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    2260 results match your criteria Antiviral Therapy[Journal]

    1 OF 46

    RIG-I enhances IFN-α response by promoting antiviral protein expression in patients with chronic hepatitis B.
    Antivir Ther 2018 May 23. Epub 2018 May 23.
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, China.
    Background: IFN-α is widely used for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection due to its high HBsAg loss. However, IFN-α treatment has a number of side effects. Thus, identification of molecular biomarkers to predict IFN-α therapeutic effect would be useful in the clinic. Read More

    Antiviral combination therapy for cytomegalovirus infection in high-risk infants.
    Antivir Ther 2018 May 23. Epub 2018 May 23.
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.
    Background: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is a major risk factor for mortality in infants with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) and other profound immune defects. Specific antiviral therapy must be initiated early and aggressively because of the potential for antiviral resistance, rapid dissemination and poor transplant outcomes. Combination antiviral therapy is routinely administered for some viral infections, but the value of this approach for the treatment of CMV is unclear. Read More

    Worldwide prevalence of baseline resistance-associated polymorphisms and resistance mutations in HCV against current direct-acting antivirals.
    Antivir Ther 2018 May 10. Epub 2018 May 10.
    Clinical Microbiology, Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections can now be completely cured, thanks to the currently marketed direct-acting antivirals (DAAs). It is known that HCV patients carry viral populations with baseline polymorphisms and/or mutations that make them resistant against some of these DAAs, which can negatively impact the patient's treatment outcome. Using complete HCV coding sequences isolated from 1306 treatment-naïve patients of genotypes (GTs) 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6 from around the globe, we studied the prevalence of baseline resistance-associated polymorphisms (RAPs) and resistance mutations (RMs) against DAAs that are currently on the market or in clinical trials. Read More

    Virological and immunological responses to raltegravir and dolutegravir in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue of HIV-infected men and women.
    Antivir Ther 2018 May 1. Epub 2018 May 1.
    University of North Carolina Eshelman School of Pharmacy, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.
    Background: Raltegravir (RTG) and dolutegravir (DTG) have different pharmacokinetic patterns in the gastrointestinal tract. To determine if this results in pharmacodynamic differences, we compared HIV RNA, HIV DNA, and immunological markers in gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) of HIV-infected participants receiving RTG or DTG with tenofovir+emtricitabine (TDF/FTC).

    Methods: GALT specimens from the terminal ileum, splenic flexure, and rectum were obtained by colonoscopy at a single time point in 20 adults treated with RTG (n=10) or DTG (n=10) with HIV RNA <50 copies/mL. Read More

    Hesperidin attenuates influenza A virus (H1N1)-induced lung injury in rats through its anti-inflammatory effect.
    Antivir Ther 2018 Apr 6. Epub 2018 Apr 6.
    Department of Respiratory Medicine, First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, China.
    Background: Influenza A viruses (IAV) can cause pandemics and are big threats to human health. Inflammation is the main pathological process in the lungs after IAV infection. We aimed at investigating whether hesperidin, a well-known anti-inflammatory material, could be effective in improving IAV-induced lung injury. Read More

    Loss to follow-up and associated factors of patients in the National AIDS Program in Thailand.
    Antivir Ther 2018 Mar 27. Epub 2018 Mar 27.
    Kirby Institute, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia.
    Background: Loss to follow-up (LTFU) is a crucial indicator to evaluate the effectiveness of HIV care and treatment programmes. We assessed the LTFU rate and associated factors of Thai HIV-infected patients who enrolled in the National AIDS Program (NAP) for two periods: prior to (pre-ART) and after starting ART (ART-patients).

    Methods: Thai HIV patients aged ≥15 years enrolled in NAP from 2008 to 2014. Read More

    A quinoline compound inhibits the replication of dengue virus serotypes 1-4 in Vero cells.
    Antivir Ther 2018 Mar 27. Epub 2018 Mar 27.
    Department of Biological Sciences, Birla Institute of Technology & Science Pilani, Hyderabad Campus, Hyderabad, India.
    Background: The global occurrence of dengue, a mosquito-​borne viral disease caused by four distinct dengue viruses (DENV-1, -2, -3 and -4), is reported to have increased approximately 30-fold in the last 50 years, causing approximately 400 million infections a year. A limited use, sub-optimal live attenuated dengue vaccine has become available recently. It is becoming apparent that antibodies to DENVs can promote infection by Zika virus (ZIKV), a related mosquito-borne flavivirus. Read More

    Antiviral effect of 25-hydroxycholesterol against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in vitro.
    Antivir Ther 2018 Mar 21. Epub 2018 Mar 21.
    Key Laboratory of Animal Epidemiology of the Ministry of Agriculture, College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University, Beijing, People's Republic of China.
    Background: Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an important pathogen that causes economically huge losses to the pig industry worldwide. Current control of PRRSV infection remains inadequate although various means have been implemented. Thus, investigating novel antiviral therapeutics to combat PRRSV infection is essential. Read More

    Retreatment with sofosbuvir/velpatasvir in cirrhotic patients with genotype-4 who failed a previous interferon-free regimen: a case series.
    Antivir Ther 2018 Feb 14. Epub 2018 Feb 14.
    Unit of Infectious Diseases, University of Turin, Department of Medical Sciences, Amedeo di Savoia Hospital, Turin, Italy.
    Background: The novel available interferon (IFN)-free regimens significantly improved the sustained virological response (SVR) in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC), without important side effects and with shorter duration of treatment. In a subset of patients, however, the treatment failure (TF) was due to the presence of resistance-associated substitutions (RAS) that lead to virological breakthrough (BT) or relapse. We analysed in this case series the role of RAS on the TF in cirrhotic patients with genotype (GT)4, treated with a previous IFN-free regimen, and retreated with the combination of sofosbuvir (SOF)/velpatasvir (VEL) for 12 or 24 weeks, without ribavirin (RBV). Read More

    Intentional overdose of dolutegravir/abacavir/lamivudine (Triumeq) in a 26-year-old man.
    Antivir Ther 2018 Mar 13. Epub 2018 Mar 13.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht, the Netherlands.
    Triumeq is a single-tablet regimen for patients with HIV infection comprising dolutegravir, abacavir and lamivudine. Overdoses with Triumeq have not been reported previously. We present a case of a 26-year-old man who presented to our hospital after intentionally ingesting 30 tablets of Triumeq. Read More

    HCV-genotype 3h, a difficult-to-diagnose sub-genotype in the DAA era.
    Antivir Ther 2018 Mar 5. Epub 2018 Mar 5.
    Infectious Diseases Unit, Department of Mental and Physical Health and Preventive Medicine, University of Campania L. Vanvitelli, Naples, Italy.
    Background: No data are available on the clinical presentation and virological pattern in the case of failure to IFN-free regimens in patients with genotype 3h. In this paper authors identified the virological and clinical characteristics of patients with genotype 3h treated with suboptimal or not indicated Interferon (IFN)-free regimens for the misclassification of HCV genotype METHODS: 87 consecutive patients with failure to an IFN-free regimen were re-tested for HCV genotype by HCV NS5B sequencing; the 26 patients identified as harboring HCV-3 were enrolled.

    Results: Of the 26 patients enrolled, four (15. Read More

    Chronic hepatitis E in a heart transplant patient: sofosbuvir and ribavirin regimen not fully effective.
    Antivir Ther 2018 Mar 5. Epub 2018 Mar 5.
    APHP, Hôpital Pitié-Salpêtrière, Unité Médicale de Transplantation Hépatique, Hépato-Gastro-Enterologie, UPMC Paris VI, Boulevard de l'Hôpital, Paris, France.
    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) can induce chronic infections in the case of immunosuppression, which are sometimes not cured with ribavirin. Furthermore, sofosbuvir is a highly potent inhibitor of HCV polymerase and was shown to inhibit HEV genotype-3 replication in vitro. We report here the outcome of sofosbuvir/ribavirin therapy on a chronic HEV infection in a heart transplant recipient non-responder to ribavirin. Read More

    Retreatment with sofosbuvir/velpatasvir in cirrhotic patients with genotype 4 who failed a previous interferon-free regimen: a case series.
    Antivir Ther 2018 Feb 14. Epub 2018 Feb 14.
    Unit of Infectious Diseases, University of Turin, Department of Medical Sciences, Amedeo di Savoia Hospital, Turin, Italy.
    Background: The novel available interferon (IFN)-free regimens significantly improved the sustained virological response (SVR) in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC), without important side-effects and with shorter duration of treatment. In a subset of patients, however, the treatment failure (TF) was due to the presence of resistance-associated substitutions (RAS) that lead to virological breakthrough (BT) or relapse. We analyzed in this case-series the role of RAS on the TF in cirrhotic patients with GT4, treated with a previous IFN-free regimen, and retreated with the combination of sofosbuvir (SOF)/velpatasvir (VEL) for 12 or 24 weeks, without ribavirin (RBV). Read More

    Sustained antiviral effects and clearance of hepatitis surface antigen after combination therapy with entecavir and pegylated interferon in chronic hepatitis B.
    Antivir Ther 2018 Feb 13. Epub 2018 Feb 13.
    Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Kindai University Faculty of Medicine, Osaka-Sayama, Japan.
    Background: Although the efficacy of combination therapy with lamivudine or tenofovir and pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) has been reported in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB), the long-term effect of the combination based on the observation of clinical course remains to be clarified. We previously reported the efficacy of combination therapy with entecavir (ETV) and PEG-IFN. Here, we investigated the long-term effect of this combination in patients with CHB. Read More

    Patterns of efavirenz use as first-line antiretroviral therapy in the United States: 1999-2015.
    Antivir Ther 2018 Feb 9. Epub 2018 Feb 9.
    Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA.
    Background: Efavirenz has been a mainstay of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for over 15 years in the US. Its association with neuropsychiatric side effects may influence clinical prescribing and management.

    Methods: We included HIV-infected adults enrolled in care at 7 sites across the US, who initiated combination ART between 1999 and 2015. Read More

    Upper respiratory viral infections in patients with haematological malignancies after allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a retrospective study.
    Antivir Ther 2018 Feb 9. Epub 2018 Feb 9.
    Department of Hematology, Ankara University School of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey.
    Background: Community respiratory viruses (CRVs) are associated with upper respiratory viral infections (URI), pneumonia or life-threatening respiratory disease in patients with allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). Our aim is to demonstrate our URI experience related to CRVs after allo-HSCT.

    Methods: From January 2013 to November 2015, 39 post allo-HSCT patients with acute URI symptoms were included in the study. Read More

    The outcome of HIV-positive late presenters according to detectable CMV DNA and anti-CMV treatment.
    Antivir Ther 2018 Jan 26. Epub 2018 Jan 26.
    Unit of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medical Sciences, University of Turin, Turin, Italy.
    Background: HIV late presenters are at high risk of cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation and end-organ disease. CMV viraemia has been associated with poor survival but the effect of anti-CMV treatment has not been studied in this setting.

    Methods: HIV-positive patients were included in a retrospective study if presenting with <350 CD4 T-cells/μl and starting an antiretroviral treatment within 3 months of the diagnosis. Read More

    Immune response after a single intravenous peramivir administration in children with influenza.
    Antivir Ther 2018 Jan 26. Epub 2018 Jan 26.
    Department of Paediatrics, Fukushima Medical University, Fukushima, Japan.
    Background: Immune response after intravenous peramivir administration, which is approved for children with influenza infection in Japan, is unclear.

    Methods: Kinetics of viral load and serum cytokine levels before and after peramivir therapy were analysed in 17 and 8 hospitalized children infected with influenza A and B, respectively. Additionally, haemagglutination inhibition (HI) titre was measured. Read More

    Renunciation of health care by people living with HIV in France is still associated with discrimination in health care services and social insecurity - results from the ANRS VESPA2 survey.
    Antivir Ther 2018 Jan 23. Epub 2018 Jan 23.
    Aix Marseille Univ, INSERM, IRD, SESSTIM, Sciences Economiques & Sociales de la Santé & Traitement de l'Information Médicale, Marseille, France.
    Background: This study aimed to estimate the frequency of renunciation of healthcare among people living with HIV (PLHIV) in France, including healthcare unrelated to HIV, and to characterize associated socioeconomic and psychosocial risk factors.

    Methods: The cross-sectional ANRS-VESPA2 survey was conducted on adult PLHIV attending French hospitals in 2011. Correlates of healthcare renunciation in the 12 months before the survey were assessed through logistic modelling. Read More

    Factors associated with non-adherence to HBV antiviral therapy.
    Antivir Ther 2018 Jan 22. Epub 2018 Jan 22.
    The Kirby Institute, UNSW Australia, UNSW Australia Kensington, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Background: HBV antiviral therapy has the potential to reduce the burden of HBV-related liver disease by suppressing HBV DNA replication to undetectable levels, reducing the progression of liver fibrosis and reducing the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development. Treatment outcomes and long-term benefits require adherence to medication regimens. This study aimed to identify the prevalence and factors associated with non-adherence to antiviral therapy. Read More

    A pharmacokinetic/viral kinetic model to evaluate treatment of chronic HCV infection with a non-nucleoside polymerase inhibitor.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Jan 10. Epub 2017 Jan 10.
    Theoretical Biology and Biophysics, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM, USA.
    Background: Viral kinetic models have proven useful in characterizing treatment effectiveness during HCV therapy with interferon (IFN) as well as with direct acting antivirals (DAAs).

    Methods: Here we use a pharmacokinetic/viral kinetic (PK/VK) model to describe HCV RNA kinetics during treatment with setrobuvir, a non-nucleosidic inhibitor of the HCV NS5B polymerase enzyme. Using PK data from 3 studies in healthy volunteers and PK and VK data from a phase 1 study, where setrobuvir was administered for 3 days, we fitted a two-compartment PK model with first-order absorption and lag-time, an Emax pharmacodynamics model and a standard biphasic viral kinetic model. Read More

    Uptake of tenofovir-based antiretroviral therapy among HIV-HBV-coinfected patients in the EuroSIDA study.
    Antivir Ther 2018 Jan 5. Epub 2018 Jan 5.
    CHIP, Department of Infectious Diseases, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Background: According to guidelines all HIV-HBV-coinfected patients should receive tenofovir-based combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). We aimed to investigate uptake and outcomes of tenofovir-based cART among HIV-HBV patients in the EuroSIDA study.

    Methods: All hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)+ patients followed up after 1 March 2002 were included. Read More

    Sofosbuvir-ledipasvir with or without ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C genotype-1 and 6: real-world experience in Vietnam.
    Antivir Ther 2018 Jan 5. Epub 2018 Jan 5.
    Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
    Background: Therapy with sofosbuvir-ledipasvir (SOF-LDV) has been very effective in chronic HCV genotype-1 in clinical trials and several real-world cohorts. However, the safety and efficacy data of SOF-LDV for HCV genotype-6 is quite limited.

    Methods: This open-label, clinical experience evaluated the safety and efficacy of SOF-LDV with or without ribavirin (RBV) for 12-24 weeks in patients with HCV genotype-1 (n=356) and genotype-6 (n=175) in Vietnam between September 2015 and May 2017. Read More

    A systematic review of Zika virus: hurdles toward vaccine development and the way forward.
    Antivir Ther 2018 Jan 4. Epub 2018 Jan 4.
    School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine at Tulane University, New Orleans, LA, USA.
    The Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic has recently emerged as public health threat due to its teratogenic nature and association with the serious neurological condition Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). To date, no approved antiviral therapeutics or vaccines are available to confront ZIKV. In order to develop effective anti-ZIKV vaccines, improved animal models and a better understanding of immunological correlates of protection against ZIKV are required. Read More

    Pimodivir treatment in adult volunteers experimentally inoculated with live influenza virus: a Phase IIa, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Dec 15. Epub 2017 Dec 15.
    Janssen Research & Development LLC, Titusville, NJ, USA.
    Background: Pimodivir (formerly JNJ-63623872) is a novel, non-nucleoside polymerase complex inhibitor with in vitro activity against influenza A virus, including pandemic 2009 H1N1, H7N9, H5N1 strains as well as neuraminidase- and amantadine-resistant strains.

    Methods: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, Phase IIa study. Healthy volunteers (n=104) were inoculated with an influenza A/Wisconsin/67/2005 (H3N2) challenge virus. Read More

    Pharmacokinetics of favipiravir during continuous venovenous haemofiltration in a critically ill patient with influenza.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Nov 29. Epub 2017 Nov 29.
    Intensive Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands.
    Favipiravir is a novel antiviral drug approved for influenza treatment in Japan. Little is known about favipiravir pharmacokinetics in critically ill patients. Here, we report a patient with influenza treated with favipiravir and undergoing continuous venovenous haemofiltration (CVVH) on the Intensive Care Unit of a tertiary hospital in the Netherlands. Read More

    Frailty: is thy name…..universal? Evolving challenges of managing effectively treated older people living with HIV.
    Antivir Ther 2018 ;23(2):101-104
    Division of Geriatrics and Chronic Viral Illness Service, McGill University Health Center, Montreal, QC, Canada.
    The increased survival of treated people living with HIV (PLWH) represents a tremendous accomplishment. However, this has not been accompanied by uniform improvements in quality of life. Many PLWH prematurely develop age-related complications and traditional geriatric syndromes, including frailty. Read More

    Inflammation investigated as a source of pharmacokinetic variability of atazanavir in AIDS Clinical Trials Group protocol A5224s.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Nov 24. Epub 2017 Nov 24.
    AIDS Clinical Trials Group Pharmacology Specialty Laboratory, New York State Center of Excellence in Bioinformatics and Life Sciences, School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, USA.
    Background: Inflammation is associated with the downregulation of drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters. Thus, we investigated the chronic inflammatory state associated with HIV-infection as a source of pharmacokinetic variability of atazanavir. We also explored the association of total bilirubin concentrations with markers of inflammation and endothelial activation. Read More

    Correlation between entecavir penetration in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and HBV DNA decay during treatment of HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Nov 23. Epub 2017 Nov 23.
    University of Turin, Department of Medical Sciences, 'Amedeo di Savoia' Hospital, Turin, Italy.
    Background: Recently, due to its high effectiveness and tolerability, the treatment of chronic hepatitis B with entecavir became a standard practice. However, limited knowledge is currently available about its pharmacokinetic behaviour and intracellular disposition. Recently, our group reported an inverse correlation between entecavir plasma concentrations and the HBV DNA decay at the first and third month of treatment, respectively. Read More

    Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate as pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention in women with osteoporosis: a case report and review of the literature.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Nov 23. Epub 2017 Nov 23.
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Brown University, Providence, RI, USA.
    Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), using tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), can effectively prevent HIV acquisition. However, TDF can cause changes in bone mineral density (BMD). There is little information on the use of PrEP among patients with bone disease. Read More

    Drug-drug interaction potential of the HBV and HDV entry inhibitor myrcludex B assessed in vitro.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Nov 14. Epub 2017 Nov 14.
    Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Pharmacoepidemiology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Background: Myrcludex B is a first-in-class virus entry inhibitor for patients with chronic hepatitis B or B/D infections. In patients it will be coadministered with drugs needed for the disease or comorbidities. We aimed to define the risk of drug-drug interactions by characterizing the influence of myrcludex B on relevant drug transporting and metabolizing enzymes in vitro. Read More

    Real-world evidence for nucleoside/nucleotide analogues in a 5-year multicentre study of antiviral-naive chronic hepatitis B patients in China: 52-week results.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Nov 8. Epub 2017 Nov 8.
    Bristol-Myers Squibb, Shanghai, China.
    Background: In China, the clinical management of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is complicated by the use of various nucleos(t)ide analogue (NUC) regimens in treatment-naïve patients, including NUCs with low genetic barriers to resistance, with/without add-on therapy and de novo NUC combinations. This longitudinal observational study therefore investigated the real-world clinical management and efficacy of NUC therapy in treatment-naïve CHB patients in China.

    Methods: Treatment-naïve CHB patients initiated on NUC therapy were enrolled from 63 hospitals in tier-2 Chinese cities. Read More

    Peramivir susceptibilities of recombinant influenza A and B variants selected with various neuraminidase inhibitors.
    Antivir Ther 2017 ;22(8):711-716
    Research Center in Infectious Diseases of the CHUQ-CHUL and Laval University, Québec City, QC, Canada.
    Background: Peramivir is a parenteral neuraminidase inhibitor (NAI) approved for treating influenza infections in a few countries. We determined peramivir susceptibilities of several uncharacterized influenza A and B neuraminidase (NA) and haemagglutinin (HA) mutants selected with different NAIs.

    Methods: Recombinant wild-type (WT) and mutant NA proteins were expressed in 293T cells and susceptibility to peramivir, oseltamivir and zanamivir was determined by NA inhibition assay using the MUNANA substrate. Read More

    Characterization of HCV resistance from a 3-day monotherapy study of voxilaprevir, a novel pangenotypic NS3/4A protease inhibitor.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Oct 24. Epub 2017 Oct 24.
    Gilead Sciences, Inc., Foster City, CA, USA.
    Background: Voxilaprevir (VOX, GS-9857) is a pangenotypic hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3/4A protease inhibitor (PI) with potent antiviral activity against HCV genotypes (GTs) 1-6 and improved coverage of GT1 NS3 resistance-associated substitutions (RASs) associated with other HCV PIs. In a 3-day phase 1b monotherapy study in patients infected with HCV GT1a, 1b, 2, 3 and 4, VOX was well tolerated and resulted in maximal mean viral load reduction >3 log IU/ml at the 100 mg dose across all genotypes evaluated. This report characterizes the HCV NS3 RASs in the study. Read More

    Meticulous plasma isolation is essential to avoid false low-level viraemia in Roche Cobas HIV-1 viral load assays.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Oct 24. Epub 2017 Oct 24.
    AIDS Reference Laboratory, Department of Clinical Chemistry, Microbiology and Immunology, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.
    Background: Pre-analytical sample processing is often overlooked as a potential cause of inaccurate assay results. Here we demonstrate how plasma, extracted from standard EDTA-containing blood collection tubes, may contain traces of blood cells consequently resulting in a false low-level HIV-1 viral load when using Roche Cobas HIV-1 assays.

    Methods: The presence of human DNA in Roche Cobas 4800 RNA extracts and in RNA extracts from the Abbott HIV-1 RealTime assay was assessed by quantifying the human albumin gene by means of quantitative PCR. Read More

    Primary HIV infection in patients with acute hepatitis B: a report of two cases.
    Antivir Ther 2018 ;23(2):197-200
    Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences 'Luigi Sacco', University of Milan, Milan, Italy.
    We describe two patients admitted to our institution with a diagnosis of sexually acquired acute hepatitis B who also had underlying hyper acute HIV infection. Both individuals reported high rates of condomless sex. Antiviral therapy active against HBV and HIV was started within days after diagnosis. Read More

    HIV-1 viral load and resistance in genital secretions in patients taking protease-inhibitor-based second-line therapy in Africa.
    Antivir Ther 2018 ;23(2):191-195
    MRC Clinical Trials Unit at University College London, London, United Kingdom.
    Background: HIV is transmitted primarily through sexual intercourse, and the objective of this study was therefore to assess whether there is occult viral replication and resistance in genital secretions in patients on protease inhibitor (PI)-based second-line therapy.

    Methods: HIV-infected adults taking ritonavir-boosted lopinavir with either two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), raltegravir or as monotherapy for 96 weeks, were enrolled at seven clinical sites in Uganda. Viral load (VL) was measured in cervico-vaginal secretions or semen and in a corresponding plasma sample. Read More

    Vitamin D supplementation decreases immune activation and exhaustion in HIV-1-infected youth.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Oct 10. Epub 2017 Oct 10.
    Rainbow Babies & Children's Hospital and Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH, USA.
    Background: Heightened immune activation and exhaustion drive HIV disease progression and co-morbidities. Vitamin D has pleiotropic immunomodulatory effects, but little is known about the effects of supplementation in HIV. Our study investigates changes in immune activation and exhaustion markers after 12 months of supplementation in virologically-suppressed HIV-infected youth with vitamin D insufficiency. Read More

    Pharmacokinetics of rilpivirine and 24-week outcomes after switching from efavirenz in virologically suppressed HIV-1-infected adolescents.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Oct 10. Epub 2017 Oct 10.
    Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand.
    Background: Rilpivirine (RPV), a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor drug, could be a favourable drug for maintenance therapy in HIV-infected adolescents because it has few long-term side effects. However, data among adolescents switching from efavirenz (EFV) to RPV are limited. This study investigated the pharmacokinetics (PK), safety and efficacy of RPV in virologically suppressed HIV-1-infected adolescents after switching from EFV. Read More

    Quantitative measurement of HCV core antigen for management of interferon-free therapy in HCV-infected patients.
    Antivir Ther 2018 ;23(2):149-156
    Department of Infectious Diseases and Hepatology, Medical University of Bialystok, Bialystok, Poland.
    Background: According to current recommendations diagnosis and management of HCV infection need detection and quantification of nucleic acids. In the era of direct-acting antivirals (DAA) it is essential to develop an inexpensive and simple method replacing polymerase chain reaction. Since there is no available data on HCV core antigen (HCVcAg) versus HCV RNA kinetics in the early phase of treatment with DAA, we carried out this study to evaluate the possible application of HCVcAg quantitative measurement for management of HCV infection. Read More

    Viro-immunological response of drug-naive HIV-1-infected patients starting a first-line regimen with viraemia >500,000 copies/ml in clinical practice.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Sep 22. Epub 2017 Sep 22.
    Department of Tropical and Infectious Diseases, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Careggi, Florence, Italy.
    Background: Virological success (VS) and immunological reconstitution (IR) of antiretroviral-naive HIV-1-infected patients with pre-therapy viral load (VL) >500,000 copies/ml was assessed after 12 months of treatment according to initial drug-class regimens.

    Methods: An observational multicentre retrospective study was performed. VS was defined as the first VL <50 copies/ml from treatment start. Read More

    Durability of antiretroviral therapy regimens and determinants for change in HIV-1-infected patients in the TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database (TAHOD-LITE).
    Antivir Ther 2018 ;23(2):167-178
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Institute of Infectious Diseases and Epidemiology, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore.
    Background: The durability of first-line regimen is important to achieve long-term treatment success for the management of HIV infection. Our analysis describes the duration of sequential ART regimens and identifies the determinants leading to treatment change in HIV-positive patients initiating in Asia.

    Methods: All HIV-positive adult patients initiating first-line ART in 2003-2013, from eight clinical sites among seven countries in Asia. Read More

    The association between serum cytokine and chemokine levels and antiviral response by entecavir treatment in chronic hepatitis B patients.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Sep 21. Epub 2017 Sep 21.
    Department of Gastroenterology and Metabolism, Graduate School of Biomedical & Health Sciences, Applied Life Sciences, Institute of Biomedical & Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima, Japan.
    Background: Although nucleoside/nucleotide analogue therapy is thought to suppress chronic hepatitis B (CHB) via regulation of inflammatory cytokines/chemokines, the mechanism is still unclear. In this study, serum cytokine/chemokine levels were measured in CHB patients treated with entecavir, and the association with antiviral response was analysed.

    Methods: A total of 78 Japanese patients with CHB were enrolled, and serum cytokine/chemokine levels were measured at baseline and at 12, 24 and 48 weeks of entecavir treatment using the MULTIPLEX kit. Read More

    Longitudinal study of falls among HIV-infected and uninfected women: the role of cognition.
    Antivir Ther 2018 ;23(2):179-190
    Department of Medicine, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY, USA.
    Background: Although fracture rates are higher in HIV+ than HIV- women, whether HIV infection increases risk of falls is unclear. We determined the longitudinal occurrence and risk factors for falls in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS), and explored associations with cognitive complaints.

    Methods: Recent (prior 6 months) self-reported falls were collected in 1,816 (1,250 HIV+; 566 HIV-) women over 24 months. Read More

    Epicardial adipose tissue volume and cardiovascular risk indices among asymptomatic women with and without HIV.
    Antivir Ther 2018 ;23(1):1-9
    Program in Nutritional Metabolism, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.
    Background: Mechanisms underlying the heightened myocardial infarction risk among HIV-infected women (versus non-HIV-infected women) remain unclear. Our objectives were to assess epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) volume and its associations among asymptomatic women with and without HIV.

    Methods: A total of 55 HIV-infected and 27 non-HIV-infected women without known cardiovascular disease who underwent cardiac CT and metabolic/immune phenotyping were included. Read More

    A meta-analysis of laninamivir octanoate for treatment and prophylaxis of influenza.
    Antivir Ther 2018 ;23(2):157-165
    Department of Internal Medicine, Osaka Anti-Tuberculosis Association Osaka Hospital, Neyagawa City, Osaka, Japan.
    Background: Laninamivir octanoate is a recently developed inhaled neuraminidase inhibitor for treating influenza virus infection. We performed meta-analyses to clarify the efficacy of laninamivir octanoate on influenza treatment and prevention.

    Methods: MEDLINE and CENTRAL were searched to identify eligible studies. Read More

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