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    2217 results match your criteria Antiviral Therapy[Journal]

    1 OF 45

    Viro-immunological response of drug-naive HIV-1-infected patients starting a first-line regimen with viraemia >500,000 copies/ml in clinical practice.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Sep 22. Epub 2017 Sep 22.
    Department of Tropical and Infectious Diseases, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Careggi, Florence, Italy.
    Background: Virological success (VS) and immunological reconstitution (IR) of antiretroviral-naïve HIV-1 infected patients with pre-therapy viral load (VL) >500,000 copies/mL was assessed after 12 months of treatment according to initial drug-class regimens.

    Methods: An observational multicenter retrospective study was performed. VS was defined as the first VL <50 copies/mL from treatment start. Read More

    Durability of antiretroviral therapy regimens and determinants for change in HIV-1-infected patients in the TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database (TAHOD-LITE).
    Antivir Ther 2017 Sep 21. Epub 2017 Sep 21.
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Institute of Infectious Diseases and Epidemiology, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore.
    Background: The durability of first line regimen is important to achieve long term treatment success for the management of HIV infection. Our analysis describes the duration of sequential ART regimens and identifies the determinants leading to treatment change in HIV-positive patients initiating in Asia.

    Methods: All HIV-positive adult patients initiating first-line ART in 2003-2013, from eight clinical sites among seven countries in Asia. Read More

    The association between serum cytokine and chemokine levels and antiviral response by entecavir treatment in chronic hepatitis B patients.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Sep 21. Epub 2017 Sep 21.
    Department of Gastroenterology and Metabolism, Graduate School of Biomedical & Health Sciences, Applied Life Sciences, Institute of Biomedical & Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima, Japan.
    Background: Although Nucleos(t)ide analogue therapy is thought to suppress chronic hepatitis B(CHB) via regulation of inflammatory cytokines/chemokines, the mechanism is still unclear. In this study, serum cytokine/chemokine levels were measured in CHB patients treated with entecavir, and the association with antiviral response was analyzed.

    Methods: Seventy-eight Japanese patients with CHB were enrolled, and serum cytokine/chemokine levels were measured at baseline and at 12, 24, and 48 weeks of entecavir treatment using the MULTIPLEX kit. Read More

    Longitudinal study of falls among HIV-infected and uninfected women: the role of cognition.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Sep 21. Epub 2017 Sep 21.
    Department of Medicine, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY, USA.
    Background: Although fracture rates are higher in HIV+ than HIV- women, whether HIV infection increases risk of falls is unclear. We determined the longitudinal occurrence and risk factors for falls in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS), and explored associations with cognitive complaints.

    Methods: Recent (prior 6 months) self-reported falls were collected in 1816 (1250 HIV+; 566 HIV-) women over 24 months. Read More

    Epicardial adipose tissue volume and cardiovascular risk indices among asymptomatic women with and without HIV.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Sep 20. Epub 2017 Sep 20.
    Program in Nutritional Metabolism, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.
    Background: Mechanisms underlying the heightened myocardial infarction risk among HIV-infected women (versus non-HIV-infected women) remain unclear. Our objectives were to assess epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) volume and its associations among asymptomatic women with and without HIV.

    Methods: Fifty-five HIV-infected and 27 non-HIV-infected women without known cardiovascular disease who underwent cardiac CT and metabolic/immune phenotyping were included. Read More

    A meta-analysis of laninamivir octanoate for treatment and prophylaxis of influenza.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Sep 4. Epub 2017 Sep 4.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Osaka Anti-Tuberculosis Association Osaka Hospital, Neyagawa City, Osaka, Japan.
    Background: Laninamivir octanoate is a recently developed inhaled neuraminidase inhibitor for treating influenza virus infection. We performed meta-analyses to clarify the efficacy of laninamivir octanoate on influenza treatment and prevention.

    Methods: MEDLINE and CENTRAL were searched to identify eligible studies. Read More

    3-Year efficacy and durability of simplification to single tablet regimens: a comparison between co-formulated efavirenz/emtricitabine/tenofovir and rilpivirine/emtricitabine/tenofovir.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Aug 11. Epub 2017 Aug 11.
    Clinic of Infectious Diseases, San Gerardo Hospital - ASST Monza, Monza, Italy.
    Background: Few data are available about efficacy and durability of simplification from multi-tablet antiretroviral regimens to co-formulated efavirenz(EFV)/emtricitabine(FTC)/tenofovir(TDF) versus rilpivirine(RPV)/emtricitabine/tenofovir in virologically-suppressed HIV-1-infected patients.

    Methods: We retrospectively analyzed HIV-infected patients with HIV-RNA<50copies/mL switching to co-formulated EFV/FTC/TDF or RPV/FTC/TDF at 5 Italian centers. Patients were followed from time of switch until regimen discontinuation or a maximum of 3-years follow-up. Read More

    Sustained virological response by direct antiviral agents in HCV leads to an early and significant improvement of liver fibrosis.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Aug 11. Epub 2017 Aug 11.
    Internal Medicine and Hepatology Division, Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Salerno, Salerno, Italy.
    Background: Direct Antiviral Agents (DAA) demonstrated high efficacy among HCV-infected patients in registered trials. Nevertheless, the impact of these therapies on liver stiffness measurement(LSM) and liver functionality in "real-life" is not well-known. Aim of the present study was to evaluate the SVR impact on LSM and clinical parameters of DAA-therapy on a real-life population of HCV patients with F3/F4 fibrosis. Read More

    Frailty in men living with HIV: a cross-sectional comparison of three frailty instruments.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Jul 21. Epub 2017 Jul 21.
    Department of Infectious Diseases, The Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, Australia.
    Background: Potent antiretroviral treatment has resulted in near normal life expectancy for people living with HIV. Consequently, there is an increased focus on comorbidities, frailty and quality of life.

    Methods: We assessed and compared the prevalence of frailty, associated factors and relationship with quality of life in older Australian men living with HIV in a cross-sectional study using three frailty measurements. Read More

    Baseline and post-treatment hepatitis C NS5A resistance in relapsed patients from a multicentric real-life cohort.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Jul 21. Epub 2017 Jul 21.
    CHU Toulouse Purpan, Toulouse, France.
    Background: Recent data have suggested that failure to achieve sustained virological response with direct-acting antiviral therapy is usually due to relapse and is primarily associated with the emergence of resistance-associated substitutions. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and characterization of non-structural-5A resistance-associated substitutions in patients infected with hepatitis C virus genotypes 1, 3, and 4 treated by direct-acting antiviral therapy, including anti- non-structural-5A, and to characterize the preexisting resistance-associated substitutions in subjects treated with anti- non-structural-5A inhibitors.

    Methods: From January 2014 to March 2016, 2995 patients infected with hepatitis C virus genotypes 1, 3, and 4 were exposed to non-structural-5A inhibitors. Read More

    In vitro susceptibility of geographically and temporally distinct zika viruses to favipiravir and ribavirin.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Jul 11. Epub 2017 Jul 11.
    Research Center in Infectious Diseases of the CHU of Québec and Laval University, Québec City, QC, Canada.
    Background: Zika virus (ZIKV), a previously neglected mosquito-borne virus, is prompting worldwide concern because of its connection with congenital defects, Guillain-Barré syndrome, meningoencephalitis and myelitis in infected individuals. However, no specific antiviral therapy is available at present. In this study, we investigated the in vitro susceptibility of geographically and temporally distinct zika viruses against the RNA polymerase inhibitors, favipiravir (T-705) and ribavirin (RIBV). Read More

    The ultra-short virological dynamics in response to entecavir or lamivudine during chronic hepatitis B with spontaneous severe acute exacerbation.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Jul 3. Epub 2017 Jul 3.
    Division of Gastroenterology & Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan.
    Background: Nucleos(t)ide analogue (NA) therapy could be life-saving in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) with spontaneous severe acute exacerbation (SAE). We aimed to investigate the ultra-short virological responses to NA.

    Methods: We conducted a randomized controlled trial in which CHB patients with spontaneous SAE were randomized to receive lamivudine (LVD) or entecavir (ETV) between July 2012 and April 2016 (ClinicalTrials. Read More

    Long-term persistence of HCV NS5A resistance associated substitutions after treatment with the HCV NS5A inhibitor, ledipasvir, without sofosbuvir.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Jun 26. Epub 2017 Jun 26.
    Gilead Sciences, Inc., Foster City, CA, USA.
    Background: Data on persistence of NS5A resistance associated substitutions (RASs) may have implications for resistance testing approaches and selection of initial and retreatment strategies.

    Methods: Long-term persistence of NS5A RASs in HCV genotype (GT) 1 infected subjects (n=76) who did not achieve sustained virologic response after receiving ledipasvir (LDV) without sofosbuvir (SOF) and were subsequently enrolled in an ongoing 3-year follow-up registry study was investigated by population or deep sequencing.

    Results: Of the 76 subjects enrolled, 67 and 9 subjects had GT1a and GT1b infection, respectively. Read More

    Association of the S267F variant on NTCP gene and treatment response to pegylated interferon in patients with chronic hepatitis B: a multicentre study.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Jun 21. Epub 2017 Jun 21.
    Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University and King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Thai Red Cross Society, Bangkok, Thailand.
    Background: Sodium taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide (NTCP) is a cell receptor for hepatitis B virus (HBV). The S267F variant on the NTCP gene is inversely associated with the chronicity of HBV infection, progression to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma in East Asian populations. This aim of this study was to determine whether the S267F variant was associated with response to pegylated interferon (Peg-IFN) in patients with chronic HBV infection. Read More

    The association between detected drug resistance mutations and CD4(+) T-cell decline in HIV-positive individuals maintained on a failing treatment regimen.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Jun 19. Epub 2017 Jun 19.
    Department of Infection and Population Health, UCL, London, UK.
    Background: To analyse the effect of drug resistance mutations (DRM) on CD4 cell trends in HIV-positive people maintained on virologically failing antiretroviral therapy (ART).

    Methods: Individuals from two large cohorts experiencing virological failure (VF) while maintained on ART with >1 CD4 count and >1 resistance test were included. CD4 cell slopes were estimated using linear mixed models. Read More

    Pooled analysis of HCV genotype 1 resistance-associated substitutions in NS5A, NS3 and NS5B pre- and post-treatment with 12 weeks of daclatasvir, asunaprevir and beclabuvir.
    Antivir Ther 2017 06 8. Epub 2017 Jun 8.
    Toranomon Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.
    Background: Daclatasvir (DCV; non-structural [NS]5A inhibitor) plus asunaprevir (ASV; NS3 inhibitor) plus beclabuvir (BCV; non-nucleoside NS5B inhibitor) is an approved regimen for hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype (GT)-1 treatment in Japan. A comprehensive analysis of pre-treatment and treatment-emergent HCV resistance to this regimen ± ribavirin (RBV) was performed.

    Methods: Data were pooled from five phase 2/3 studies of DCV+ASV+BCV±RBV given for 12 weeks to GT-1a- or GT-1b-infected patients. Read More

    Antibacterial effects of antiretrovirals, potential implications for microbiome studies in HIV.
    Antivir Ther 2017 May 12. Epub 2017 May 12.
    Division of Infectious Diseases and Hospital Epidemiology, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Background: Despite being used by more than 18 million people our understanding of the extent of effects of antiretrovirals on the human body and other organisms remains incomplete. In addition, the direct effect of antiretrovirals on the gut microbiota of HIV infected individuals has been largely overlooked in microbiome studies concerned with HIV infected individuals.

    Methods: Here we tested 25 antiretrovirals on Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli using a broth microdilution assay to assess whether these drugs have an antibacterial effect. Read More

    Antiviral therapy reduces risk of haemorrhagic stroke in patients with HCV infection: a nationwide cohort study.
    Antivir Ther 2017 May 4. Epub 2017 May 4.
    Department of Neurology and Neuroscience Research Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, and Chang Gung University, Linkou, Taiwan.
    Background: The tendency for haemorrhagic stroke in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has emerged recently but the finding may be confounded by comorbidities. Proving the causality between HCV infection and haemorrhagic stroke is mandatory. Our study was designed to investigate the incidence of intracranial haemorrhage in HCV-infected patients with and without treatment. Read More

    Metabolic profiles of individuals switched to second-line antiretroviral therapy after failing standard first-line therapy for treatment of HIV-1 infection in a randomized, controlled trial.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Apr 27. Epub 2017 Apr 27.
    The Kirby Institute, UNSW, Sydney, Australia.
    Background: To investigate metabolic changes associated with second-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) following virological failure of first-line ART.

    Methods: SECOND-LINE was an open-label randomized controlled trial. Participants were randomized 1:1 to receive ritonavir-boosted lopinavir (LPV/r) with 2-3 nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (N(t)RTI-group) or raltegravir (RAL-group) Two hundred and ten participants had a dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-scan at baseline, week 48 and 96. Read More

    Impacts of HBV rtH55R polymerase substitution on viral replication and rtM204I/V resistance to nucleoside/nucleotide antiviral drugs.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Apr 25. Epub 2017 Apr 25.
    Department of Microbiology and Center of Infectious Disease, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing, China.
    Background: High genetic variability at reverse transcriptase (RT) region of hepatitis B virus (HBV) could confer resistance to nucleos(t)ide analogues (NUCs). The aim of this study was to identify new RT amino acid (AA) substitutions related to NUCs resistance.

    Methods: HBV RT sequences of genotype C from 501 chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients were analyzed to identify potential RT substitutions related to NUCs resistance. Read More

    Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate monotherapy is superior to entecavir-adefovir combination therapy in patients with suboptimal response to lamivudine-adefovir therapy for nucleoside-resistant HBV: a 96-week prospective multicenter trial.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Apr 24. Epub 2017 Apr 24.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Chungnam National University Hospital, Daejeon, Korea.
    Background: A complete virologic response is closely related to the long-term outcome of patients with chronic hepatitis B and prevention of emerging hepatitis B virus (HBV) mutations. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) monotherapy compared to entecavir-adefovir dipivoxil (ETV-ADV) combination therapy in patients with suboptimal responses to long-term lamivudine-adefovir dipivoxil (LAM-ADV) therapy for nucleoside analogue-resistant chronic hepatitis B.

    Methods: Patients (n = 60) were randomized to TDF monotherapy or ETV-ADV combination therapy for 96 weeks. Read More

    Real-world efficacy and safety of ritonavir-boosted paritaprevir, ombitasvir, dasabuvir ± ribavirin for hepatitis C genotype 1 - final results of the REV1TAL study.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Apr 19. Epub 2017 Apr 19.
    Department of Gastroenterology, Alfred Health, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.
    Background: Limited data exist on the outcomes of ritonavir-boosted paritaprevir with ombitasvir and dasabuvir (PrOD) ± ribavirin in a real-world setting. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of PrOD-based therapy in hepatitis C genotype 1 patients with and without cirrhosis, and to explore pre-treatment factors predictive of sustained viral response (SVR) and serious adverse events (SAEs) on treatment.

    Methods: 451 patients with hepatitis C genotype 1 treated in 20 centres across Australia were included. Read More

    Antiviral activity of nobiletin against chikungunya virus in vitro.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Apr 13. Epub 2017 Apr 13.
    Center for Infectious Diseases, Discovery Biology, SRI International, Harrisonburg, VA USA.
    Background: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), a highly contagious re-emerging virus, is transmitted by infected mosquitoes. CHIKV is prevalent in tropical countries and is continuing to creep farther north into temperate areas. CHIKV is responsible for induction of Chikungunya Fever (CF) and severe joint stiffness with the capability of developing into bilateral and systemic arthralgia or even encephalitis. Read More

    Dolutegravir/abacavir/lamivudine versus current ART in virally suppressed patients (STRIIVING): a 48-week, randomized, non-inferiority, open-label, Phase IIIb study.
    Antivir Ther 2017 12;22(4):295-305. Epub 2017 Apr 12.
    ViiV Healthcare, Brentford, UK.
    Background: Simplified dosing regimens are important for patients who face challenges in adhering to HIV-1 therapy. We investigated the safety and virological efficacy of switching to once-daily abacavir/dolutegravir/lamivudine (ABC/DTG/3TC).

    Methods: The STRIIVING study was a randomized, open-label, Phase IIIb study in adults with HIV-1 RNA <50 copies/ml on antiretroviral therapy (ART) at enrolment (ClinicalTrials. Read More

    Ending AIDS as a public health threat by 2030: Scientific Developments from the 2016 INTEREST Conference in Yaoundé, Cameroon.
    Antivir Ther 2017 7;22(2):179-184. Epub 2017 Apr 7.
    Makarere University College of Health Sciences in Kampala, Kampala, Uganda.
    The underpinning theme of the 2016 INTEREST Conference held in Yaoundé, Cameroon, 3-6 May 2016 was ending AIDS as a public health threat by 2030. Focused primarily on HIV treatment, pathogenesis and prevention research in resource-limited settings, the conference attracted 369 active delegates from 34 countries, of which 22 were in Africa. Presentations on treatment optimization, acquired drug resistance, care of children and adolescents, laboratory monitoring and diagnostics, implementation challenges, HIV prevention, key populations, vaccine and cure, hepatitis C, mHealth, financing the HIV response and emerging pathogens, were accompanied by oral, mini-oral and poster presentations. Read More

    Zidovudine continuous infusion in an HIV-infected pregnant woman with a phobia of swallowing pills.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Apr 3. Epub 2017 Apr 3.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Rijnstate Hospital, Arnhem, the Netherlands.
    The authors report the difficulties of preventing mother to child transmission in a pregnant HIV-infected woman with a phobia of swallowing pills. After multiple attempts and just as many failures, the authors ended up with cART consisting of small tablets of nevirapine, lamivudine and a continuous intravenous infusion of zidovudine given via an elastomeric pump at home. This case demonstrates the difficulties that HIV-physicians can encounter in pregnant women who have difficulties in swallowing tablets. Read More

    Daclatasvir plasma concentration assessment in HIV-HCV-coinfected real-life patients.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Mar 31. Epub 2017 Mar 31.
    Aix Marseille Université, AP-HM Hôpital de la Timone, Service de Pharmacocinétique et Toxicologie, CRO2 INSERM U911, Marseille, France.

    Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy due to John Cunningham (JC) virus following allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Mar 31. Epub 2017 Mar 31.
    Allogeneic Blood and Marrow Transplant Program, Department of Medical Oncology and Hematology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, ON, Canada.
    Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is an uncommon infectious complication post allogeneic stem cell transplant (allo-SCT). We present a case report of a patient developing this complication with a review of the current literature. It also describes the first use of artesunate in a clinical case of PML with no beneficial effect. Read More

    Decline and changing profile of hepatitis delta among injection drug users in Spain.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Mar 29. Epub 2017 Mar 29.
    Infectious Diseases Unit, La Paz University Hospital & Autonomous University, Madrid, Spain.
    Background: Roughly 15 million people worldwide have hepatitis delta, the most severe form of chronic viral hepatitis that often leads to cirrhosis and liver cancer. Injection drug users (IDUs) are the largest HDV reservoir. Their resurgence in North America and Europe may represent a new opportunity for HDV widespread. Read More

    Impact of CCR5, integrase and protease inhibitors on human endothelial cell function, stress, inflammation and senescence.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Mar 28. Epub 2017 Mar 28.
    Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 6, Paris, France.
    Background: Aging HIV-infected patients present an increased incidence of cardiovascular diseases, endothelial dysfunction being an early alteration. Some protease inhibitors (PI)s have been shown to experience risk of increased cardiovascular disease. We evaluated here the effects of CCR5 or integrase inhibitors as compared to PIs on endothelial functions in vitro. Read More

    Neurocognitive dysfunction in HIV-infected youth: investigating the relationship with immune activation.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Mar 22. Epub 2017 Mar 22.
    Rainbow Babies & Children's Hospital and Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH, USA.
    Background: HIV-infected individuals are at increased risk of neurocognitive impairment compared to the general population. Studies suggest that, despite combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), HIV infection causes immune activation which results in neural damage; however, few data exist in HIV-infected youth.

    Methods: HIV-infected youth 8-26 years old on cART with virologic suppression were prospectively enrolled along with healthy controls. Read More

    Muscle strength is impaired in men but not in women living with HIV taking antiretroviral therapy.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Mar 22. Epub 2017 Mar 22.
    Department of Physical Education, State University of Londrina, Londrina, Brazil.
    Background: There is evidence that HIV Antiretroviral Therapy adverse effects may be sex-dependent, but data examing these sex differences in muscle strength is scarce. Our aim was to compare dynamic and isokinetic parameters of muscle strength between HIV-infected men and women to HIV-uninfected subjects.

    Methods: In this cross-sectional study, muscle strength was evaluated in 44 HIV-infected (20 men, 24 women) and 25 age-, race- and body mass index-matched HIV-uninfected subjects (11 men, 14 women). Read More

    The enrichment of HBV immune-escape mutations during nucleoside/nucleotide analogue therapy.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Mar 16. Epub 2017 Mar 16.
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.
    Background: Drug-resistant HBV mutants frequently arise during nucleos(t)ide analogues (NAs) therapy, while the resistance mutations on polymerase also have consequent changes in the S protein. Besides, the enrichment of immune-escape mutations was negatively correlated with HBsAg clearance under NAs therapy. This study aims to characterize the variability of hepatitis B virus polymerase and surface antigen in patients with virologic breakthrough under nucleos(t)ide analogues therapy. Read More

    Association of vitamin-D-related genetic variations and treatment response to pegylated interferon in patients with chronic hepatitis B.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Mar 14. Epub 2017 Mar 14.
    Research Unit of Hepatitis and Liver Cancer, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand.
    Background: Vitamin D, a potent immune-modulator, has been linked to the pathogenesis of chronic hepatitis B (CHB). This study was aimed at investigating the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in vitamin D-related genes and treatment response to pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) in patients with CHB.

    Methods: A total 275 Thai patients (122 HBeAg-positive and 153 HBeAg-negative CHB) treated with 48-week PEG-IFN were recruited. Read More

    CD4:CD8 ratio comparison between cohorts of HIV-positive Asians and Caucasians upon commencement of antiretroviral therapy.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Mar 14. Epub 2017 Mar 14.
    The Kirby Institute, UNSW Australia, UNSW Sydney, Sydney, Australia.
    Background: In the era of effective antiretroviral treatment (ART) CD4:CD8 ratio is proposed as a potential marker for HIV-positive (HIV+) patients at increased risk for non-AIDS comorbidities. The current study aims to compare CD4:CD8 ratio between Asian and Caucasian HIV+ patients.

    Methods: HIV+ patients from the Australian HIV Observational Database (AHOD) and the TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database (TAHOD) meeting specific criteria were included. Read More

    Topical treatment of herpes simplex virus infection with enzymatically created siRNA swarm.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Mar 13. Epub 2017 Mar 13.
    Department of Virology, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Background: Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a common human pathogen. Despite current antivirals, it causes a significant medical burden. Drug resistant strains exist and they are especially prevalent in immunocompromised patients and in HSV eye infections. Read More

    Geniposide demonstrates anti-inflammatory and antiviral activity against pandemic A/Jiangsu/1/2009 (H1N1) influenza virus infection in vitro and in vivo.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Mar 8. Epub 2017 Mar 8.
    Department of Respiratory Medicine, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.
    Background: Influenza A viruses (IAVs) remains to be a great threat to human health for centuries, without effective control. Geniposide, a main iridoid glycoside compound extracted from Gardenia jasminoides Ellis (GJ) fruit, possesses various biologic activities including anti-inflammation and anti-virus.

    Methods: Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells were infected with pandemic A/Jiangsu/1/2009 (H1N1) influenza virus in vitro. Read More

    A case study of chewed Truvada(®) for PrEP maintaining protective drug levels as measured by a novel urine tenofovir assay.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Mar 6. Epub 2017 Mar 6.
    Philadelphia FIGHT Community Health Centers, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
    Emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (FTC/TDF; Truvada(®)) given as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) successfully blocks HIV when taken once daily prior to potential HIV exposure. A 22-year-old male reported difficulty swallowing FTC/TDF for PrEP and subsequently began chewing the FTC/TDF tablets. Monthly urine samples assessed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) indicated tenofovir levels >1,000 ng/ml, indicative of protection from HIV acquisition, over a 48-week period. Read More

    Changes in abdominal fat following antiretroviral therapy initiation in HIV-infected individuals correlate with waist circumference and self-reported changes.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Mar 1. Epub 2017 Mar 1.
    Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
    Background: We examined whether waist circumference (WC) and self-reported abdominal size changes can estimate visceral adipose tissue (VAT) changes for those initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART).

    Methods: Prospectively collected data from ACTG A5257 and its metabolic substudy, A5260s, were used for this analysis. ART-naïve HIV-infected participants were randomized to one of three contemporary ART regimens. Read More

    In vitro selection of resistance to sofosbuvir in HCV replicons of genotype-1 to -6.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Mar 1. Epub 2017 Mar 1.
    Gilead Sciences, Foster City, CA, USA.
    Background: Sofosbuvir is a nucleoside analogue inhibitor of the HCV NS5B polymerase approved for treatment of HCV-infected patients in combination with ribavirin or with other antivirals. It has activity against all genotypes of HCV. Resistance to sofosbuvir in genotype-1 and -2 HCV is conferred by the S282T substitution in NS5B. Read More

    Telaprevir-containing triple therapy in acute HCV coinfection: The CHAT Study.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Feb 27. Epub 2017 Feb 27.
    Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, London, UK.
    Background: No published randomized controlled data on the use of direct-acting antivirals (DAA) in acute hepatitis C (AHC) coinfection exist. However, with the AHC epidemic ongoing among men who have sex with men (MSM) these are urgently needed.

    Methods: The CHAT study is a randomized controlled trial of pegylated interferon + ribavirin (PR) plus telaprevir (TVR) for 12-24 weeks versus PR alone for 24-48 weeks in the response-guided treatment of patients with AHC genotype (GT) 1 infection and HIV-1 coinfection in Germany and Great Britain. Read More

    Discontinuation of lamivudine treatment in HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B: a pilot study with long-term follow-up.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Feb 27. Epub 2017 Feb 27.
    Department of Gastroenterology, University of Ankara Medical School, Ankara, Turkey.
    Background: Finite treatment of hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-negative chronic hepatitis B (CHB) with nucleoside/nucleotide analogues (NAs) is important in resource-limited countries. Outcome of treatment discontinuation in patients on long-term lamivudine (LVD) was assessed in a single centre observational pilot study in the current study.

    Methods: Non-cirrhotic patients on LVD for at least 5 years with undetectable HBV DNA on at least two consecutive assessments were offered to stop treatment. Read More

    Prevalence of rilpivirine resistance in people starting antiretroviral treatment in Argentina.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Feb 24. Epub 2017 Feb 24.
    Dirección de Sida, Ministerio de Salud de la Nación, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    Background: Rilpivirine-based regimens are now preferred or alternative first-line regimens according to many HIV treatment guidelines. Recently, a surveillance study conducted in our country determined that prevalence of pretreatment resistance to first-generation NNRTIs was 10%. The aim of this study was to analyze the prevalence of resistance mutations to newer generation NNRTIs in the population starting ART in Argentina. Read More

    Evaluation of cerebrospinal fluid virological escape in patients on long-term protease inhibitor monotherapy.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Feb 24. Epub 2017 Feb 24.
    MRC-Clinical Trials Unit at UCL, UCL, London, UK.
    Background: A strategy of protease inhibitor (PI) monotherapy with re-introduction of triple therapy in those who rebound has been shown to be a safe and effective treatment simplification approach for long-term management. We sought evidence for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) virological escape in patients on long-term PI monotherapy.

    Methods: We performed lumbar puncture in asymptomatic participants with suppressed plasma HIV RNA after 96 weeks on the PI monotherapy arm (PI-mono) of the PIVOT trial. Read More

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