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    3694 results match your criteria Antiviral Research[Journal]

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    STD-NMR experiments identify a structural motif with novel second-site activity against West Nile virus NS2B-NS3 protease.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Sep 16. Epub 2017 Sep 16.
    Center for Structural and Cell Biology in Medicine, Institute of Chemistry, University of Luebeck, Ratzeburger Allee 160, 23562 Luebeck, Germany. Electronic address:
    West Nile virus (WNV) belongs to the genus Flavivirus of the family Flaviviridae. This mosquito-borne virus that is highly pathogenic to humans has been evolving into a global threat during the past two decades. Despite many efforts, neither antiviral drugs nor vaccines are available. Read More

    A pilot study to expand treatment of chronic hepatitis C in resource-limited settings.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Sep 16. Epub 2017 Sep 16.
    Division of Clinical Care and Research at the Institute of Human Virology (IHV), University of Maryland, School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA; Global Virus Network, Baltimore, MD, USA. Electronic address:
    The past five years have seen a revolution in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C, as short duration oral regimens of direct-acting antiviral drugs (DAAs), with nearly 100% cure rates for all genotypes, have replaced longer courses of ribavirin and injected interferon. Although initially very expensive, these DAAs are now becoming available in generic equivalents in countries with large numbers of chronically infected people, such as India. However, a number of obstacles may hinder the delivery of these drugs in resource-limited settings, including lack of access to diagnostic testing and the restriction of treatment to a small number of medical specialists. Read More

    Pentagalloylglucose, a highly bioavailable polyphenolic compound present in Cortex moutan, efficiently blocks hepatitis C virus entry.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Sep 15. Epub 2017 Sep 15.
    Institute of Experimental Virology, Twincore Centre for Experimental and Clinical Infection Research, a joint venture between the Medical School Hannover (MHH) and the Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research (HZI), Hannover, Germany; German Centre for Infection Research, Hannover-Braunschweig Site, Germany. Electronic address:
    Approximately 142 million people worldwide are infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). Although potent direct acting antivirals are available, high costs limit access to treatment. Chronic hepatitis C virus infection remains a major cause of orthotopic liver transplantation. Read More

    Cell-line dependent antiviral activity of sofosbuvir against Zika virus.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Sep 11;146:161-163. Epub 2017 Sep 11.
    Department of Viroscience, Unit Clinical Virology, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. Electronic address:
    The recent epidemic of Zika virus (ZIKV) in the Americas and its association with fetal and neurological complications has shown the need to develop a treatment. Repurposing of drugs that are already FDA approved or in clinical development may shorten drug development timelines in case of emerging viral diseases like ZIKV. Initial studies have shown conflicting results when testing sofosbuvir developed for treatment of infections with another Flaviviridae virus, hepatitis C virus. Read More

    Human polyclonal antibodies produced in transchromosomal cattle prevent lethal Zika virus infection and testicular atrophy in mice.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Sep 8;146:164-173. Epub 2017 Sep 8.
    Zoonotic Diseases and Special Pathogens, National Microbiology Laboratory, Public Health Agency of Canada, Winnipeg, MB, Canada; Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada.
    Zika virus (ZIKV) is rapidly spreading throughout the Americas and is associated with significant fetal complications, most notably microcephaly. Treatment with polyclonal antibodies for pregnant women at risk of ZIKV-related complications could be a safe alternative to vaccination. We found that large quantities of human polyclonal antibodies could be rapidly produced in transchromosomal bovines (TcB) and successfully used to protect mice from lethal infection. Read More

    Raltegravir blocks the infectivity of red-fluorescent-protein (mCherry)-labeled HIV-1JR-FL in the setting of post-exposure prophylaxis in NOD/SCID/Jak3(-/-) mice transplanted with human PBMCs.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Sep 8. Epub 2017 Sep 8.
    Departments of Hematology and Infectious Diseases, Kumamoto University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Bethesda, MD, USA; Experimental Retrovirology Section, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA; Experimental Retrovirology Section, Department of Refractory Viral Infection, National Center for Global Health and Medicine Research Institute, Tokyo, Japan. Electronic address:
    Employing NOD/SCID/Jak3(-/-) mice transplanted with human PBMCs (hNOJ mice) and replication-competent, red-fluorescent-protein (mCherry; mC)-labeled HIV-1JR-FL (HIVmC), we examined whether early antiretroviral treatment blocked the establishment of HIV-1 infection. The use of hNOJ mice and HIVmC enabled us to visually locate infection foci and to examine the early dynamics of HIVmC infection without using a large amount of antiretroviral unlike in non-human primate models. Although when raltegravir (RAL) administration was begun 1 day after intraperitoneal (ip) inoculation of HIVmC, no plasma p24 or plasma HIV-1-RNA (pRNA) were detected in 10 of 12 hNOJ (hNOJmC(RAL+)) mice over 14-day observation, all 10 untreated hNOJmC (hNOJmC(RAL-)) mice became positive for p24 and pRNA and had significantly swollen lymph nodes in peritoneal cavity and abundant p24(+)/mC(+)/CD3(+)/CD4(+) T cells and p24(+)/mC(+)/CD68(+) monocytes/macrophages were identified in their omenta and mesenteric lymphoid tissues/lymph nodes. Read More

    DHEA prevents ribavirin-induced anemia via inhibition of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Sep 8;146:153-160. Epub 2017 Sep 8.
    Laboratoire de Virologie EA4294, Université de Picardie Jules Verne, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, 80054, Amiens, France. Electronic address:
    Ribavirin has been widely used for antiviral therapy. Unfortunately, ribavirin-induced anemia is often a cause of limiting or interrupting treatment. Our team has observed that dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) has a protective effect against in vitro and in vivo ribavirin-induced hemolysis. Read More

    Searching for synergy: Identifying optimal antiviral combination therapy using Hepatitis C virus (HCV) agents in a replicon system.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Sep 4;146:149-152. Epub 2017 Sep 4.
    Institute for Therapeutic Innovation, Department of Medicine, University of Florida's College of Medicine, 6550 Sanger Road, Orlando, FL, 32827, USA. Electronic address:
    Direct acting antiviral agents (DAAs) are potent inhibitors of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) that have revolutionized the treatment landscape for this important viral disease. There are currently four classes of DAAs that inhibit HCV replication via distinct mechanisms of action: nonstructural protein (NS) 3/4a protease inhibitors, NS5A inhibitors, NS5B nucleoside polymerase inhibitors, and NS5B non-nucleoside polymerase inhibitors. Combination therapy with two or more DAAs has great potential to further enhance antiviral potency. Read More

    A neonatal death associated with Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (Republic of Kalmykia, Russia, June 2016).
    Antiviral Res 2017 Sep 4;146:146-148. Epub 2017 Sep 4.
    Central Research Institute for Epidemiology, Federal Service on Consumer Rights Protection and Human Well-Being Surveillance, Moscow, Russia.

    Evaluation of antiviral effect of type I, II, and III interferons on direct-acting antiviral-resistant hepatitis C virus.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Aug 31;146:130-138. Epub 2017 Aug 31.
    Department of Biopharmaceutics and Drug Metabolism, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University, Japan.
    Treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has greatly improved in the last 5 years because of the identification of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs). However, concerns exist regarding the emergence of drug resistance-associated substitutions (RASs). In this study, we evaluated the in vivo antiviral effect of three classes of interferons (IFNs), namely, types I, II, and III IFNs, on DAA-resistant HCVs. Read More

    Immune responses in DAA treated chronic hepatitis C patients with and without prior RG-101 dosing.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Aug 24;146:139-145. Epub 2017 Aug 24.
    Dep. of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Dep. of Experimental Immunology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Electronic address:
    Background&aims: With the introduction of DAA's, the majority of treated chronic hepatitis C patients (CHC) achieve a viral cure. The exact mechanisms by which the virus is cleared after successful therapy, is still unknown. The aim was to assess the role of the immune system and miRNA levels in acquiring a sustained virological response after DAA treatment in CHC patients with and without prior RG-101 (anti-miR-122) dosing. Read More

    Rapamycin-induced autophagy restricts porcine epidemic diarrhea virus infectivity in porcine intestinal epithelial cells.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Aug 24;146:86-95. Epub 2017 Aug 24.
    Department of Agricultural Biotechnology and Research Institute for Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Republic of Korea; Institute of Green Bio Science Technology, Seoul National University, Pyeongchang 23254, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:
    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) invades porcine intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and causes diarrhea and dehydration in pigs. In the present study, we showed a suppression of PEDV infection in porcine jejunum intestinal epithelial cells (IPEC-J2) by an increase in autophagy. Autophagy was activated by rapamycin at a dose that does not affect cell viability and tight junction permeability. Read More

    Identification of broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies against Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Aug 24;146:112-120. Epub 2017 Aug 24.
    Viral Special Pathogens Branch, Division of High Consequence Pathogens and Pathology, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA. Electronic address:
    Despite the serious public health impact of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF), the efficacy of antivirals targeting the causative agent, CCHF virus (CCHFV), remains debatable. Neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) targeting the CCHFV glycoprotein Gc have been reported to protect mice against challenge with the prototype CCHFV strain, IbAr10200. However, due to extensive sequence diversity of CCHFV glycoproteins, it is unknown whether these MAbs neutralize other CCHFV strains. Read More

    Evaluation of antiviral activity of piperazine against Chikungunya virus targeting hydrophobic pocket of alphavirus capsid protein.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Aug 24;146:102-111. Epub 2017 Aug 24.
    Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee 247667, India. Electronic address:
    Small heterocyclic molecules such as piperazine are potential pharmacotherapeutic agents and binding of these molecules to the hydrophobic pocket of capsid protein (CP) offers a new perspective for therapeutic intervention. Here, we report the crystal structure of CP from Aura virus (AVCP) in complex with piperazine at 2.2 Å resolution. Read More

    Screening of an FDA-approved compound library identifies levosimendan as a novel anti-HIV-1 agent that inhibits viral transcription.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Aug 24;146:76-85. Epub 2017 Aug 24.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY, 14642, USA; Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY, 14642, USA. Electronic address:
    Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has been proven to efficiently inhibit ongoing replication of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), and significantly improve the health outcome in patients of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). However, cART is unable to cure HIV-1/AIDS. Even in presence of cART there exists a residual viremia, contributed from the viral reservoirs of latently infected HIV-1 proviruses; this constitutes a major hurdle. Read More

    Bis(benzofuran-thiazolidinone)s and bis(benzofuran-thiazinanone)s as inhibiting agents for chikungunya virus.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Aug 19;146:96-101. Epub 2017 Aug 19.
    Molecular Virology Laboratory, Department of Medical Microbiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands. Electronic address:
    There are currently still no approved antiviral drugs to treat or prevent chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infections despite the fact that this arbovirus continues to cause outbreaks in Africa, Asia, and South- and Central-America. Thus 20 new conjugated compounds in the families of bis(benzofuran-1,3-thiazolidin-4-one)s and bis(benzofuran-1,3-thiazinan-4-one)s were designed based on the structural features of suramin. These new compounds were synthesized by chemical methods and their structures were confirmed spectroscopically. Read More

    New anionic carbosilane dendrons functionalized with a DO3A ligand at the focal point for the prevention of HIV-1 infection.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Aug 18;146:54-64. Epub 2017 Aug 18.
    CIBER-BBN, Madrid, Spain; Sección Inmunología, Laboratorio InmunoBiología Molecular, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, Madrid, Spain; Spanish HIV HGM Biobank, Madrid, Spain; Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Gregorio Marañón (IISGM), Madrid, Spain. Electronic address:
    Novel third-generation polyanionic carbosilane dendrons with sulfonate or carboxylate end-groups and functionalized with a DO3A ligand at the focal point, and their corresponding copper complexes, have been prepared as antiviral compounds to prevent HIV-1 infection. The topology enables the compound to have an excellent chelating agent, DO3A, while keeping anionic peripheral groups for a therapeutic action. In this study, the cytotoxicity and anti-HIV-1 abilities of carboxylate- (5) or sulfonate-terminated (6) dendrons containing DO3A and their copper complexes (7 or 8) were evaluated. Read More

    A SCID mouse-human lung xenograft model of varicella-zoster virus infection.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Aug 18;146:45-53. Epub 2017 Aug 18.
    Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, New Jersey Medical School, Rutgers University, 225 Warren Street, Newark, NJ 070101, USA. Electronic address:
    Varicella pneumonia is one of the most serious, potentially life-threatening complications of primary varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection in adults and immunocompromised individuals. However, studies on the lung pathogenesis of VZV infection as well as development and testing of antivirals have long been hindered by limited access to clinical samples and a lack of suitable animal models. In this study, we report for the first time the use of human lung xenografts in SCID mice for investigating VZV infection. Read More

    Inhibitory effects of metachromin A on hepatitis B virus production via impairment of the viral promoter activity.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Sep 4;145:136-145. Epub 2017 Aug 4.
    Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Graduate Faculty of Interdisciplinary Research, University of Yamanashi, Yamanashi, Japan. Electronic address:
    The currently available antiviral agents for chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) are pegylated interferon-α and nucleoside/nucleotide analogues, although it has been difficult to completely eliminate covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) from patients. To identify an antiviral compound targeting HBV core promoter, 15 terpenes originating from marine organisms were screened using a cell line expressing firefly luciferase under the control of the HBV core promoter. Metachromin A, which is a merosesquiterpene isolated from the marine sponge Dactylospongia metachromia, inhibited the viral promoter activity at the highest level among the tested compounds, and suppressed HBV production with an EC50 value of 0. Read More

    Combination therapy with brincidofovir and valganciclovir against species C adenovirus infection in the immunosuppressed Syrian hamster model allows for substantial reduction of dose for both compounds.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Aug 4;146:121-129. Epub 2017 Aug 4.
    Saint Louis University School of Medicine, Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, St. Louis, MO, USA. Electronic address:
    Adenovirus infections of immunocompetent adults are usually mild and resolve without serious sequelae. However, adenovirus infections of immunocompromised patients often develop into life-threatening multi-organ disease. Pediatric hematopoietic transplant patients are especially threatened, with high incidence of infection and high mortality rates. Read More

    Genetically modified rabies virus-vectored Ebola virus disease vaccines are safe and induce efficacious immune responses in mice and dogs.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Aug 16;146:36-44. Epub 2017 Aug 16.
    Key Laboratory of Veterinary Public Health of Ministry of Agriculture, State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, Harbin Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Harbin, 150001, China. Electronic address:
    Ebola viruses (EBOVs) are zoonotic pathogens that cause EBOV disease (EVD) with high case fatality in humans. Currently, EVD vaccines are still under development in several countries. Here, we generated two recombinant rabies viruses (RABVs), rERAG333E/ZGP and rERAG333E/SGP, expressing the Zaire EBOV glycoprotein (ZGP) or Sudan EBOV glycoprotein (SGP) gene based on a modified ERA vaccine strain (rERAG333E) vector platform. Read More

    Ribavirin inhibits Zika virus (ZIKV) replication in vitro and suppresses viremia in ZIKV-infected STAT1-deficient mice.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Aug 14;146:1-11. Epub 2017 Aug 14.
    Department of Infectious Disease Control, Faculty of Medicine, Oita University, Oita 879-5593, Japan. Electronic address:
    Zika fever, a mosquito-borne infectious disease caused by Zika virus (ZIKV), is an epidemic disease for which no effective therapy has been established. The recent outbreaks of ZIKV in Brazil and French Polynesia have been linked to a considerable increase in the incidence of fetal microcephaly and other diseases such as Guillain-Barre syndrome. Because there is currently no specific therapy or vaccine, the early exploitation of a method to prevent expansion of ZIKV is a high priority. Read More

    Identification and characterization of small molecule inhibitors of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Aug 12;146:28-35. Epub 2017 Aug 12.
    Department of Animal Science, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, USA. Electronic address:
    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is the etiological agent of PRRS, an economically significant disease of swine worldwide. PRRSV is poorly controlled by the currently available vaccines, and alternative control strategies are needed to help prevent the continual circulation of the virus. Previously, we developed a synthetic route for the natural compound atractylodinol and demonstrated anti-PRRSV activity in vitro. Read More

    An RNA polymerase II-driven Ebola virus minigenome system as an advanced tool for antiviral drug screening.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Aug 12;146:21-27. Epub 2017 Aug 12.
    Department of Microbiology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA; National Emerging Infectious Diseases Laboratories, Boston University, Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address:
    Ebola virus (EBOV) causes a severe disease in humans with the potential for significant international public health consequences. Currently, treatments are limited to experimental vaccines and therapeutics. Therefore, research into prophylaxis and antiviral strategies to combat EBOV infections is of utmost importance. Read More

    Global update on the susceptibility of human influenza viruses to neuraminidase inhibitors, 2015-2016.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Aug 10;146:12-20. Epub 2017 Aug 10.
    National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, PO Box 1, 3720 BA, Bilthoven, The Netherlands.
    Four World Health Organization (WHO) Collaborating Centres for Reference and Research on Influenza and one WHO Collaborating Centre for the Surveillance, Epidemiology and Control of Influenza (WHO CCs) assessed antiviral susceptibility of 14,330 influenza A and B viruses collected by WHO-recognized National Influenza Centres (NICs) between May 2015 and May 2016. Neuraminidase (NA) inhibition assay was used to determine 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) data for NA inhibitors (NAIs) oseltamivir, zanamivir, peramivir and laninamivir. Furthermore, NA sequences from 13,484 influenza viruses were retrieved from public sequence databases and screened for amino acid substitutions (AAS) associated with reduced inhibition (RI) or highly reduced inhibition (HRI) by NAIs. Read More

    Interferon-independent antiviral activity of 25-hydroxycholesterol in a teleost fish.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Sep 5;145:146-159. Epub 2017 Aug 5.
    Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas (IIM-CSIC), Vigo, Spain. Electronic address:
    Oxysterols are a family of cholesterol oxygenated derivatives with diverse roles in many biological activities and have recently been linked with the induction of a cellular antiviral state. The antiviral effects of 25-hydroxycholesterol (25HC) extend to several mammalian enveloped and non-enveloped viruses. It has been reported that the expression of the gene encoding cholesterol 25-hydroxylase (CH25H) is induced by interferons (IFNs). Read More

    Characterization of oseltamivir-resistant influenza virus populations in immunosuppressed patients using digital-droplet PCR: Comparison with qPCR and next generation sequencing analysis.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Sep 3;145:160-167. Epub 2017 Aug 3.
    Hospices Civils de Lyon, Centre National de Référence des virus Influenzae France Sud, Laboratoire de Virologie, Institut des Agents Infectieux, Groupement Hospitalier Nord, F-69317, Lyon Cedex 04, France; Univ Lyon, Université Lyon 1, Faculté de Médecine Lyon Est, CIRI, Inserm U1111, CNRS UMR5308, équipe Virpath, F-69372, Lyon Cedex 08, France. Electronic address:
    Introduction: The H275Y substitution in neuraminidase (NA) confers oseltamivir-resistance in A(H1N1) influenza viruses (IV). Droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) is a new technique to explore single nucleotide polymorphisms. The aim of this study was to compare the performances of reverse transcriptase (RT)-ddPCR, RT-qPCR and next generation sequencing (NGS). Read More

    Enhanced protection against experimental Junin virus infection through the use of a modified favipiravir loading dose strategy.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Sep 2;145:131-135. Epub 2017 Aug 2.
    Toyama Chemical Co., Ltd., Toyama, Japan.
    A collection of Old and New World arenaviruses are etiologic agents of viral hemorrhagic fever, a syndrome that features hematologic abnormalities, vascular leak, hypovolemia, and multi-organ failure. Treatment is limited to ribavirin for Lassa fever and immune plasma for Argentine hemorrhagic fever. Improved therapeutic options that are safe, more effective and widely available are needed. Read More

    The cholesterol transport inhibitor U18666A inhibits type I feline coronavirus infection.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Sep 3;145:96-102. Epub 2017 Aug 3.
    Laboratory of Veterinary Infectious Disease, School of Veterinary Medicine, Kitasato University, Towada, Japan. Electronic address:
    Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is a feline coronavirus (FCoV)-induced fatal disease in wild and domestic cats. FCoV exists in two serotypes. Type I FCoV is the dominant serotype worldwide. Read More

    Cinnamic acid derivatives inhibit hepatitis C virus replication via the induction of oxidative stress.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Sep 2;145:123-130. Epub 2017 Aug 2.
    Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Graduate Faculty of Interdisciplinary Research, University of Yamanashi, Yamanashi, Japan. Electronic address:
    Several cinnamic acid derivatives have been reported to exhibit antiviral activity. In this study, we prepared 17 synthetic cinnamic acid derivatives and screened them to identify an effective antiviral compound against hepatitis C virus (HCV). Compound 6, one of two hit compounds, suppressed the viral replications of genotypes 1b, 2a, 3a, and 4a with EC50 values of 1. Read More

    Efficacy of a high potency O1 Manisa monovalent vaccine against heterologous challenge with foot-and-mouth disease virus of O/SEA/Mya-98 lineage in sheep.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Sep 3;145:114-122. Epub 2017 Aug 3.
    Australian Animal Health Laboratory, CSIRO-Health and Biosecurity, Geelong, Australia. Electronic address:
    Potency tests for commercial oil-adjuvanted foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccines are usually carried out in cattle, using a full dose (2 ml) of vaccine and homologous virus challenge. However, in sheep the recommended vaccine dose is half of the cattle dose (1 ml) and most vaccines have not been potency tested for this species, especially with heterologous viruses. To determine the efficacy of a high potency (>6PD50) FMD virus (FMDV) O1Manisa vaccine in sheep, we carried out a study using a heterologous FMDV (FMDV O/SKR/2010 - Mya-98 strain) challenge. Read More

    Immunogenicity of an influenza virus-vectored vaccine carrying the hepatitis C virus protein epitopes in mice.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Sep 1;145:168-174. Epub 2017 Aug 1.
    Beijing 302 Hospital, Beijing, 100039, China; State Key Laboratory of Pathogens and Biosecurity, Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology, Beijing, 100071, China. Electronic address:
    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has a devastating impact on human health, and infections can progress into liver fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. There is no effective HCV vaccine. In this study, we rescued a recombinant PR8 influenza viral vector, called rgFLU-HCVCE1E2, carrying the core and envelope glycoprotein (C/E1/E2) epitopes of HCV inserted into the influenza nonstructural protein 1 gene. Read More

    Discovery of dapivirine, a nonnucleoside HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitor, as a broad-spectrum antiviral against both influenza A and B viruses.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Sep 2;145:103-113. Epub 2017 Aug 2.
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, United States; BIO5 Institute, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, United States. Electronic address:
    The emergence of multidrug-resistant influenza viruses poses a persistent threat to public health. The current prophylaxis and therapeutic interventions for influenza virus infection have limited efficacy due to the continuous antigenic drift and antigenic shift of influenza viruses. As part of our ongoing effort to develop the next generation of influenza antivirals with broad-spectrum antiviral activity and a high genetic barrier to drug resistance, in this study we report the discovery of dapivirine, an FDA-approved HIV nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, as a broad-spectrum antiviral against multiple strains of influenza A and B viruses with low micromolar efficacy. Read More

    Highlights of the 30th International Conference on Antiviral Research.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Sep 1;145:184-196. Epub 2017 Aug 1.
    AIDS Research Institute - Irsicaixa, Hospital Germans Trias i Pujol, Universitat Autónoma de Barcelona, Canyet s/n, Badalona, Spain; International Society for Antiviral Research, Spain. Electronic address:
    The 30th International Conference on Antiviral Research (ICAR) was held in Atlanta, GA, USA from May 18 to 21, 2017. This report provides an account of award lectures, invited keynote addresses and oral presentations during the meeting. The 2017 Gertrude Elion Memorial Lecture Award by Michael Sofia highlighted one of the most important accomplishments in recent drug discovery in antiviral research, the identification of the hepatitis C virus direct-acting antiviral sofosbuvir and new alternatives to combat hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Read More

    Broad-spectrum non-nucleoside inhibitors for caliciviruses.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Jul 27;146:65-75. Epub 2017 Jul 27.
    School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia. Electronic address:
    Viruses of the Caliciviridae cause significant and sometimes lethal diseases, however despite substantial research efforts, specific antivirals are lacking. Broad-spectrum antivirals could combat multiple viral pathogens, offering a rapid solution when no therapies exist. The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) is an attractive antiviral target as it is essential for viral replication and lacks mammalian homologs. Read More

    Viral minority variants in the core promoter and precore region identified by deep sequencing are associated with response to peginterferon and adefovir in HBeAg negative chronic hepatitis B patients.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Sep 25;145:87-95. Epub 2017 Jul 25.
    Experimental Immunology, AMC, UvA, The Netherlands. Electronic address:
    Background And Aim: Precore (PC) and basal core promoter (BCP) mutations are associated with responses to interferon-based treatment in HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients. Here, we identify viral minority variants in these regions and assess association with response to peginterferon-alfa (Peg-IFN) and adefovir combination therapy.

    Patients And Methods: Ultra-deep pyrosequencing analysis of the BCP and PC region was performed for 89 CHB patients (42 HBeAg-positive; 47 HBeAg-negative), at baseline and during treatment. Read More

    Dual-targeted anti-TB/anti-HIV heterodimers.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Sep 22;145:175-183. Epub 2017 Jul 22.
    Eunice Kennedy-Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.
    HIV and M. tuberculosis are two intersecting epidemics making the search for new dual action drugs against both pathogens extremely important. Here, we report on the synthesis and suppressive activities of five dual-targeted HIV/TB compounds. Read More

    p38MAPK plays a critical role in induction of a pro-inflammatory phenotype of retinal Müller cells following Zika virus infection.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Sep 21;145:70-81. Epub 2017 Jul 21.
    Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, 77555, USA; Institute for Human Infections and Immunity, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, 77555, USA; Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, 77555, USA. Electronic address:
    Zika virus (ZIKV) infection has been associated with ocular abnormalities such as chorioretinal atrophy, optic nerve abnormalities, posterior uveitis and idiopathic maculopathy. Yet our knowledge about ZIKV infection in retinal cells and its potential contribution to retinal pathology is still very limited. Here we found that primary Müller cells, the principal glial cells in the retina, expressed a high level of ZIKV entry cofactor AXL gene and were highly permissive to ZIKV infection. Read More

    Replication of the Zika virus in different iPSC-derived neuronal cells and implications to assess efficacy of antivirals.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Sep 20;145:82-86. Epub 2017 Jul 20.
    Laboratory of Virology and Experimental Chemotherapy, Rega Institute for Medical Research, University of Leuven (KU Leuven), Leuven 3000, Belgium. Electronic address:
    Infections with the Zika virus (ZIKV) are responsible for congenital abnormalities and neurological disorders. We here demonstrate that ZIKV productively infects three types of human iPSC (induced pluripotent stem cells)-derived cells from the neural lineage, i.e. Read More

    Targeting heat shock factor 1 as an antiviral strategy against dengue virus replication in vitro and in vivo.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Sep 18;145:44-53. Epub 2017 Jul 18.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan; Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan. Electronic address:
    Fever onset is correlated with viremia in dengue virus (DENV) patients. Heat shock factor 1 (HSF1), a heat stress response host transcription factor, plays a crucial role in regulating multiple cellular functions, as well as the onset of infectious diseases. This study evaluated the role of HSF1 in DENV replication as a means of regulating DENV infection in vitro and in vivo. Read More

    A heterologous prime-boost Ebola virus vaccine regimen induces durable neutralizing antibody response and prevents Ebola virus-like particle entry in mice.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Sep 18;145:54-59. Epub 2017 Jul 18.
    Vaccinology Division, CAS Key Laboratory of Molecular Virology & Immunology, Institut Pasteur of Shanghai, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031, China. Electronic address:
    Ebola virus (EBOV) is one of the most virulent pathogens known to humans. Neutralizing antibodies play a major role in the protection against EBOV infections. Thus, an EBOV vaccine capable of inducing a long-lasting neutralizing antibody response is highly desirable. Read More

    Structure-based discovery of clinically approved drugs as Zika virus NS2B-NS3 protease inhibitors that potently inhibit Zika virus infection in vitro and in vivo.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Sep 14;145:33-43. Epub 2017 Jul 14.
    Department of Microbiology, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region; State Key Laboratory of Emerging Infectious Diseases, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region; Research Centre of Infection and Immunology, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region; Carol Yu Centre for Infection, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region; The Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. Electronic address:
    Zika virus (ZIKV) infection may be associated with severe complications in fetuses and adults, but treatment options are limited. We performed an in silico structure-based screening of a large chemical library to identify potential ZIKV NS2B-NS3 protease inhibitors. Clinically approved drugs belonging to different drug classes were selected among the 100 primary hit compounds with the highest predicted binding affinities to ZIKV NS2B-NS3-protease for validation studies. Read More

    NgAgo-gDNA system efficiently suppresses hepatitis B virus replication through accelerating decay of pregenomic RNA.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Sep 12;145:20-23. Epub 2017 Jul 12.
    Key Laboratory for Experimental Teratology of Ministry of Education and Department of Immunology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Shandong University, Jinan, China; Key Laboratory of Infection and Immunity of Shandong Province, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Shandong University, Jinan, China. Electronic address:
    Covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) in the hepatocytes nucleus is responsible for persistent infection of Hepatitis B virus (HBV). Current antiviral therapy drugs nucleos(t)ide analogs or interferon fail to eradicate HBV cccDNA. Genome editing technique provides an effective approach for HBV treatment through targeting viral cccDNA. Read More

    Detection of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) covalently-closed-circular DNA (cccDNA) in mice transduced with a recombinant AAV-HBV vector.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Sep 11;145:14-19. Epub 2017 Jul 11.
    INSERM, U1052, Cancer Research Center of Lyon (CRCL), Université de Lyon (UCBL1), CNRS UMR_5286, Centre Léon Bérard, Lyon, France. Electronic address:
    Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) persists in infected hepatocytes as an episomal covalently-closed-circular DNA mini-chromosome, called cccDNA. As the main nuclear transcription template, HBV cccDNA is a key replication intermediate in the viral life cycle. Little is known about the mechanisms involved in its formation, maintenance and fate under antiviral therapies. Read More

    Antiviral activity of gemcitabine against human rhinovirus in vitro and in vivo.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Sep 11;145:6-13. Epub 2017 Jul 11.
    Laboratory of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Pharmacy, Kangwon National University, South Korea; Convergence Research Center for Functional Plant Products, Advanced Institutes of Convergence Technology, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon-si, Gyeonggi-do, South Korea. Electronic address:
    Rhinovirus, a major causative agent of the common cold, is associated with exacerbation of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Currently, there is no antiviral treatment or vaccine for human rhinovirus (HRV). Gemcitabine (2',2'-difluorodeoxycytidine, dFdC) is a deoxycytidine analog with antiviral activity against rhinovirus, as well as enterovirus 71, in vitro. Read More

    Adenoviral-expressed recombinant granulocyte monocyte colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) enhances protective immunity induced by inactivated Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) vaccine.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Aug 8;144:322-329. Epub 2017 Jul 8.
    Department of Avian Disease, College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi, 712100, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:
    Although vaccination has been hugely successful in protecting birds against infection by the New castle disease virus (NDV), newly-emerged highly virulent strains have been found to overcome established immune protection and threaten the poultry industry. The need to improve the immunization efficacy is, therefore, urgent. Here, we tested the potential immunostimulatory adjuvant activity of the adenoviral-expressed recombinant chicken granulocyte monocyte colony stimulating factor (rchGM-CSF) in an inactivated Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) vaccine. Read More

    Identification of an essential virulence gene of cyprinid herpesvirus 3.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Sep 6;145:60-69. Epub 2017 Jul 6.
    Immunology-Vaccinology, Department of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases, Fundamental and Applied Research for Animals & Health (FARAH), Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Liège, Liège, Belgium. Electronic address:
    The genus Cyprinivirus consists of a growing list of phylogenetically related viruses, some of which cause severe economic losses to the aquaculture industry. The archetypal member, cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) causes mass mortalities worldwide in koi and common carp. A CyHV-3 mutant was described previously that is attenuated in vivo by a deletion affecting two genes (ORF56 and ORF57). Read More

    Antiviral effects of Retro-2(cycl) and Retro-2.1 against Enterovirus 71 in vitro and in vivo.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Aug 5;144:311-321. Epub 2017 Jul 5.
    National Engineering Laboratory for AIDS Vaccine, School of Life Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun, 130012, China; Key Laboratory for Molecular Enzymology and Engineering of the Ministry of Education, School of Life Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun, 130012, China. Electronic address:
    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is one of the causative pathogens of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), especially the form associated with fatal neurological disorders. Sustained outbreaks of EV71 infections remain a serious health threat worldwide. However, no antiviral agent against EV71 for clinical therapy has been approved. Read More

    Comparison of three dimensional synergistic analyses of percentage versus logarithmic data in antiviral studies.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Sep 1;145:1-5. Epub 2017 Jul 1.
    Department of Pediatrics, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, 35233-1711, USA.
    Cell culture antiviral experiments were conducted in order to understand the relationship between percentage data generated by plaque reduction (PR) and logarithmic data derived by virus yield reduction (VYR) assays, using three-dimensional MacSynergy II software. The relationship between percentage and logarithmic data has not been investigated previously. Interpretation of drug-drug interactions is based on a Volume of Synergy (VS) calculation, which can be positive (synergy), negative (antagonistic), or neutral (no or minimal interaction). Read More

    Toward the identification of viral cap-methyltransferase inhibitors by fluorescence screening assay.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Aug 1;144:330-339. Epub 2017 Jul 1.
    Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, AFMB UMR 7257, Marseille, France. Electronic address:
    Two highly pathogenic human coronaviruses associated with severe respiratory syndromes emerged since the beginning of the century. The severe acute respiratory syndrome SARS-coronavirus (CoV) spread first in southern China in 2003 with about 8000 infected cases in few months. Then in 2012, the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS-CoV) emerged from the Arabian Peninsula giving a still on-going epidemic associated to a high fatality rate. Read More

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