2,442 results match your criteria Antiviral Therapy[Journal]

Acquired HIV drug resistance among adults living with HIV receiving first-line antiretroviral therapy in Rwanda: A cross-sectional nationally representative survey.

Antivir Ther 2022 Jun;27(3):13596535221102690

Ministry of Health, 1242Rwanda Biomedical Center, HIV/AIDs, STIs and OBBI Division, Kigali City, Rwanda.

Background: We assessed the prevalence of acquired HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) and associated factors among patients receiving first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Rwanda.

Methods: This cross-sectional study included 702 patients receiving first-line ART for at least 6 months with last viral load (VL) results ≥1000 copies/mL. Blood plasma samples were subjected to VL testing; specimens with unsuppressed VL were genotyped to identify HIVDR-associated mutations. Read More

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Adefovir for lamivudine-resistant hepatitis B.

Antivir Ther 2022 Apr;27(2):13596535211067605

Division of Liver Disease, Department of Medicine, 5925Icahn School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA.

Adefovir, a nucleotide analog developed by John Martin, was a major breakthrough in the treatment of chronic Hepatitis B. Prior to adefovir, Hepatitis B treatment was limited to two therapeutic modalities, either interferon, which carried significant side effects and was efficacious in a minority of patients, or lamivudine which showed no durable effects with short-term use and a high rate of resistance with long-term use. Adefovir was found to be effective in suppressing viral replication and in resolving the hepatic inflammation associated with hepatitis B with only rare instances of resistance. Read More

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Discovery and development of oseltamivir at Gilead Sciences.

Antivir Ther 2022 Apr;27(2):13596535211067598

2158Gilead Sciences Inc, Foster City, CA, USA.

John Martin's untimely death in March 2021 was a huge loss for us personally, Gilead Sciences, the company he built over 30 years and the scientific community concerned with antiviral therapies. We wish to honor John's legacy by retelling the discovery and history of Tamiflu and his contributions to it. Without his vision, persistence, and keen eye for opportunities, Tamiflu would not exist and Gilead's path would not have been the same. Read More

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Polaris Observatory-supporting informed decision-making at the national, regional, and global levels to eliminate viral hepatitis.

Homie Razavi

Antivir Ther 2022 Apr;27(2):13596535221083179

Center for Disease Analysis Foundation, Lafayette, CO, USA.

Tools to eliminate Hepatitis B and C have been available and in 2016, the World Health Assembly endorsed the Global Health Sector Strategy for Viral Hepatitis. However, the adoption of hepatitis elimination programs has remained slow. The Center for Disease Analysis created a universal registry, the Polaris Observatory, to support informed decision-making at the national, regional, and global level for HCV and HBV elimination. Read More

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Tenofovir alafenamide fumarate.

Antivir Ther 2022 Apr;27(2):13596535211067600

Akero Therapeutics, South San Francisco, CA, USA.

Tenofovir alafenamide fumarate is a lipophilic prodrug of tenofovir which is preferentially metabolized in lymphatic tissue resulting in high concentrations of tenofovir (TFV) and its active diphosphate metabolite inside the cells that replicate HIV. Due to its selectivity for these tissues, lower total doses of TAF can be administered relative to tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) which results in improved bone and renal biomarkers. Tenofovir alafenamide fumarate has become the "backbone" of multiple combination products for the treatment of HIV, combined with emtricitabine for PreP and as a monotherapy for the treatment or HBV. Read More

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Advancing HIV prevention using tenofovir-based pre-exposure prophylaxis.

Antivir Ther 2022 Apr;27(2):13596535211067589

Centre for the AIDS Programme of Research in South Africa (CAPRISA), 56394University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

Tenofovir-based pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) revolutionized the global HIV prevention landscape. Prior to the proof-of concept trial in 2010, which demonstrated that tenofovir (TFV) could prevent sexual transmission of HIV, prevention options were largely limited to behavior change, condoms, and circumcision. Several subsequent studies evaluating oral tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) or the TDF/emtricitabine (FTC) combination as PrEP for HIV prevention provided evidence for regulatory approval and inclusion in national and international guidelines. Read More

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The role of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate for preventing vertical transmission of hepatitis B.

Calvin Q Pan

Antivir Ther 2022 Apr;27(2):13596535221076640

Beijing Ditan Hospital, 4321Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Background: Since immunoprophylaxis failure can occur if maternal serum hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA levels are >200,000 IU/ml, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) therapy has been investigated for preventing mother to child transmission (PMTCT).

Methods: A literature search for maternal TDF therapy for PMTCT between 1/1/2015 and 7/1/21 on PUBMED, EMBASE, Cochrane, CNKI, and Wanfang databases was performed. Data from RCTs in English or Chinese were extracted and reviewed. Read More

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Journey of remdesivir from the inhibition of hepatitis C virus to the treatment of COVID-19.

Antivir Ther 2022 Apr;27(2):13596535221082773

2158Gilead Sciences, Inc., Foster City, CA, USA.

If a planned path reaches a dead-end, one can simply stop. Or one can turn around, walk back to the last intersection and take another path, or one can consider taking few paths in parallel. The last scenario is reflective of the journey of remdesivir, the first antiviral for the treatment of COVID-19, that was approved by FDA less than 10 months after the isolation of SARS-CoV-2, the virus responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic. Read More

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Commentary: Development of Therapeutics for Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection.

Antivir Ther 2022 Apr;27(2):13596535211060968

Professor of Pediatrics, Microbiology, Medicine and Neurosurgery, The University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA.

In the mid 1980's, I flew from Birmingham, Alabama to San Francisco, rented a car, and drove to Palo Alto so that I could meet with John Martin at Syntex. John, along with Julian Verheyden, synthesized ganciclovir, which had significant in vitro activity against cytomegalovirus (CMV) in vitro. This drug provided my colleagues and me an opportunity to evaluate it as a therapeutic agent for congenital CMV infection, knowing full well that it was mutagenic, teratogenic, and carcinogenic. Read More

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The transformation of HIV therapy: One pill once a day.

Antivir Ther 2022 Apr;27(2):13596535211062396

Division of Infectious Diseases, 6614University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

A co-formulated, one pill once a day antiretroviral regimen (single-tablet regimen), containing efavirenz, emtricitabine, and tenofovir disoproxyl fumarate (), revolutionized the antiretroviral therapy landscape. Single-tablet regimens provide not only dosing convenience but help optimize adherence and persistence with antiretroviral therapy to achieve durably suppressed viremia with both individual and societal benefits. Given the many excellent options available now, single-tablet regimens are the preferred choice for initiating antiretroviral therapy in almost all patients with rare exceptions for drug interactions and pregnancy, and for simplification of more complex antiretroviral therapy to a single-tablet regimen. Read More

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Providing access to high-quality, low-cost medicines across low and middle-income countries (LMICs), working with governments and generic manufacturers around the globe - A business case.

Antivir Ther 2022 Apr;27(2):13596535211068617

VP, Head of Corporate Strategy and External Affairs & Engagement, Adverum Biotechnologies, San Francisco, CA, USA.

Background: Gilead Sciences, under Dr. John Martin's leadership, created its Global Access Program to deliver high-quality, affordable medicines to treat and ultimately eliminate some of the world's most challenging-to-treat, pervasive, life-limiting diseases not as philanthropy but based on a self-sustaining business model-a highly novel concept in the pharmaceutical realm. John was determined to bring together all key stakeholders from public health officials to doctors and patients around the globe to understand barriers and opportunities in HIV, viral hepatitis, and visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and in so doing, pushed the Gilead team to devise novel strategies to address healthcare disparities in resource-challenged geographies. Read More

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The best backbone for HIV prevention, treatment, and elimination: Emtricitabine+tenofovir.

Antivir Ther 2022 Apr;27(2):13596535211067599

Center for AIDS Research, Laboratory of Biochemical Pharmacology, Department of Pediatrics, 1371Emory University School of Medicine and Children Healthcare of Atlanta, Atlanta, GA, USA.

The advent of antiretroviral combination therapy has significantly impacted the HIV/AIDS epidemic. No longer a death sentence, HIV infection can be controlled and suppressed using cocktail therapies that contain two or more small molecule drugs. This review aims to highlight the discovery, development, and impact of one such molecule, namely, emtricitabine (FTC, emtriva), which is one of the most successful drugs in the fight against HIV/AIDS and has been taken by over 94% of individuals infected with HIV in the USA. Read More

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The making of the one pill-Developing single tablet regimens for HIV and for HCV.

Antivir Ther 2022 Apr;27(2):13596535211067606

Department of Pharmaceutical Development and Manufacturing, 2158Gilead Sciences Inc, Foster City, CA, USA.

A concept of "all or nothing" inspired the innovation of a one-pill-once-daily HIV treatment. Atripla® was the one pill that combined efavirenz, emtricitabine, and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate to become the first daily single tablet regimen that forever simplified HIV treatment to enhance patient compliance and thus, sustained viral suppression. The making of Atripla incorporated dry granulation and bilayer compression technologies to achieve stability and bioequivalence in an optimal pill size. Read More

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Commentary: John C. Martin (1951-2021).

Antivir Ther 2022 Apr;27(2):13596535211067895

The University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA.

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The curing regimens of HCV: A SWOT analysis.

Antivir Ther 2022 Feb-Apr;27(1-2):13596535211072672

President, 9177Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany.

The development of direct-acting antivirals (DAA) has revolutionized the treatment of chronic hepatitis C, enabling cure of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in more than 95% of cases. There are essentially no contraindications, so almost any patient can now be successfully treated. The result is the prevention or amelioration of cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and extrahepatic manifestations. Read More

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Case study of hepatitis C virus control in Egypt: impact of access program.

Imam Waked

Antivir Ther 2022 Apr;27(2):13596535211067592

RinggoldID:68873National Liver Institute, Shebeen El Kom, Egypt.

Background: Although Egypt was the country with the highest prevalence of hepatitis C in the world, the availability of sofosbuvir based therapies enabled Egypt to be the first country to eliminate hepatitis C and cure more than 4 million chronically infected patients.

Purpose: This is a small tribute to John Martin.

Methodology And Conclusion: Here I present a summary of the HCV problem in Egypt, and how we, through Gilead's Access program under his leadership, were able to eliminate the disease. Read More

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Long-term safety and efficacy of rilpivirine in combination with nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors in HIV-1 infected patients: 336-week rollover study of phase 2b and 3 clinical studies.

Antivir Ther 2021 Nov 26;26(6-8):95-105. Epub 2021 Nov 26.

Janssen Research & Development, Turnhoutseweg, Beerse, Belgium.

Background: To evaluate the long-term safety and efficacy of rilpivirine (RPV), a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI), in combination with nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients.

Methods: RPV-treated HIV-infected patients from phase 2b or 3 studies rolled-over into this phase 3, open-label study and received RPV 25 mg once daily (QD) with choice of two NRTIs. Adverse events (AEs), plasma viral load, CD4 cell count, and antiviral resistance were evaluated. Read More

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November 2021

HBV co-infection is associated with persistently elevated liver stiffness measurement in HIV-positive adults: A 6-year single-centre cohort study in Nigeria.

Antivir Ther 2021 Nov 22;26(6-8):106-116. Epub 2021 Nov 22.

Section of Infectious Diseases, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA.

Background: In Nigeria, the effect of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) on long-term liver outcomes in persons with HIV (PLH) has not been described. We determined changes in liver stiffness measure (LSM) using transient elastography over 6 years in HIV mono-infected and HIV-HBV co-infected Nigerians initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) and factors associated with LSM decline.

Methods: This single centre, cohort study enrolled ART-naïve HIV mono- and HIV-HBV co-infected adults (≥18 years) at the APIN Public Health Initiatives-supported HIV Care and Treatment Centre at Jos University Teaching Hospital, Nigeria, from 7/2011 to 2/2012. Read More

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November 2021

Impact of new cyclooxygenase 2 inhibitors on human cytomegalovirus replication in vitro.

Antivir Ther 2021 Nov 29;26(6-8):117-125. Epub 2021 Nov 29.

INSERM, CHU Limoges, RESINFIT, U1092, 27025University Limoges, Limoges, France.

Background: Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is involved in complications on immunocompromised patients. Current therapeutics are associated with several drawbacks, such as nephrotoxicity.

Purpose: As HCMV infection affects inflammation pathways, especially prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production via cyclooxygenase 2 enzyme (COX-2), we designed 2'-hydroxychalcone compounds to inhibit human cytomegalovirus. Read More

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November 2021

A baseline model including quantitative anti-HBc to predict response of peginterferon in HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B patients.

Antivir Ther 2021 Nov 16;26(6-8):126-133. Epub 2021 Nov 16.

Department of Gastroenterology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Shandong First Medical University & Shandong Provincial Qianfoshan Hospital, Jinan, Shandong, China.

Background: Few models to predict antiviral response of peginterferon were used in hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive chronic hepatitis B patients and the prediction efficacy was unsatisfied. Quantitative antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) is a new predictor of treatment response. We aimed to develop a new model to identify HBeAg-positive Chinese patients who were more likely to respond to peginterferon. Read More

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November 2021

Topical cidofovir for benign human papillomavirus-associated skin lesions.

Antivir Ther 2021 Nov 2;26(6-8):141-146. Epub 2021 Nov 2.

Section of Dermatology, 123987University of Chicago Medicine Department of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USA.

Cidofovir is a broad-spectrum antiviral agent that has shown efficacy against skin lesions caused by human papillomavirus (HPV). We present a case of extensive verruca vulgaris lesions refractory to imiquimod that was responsive to topical cidofovir therapy, and analyze other case series in the literature of successful treatment of benign HPV-associated skin lesions with topical cidofovir. Topical cidofovir's favorable response rate and tolerability make it a useful treatment option for patients of differing ages and immune status who have nonmalignant HPV-associated skin lesions and desire topical therapy. Read More

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November 2021

Comparison of three galenic forms of lamivudine in young West African children living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus.

Antivir Ther 2021 Nov 16;26(6-8):134-140. Epub 2021 Nov 16.

158499Paris Descartes University, Paris, France.

Background: Few pharmacokinetic data were reported on dispersible tablets despite their increasing use. One hundred fifty HIV-infected children receiving lamivudine were enrolled in the MONOD ANRS 12,206 trial. Three galenic forms were administered: liquid formulation, tablet form and dispersible scored tablet. Read More

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November 2021

Rilpivirine plus cobicistat-boosted darunavir as alternative to standard three-drug therapy in HIV-infected, virologically suppressed subjects: Final results of the PROBE 2 trial.

Antivir Ther 2021 May 27;26(3-5):51-57. Epub 2021 Oct 27.

9372San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy.

Background: Primary analysis at 24 weeks showed that switching to rilpivirine plus darunavir/cobicistat was non-inferior to continuing a standard three-drug antiretroviral regimen in virologically suppressed people with HIV. We present efficacy and safety data from the 48-week analysis.

Methods: PROBE 2 is a randomized, open-label trial. Read More

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Safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of oral JNJ-64794964, a TLR-7 agonist, in healthy adults.

Antivir Ther 2021 May 27;26(3-5):58-68. Epub 2021 Oct 27.

Janssen Research & Development LLC, Titusville, NJ, USA.

Background: This Phase I, two-part, first-in-human study assessed safety/tolerability and pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics of single-ascending doses (SAD) and multiple doses (MD) of the oral toll-like receptor-7 agonist, JNJ-64794964 (JNJ-4964) in healthy adults.

Methods: In the SAD phase, participants received JNJ-4964 0.2 ( = 6), 0. Read More

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Low prevalence of doravirine-associated resistance mutations among polish human immunodeficiency-1 (HIV-1)-infected patients.

Antivir Ther 2021 May 20;26(3-5):69-78. Epub 2021 Oct 20.

Department of Infectious, Tropical Diseases and Immune Deficiency, 175603Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin, Szczecin, Poland.

Introduction: Doravirine (DOR) is a novel non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) that retains activity against common NNRTI resistance mutations. In this study, we aimed to investigate the prevalence of DOR resistance mutations compared with that of resistance mutations for other NNRTIs among HIV-1-infected treatment-experienced and -naïve patients from Poland.

Methods: Resistance to DOR and other NNRTIs was assessed in two datasets: 1760 antiretroviral treatment-naïve HIV-1 patients and 200 treatment-experienced patients. Read More

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Evaluation of doravirine-based regimen population target in a large Italian clinical center.

Antivir Ther 2021 May 25;26(3-5):79-83. Epub 2021 Oct 25.

Istituto Clinica di Malattie Infettive, 96983Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome, Italy.

Background: Doravirine (DOR) is a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) approved for HIV-1 infection treatment. Because of its genetic barrier, DOR appears to be a good alternative in switch strategies compared to other NNRTI. Our aim was to evaluate the percentage of people living with HIV (PLWHIV) followed in our center who could be eligible to a DOR-based regimen. Read More

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Oseltamivir and acute hepatitis, reality association or coincidence?

Antivir Ther 2021 May 17;26(3-5):87-92. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

UOC Microbiologia e Virologia, 220599Azienda Ospedaliera di Cosenza, Cosenza, Italy.

Oseltamivir is an orally administered antiviral medication that selectively inhibits the influenza neuraminidase enzymes that are essential for viral replication and it is active against both influenza A and B viruses. Oseltamivir is indicated for therapy or post-exposure prevention of influenza A and B. Side effects are uncommon and include mild nausea, gastrointestinal upset, dizziness, and headache. Read More

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Real-life findings on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on HIV care.

Antivir Ther 2021 May 19;26(3-5):84-86. Epub 2021 Oct 19.

Department of Safety and Bioethics, 96983Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Rome, Italy.

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Statin effect on coronary calcium distribution, mass and volume scores and associations with immune activation among HIV+ persons on antiretroviral therapy.

Antivir Ther 2020 ;25(8):419-427

School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA.

Background: Inflammation has been associated with whole heart coronary artery calcification (CAC) among people with HIV (PWH) on antiretroviral therapy (ART); however, prior studies have not evaluated the distribution of calcium or separated mass versus volume scores, which are differentially associated with clinical events in the general population. Statins may also have a greater effect on CAC mass compared with volume.

Methods: 147 PWH were randomized 1:1 to rosuvastatin 10 mg or placebo and followed for 96 weeks. Read More

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Treatment modification after second-line failure among people living with HIV in the Asia-Pacific.

Antivir Ther 2020 ;25(7):377-387

The Kirby Institute, UNSW Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Background: The World Health Organization recommends continuation with the failing second-line regimen if third-line option is not available. We investigated treatment outcomes among people living with HIV in Asia who continued with failing second-line regimens compared with those who had treatment modifications after failure.

Methods: Treatment modification was defined as a change of two antiretrovirals, a drug class change or treatment interruption (TI), all for >14 days. Read More

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