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    2228 results match your criteria Antiviral Therapy[Journal]

    1 OF 45

    Drug-drug interaction potential of the hepatitis B and hepatitis D virus entry inhibitor myrcludex B assessed in vitro.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Nov 14. Epub 2017 Nov 14.
    Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Pharmacoepidemiology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Background: Myrcludex B is a first-in-class virus entry inhibitor for patients with chronic hepatitis B or B/D infections. In patients it will be co-administered with drugs needed for the disease or comorbidities. We aimed to define the risk of drug-drug interactions by characterizing the influence of myrcludex B on relevant drug transporting and metabolizing enzymes in vitro. Read More

    Real-world evidence for nucleoside/nucleotide analogues in a 5-year multicentre study of antiviral-naive chronic hepatitis B patients in China: 52-week results.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Nov 8. Epub 2017 Nov 8.
    Bristol-Myers Squibb, Shanghai, China.
    Background: In China, the clinical management of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is complicated by the use of various nucleos(t)ide analogue (NUC) regimens in treatment-naïve patients, including NUCs with low genetic barriers to resistance, with/without add-on therapy and de novo NUC combinations. This longitudinal observational study therefore investigated the real-world clinical management and efficacy of NUC therapy in treatment-naïve CHB patients in China.

    Methods: Treatment-naïve CHB patients initiated on NUC therapy were enrolled from 63 hospitals in tier-2 Chinese cities. Read More

    Peramivir susceptibilities of recombinant influenza A and B variants selected with various neuraminidase inhibitors.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Mar 22. Epub 2017 Mar 22.
    Research Center in Infectious Diseases of the CHUQ-CHUL and Laval University, Québec City, QC, Canada.
    Background: Peramivir is a parenteral neuraminidase inhibitor (NAI) approved for treating influenza infections in a few countries. We determined peramivir susceptibilities of several uncharacterized influenza A and B neuraminidase (NA) and haemagglutinin (HA) mutants selected with different NAIs.

    Methods: Recombinant wild-type (WT) and mutant NA proteins were expressed in 293T cells and susceptibility to peramivir, oseltamivir and zanamivir was determined by NA inhibition assay using the MUNANA substrate. Read More

    Characterization of HCV resistance from a 3-day monotherapy study of voxilaprevir, a novel pangenotypic NS3/4A protease inhibitor.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Oct 24. Epub 2017 Oct 24.
    Gilead Sciences, Inc., Foster City, CA, USA.
    Background: Voxilaprevir (VOX, GS-9857) is a pangenotypic hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3/4A protease inhibitor (PI) with potent antiviral activity against HCV genotypes (GTs) 1-6 and improved coverage of GT1 NS3 resistance-associated substitutions (RASs) associated with other HCV PIs. In a 3-day phase 1b monotherapy study in patients infected with HCV GT1a, 1b, 2, 3 and 4, VOX was well tolerated and resulted in maximal mean viral load reduction >3 log10 IU/ml at the 100 mg dose across all genotypes evaluated. This report characterizes the HCV NS3 RASs in the study. Read More

    Meticulous plasma isolation is essential to avoid false low-level viraemia in Roche Cobas HIV-1 viral load assays.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Oct 24. Epub 2017 Oct 24.
    AIDS Reference Laboratory, Department of Clinical Chemistry, Microbiology and Immunology, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.
    Background: Pre-analytical sample processing is often overlooked as a potential cause of inaccurate assay results. Here we demonstrate how plasma, extracted from standard EDTA- containing blood collection tubes, may contain traces of blood cells consequently resulting in a false low-level HIV-1 viral load when using Roche Cobas HIV-1 assays.

    Methods: The presence of human DNA in Roche Cobas 4800 RNA extracts and in RNA extracts from the Abbott HIV-1 RealTime assay was assessed by quantifying the human albumin gene by means of qPCR. Read More

    Primary HIV infection in patients with acute hepatitis B: a report of two cases.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Oct 12. Epub 2017 Oct 12.
    Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences 'Luigi Sacco', University of Milan, Italy.
    We describe 2 patients admitted to our Institution with a diagnosis of sexually acquired acute hepatitis B who also had underlying hyper acute Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection. Both individuals reported high rates of condomless sex. Antiviral therapy active against Hepatitis B virus and HIV was started within days after diagnosis. Read More

    HIV-1 viral load and resistance in genital secretions in patients taking protease-inhibitor-based second-line therapy in Africa.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Oct 11. Epub 2017 Oct 11.
    MRC Clinical Trials Unit at University College London, London, United Kingdom.
    Background: HIV is transmitted primarily through sexual intercourse, and the objective of this study was therefore to assess whether there is occult viral replication and resistance in genital secretions in patients on protease inhibitor (PI)-based second-line therapy.

    Methods: HIV-infected adults taking ritonavir-boosted lopinavir with either two NRTIs, raltegravir, or as monotherapy for 96 weeks were enrolled at seven clinical sites in Uganda. Viral load (VL) was measured in cervico-vaginal secretions or semen and in a corresponding plasma sample. Read More

    Vitamin D supplementation decreases immune activation and exhaustion in HIV-1-infected youth.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Oct 10. Epub 2017 Oct 10.
    Rainbow Babies & Children's Hospital and Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH, USA.
    Background: Heightened immune activation and exhaustion drive HIV disease progression and co-morbidities. Vitamin D has pleiotropic immunomodulatory effects, but little is known about the effects of supplementation in HIV. Our study investigates changes in immune activation and exhaustion markers after 12 months of supplementation in virologically-suppressed HIV-infected youth with vitamin D insufficiency. Read More

    Pharmacokinetics of rilpivirine and 24-week outcomes after switching from efavirenz in virologically-suppressed HIV-1-infected adolescents.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Oct 10. Epub 2017 Oct 10.
    Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand.
    Background: Rilpivirine (RPV), a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor drug, could be a favorable drug for maintenance therapy in HIV-infected adolescents because it has few long-term side effects. However, data among adolescents switching from efavirenz (EFV) to RPV are limited. This study investigated the pharmacokinetics (PK), safety and efficacy of RPV in virologically-suppressed HIV-1-infected adolescents after switching from EFV. Read More

    Quantitative measurement of HCV core antigen for management of interferon-free therapy in HCV infected patients.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Oct 10. Epub 2017 Oct 10.
    Department of Infectious Diseases and Hepatology, Medical University of Bialystok, Bialystok, Poland.
    Background: According to current recommendations diagnosis and management of HCV infection need detection and quantification of nucleic acids. In the era of direct acting antivirals (DAA) it is essential to develop inexpensive and simple method replacing polymerase chain reaction. Since there is no available data on HCV core antigen (HCVcAg) versus HCV RNA kinetics in the early phase of treatment with DAA, we carried out this study to evaluate possible application of HCVcAg quantitative measurement for management of HCV infection. Read More

    Viro-immunological response of drug-naive HIV-1-infected patients starting a first-line regimen with viraemia >500,000 copies/ml in clinical practice.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Sep 22. Epub 2017 Sep 22.
    Department of Tropical and Infectious Diseases, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Careggi, Florence, Italy.
    Background: Virological success (VS) and immunological reconstitution (IR) of antiretroviral-naïve HIV-1 infected patients with pre-therapy viral load (VL) >500,000 copies/mL was assessed after 12 months of treatment according to initial drug-class regimens.

    Methods: An observational multicenter retrospective study was performed. VS was defined as the first VL <50 copies/mL from treatment start. Read More

    Durability of antiretroviral therapy regimens and determinants for change in HIV-1-infected patients in the TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database (TAHOD-LITE).
    Antivir Ther 2017 Sep 21. Epub 2017 Sep 21.
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Institute of Infectious Diseases and Epidemiology, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore.
    Background: The durability of first line regimen is important to achieve long term treatment success for the management of HIV infection. Our analysis describes the duration of sequential ART regimens and identifies the determinants leading to treatment change in HIV-positive patients initiating in Asia.

    Methods: All HIV-positive adult patients initiating first-line ART in 2003-2013, from eight clinical sites among seven countries in Asia. Read More

    The association between serum cytokine and chemokine levels and antiviral response by entecavir treatment in chronic hepatitis B patients.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Sep 21. Epub 2017 Sep 21.
    Department of Gastroenterology and Metabolism, Graduate School of Biomedical & Health Sciences, Applied Life Sciences, Institute of Biomedical & Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima, Japan.
    Background: Although Nucleos(t)ide analogue therapy is thought to suppress chronic hepatitis B(CHB) via regulation of inflammatory cytokines/chemokines, the mechanism is still unclear. In this study, serum cytokine/chemokine levels were measured in CHB patients treated with entecavir, and the association with antiviral response was analyzed.

    Methods: Seventy-eight Japanese patients with CHB were enrolled, and serum cytokine/chemokine levels were measured at baseline and at 12, 24, and 48 weeks of entecavir treatment using the MULTIPLEX kit. Read More

    Longitudinal study of falls among HIV-infected and uninfected women: the role of cognition.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Sep 21. Epub 2017 Sep 21.
    Department of Medicine, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY, USA.
    Background: Although fracture rates are higher in HIV+ than HIV- women, whether HIV infection increases risk of falls is unclear. We determined the longitudinal occurrence and risk factors for falls in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS), and explored associations with cognitive complaints.

    Methods: Recent (prior 6 months) self-reported falls were collected in 1816 (1250 HIV+; 566 HIV-) women over 24 months. Read More

    Epicardial adipose tissue volume and cardiovascular risk indices among asymptomatic women with and without HIV.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Sep 20. Epub 2017 Sep 20.
    Program in Nutritional Metabolism, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.
    Background: Mechanisms underlying the heightened myocardial infarction risk among HIV-infected women (versus non-HIV-infected women) remain unclear. Our objectives were to assess epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) volume and its associations among asymptomatic women with and without HIV.

    Methods: Fifty-five HIV-infected and 27 non-HIV-infected women without known cardiovascular disease who underwent cardiac CT and metabolic/immune phenotyping were included. Read More

    A meta-analysis of laninamivir octanoate for treatment and prophylaxis of influenza.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Sep 4. Epub 2017 Sep 4.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Osaka Anti-Tuberculosis Association Osaka Hospital, Neyagawa City, Osaka, Japan.
    Background: Laninamivir octanoate is a recently developed inhaled neuraminidase inhibitor for treating influenza virus infection. We performed meta-analyses to clarify the efficacy of laninamivir octanoate on influenza treatment and prevention.

    Methods: MEDLINE and CENTRAL were searched to identify eligible studies. Read More

    3-Year efficacy and durability of simplification to single tablet regimens: a comparison between co-formulated efavirenz/emtricitabine/tenofovir and rilpivirine/emtricitabine/tenofovir.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Aug 11. Epub 2017 Aug 11.
    Clinic of Infectious Diseases, San Gerardo Hospital - ASST Monza, Monza, Italy.
    Background: Few data are available about efficacy and durability of simplification from multi-tablet antiretroviral regimens to co-formulated efavirenz(EFV)/emtricitabine(FTC)/tenofovir(TDF) versus rilpivirine(RPV)/emtricitabine/tenofovir in virologically-suppressed HIV-1-infected patients.

    Methods: We retrospectively analyzed HIV-infected patients with HIV-RNA<50copies/mL switching to co-formulated EFV/FTC/TDF or RPV/FTC/TDF at 5 Italian centers. Patients were followed from time of switch until regimen discontinuation or a maximum of 3-years follow-up. Read More

    Sustained virological response by direct antiviral agents in HCV leads to an early and significant improvement of liver fibrosis.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Aug 11. Epub 2017 Aug 11.
    Internal Medicine and Hepatology Division, Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Salerno, Salerno, Italy.
    Background: Direct Antiviral Agents (DAA) demonstrated high efficacy among HCV-infected patients in registered trials. Nevertheless, the impact of these therapies on liver stiffness measurement(LSM) and liver functionality in "real-life" is not well-known. Aim of the present study was to evaluate the SVR impact on LSM and clinical parameters of DAA-therapy on a real-life population of HCV patients with F3/F4 fibrosis. Read More

    Frailty in men living with HIV: a cross-sectional comparison of three frailty instruments.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Jul 21. Epub 2017 Jul 21.
    Department of Infectious Diseases, The Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, Australia.
    Background: Potent antiretroviral treatment has resulted in near normal life expectancy for people living with HIV. Consequently, there is an increased focus on comorbidities, frailty and quality of life.

    Methods: We assessed and compared the prevalence of frailty, associated factors and relationship with quality of life in older Australian men living with HIV in a cross-sectional study using three frailty measurements. Read More

    Baseline and post-treatment hepatitis C NS5A resistance in relapsed patients from a multicentric real-life cohort.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Jul 21. Epub 2017 Jul 21.
    CHU Toulouse Purpan, Toulouse, France.
    Background: Recent data have suggested that failure to achieve sustained virological response with direct-acting antiviral therapy is usually due to relapse and is primarily associated with the emergence of resistance-associated substitutions. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and characterization of non-structural-5A resistance-associated substitutions in patients infected with hepatitis C virus genotypes 1, 3, and 4 treated by direct-acting antiviral therapy, including anti- non-structural-5A, and to characterize the preexisting resistance-associated substitutions in subjects treated with anti- non-structural-5A inhibitors.

    Methods: From January 2014 to March 2016, 2995 patients infected with hepatitis C virus genotypes 1, 3, and 4 were exposed to non-structural-5A inhibitors. Read More

    In vitro susceptibility of geographically and temporally distinct zika viruses to favipiravir and ribavirin.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Jul 11. Epub 2017 Jul 11.
    Research Center in Infectious Diseases of the CHU of Québec and Laval University, Québec City, QC, Canada.
    Background: Zika virus (ZIKV), a previously neglected mosquito-borne virus, is prompting worldwide concern because of its connection with congenital defects, Guillain-Barré syndrome, meningoencephalitis and myelitis in infected individuals. However, no specific antiviral therapy is available at present. In this study, we investigated the in vitro susceptibility of geographically and temporally distinct zika viruses against the RNA polymerase inhibitors, favipiravir (T-705) and ribavirin (RIBV). Read More

    The ultra-short virological dynamics in response to entecavir or lamivudine during chronic hepatitis B with spontaneous severe acute exacerbation.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Jul 3. Epub 2017 Jul 3.
    Division of Gastroenterology & Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan.
    Background: Nucleos(t)ide analogue (NA) therapy could be life-saving in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) with spontaneous severe acute exacerbation (SAE). We aimed to investigate the ultra-short virological responses to NA.

    Methods: We conducted a randomized controlled trial in which CHB patients with spontaneous SAE were randomized to receive lamivudine (LVD) or entecavir (ETV) between July 2012 and April 2016 (ClinicalTrials. Read More

    Long-term persistence of HCV NS5A resistance associated substitutions after treatment with the HCV NS5A inhibitor, ledipasvir, without sofosbuvir.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Jun 26. Epub 2017 Jun 26.
    Gilead Sciences, Inc., Foster City, CA, USA.
    Background: Data on persistence of NS5A resistance associated substitutions (RASs) may have implications for resistance testing approaches and selection of initial and retreatment strategies.

    Methods: Long-term persistence of NS5A RASs in HCV genotype (GT) 1 infected subjects (n=76) who did not achieve sustained virologic response after receiving ledipasvir (LDV) without sofosbuvir (SOF) and were subsequently enrolled in an ongoing 3-year follow-up registry study was investigated by population or deep sequencing.

    Results: Of the 76 subjects enrolled, 67 and 9 subjects had GT1a and GT1b infection, respectively. Read More

    Association of the S267F variant on NTCP gene and treatment response to pegylated interferon in patients with chronic hepatitis B: a multicentre study.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Jun 21. Epub 2017 Jun 21.
    Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University and King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Thai Red Cross Society, Bangkok, Thailand.
    Background: Sodium taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide (NTCP) is a cell receptor for hepatitis B virus (HBV). The S267F variant on the NTCP gene is inversely associated with the chronicity of HBV infection, progression to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma in East Asian populations. This aim of this study was to determine whether the S267F variant was associated with response to pegylated interferon (Peg-IFN) in patients with chronic HBV infection. Read More

    The association between detected drug resistance mutations and CD4(+) T-cell decline in HIV-positive individuals maintained on a failing treatment regimen.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Jun 19. Epub 2017 Jun 19.
    Department of Infection and Population Health, UCL, London, UK.
    Background: To analyse the effect of drug resistance mutations (DRM) on CD4 cell trends in HIV-positive people maintained on virologically failing antiretroviral therapy (ART).

    Methods: Individuals from two large cohorts experiencing virological failure (VF) while maintained on ART with >1 CD4 count and >1 resistance test were included. CD4 cell slopes were estimated using linear mixed models. Read More

    Pooled analysis of HCV genotype 1 resistance-associated substitutions in NS5A, NS3 and NS5B pre- and post-treatment with 12 weeks of daclatasvir, asunaprevir and beclabuvir.
    Antivir Ther 2017 06 8. Epub 2017 Jun 8.
    Toranomon Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.
    Background: Daclatasvir (DCV; non-structural [NS]5A inhibitor) plus asunaprevir (ASV; NS3 inhibitor) plus beclabuvir (BCV; non-nucleoside NS5B inhibitor) is an approved regimen for hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype (GT)-1 treatment in Japan. A comprehensive analysis of pre-treatment and treatment-emergent HCV resistance to this regimen ± ribavirin (RBV) was performed.

    Methods: Data were pooled from five phase 2/3 studies of DCV+ASV+BCV±RBV given for 12 weeks to GT-1a- or GT-1b-infected patients. Read More

    Antiviral drug resistance and hepatitis B: a continuing public health problem.
    Antivir Ther 2017 May 15. Epub 2017 May 15.
    Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity, Melbourne, Australia.
    The use of selective antiviral therapy has been very successful in controlling HBV replication in individuals, leading to a reduction in disease progression and mortality. However, the use of first-generation therapies, often the only available option in low-resource settings, can result in a high prevalence of drug resistance mutations. Variants selected by antiviral therapies targeting the viral polymerase can also result in variants in the viral envelope. Read More

    Antibacterial effects of antiretrovirals, potential implications for microbiome studies in HIV.
    Antivir Ther 2017 May 12. Epub 2017 May 12.
    Division of Infectious Diseases and Hospital Epidemiology, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Background: Despite being used by more than 18 million people our understanding of the extent of effects of antiretrovirals on the human body and other organisms remains incomplete. In addition, the direct effect of antiretrovirals on the gut microbiota of HIV infected individuals has been largely overlooked in microbiome studies concerned with HIV infected individuals.

    Methods: Here we tested 25 antiretrovirals on Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli using a broth microdilution assay to assess whether these drugs have an antibacterial effect. Read More

    Antiviral therapy reduces risk of haemorrhagic stroke in patients with HCV infection: a nationwide cohort study.
    Antivir Ther 2017 May 4. Epub 2017 May 4.
    Department of Neurology and Neuroscience Research Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, and Chang Gung University, Linkou, Taiwan.
    Background: The tendency for haemorrhagic stroke in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has emerged recently but the finding may be confounded by comorbidities. Proving the causality between HCV infection and haemorrhagic stroke is mandatory. Our study was designed to investigate the incidence of intracranial haemorrhage in HCV-infected patients with and without treatment. Read More

    Metabolic profiles of individuals switched to second-line antiretroviral therapy after failing standard first-line therapy for treatment of HIV-1 infection in a randomized, controlled trial.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Apr 27. Epub 2017 Apr 27.
    The Kirby Institute, UNSW, Sydney, Australia.
    Background: To investigate metabolic changes associated with second-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) following virological failure of first-line ART.

    Methods: SECOND-LINE was an open-label randomized controlled trial. Participants were randomized 1:1 to receive ritonavir-boosted lopinavir (LPV/r) with 2-3 nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (N(t)RTI-group) or raltegravir (RAL-group) Two hundred and ten participants had a dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-scan at baseline, week 48 and 96. Read More

    Impacts of HBV rtH55R polymerase substitution on viral replication and rtM204I/V resistance to nucleoside/nucleotide antiviral drugs.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Apr 25. Epub 2017 Apr 25.
    Department of Microbiology and Center of Infectious Disease, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing, China.
    Background: High genetic variability at reverse transcriptase (RT) region of hepatitis B virus (HBV) could confer resistance to nucleos(t)ide analogues (NUCs). The aim of this study was to identify new RT amino acid (AA) substitutions related to NUCs resistance.

    Methods: HBV RT sequences of genotype C from 501 chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients were analyzed to identify potential RT substitutions related to NUCs resistance. Read More

    Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate monotherapy is superior to entecavir-adefovir combination therapy in patients with suboptimal response to lamivudine-adefovir therapy for nucleoside-resistant HBV: a 96-week prospective multicenter trial.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Apr 24. Epub 2017 Apr 24.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Chungnam National University Hospital, Daejeon, Korea.
    Background: A complete virologic response is closely related to the long-term outcome of patients with chronic hepatitis B and prevention of emerging hepatitis B virus (HBV) mutations. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) monotherapy compared to entecavir-adefovir dipivoxil (ETV-ADV) combination therapy in patients with suboptimal responses to long-term lamivudine-adefovir dipivoxil (LAM-ADV) therapy for nucleoside analogue-resistant chronic hepatitis B.

    Methods: Patients (n = 60) were randomized to TDF monotherapy or ETV-ADV combination therapy for 96 weeks. Read More

    Real-world efficacy and safety of ritonavir-boosted paritaprevir, ombitasvir, dasabuvir ± ribavirin for hepatitis C genotype 1 - final results of the REV1TAL study.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Apr 19. Epub 2017 Apr 19.
    Department of Gastroenterology, Alfred Health, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.
    Background: Limited data exist on the outcomes of ritonavir-boosted paritaprevir with ombitasvir and dasabuvir (PrOD) ± ribavirin in a real-world setting. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of PrOD-based therapy in hepatitis C genotype 1 patients with and without cirrhosis, and to explore pre-treatment factors predictive of sustained viral response (SVR) and serious adverse events (SAEs) on treatment.

    Methods: 451 patients with hepatitis C genotype 1 treated in 20 centres across Australia were included. Read More

    Antiviral activity of nobiletin against chikungunya virus in vitro.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Apr 13. Epub 2017 Apr 13.
    Center for Infectious Diseases, Discovery Biology, SRI International, Harrisonburg, VA USA.
    Background: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), a highly contagious re-emerging virus, is transmitted by infected mosquitoes. CHIKV is prevalent in tropical countries and is continuing to creep farther north into temperate areas. CHIKV is responsible for induction of Chikungunya Fever (CF) and severe joint stiffness with the capability of developing into bilateral and systemic arthralgia or even encephalitis. Read More

    Dolutegravir/abacavir/lamivudine versus current ART in virally suppressed patients (STRIIVING): a 48-week, randomized, non-inferiority, open-label, Phase IIIb study.
    Antivir Ther 2017 12;22(4):295-305. Epub 2017 Apr 12.
    ViiV Healthcare, Brentford, UK.
    Background: Simplified dosing regimens are important for patients who face challenges in adhering to HIV-1 therapy. We investigated the safety and virological efficacy of switching to once-daily abacavir/dolutegravir/lamivudine (ABC/DTG/3TC).

    Methods: The STRIIVING study was a randomized, open-label, Phase IIIb study in adults with HIV-1 RNA <50 copies/ml on antiretroviral therapy (ART) at enrolment (ClinicalTrials. Read More

    Ending AIDS as a public health threat by 2030: Scientific Developments from the 2016 INTEREST Conference in Yaoundé, Cameroon.
    Antivir Ther 2017 7;22(2):179-184. Epub 2017 Apr 7.
    Makarere University College of Health Sciences in Kampala, Kampala, Uganda.
    The underpinning theme of the 2016 INTEREST Conference held in Yaoundé, Cameroon, 3-6 May 2016 was ending AIDS as a public health threat by 2030. Focused primarily on HIV treatment, pathogenesis and prevention research in resource-limited settings, the conference attracted 369 active delegates from 34 countries, of which 22 were in Africa. Presentations on treatment optimization, acquired drug resistance, care of children and adolescents, laboratory monitoring and diagnostics, implementation challenges, HIV prevention, key populations, vaccine and cure, hepatitis C, mHealth, financing the HIV response and emerging pathogens, were accompanied by oral, mini-oral and poster presentations. Read More

    Zidovudine continuous infusion in an HIV-infected pregnant woman with a phobia of swallowing pills.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Apr 3. Epub 2017 Apr 3.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Rijnstate Hospital, Arnhem, the Netherlands.
    The authors report the difficulties of preventing mother-to-child transmission in a pregnant HIV-infected woman with a phobia of swallowing pills. After multiple attempts and just as many failures, the authors ended up with cART consisting of small tablets of nevirapine, lamivudine and a continuous intravenous infusion of zidovudine given via an elastomeric pump at home. This case demonstrates the difficulties that HIV physicians can encounter in pregnant women who have difficulties in swallowing tablets. Read More

    Daclatasvir plasma concentration assessment in HIV-HCV-coinfected real-life patients.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Mar 31. Epub 2017 Mar 31.
    Aix Marseille Université, AP-HM Hôpital de la Timone, Service de Pharmacocinétique et Toxicologie, CRO2 INSERM U911, Marseille, France.

    Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy due to John Cunningham (JC) virus following allogeneic haematopoietic cell transplantation.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Mar 31. Epub 2017 Mar 31.
    Allogeneic Blood and Marrow Transplant Program, Department of Medical Oncology and Hematology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, ON, Canada.
    Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is an uncommon infectious complication post allogeneic stem cell transplant. We present a case report of a patient developing this complication with a review of the current literature. It also describes the first use of artesunate in a clinical case of PML with no beneficial effect. Read More

    Decline and changing profile of hepatitis delta among injection drug users in Spain.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Mar 29. Epub 2017 Mar 29.
    Infectious Diseases Unit, La Paz University Hospital & Autonomous University, Madrid, Spain.
    Background: Roughly 15 million people worldwide have hepatitis delta, the most severe form of chronic viral hepatitis that often leads to cirrhosis and liver cancer. Injection drug users (IDUs) are the largest HDV reservoir. Their resurgence in North America and Europe may represent a new opportunity for HDV to spread more widely. Read More

    Impact of CCR5, integrase and protease inhibitors on human endothelial cell function, stress, inflammation and senescence.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Mar 28. Epub 2017 Mar 28.
    Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 6, Paris, France.
    Background: Ageing HIV-infected patients present an increased incidence of cardiovascular diseases, endothelial dysfunction being an early alteration. Some protease inhibitors (PIs) have been shown to increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. We evaluated here the effects of CCR5 or integrase inhibitors as compared to PIs on endothelial functions in vitro. Read More

    Neurocognitive dysfunction in HIV-infected youth: investigating the relationship with immune activation.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Mar 22. Epub 2017 Mar 22.
    Rainbow Babies & Children's Hospital and Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH, USA.
    Background: HIV-infected individuals are at increased risk of neurocognitive impairment compared to the general population. Studies suggest that, despite combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), HIV infection causes immune activation which results in neural damage; however, few data exist in HIV-infected youth.

    Methods: HIV-infected youth 8-26 years old on cART with virologic suppression were prospectively enrolled along with healthy controls. Read More

    Muscle strength is impaired in men but not in women living with HIV taking antiretroviral therapy.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Mar 22. Epub 2017 Mar 22.
    Department of Physical Education, State University of Londrina, Londrina, Brazil.
    Background: There is evidence that HIV antiretroviral therapy adverse effects may be sex-dependent, but data examining these sex differences in muscle strength is scarce. Our aim was to compare dynamic and isokinetic parameters of muscle strength between HIV-infected men and women to HIV-uninfected subjects.

    Methods: In this cross-sectional study, muscle strength was evaluated in 44 HIV-infected (20 men, 24 women) and 25 age-, race- and body mass index-matched HIV-uninfected subjects (11 men, 14 women). Read More

    The enrichment of HBV immune-escape mutations during nucleoside/nucleotide analogue therapy.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Mar 16. Epub 2017 Mar 16.
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.
    Background: Drug-resistant HBV mutants frequently arise during nucleoside/nucleotide analogue (NA) therapy, while the resistance mutations on polymerase also have consequent changes in the S protein. The enrichment of immune-escape mutations was negatively correlated with hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) clearance under NA therapy. This study aims to characterize the variability of HBV polymerase and surface antigen in patients with virological breakthrough under NA therapy. Read More

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