acting antiviral regimens are available for patients with severe kidney impairment: ombitasvir, paritaprevir with the pharmacokinetic enhancer ritonavir, and dasabuvir; glecaprevir plus pibrentasvir; and elbasvir plus grazoprevir. In patients with severe kidney impairment, sofosbuvir-free regimens are preferred because sofosbuvir accumulation has been associated with a progressive worsening of renal function. Read More

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https://www.intmedpress.com/journals/avt/abstract.cfm?id=324
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3851/IMP3247DOI Listing
January 2018
11 Reads

Expert opinion on managing chronic HCV in patients with cardiovascular disease.

Antivir Ther 2018 ;23(Suppl 2):35-46

Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7211, and Inflammation-Immunopathology-Biotherapy Department (DHU i2B), Paris, France.

Extrahepatic manifestations of chronic HCV infection include cardiovascular diseases and an increase in cardiovascular mortality. The pathogenic mechanisms by which HCV contributes to cardiovascular disease are not well defined, however, it is likely that systemic inflammation, and the promotion of other metabolic diseases are involved. In this Review, the evidence for HCV infection as a non-traditional risk factor for cardiovascular disease is evaluated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3851/IMP3248DOI Listing
January 2018
7 Reads

Expert opinion on managing chronic HCV in patients with mixed cryoglobulinaemia vasculitis.

Antivir Ther 2018 ;23(Suppl 2):1-9

Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7211, and Inflammation-Immunopathology-Biotherapy Department (DHU i2B), Paris, France.

Mixed cryoglobulinaemia vasculitis (CryoVas) is a small-vessel systemic vasculitis caused by deposition of mixed cryoglobulins and is characterized by a wide range of clinical symptoms. HCV is the primary cause of CryoVas, which is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The mortality rate among patients with HCV-associated CryoVas is 3× that of the general population, with a 63% 10-year survival rate. Read More

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https://www.intmedpress.com/journals/avt/abstract.cfm?id=324
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3851/IMP3246DOI Listing
January 2018
9 Reads

Expert opinion on managing chronic HCV in patients with neuropsychiatric manifestations.

Antivir Ther 2018 ;23(Suppl 2):47-55

Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7211, and Inflammation-Immunopathology-Biotherapy Department (DHU i2B), Paris, France.

Neurological manifestations of HCV infection appear to be under-recognized in clinical practice despite the majority of HCV-infected patients experiencing symptoms such as fatigue, depression and cognitive dysfunction. There is also growing evidence for a link between HCV infection and an increased risk of Parkinson's disease. The mechanism underpinning the association between HCV and these neuropsychiatric syndromes still requires further investigation. Read More

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https://www.intmedpress.com/journals/avt/abstract.cfm?id=324
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3851/IMP3245DOI Listing
January 2018
9 Reads

Expert opinion on managing chronic HCV in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma and other extrahepatic malignancies.

Antivir Ther 2018 ;23(Suppl 2):23-33

Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7211, and Inflammation-Immunopathology-Biotherapy Department (DHU i2B), Paris, France.

HCV is a carcinogen that is well established as a major risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma. Evidence that HCV plays a role in the development of extrahepatic malignancies is less robust; however, epidemiological studies have consistently demonstrated an association between HCV infection and B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). The strongest evidence for a link between HCV and tumourigenesis is the clear association between viral eradication, as indicated by achievement of sustained virological response, and remission of B-cell NHL. Read More

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https://www.intmedpress.com/journals/avt/abstract.cfm?id=325
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3851/IMP3250DOI Listing
January 2018
13 Reads

Daclatasvir and sofosbuvir with ribavirin for 24 weeks in chronic hepatitis C genotype-3-infected patients with cirrhosis: a Phase III study (ALLY-3C).

Antivir Ther 2018 Nov 1. Epub 2018 Nov 1.

Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ, USA.

Background: Optimal treatment for patients with HCV genotype-3 infection and liver cirrhosis remains a medical priority. Daclatasvir+sofosbuvir and ribavirin is a recommended option for such patients, but clinical trial data are lacking for treatment >16 weeks.

Methods: This was a single-arm, Phase III study of daclatasvir+sofosbuvir+ribavirin for 24 weeks in patients with compensated cirrhosis and HCV genotype-3 infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3851/IMP3278DOI Listing
November 2018
2 Reads

Differential extracellular, but similar intracellular, disposition of two tenofovir formulations in the male genital tract.

Antivir Ther 2018 Oct 30. Epub 2018 Oct 30.

UNC School of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.

Background: The male genital tract (MGT) is a viral sanctuary and likely HIV reservoir; understanding MGT pharmacokinetics (PK) of antiretrovirals (ARVs) used for curative strategies is critical to eradication and cure. Tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) is a tenofovir (TFV) formulation designed to maximize efficacy/minimize toxicity with unknown MGT PK.

Methods: HIV-positive and HIV-negative men receiving TFV-based regimens provided six paired blood plasma (BP) and semen samples. Read More

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https://www.intmedpress.com/journals/avt/abstract.cfm?id=327
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3851/IMP3277DOI Listing
October 2018
8 Reads

Optimizing concentrations of concomitant antiretrovirals by reducing etravirine doses: two case reports of complex drug-drug interactions.

Antivir Ther 2018 Oct 24. Epub 2018 Oct 24.

Faculty of Pharmacy, Université de Montréal, Montréal, QC, Canada.

We report the cases of two treatment-experienced HIV-infected patients with complex antiretroviral regimens that showed significant drug-drug interactions with etravirine. Unexpectedly high etravirine concentrations likely caused subtherapeutic levels of darunavir, elvitegravir and dolutegravir through concentration-dependent metabolic induction. Therapeutic drug monitoring allowed safe etravirine dose decreases to manage these interactions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3851/IMP3274DOI Listing
October 2018
1 Read

Increased dose of dolutegravir as a potential rescue therapy in multi-experienced patients.

Antivir Ther 2018 Oct 24. Epub 2018 Oct 24.

Clinic of Infectious Diseases, San Raffaele Hospital, Milan, Italy.

Background: The pilot Phase IIb VIKING study suggested that dolutegravir (DTG), an HIV integrase inhibitor (INI), is efficacious in INI-resistant patients at the 50 mg twice-daily dose. However, DTG response was most reduced in subjects carrying resistance-associated mutations at position G140 and Q148. These mutations can cause a 10-20-fold reduced susceptibility to DTG as well as a 96% lower odds of achieving HIV-1 RNA <50 copies/ml at week 24 if compared with those with no mutations at these positions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3851/IMP3275DOI Listing
October 2018
2 Reads

20th International Workshop on Co-morbidities and Adverse Drug Reactions in HIV.

Authors:

Antivir Ther 2018 ;23(Suppl 1):A1-A68

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January 2018
2 Reads

The role of anti-HBs in hepatitis B reactivation during direct-acting antiviral therapy for chronic hepatitis C.

Antivir Ther 2018 ;23(6):539-542

Institute of Liver Studies, King's College Hospital, London, United Kingdom.

Background: Hepatitis B reactivation in patients with resolved HBV can occur during hepatitis C treatment with direct-acting antivirals, but only a few cases have been described. It is not clear which patients are at risk for HBV reactivation and how to manage them.

Methods: Three patients (all hepatitis B surface antigen [HBsAg]-negative, antibody to hepatitis B core [anti-HBc] positive and HBV DNA negative) experienced a late HBV reactivation 12 weeks post-treatment but were able to control their viraemia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3851/IMP3259DOI Listing
January 2018
2 Reads

Effects of antiretroviral combination therapies F/TAF, E/C/F/TAF and R/F/TAF on insulin resistance in healthy volunteers: the TAF-IR Study.

Antivir Ther 2018 3;23(7):629-632. Epub 2018 Oct 3.

Department of Medicine II, University Hospital Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich, Germany.

Background: Increased insulin resistance (IR), associated with specific antiretroviral drugs or drug classes, is an established risk factor for type 2 diabetes in HIV patients, ultimately increasing morbidity and mortality. To date, data on the risk of IR in tenofovir alafenamide (TAF)-based protocols are unavailable.

Methods: This prospective randomized, open-label study evaluated the effects of IR on 30 healthy volunteers receiving fixed-dose combinations (FDCs) of emtricitabine/tenofovir alafenamide (F/TAF), elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovir alafenamide (E/C/F/TAF) or rilpivirine/emtricitabine/tenofovir alafenamide (R/F/TAF). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3851/IMP3271DOI Listing
October 2018
5 Reads

A comparison between two dolutegravir-based two-drug regimens as switch strategies in a multicentre cohort of HIV-1-infected patients.

Antivir Ther 2018 Oct 2. Epub 2018 Oct 2.

Institute of Clinical Infectious Diseases, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario Agostino Gemelli IRCCS, Rome, Italy.

Background: Two-drug regimens are increasingly used in clinical practice as switch strategies. We compared the efficacy and safety of two dolutegravir (DTG)-based dual therapies: DTG plus lamivudine (3TC group) versus DTG plus rilpivirine (RPV group).

Methods: In a multicentre cohort of virologically suppressed (HIV RNA <50 copies/ml) HIV+ patients switching to DTG+3TC or DTG+RPV we analysed the incidence of virological failures (VF) and treatment discontinuations (TD), as well as their predictors. Read More

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https://www.intmedpress.com/journals/avt/abstract.cfm?id=327
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3851/IMP3270DOI Listing
October 2018
23 Reads

Autophagy involved in antiviral activity of sodium tanshinone IIA sulfonate against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection in vitro.

Antivir Ther 2018 Oct 1. Epub 2018 Oct 1.

College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu, PR China.

Background: In previous research, we have demonstrated that Sodium tanshinone IIA sulfonate (STS) has the anti-PRRSV activity, but whether autophagy is involved in this process is still unknown. In this study, the autophagy effect of STS against PRRSV infection was investigated in vitro.

Methods: qRT-PCR and Western blot was used to evaluate the inhibition ability of STS on the mRNA expression levels on cell autophagy gene i. Read More

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https://www.intmedpress.com/journals/avt/abstract.cfm?id=326
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3851/IMP3268DOI Listing
October 2018
4 Reads

Pharmacokinetics and 48-week safety and efficacy of generic ritonavir tablet-boosted atazanavir in HIV-1-infected Thai adults.

Antivir Ther 2018 Sep 28. Epub 2018 Sep 28.

HIV-NAT, The Thai Red Cross AIDS Research Centre, Bangkok, Thailand.

Background: Ritonavir (RTV) tablets were not available in Thailand until they were manufactured by the Government Pharmaceutical Organization of Thailand. We assessed pharmacokinetics (PK), safety and efficacy of generic RTV-boosted atazanavir (ATV) in virologically suppressed HIV-1-infected Thai adults.

Methods: Virologically suppressed HIV-1-infected Thai adults who currently use ATV (either 200 or 300 mg) with Norvir soft gel capsule (SGC) 100-mg-based regimen were enrolled into this prospective, 48-week single-arm study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3851/IMP3267DOI Listing
September 2018
5 Reads

Sofosbuvir-based salvage therapy for HCV infection in cirrhotic patients with DAA failure and multidrug resistance.

Antivir Ther 2018 Sep 28. Epub 2018 Sep 28.

Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Moscow, Russia.

Despite very high efficacies of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) reported in clinical trials, treatment failure in real-life practice can occur in 5-10% of cases and is mostly associated with emergence of resistance-associated substitutions (RASs). Little is known about the efficacy of retreatment in these patients, especially in those with decompensated cirrhosis, and only a few retreatment studies have been performed so far. Here we present case reports of successful sofosbuvir-based treatment in patients with advanced class B cirrhosis with prior pegylated interferon/ribavirin and all-oral DAA failure with multiclass drug resistance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3851/IMP3266DOI Listing
September 2018
5 Reads

Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate appears to disrupt the relationship of vitamin D and parathyroid hormone.

Antivir Ther 2018 27;23(7):623-628. Epub 2018 Sep 27.

USDA, Agricultural Research Service, Western Human Nutrition Research Center, Davis, CA, USA.

Background: Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) increases serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) and 1,25 dihydroxy vitamin D (1,25-(OH)D), and decreases bone mineral density (BMD). Optimal treatment of TDF-associated BMD loss requires an understanding of the primary cause of these abnormalities.

Methods: Secondary review of data from two studies of TDF use in youth, comparing the relationship of PTH, 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25-OHD) and 1,25-(OH)D in three groups with varying exposures to TDF: youth without HIV enrolled in a trial of TDF/emtricitabine (FTC) for HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) at baseline (no TDF exposure) and after 12 weeks of TDF (short-term TDF exposure); and youth with HIV treated with TDF-containing combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) for at least 6 months at study entry (long-term TDF exposure). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3851/IMP3269DOI Listing
September 2018
6 Reads

Substance use patterns and HIV-1 RNA viral load rebound among HIV-positive illicit drug users in a Canadian setting.

Antivir Ther 2018 Sep 19. Epub 2018 Sep 19.

Department of General Surgery, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada.

Background: Active illicit drug use can present a barrier to the medical management of HIV infection by complicating adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART). Plasma HIV-1 RNA viral load (VL) rebound, defined as a period of detectable HIV VL following ART and VL suppression, can lead to the generation of viral resistance and potential treatment failure. We sought to investigate the contribution of substance use patterns on rates of VL rebound. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3851/IMP3265DOI Listing
September 2018
1 Read

Sofosbuvir/velpatasvir/voxilaprevir: a highly effective option for retreatment of hepatitis C in difficult-to-treat patients.

Antivir Ther 2018 Sep 13. Epub 2018 Sep 13.

Division of Clinical Care and Research, Institute of Human Virology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Treatment for hepatitis C has escalated rapidly since the advent of direct-acting antivirals. Although there are highly efficacious, pangenotypic regimens available as standard of care, 5-10% of patients do not achieve virological cure. The recently approved fixed-dose combination of sofosbuvir, velpatasvir and voxilaprevir provides an option for retreatment in patients who have failed prior regimens and have characteristics which make them difficult to treat. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3851/IMP3264DOI Listing
September 2018
2 Reads

Effectiveness of 8 weeks of ledipasvir/sofosbuvir for hepatitis C in HCV-HIV-coinfected patients.

Antivir Ther 2018 Sep 7. Epub 2018 Sep 7.

University of Maryland School of Pharmacy, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Background: Data is limited on the use of 8 weeks of therapy with ledipasvir/sofosbuvir (LDV/SOF) for special populations such as HCV-HIV-coinfected patients. The primary objective of this analysis was to compare sustained virological response at 12 weeks after end of therapy (SVR12) rates among HCV-monoinfected and HCV-HIV-coinfected patients in a real-world clinical setting. Additionally, we compared SVR12 rates among patients receiving 8 versus 12 weeks of therapy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3851/IMP3263DOI Listing
September 2018
4 Reads

Association of characteristics of HBV quasispecies with hepatitis B surface antigen seroconversion after pegylated interferon-α-2a treatment in child patients.

Antivir Ther 2018 10;23(7):567-574. Epub 2018 Aug 10.

Department of Infectious Diseases and Hepatology Center, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Background: The correlation between hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) seroconversion and the characteristics of HBV quasispecies (QS) before and during pegylated interferon-α-2a (PEG-IFN-α-2a) treatment in hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive chronic hepatitis B (CHB) children has not yet been reported.

Methods: 35 patients, including 18 HBsAg seroconverters (SS) and 17 non-seroconverters (SN), were enrolled. Serum samples were collected before treatment and at weeks 12 and 24 of treatment. Read More

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https://www.intmedpress.com/journals/avt/abstract.cfm?id=326
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3851/IMP3262DOI Listing
August 2018
12 Reads
3.020 Impact Factor

Carotid magnetic resonance imaging in persons living with HIV and 10-year atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk score.

Antivir Ther 2018 Aug 8. Epub 2018 Aug 8.

Radiology and Imaging Sciences, NIH Clinical Center, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Background: Both traditional and HIV-specific risk factors contribute to greater incidence of cardiovascular disease in persons living with HIV (PLWH). Using state-of-the-art, high-resolution magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the common carotid arteries, this study aimed to evaluate the relationship between carotid vessel wall thickness (c-VWT) and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk score in PLWH.

Methods: Cross-sectional determinations of c-VWT using MR imaging in virally suppressed PLWH without known cardiovascular disease (n=32) and matched controls (n=13) were completed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3851/IMP3258DOI Listing
August 2018
10 Reads

The effect of curing hepatitis C with direct-acting antiviral treatment on endothelial function.

Antivir Ther 2018 Jul 26. Epub 2018 Jul 26.

Division of Medicine, John Hunter Hospital, Newcastle, NSW, Australia.

Background: Epidemiological data suggest that chronic HCV infection (CHC) is associated with increased cardiovascular risk, but it is unknown if it is associated with endothelial dysfunction. We aimed to assess the effect of antiviral treatment on endothelial function in non-cirrhotic adults with CHC.

Methods: Self-controlled before and after study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3851/IMP3257DOI Listing
July 2018
6 Reads

DARING-B: discontinuation of effective entecavir or tenofovir disoproxil fumarate long-term therapy before HBsAg loss in non-cirrhotic HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B.

Antivir Ther 2018 Jul 25. Epub 2018 Jul 25.

Department of Medicine and Research Laboratory of Internal Medicine, Thessaly University Medical School, Larissa, Greece.

Background: The remission rates after stopping antivirals in hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-negative chronic hepatitis B (CHB) vary among studies, while reliable predictors of relapse have not been identified. This prospective study assessed rates and predictors of relapse and retreatment in 57 non-cirrhotic hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive patients with HBeAg-negative CHB who discontinued effective ≥4-year entecavir or tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) therapy.

Methods: A total of 57 patients discontinued therapy after median virological remission of 5. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3851/IMP3256DOI Listing
July 2018
4 Reads

Interim analysis of a 3-year follow-up study of NS5A and NS3 resistance-associated substitutions after treatment with grazoprevir-containing regimens in participants with chronic HCV infection.

Antivir Ther 2018 24;23(7):593-603. Epub 2018 Jul 24.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Merck & Co., Inc. Kenilworth, NJ, USA.

Background: In HCV-infected people who fail to achieve sustained virological response after receiving a direct-acting antiviral regimen, virological failure is almost always accompanied by the presence of resistance-associated substitutions (RASs) in the target protein(s). The aim of this long-term observational study was to evaluate the persistence of NS3/4A and NS5A RASs in participants with genotype (GT) 1 infection who relapsed following treatment with a grazoprevir-containing treatment regimen.

Methods: RASs were evaluated at baseline (that is, pre-dose on day 1 of the original treatment), at the time of virological failure, and up to follow-up week 96. Read More

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https://www.intmedpress.com/journals/avt/abstract.cfm?id=325
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3851/IMP3253DOI Listing
July 2018
16 Reads

Antiviral effects of Cacicol, a heparan sulfate biomimetic for corneal regeneration therapy, for herpes simplex virus type-1 and varicella zoster virus infection.

Antivir Ther 2018 Jul 20. Epub 2018 Jul 20.

Department of Ophthalmology, Bicêtre Hospital, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Univ.Paris-Sud, Kremlin-Bicêtre, France.

Background: Cacicol, a topical eye biopolymer containing a poly-carboxymethylglucose sulfate solution that is a regenerating matrix therapy agent, intended for wound healing of persistent corneal epithelial defects. Based on the chemical composition, we hypothesized that Cacicol may compete with natural heparan sulfate (HS) which initiates cell surface attachment of herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1), varicella zoster virus (VZV) and human adenovirus (HAdV), three viruses associated with corneal infections.

Methods: Cacicol was compared to vehicle in the following viral strains: HSV-1 SC16 strain and HSV-1 PSLR, a clinical isolate highly resistant to acyclovir and foscarnet; VZV ATH and VZV FLO, two VZV clinical isolates; and HAdV-D37 strain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3851/IMP3254DOI Listing
July 2018
43 Reads

An easy-to-use baseline scoring system to predict response to peginterferon alfa-2a in patients with chronic hepatitis B in resource-limited settings.

Antivir Ther 2018 Jul 4. Epub 2018 Jul 4.

Service d'Hépatologie Chief and Viral Hepatitis Team, INSERM UMR 1149, Centre de Recherche sur l'Inflammation, Paris Diderot University, Hôpital Beaujon, Clichy, France.

Background: Approximately one-third of patients have durable responses after finite (48-week) treatment with peginterferon alfa-2a. The ability to identify patients likely to respond would be particularly useful in resource-limited settings.

Methods: Data from 1,363 peginterferon alfa-2a recipients (955 hepatitis B 'e' antigen [HBeAg]-positive and 408 -negative) in six studies were analysed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3851/IMP3251DOI Listing
July 2018
18 Reads
3.020 Impact Factor