2,330 results match your criteria Antiviral Therapy[Journal]


The comparative effectiveness of NRTI-sparing dual regimens in emulated trials using observational data from the Swiss HIV Cohort Study.

Antivir Ther 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Basel Institute for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University Hospital Basel, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.

Background: Nucleoside (or nucleotide) reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) cause side effects in some patients, prompting the use of either partly or fully NRTI-sparing regimens.

Methods: We used data from the Swiss HIV Cohort Study to estimate the effectiveness of two new dolutegravir dual regimens relative to the alternative NRTI-sparing dual regimens that our clinicians used previously. We emulated two trials by propensity score matching case patients on the dolutegravir regimen with control patients on an alternative regimen. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3851/IMP3310DOI Listing

Evolution of HIV-1 drug resistance after virological failure of first-line antiretroviral therapy in Lusaka Zambia.

Antivir Ther 2019 Apr 12. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

UNC Institute for Global Health and Infectious Diseases, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.

Background: HIV viral load (VL) and resistance testing are limited in sub-Saharan Africa, so individuals may have prolonged time on failing first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART). Our objective was to describe the evolution of drug resistance mutations among adults failing first-line ART in Zambia.

Methods: We analyzed data from a trial of VL monitoring in Lusaka, Zambia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3851/IMP3299DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Very high pre-therapy viral load is a predictor of virological rebound in HIV-1-infected patients starting a modern first-line regimen.

Antivir Ther 2019 Apr 12. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

Department of Experimental Medicine, University of Rome "Tor Vergata", Rome, Italy.

Background: Pre-cART (combined antiretroviral therapy) plasma viral load >500,000 copies/mL has been associated with a lower probability of achieving virological suppression, while few data about its role on maintenance of virological suppression are available. In this study we aimed to clarify whether high levels of pre-cART viremia are associated with virological rebound (VR) after virological suppression.

Methods: HIV-infected individuals who achieved virological suppression after first-line cART were included. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3851/IMP3309DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Drug susceptibility and replication capacity of a rare HIV-1 subtype C protease hinge region variant.

Antivir Ther 2019 Apr 8. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Protein Structure-Function Research Unit, School of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Background: Protease inhibitors form the main component of second-line antiretroviral treatment in South Africa. Despite their efficacy, mutations arising within the HIV-1 gag and protease coding regions contribute to the development of resistance against this class of drug. In this paper we investigate a South African HIV-1 subtype C Gag-protease that contains a hinge region mutation and insertion (N37T↑V). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3851/IMP3308DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Adoptive T-cell therapy with CD45RA-deplected donor in the treatment of cytomegalovirus disease in immunocompromised non-transplant patients.

Antivir Ther 2019 Mar 26. Epub 2019 Mar 26.

Immunology and Immunotherapy Department, Clínica Universidad de Navarra, Pamplona, Spain.

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections can induce severe complications in immunosuppressed patients. Currently, ganciclovir represents the preferred treatment option; however, in patients with resistance or toxicity related to ganciclovir, the therapeutic options are limited.Cellular immunity plays an important role in the control of viral infections. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3851/IMP3307DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Effect of rifabutin on the pharmacokinetics of oral cabotegravir in healthy subjects.

Antivir Ther 2019 Mar 21. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

ViiV Healthcare, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA.

Background: Cabotegravir (CAB) is an integrase strand transfer inhibitor in development as a long-acting injectable formulation, with an oral formulation used during a safety lead-in period. Tuberculosis (TB)/HIV co-infection is common, often requiring simultaneous treatment. Rifabutin (RBT) is an alternative antimycobacterial agent for TB and a moderate inducer of cytochrome P450 and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase isoenzymes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3851/IMP3306DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Molecular cloning and phenotypic analysis of drug-resistance mutants with relevant S-region variants of HBV for a patient during 189-month anti-HBV treatment.

Antivir Ther 2019 Mar 18. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Institute of Infectious Diseases, Beijing 302 Hospital, Beijing, China.

Background: A unique chronic hepatitis B patient was followed over 189 months of nucleoside/nucleotide analogue (NAs) therapies with the analysis of multiple drug-resistance HBV mutants.

Methods: Clonal sequencing (≥ 20 clones/sample) was performed on sera sampled at 41 time-points, and the phenotypic features of eight representative mutants were analyzed.

Results: Lamivudine (LAM)-, adefovir dipivoxil (ADV)-, entecavir (ETV)-, and repeat ADV-resistance mutants emerged upon individual sequential NA monotherapy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3851/IMP3305DOI Listing
March 2019
6 Reads

Discovery and characterization of a novel HCV inhibitor targeting the late stage of HCV life cycle.

Antivir Ther 2019 Mar 18. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Liver Diseases Branch, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Background: Currently approved anti-HCV drugs, the direct-acting antivirals (DAAs), are highly effective and target the viral RNA replication stage of the HCV life cycle. Due to high mutation rate of HCV, drug resistant variants can arise during DAA monotherapy. Thus, a combination of DAAs is necessary to achieve a high response rate. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3851/IMP3303DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

High frequency of multiclass HCV resistance-associated mutations in patients failing direct-acting antivirals: real-life data.

Antivir Ther 2019 Mar 18. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Central Virology Laboratory, Ministry of Health, Sheba Medical Center, Ramat Gan, Israel.

Background: Direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy has dramatically increased sustained virologic response rates (SVR) in hepatitis C (HCV)-infected patients. However, resistance-associated substitutions (RAS) interfering with NS3- and NS5A-targeted therapy, still emerge. This real-life study analyzed the type and frequency of RAS in rare cases of patients failing DAA regimens in 12 clinical centers in Israel. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3851/IMP3301DOI Listing
March 2019
3.020 Impact Factor

Tenofovir and emtricitabine resistance among antiretroviral-naive patients in the Canadian Observational Cohort Collaboration: implications for PrEP.

Antivir Ther 2019 Mar 15. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Department of Family and Community Medicine, St. Michael's Hospital and University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Background: The real-world effectiveness of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) may be influenced by circulating HIV strains resistant to either tenofovir or emtricitabine. Yet, few studies have examined rates of resistance to these drugs in clinical settings.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of antiretroviral naïve participants in the Canadian Observational Cohort collaboration who initiated antiretroviral therapy between 2006 and 2014. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3851/IMP3302DOI Listing
March 2019
3.020 Impact Factor

Peginterferon alfa-2a (40 kD) stopping rules in chronic hepatitis B: a systematic review and meta-analysis of individual participant data.

Antivir Ther 2019 Mar 13. Epub 2019 Mar 13.

Roche Products Ltd, Welwyn Garden City, United Kingdom.

Background: Peginterferon alfa-2a (PEG-IFN) treatment stopping rules in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) are clinically desirable. Previous studies exploring this topic contained important limitations resulting in inconsistent recommendations within the current treatment guidelines. We undertook a systematic review and individual patient data meta-analysis to identify the most appropriate PEG-IFN treatment stopping rules. Read More

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https://www.intmedpress.com/journals/avt/abstract.cfm?id=330
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3851/IMP3304DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

The impact of a successful treatment of HCV on glyco-metabolic control in diabetic patients.

Antivir Ther 2019 Mar 5. Epub 2019 Mar 5.

Unit of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences L. Sacco, "Luigi Sacco" University Hospital, Università di Milano, Milan, Italy.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3851/IMP3300DOI Listing

Cardiovascular disease incidence projections in the TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database (TAHOD).

Antivir Ther 2019 Mar 5. Epub 2019 Mar 5.

The Kirby Institute, UNSW Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Background: We aimed to project the 10-year future incidence of CVD and model several intervention scenarios based on a multi-site Asian HIV-positive cohort.

Methods: Analyses were based on patients recruited to the TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database (TAHOD), consisting of 21 sites in 12 countries. Patients on triple antiretroviral therapy (ART) were included if they were alive, without previous CVD, and had data on CVD risk factors. Read More

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https://www.intmedpress.com/journals/avt/abstract.cfm?id=329
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3851/IMP3298DOI Listing
March 2019
5 Reads

HBV reactivation during direct-acting antiviral therapy in hepatitis B and C coinfected patients undergoing haemodialysis.

Antivir Ther 2019 Mar 5. Epub 2019 Mar 5.

Department of Infectious Diseases, First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an City, China.

Background: There have been increasing reports of hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation in HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infected patients with direct-acting antiviral (DAA) treatment. The potential risk of HBV reactivation in patients undergoing hemodialysis has also been noted. There is a lack of data pertaining to the reactivation risk during DAA treatment in those co-infected patients with end-stage renal disease who are undergoing hemodialysis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3851/IMP3292DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Patients with HCV genotype-1 who have failed a direct-acting antiviral regimen: virological characteristics and efficacy of retreatment.

Antivir Ther 2019 Feb 13. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Laboratory for the Identification of Prognostic Factors of Response to the Treatment Against Infectious Diseases, University of Campania L. Vanvitelli, Naples, Italy.

Background: This real-world clinical-setting study characterized the virological patterns in genotype-1 patients failing IFN-free regimens and evaluated the efficacy of re-treatment.

Methods: Seventy-three consecutive patients failing IFN-free regimens were enrolled (17 genotype 1a and 56 1b). At failure Sanger sequencing of NS3, NS5A and NS5B regions was performed by home-made protocols. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3851/IMP3296DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read
3.020 Impact Factor

Inhibitory effect of iota-carrageenan on porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in vitro.

Antivir Ther 2019 Feb 12. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou Higher Education Mega Center, Guangzhou, PR China.

Background: Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an economically important pathogen and causes significant economic losses to the swine industry worldwide each year. Current vaccination strategies do not effectively prevent and control the virus. Consequently, it is necessary to develop novel antiviral strategies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3851/IMP3295DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Durability of first-line antiretroviral regimens in the era of integrase inhibitors: a cohort of HIV-positive individuals in Spain, 2014-2015.

Antivir Ther 2019 Feb 12. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Hospital Universitario Ramon y Cajal, Madrid, Spain.

Background: We compared time to treatment change (TC), viral suppression (VS) and change in CD4+ T-cell counts of first-line antiretroviral regimens (ART).

Methods: We analyzed HIV treatment-naïve adults from the Cohort of the Spanish HIV/AIDS Research Network (CoRIS) initiating the most commonly used ART regimens from September 2014 to November 2015. We used proportional hazards models on the sub-distribution hazard to estimate sub-distribution hazard ratios (sHR) for time to TC, logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) for VS (viral load<50 copies/ml), and linear regression to assess mean differences in CD4 changes from ART initiation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3851/IMP3297DOI Listing
February 2019

Provincial and national prevalence estimates of transmitted HIV-1 drug resistance in South Africa measured using two WHO-recommended methods.

Antivir Ther 2019 Feb 11. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA.

Introduction: Sentinel surveillance of transmitted HIV drug resistance (TDR) among recently infected populations within a country was recommended by the World Health Organization from 2004-2015.

Methods: Serum specimens collected as part of the 2010, 2011 and 2012 National Antenatal Sentinel HIV Prevalence Surveys were used to estimate provincial and national TDR prevalence in South Africa.

Results: Moderate (5-15%) levels of transmitted non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI) drug class resistance were detected in 3 of 5 provinces surveyed in 2010 and 2011 (Eastern Cape, Free State and KwaZulu-Natal). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3851/IMP3294DOI Listing
February 2019
7 Reads

Therapeutic drug monitoring of darunavir/ritonavir in pregnancy.

Antivir Ther 2019 Feb 7. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

School of Medicine and Medical Science, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.

Background: Physiological changes during pregnancy can have a significant impact on antiretroviral pharmacokinetics (PK), which may result in reduced drug efficacy. Here we describe the PK of darunavir/ritonavir (DRV/r) 800/100 once daily in a cohort of pregnant women undergoing routine therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) as well as transplacental passage of DRV by measuring and comparing cord blood and maternal blood samples at delivery.

Methods: Pregnant HIV-positive women received DRV/r as part of routine pre-natal care. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3851/IMP3291DOI Listing
February 2019

Polypharmacy and drug-drug interactions in older and younger people living with HIV: the POPPY study.

Antivir Ther 2019 Jan 31. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom.

Background: Polypharmacy (use of ≥ 5 medications) increases the risk of drug-drug interactions and can lead to negative health outcomes. This study aimed to review the medications of people living with HIV (PLWH) and HIV negative controls in the POPPY study and evaluate the frequency of polypharmacy and potential drug-drug interactions (PDDI).

Methods: Potential drug-drug interactions between non-antiretroviral (ARV) drugs were analysed using the Lexicomp® database, and PDDI between non-ARV and ARV drugs using the Liverpool drug interaction database. Read More

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https://www.intmedpress.com/journals/avt/abstract.cfm?id=329
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3851/IMP3293DOI Listing
January 2019
9 Reads
3.020 Impact Factor

Cost-effectiveness of second-generation direct-acting antiviral agents in chronic HCV infection: a systematic literature review.

Antivir Ther 2019 Jan 16. Epub 2019 Jan 16.

Syreon Research Institute, Budapest, Hungary.

Background: Our objectives were to review the economic modelling methods and cost-effectiveness of second generation direct-acting antiviral agents for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus infection.

Methods: A systematic literature search was performed in February 2017 using Scopus and OVID to review relevant publications between 2011 to present. Two independent reviewers screened potential papers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3851/IMP3290DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Behaviour of occult HBV infection in HCV-infected patients under treatment with direct-acting antivirals.

Antivir Ther 2019 Jan 10. Epub 2019 Jan 10.

Department of Human Pathology, University Hospital of Messina, Messina, Italy.

Background: There is controversial data on possible occult HBV reactivation in HCV patients successfully treated with direct-acting antivirals (DAA). However, diagnosis of occult HBV infection (OBI) was not performed by gold standard procedures in any study.

Methods: By using several highly sensitive assays, we examined serially collected serum samples from 40 HBV-surface-negative DAA-treated HCV patients with OBI identified by testing liver biopsy specimens through nested-PCR technique. Read More

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https://www.intmedpress.com/journals/avt/abstract.cfm?id=328
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3851/IMP3288DOI Listing
January 2019
17 Reads

Impact of three decades of antiretroviral therapy in a longitudinal population cohort study.

Antivir Ther 2019 Jan 7. Epub 2019 Jan 7.

S Alberta HIV Clinic and University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada.

Background: We have used a comprehensive HIV population to characterize antiretroviral therapy (ART), drug class selection, pill burden, drug costs and health outcomes over the entire span of the HIV epidemic.

Methods: Antiretroviral (ARV) use (drugs, classes, formulations) and both the laboratory and clinical outcomes (HIV-1 RNA, CD4 T-cell count and mortality) were determined for all patients in Southern Alberta, Canada, at each year-end between 1986 and 2017. Pill burden, cumulative drug exposure and costs were calculated for each year. Read More

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https://www.intmedpress.com/journals/avt/abstract.cfm?id=328
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3851/IMP3287DOI Listing
January 2019
9 Reads

Frailty as a predictor of falls in HIV-infected and uninfected women.

Antivir Ther 2019 ;24(1):51-61

Department of Medicine, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY, USA.

Background: Frailty and falls occur commonly and prematurely in HIV-infected populations. Whether frailty in middle-age predicts future falls among HIV-infected women is unknown.

Methods: We evaluated associations of frailty with single and recurrent falls 10 years later among 729 HIV-infected and 326 uninfected women in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) with frailty measured in 2005 and self-reported falls in 2014-2016. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3851/IMP3286DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Disparate effects of cytotoxic chemotherapy on the antiviral activity of antiretroviral therapy: implications for treatments of HIV-infected cancer patients.

Antivir Ther 2018 Dec 21. Epub 2018 Dec 21.

Institute of Human Virology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Background: Cancer is a leading cause of death in HIV-infected patients in the era of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Yet, there are no specific guidelines for the combined use of cART and chemotherapy in HIV-infected cancer patients. The cellular enzyme thymidylate synthase (TS) catalyses the conversion of dUMP to TMP, which is converted to TDP and ultimately to TTP, a building block in DNA synthesis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3851/IMP3285DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Tenofovir plus hepatitis B immunoglobulin treatment resulted in a rapid HBV DNA load decline in high-risk pregnant women who missed the optimal time window of antiviral prophylaxis.

Antivir Ther 2018 Dec 20. Epub 2018 Dec 20.

Department of Infectious Diseases, First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an City, China.

Background: Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) administration in the third trimester for pregnant women with high HBV DNA load has been accepted as a wise practice to prevent mother-to-infant transmission (MTIT). However, for those women who missed the optimal time window of antiviral prophylaxis, the emergent treatment is lacked in the current clinical guidelines.

Methods: Forty-eight pregnant women who did not receive antiviral prophylaxis before 28 weeks of gestation were screened and were administrated with TDF plus hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG, TDF+HBIG group) or TDF alone (TDF group). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3851/IMP3284DOI Listing
December 2018
2 Reads

Hindsight is 20/20 - the importance of knowing! Know your patients' HBV status.

Antivir Ther 2018 ;23(6):471-473

Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3851/IMP3260DOI Listing
January 2018
2 Reads

Efavirenz pharmacokinetics during pregnancy and infant washout.

Antivir Ther 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Departments of Pharmacy and Pharmacology and Toxicology, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.

Background: Limited data exist on efavirenz pharmacokinetics in HIV-positive pregnant women and neonatal washout.

Methods: HIV-infected pregnant women receiving 600 mg efavirenz once daily had intensive steady-state 24-h pharmacokinetics profiles during the second trimester (2T), third trimester (3T) and 6-12 weeks postpartum (PP). Maternal and umbilical cord blood samples were drawn at delivery and neonatal washout pharmacokinetics were determined. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3851/IMP3283DOI Listing
December 2018
12 Reads

Association of serum total cholesterol with pegylated interferon-α treatment in HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B patients.

Antivir Ther 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, China.

Background: Recent studies suggest that serum lipids are associated with pegylated interferon-alpha (PEG-IFN-α) treatment response in chronic hepatitis C patients. However, the role of serum lipids in influencing the outcome of HBV treatment is not well understood. This study aims to investigate the association of serum lipids with the response to interferon-alpha treatment for chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3851/IMP3282DOI Listing
December 2018
8 Reads

HSV susceptibility to acyclovir - genotypic and phenotypic characterization.

Antivir Ther 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Manipal Centre for Virus Research, Manipal Academy of Higher Education (MAHE), Karnataka, India.

Background: Infections due to drug-resistant herpes simplex viruses (HSV) represent an important clinical concern, especially in the immunocompromised patients. The present study was aimed at detecting acyclovir (ACV) susceptibility in HSV clinical samples.

Methods: A total of 13 HSV-positive clinical samples (five HSV-1 and eight HSV-2) recovered from patients (one immunocompromised, and 12 of unknown immune status) were included in the study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3851/IMP3279DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Automated nucleic acid isolation methods for HDV viral load quantification can lead to viral load underestimation.

Antivir Ther 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Endocrinology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany.

Background: HDV infection is a cause of severe liver disease. Diagnosis and monitoring of HDV RNA are important to patient management. Since 2012, a WHO standard for HDV RNA quantification has been available; however, the impact of RNA extraction methods on HDV viral load quantification has never been evaluated. Read More

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https://www.intmedpress.com/journals/avt/abstract.cfm?id=328
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3851/IMP3281DOI Listing
December 2018
12 Reads

Monitoring of serum HBV RNA, HBcrAg, HBsAg and anti-HBc levels in patients during long-term nucleoside/nucleotide analogue therapy.

Antivir Ther 2018 Dec 4. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Institute of Infectious Diseases, Beijing 302 Hospital, Beijing, China.

Background: This study was aimed at evaluating the clinical significance of serum HBV RNA, hepatitis B core-related antigen (HBcrAg) and hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc) levels in chronic hepatitis B patients with undetectable HBV DNA during nucleoside/nucleotide analogue (NA) treatment.

Methods: Fifty-seven patients who received long-term NA treatment of median 5.83 (25%, 75% percentiles 4. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3851/IMP3280DOI Listing
December 2018
5 Reads

Expert opinion on managing chronic HCV infection in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Antivir Ther 2018 ;23(Suppl 2):11-21

Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7211, and Inflammation-Immunopathology-Biotherapy Department (DHU i2B), Paris, France.

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been identified as an extrahepatic manifestation of chronic HCV infection. Conversely, in the context of chronic HCV infection, T2DM can accelerate the course of HCV-induced liver disease leading to increased risk of fibrosis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The presence of T2DM negatively impacts the efficacy of interferon-based antiviral therapy, but real-world data with high-efficacy direct-acting antiviral therapies suggest high viral clearance rates in T2DM patients. Read More

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https://www.intmedpress.com/journals/avt/abstract.cfm?id=325
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3851/IMP3255DOI Listing
January 2018
20 Reads

Expert opinion on the management of renal manifestations of chronic HCV infection.

Antivir Ther 2018 ;23(Suppl 2):57-67

Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7211, and Inflammation-Immunopathology-Biotherapy Department (DHU i2B), Paris, France.

Chronic HCV infection is a non-traditional (but modifiable) risk factor for chronic kidney disease and has been implicated in glomerular injury and nephrosclerotic disease. Three HCV direct-acting antiviral regimens are available for patients with severe kidney impairment: ombitasvir, paritaprevir with the pharmacokinetic enhancer ritonavir, and dasabuvir; glecaprevir plus pibrentasvir; and elbasvir plus grazoprevir. In patients with severe kidney impairment, sofosbuvir-free regimens are preferred because sofosbuvir accumulation has been associated with a progressive worsening of renal function. Read More

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https://www.intmedpress.com/journals/avt/abstract.cfm?id=324
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3851/IMP3247DOI Listing
January 2018
16 Reads

Expert opinion on managing chronic HCV in patients with cardiovascular disease.

Antivir Ther 2018 ;23(Suppl 2):35-46

Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7211, and Inflammation-Immunopathology-Biotherapy Department (DHU i2B), Paris, France.

Extrahepatic manifestations of chronic HCV infection include cardiovascular diseases and an increase in cardiovascular mortality. The pathogenic mechanisms by which HCV contributes to cardiovascular disease are not well defined, however, it is likely that systemic inflammation, and the promotion of other metabolic diseases are involved. In this Review, the evidence for HCV infection as a non-traditional risk factor for cardiovascular disease is evaluated. Read More

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https://www.intmedpress.com/journals/avt/abstract.cfm?id=324
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3851/IMP3248DOI Listing
January 2018
17 Reads

Expert opinion on managing chronic HCV in patients with mixed cryoglobulinaemia vasculitis.

Antivir Ther 2018 ;23(Suppl 2):1-9

Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7211, and Inflammation-Immunopathology-Biotherapy Department (DHU i2B), Paris, France.

Mixed cryoglobulinaemia vasculitis (CryoVas) is a small-vessel systemic vasculitis caused by deposition of mixed cryoglobulins and is characterized by a wide range of clinical symptoms. HCV is the primary cause of CryoVas, which is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The mortality rate among patients with HCV-associated CryoVas is 3× that of the general population, with a 63% 10-year survival rate. Read More

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https://www.intmedpress.com/journals/avt/abstract.cfm?id=324
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3851/IMP3246DOI Listing
January 2018
13 Reads

Expert opinion on managing chronic HCV in patients with neuropsychiatric manifestations.

Antivir Ther 2018 ;23(Suppl 2):47-55

Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7211, and Inflammation-Immunopathology-Biotherapy Department (DHU i2B), Paris, France.

Neurological manifestations of HCV infection appear to be under-recognized in clinical practice despite the majority of HCV-infected patients experiencing symptoms such as fatigue, depression and cognitive dysfunction. There is also growing evidence for a link between HCV infection and an increased risk of Parkinson's disease. The mechanism underpinning the association between HCV and these neuropsychiatric syndromes still requires further investigation. Read More

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https://www.intmedpress.com/journals/avt/abstract.cfm?id=324
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3851/IMP3245DOI Listing
January 2018
9 Reads

Expert opinion on managing chronic HCV in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma and other extrahepatic malignancies.

Antivir Ther 2018 ;23(Suppl 2):23-33

Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7211, and Inflammation-Immunopathology-Biotherapy Department (DHU i2B), Paris, France.

HCV is a carcinogen that is well established as a major risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma. Evidence that HCV plays a role in the development of extrahepatic malignancies is less robust; however, epidemiological studies have consistently demonstrated an association between HCV infection and B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). The strongest evidence for a link between HCV and tumourigenesis is the clear association between viral eradication, as indicated by achievement of sustained virological response, and remission of B-cell NHL. Read More

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https://www.intmedpress.com/journals/avt/abstract.cfm?id=325
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3851/IMP3250DOI Listing
January 2018
21 Reads

Daclatasvir and sofosbuvir with ribavirin for 24 weeks in chronic hepatitis C genotype-3-infected patients with cirrhosis: a Phase III study (ALLY-3C).

Antivir Ther 2019 ;24(1):35-44

Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ, USA.

Background: Optimal treatment for patients with HCV genotype-3 infection and liver cirrhosis remains a medical priority. Daclatasvir+sofosbuvir and ribavirin is a recommended option for such patients, but clinical trial data are lacking for treatment >16 weeks.

Methods: This was a single-arm, Phase III study of daclatasvir+sofosbuvir+ribavirin for 24 weeks in patients with compensated cirrhosis and HCV genotype-3 infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3851/IMP3278DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Differential extracellular, but similar intracellular, disposition of two tenofovir formulations in the male genital tract.

Antivir Ther 2019 ;24(1):45-50

UNC School of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.

Background: The male genital tract (MGT) is a viral sanctuary and likely HIV reservoir; understanding MGT pharmacokinetics (PK) of antiretrovirals (ARVs) used for curative strategies is critical to eradication and cure. Tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) is a tenofovir (TFV) formulation designed to maximize efficacy/minimize toxicity with unknown MGT PK.

Methods: HIV-positive and HIV-negative men receiving TFV-based regimens provided six paired blood plasma (BP) and semen samples. Read More

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https://www.intmedpress.com/journals/avt/abstract.cfm?id=327
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3851/IMP3277DOI Listing
January 2019
10 Reads

Optimizing concentrations of concomitant antiretrovirals by reducing etravirine doses: two case reports of complex drug-drug interactions.

Antivir Ther 2019 ;24(1):73-76

Faculty of Pharmacy, Université de Montréal, Montréal, QC, Canada.

We report the cases of two treatment-experienced HIV-infected patients with complex antiretroviral regimens that showed significant drug-drug interactions with etravirine. Unexpectedly high etravirine concentrations likely caused subtherapeutic levels of darunavir, elvitegravir and dolutegravir through concentration-dependent metabolic induction. Therapeutic drug monitoring allowed safe etravirine dose decreases to manage these interactions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3851/IMP3274DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Increased dose of dolutegravir as a potential rescue therapy in multi-experienced patients.

Antivir Ther 2019 ;24(1):69-72

Clinic of Infectious Diseases, San Raffaele Hospital, Milan, Italy.

Background: The pilot Phase IIb VIKING study suggested that dolutegravir (DTG), an HIV integrase inhibitor (INI), is efficacious in INI-resistant patients at the 50 mg twice-daily dose. However, DTG response was most reduced in subjects carrying resistance-associated mutations at position G140 and Q148. These mutations can cause a 10-20-fold reduced susceptibility to DTG as well as a 96% lower odds of achieving HIV-1 RNA <50 copies/ml at week 24 if compared with those with no mutations at these positions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3851/IMP3275DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

20th International Workshop on Co-morbidities and Adverse Drug Reactions in HIV.

Authors:

Antivir Ther 2018 ;23(Suppl 1):A1-A68

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January 2018
2 Reads

The role of anti-HBs in hepatitis B reactivation during direct-acting antiviral therapy for chronic hepatitis C.

Antivir Ther 2018 ;23(6):539-542

Institute of Liver Studies, King's College Hospital, London, United Kingdom.

Background: Hepatitis B reactivation in patients with resolved HBV can occur during hepatitis C treatment with direct-acting antivirals, but only a few cases have been described. It is not clear which patients are at risk for HBV reactivation and how to manage them.

Methods: Three patients (all hepatitis B surface antigen [HBsAg]-negative, antibody to hepatitis B core [anti-HBc] positive and HBV DNA negative) experienced a late HBV reactivation 12 weeks post-treatment but were able to control their viraemia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3851/IMP3259DOI Listing
January 2018
2 Reads

Effects of antiretroviral combination therapies F/TAF, E/C/F/TAF and R/F/TAF on insulin resistance in healthy volunteers: the TAF-IR Study.

Antivir Ther 2018 3;23(7):629-632. Epub 2018 Oct 3.

Department of Medicine II, University Hospital Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich, Germany.

Background: Increased insulin resistance (IR), associated with specific antiretroviral drugs or drug classes, is an established risk factor for type 2 diabetes in HIV patients, ultimately increasing morbidity and mortality. To date, data on the risk of IR in tenofovir alafenamide (TAF)-based protocols are unavailable.

Methods: This prospective randomized, open-label study evaluated the effects of IR on 30 healthy volunteers receiving fixed-dose combinations (FDCs) of emtricitabine/tenofovir alafenamide (F/TAF), elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovir alafenamide (E/C/F/TAF) or rilpivirine/emtricitabine/tenofovir alafenamide (R/F/TAF). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3851/IMP3271DOI Listing
October 2018
5 Reads

A comparison between two dolutegravir-based two-drug regimens as switch strategies in a multicentre cohort of HIV-1-infected patients.

Antivir Ther 2019 ;24(1):63-67

Institute of Clinical Infectious Diseases, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario Agostino Gemelli IRCCS, Rome, Italy.

Background: Two-drug regimens are increasingly used in clinical practice as switch strategies. We compared the efficacy and safety of two dolutegravir (DTG)-based dual therapies: DTG plus lamivudine (3TC group) versus DTG plus rilpivirine (RPV group).

Methods: In a multicentre cohort of virologically suppressed (HIV RNA <50 copies/ml) HIV+ patients switching to DTG+3TC or DTG+RPV we analysed the incidence of virological failures (VF) and treatment discontinuations (TD), as well as their predictors. Read More

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https://www.intmedpress.com/journals/avt/abstract.cfm?id=327
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3851/IMP3270DOI Listing
January 2019
28 Reads

Autophagy involved in antiviral activity of sodium tanshinone IIA sulfonate against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection in vitro.

Antivir Ther 2019 ;24(1):27-33

College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu, PR China.

Background: In previous research, we have demonstrated that sodium tanshinone IIA sulfonate (STS) has anti-porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) activity, but whether autophagy is involved in this process is still unknown. In this study, the autophagy effect of STS against PRRSV infection was investigated in vitro.

Methods: Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and western blot was used to evaluate the inhibition ability of STS on the mRNA expression levels on cell autophagy genes, that is Beclin1, ATG5 and ATG7. Read More

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https://www.intmedpress.com/journals/avt/abstract.cfm?id=326
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3851/IMP3268DOI Listing
January 2019
4 Reads