4,278 results match your criteria Antiviral Research[Journal]


Pemetrexed Inhibits Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Replication through Blocking dTMP Synthesis.

Antiviral Res 2020 May 24:104825. Epub 2020 May 24.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Virology, Institute of Medical Microbiology, Jinan University, Guangzhou, 510632, China; State Key Laboratory of Virology, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, 430071, China. Electronic address:

Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the etiologic agent of Kaposi's sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma, and multicentric Castleman's disease. In immunocompromised patients, KSHV infection is capable of causing severe and fatal diseases. Current antiviral treatments for KSHV infections consist mostly of nucleoside analogs, all of which target viral polymerases and are associated with adverse effects and drug resistance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2020.104825DOI Listing

Identification of SARS-CoV RBD-targeting monoclonal antibodies with cross-reactive or neutralizing activity against SARS-CoV-2.

Antiviral Res 2020 May 13;179:104820. Epub 2020 May 13.

Lindsley F. Kimball Research Institute, New York Blood Center, New York, NY, 10065, USA. Electronic address:

SARS-CoV-2-caused COVID-19 cases are growing globally, calling for developing effective therapeutics to control the current pandemic. SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV recognize angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor via the receptor-binding domain (RBD). Here, we identified six SARS-CoV RBD-specific neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (nAbs) that cross-reacted with SARS-CoV-2 RBD, two of which, 18F3 and 7B11, neutralized SARS-CoV-2 infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2020.104820DOI Listing

Hepatitis B Virus cccDNA: Formation, Regulation and Therapeutic Potential.

Antiviral Res 2020 May 22:104824. Epub 2020 May 22.

UPMC Hillman Cancer Center, Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. Electronic address:

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains a major public health concern worldwide with about 257 million individuals chronically infected. Current therapies can effectively control HBV replication and slow down disease progress, but cannot cure HBV infection. Upon infection, HBV establishes a pool of covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) in the nucleus of infected hepatocytes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2020.104824DOI Listing

Fragment screening targeting Ebola virus nucleoprotein C-terminal domain identifies lead candidates.

Antiviral Res 2020 May 21:104822. Epub 2020 May 21.

Biochemistry Department and National Magnetic Resonance Facility at Madison, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706, USA. Electronic address:

The Ebola Virus is a causative agent of viral hemorrhagic fever outbreaks and a potential global health risk. The outbreak in West Africa (2013-2016) led to 11,000+ deaths and 30,000+ Ebola infected individuals. The current outbreak in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) with 3,000+ confirmed cases and 2,000+ deaths attributed to Ebola virus infections provides a reminder that innovative countermeasures are still needed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2020.104822DOI Listing

Cetylpyridinium chloride blocks herpes simplex virus replication in gingival fibroblasts.

Antiviral Res 2020 May 11;179:104818. Epub 2020 May 11.

Millennium Institute on Immunology and Immunotherapy, Departamento de Genética Molecular y Microbiología, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile. Electronic address:

Infections with herpes simplex viruses are lifelong and highly prevalent worldwide. Individuals with clinical symptoms elicited by HSVs may suffer from occasional or recurrent herpetic lesions in the orofacial and genital areas. Despite the existence of nucleoside analogues that interfere with HSV replication, such as acyclovir, these drugs are somewhat ineffective in treating skin lesions as topical formulations only reduce in one or few days the duration of the herpetic ulcers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2020.104818DOI Listing

Identification of SARS-CoV RBD-targeting monoclonal antibodies with cross-reactive or neutralizing activity against SARS-CoV-2.

Antiviral Res 2020 May 13;179:104820. Epub 2020 May 13.

Lindsley F. Kimball Research Institute, New York Blood Center, New York, NY, 10065, USA. Electronic address:

SARS-CoV-2-caused COVID-19 cases are growing globally, calling for developing effective therapeutics to control the current pandemic. SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV recognize angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor via the receptor-binding domain (RBD). Here, we identified six SARS-CoV RBD-specific neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (nAbs) that cross-reacted with SARS-CoV-2 RBD, two of which, 18F3 and 7B11, neutralized SARS-CoV-2 infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2020.104820DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7219369PMC

Identification of potassium and calcium channel inhibitors as modulators of polyomavirus endosomal trafficking.

Antiviral Res 2020 May 8;179:104819. Epub 2020 May 8.

School of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, United Kingdom; Astbury Centre for Structural Molecular Biology, University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

During virus entry, members of the Polyomaviridae transit the endolysosomal network en route to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), from which degraded capsids escape into the cytoplasm and enter the nucleus. Emerging evidence suggests that viruses require both endosomal acidification and the correct ionic balance of K and Ca ions in endosomes for correct virus trafficking and genome release. Here, using two polyomaviruses with different capsid architectures, namely Simian virus 40 (SV40) and Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV), we describe methods to rapidly quantify virus infection using IncuCyte ZOOM imaging analysis, and use this system to investigate the role of both K and Ca channels during the early stages of virus entry. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2020.104819DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7205714PMC

Mechanisms of HBV immune evasion.

Antiviral Res 2020 May 6:104816. Epub 2020 May 6.

Department of Virology, Nagoya City University School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya, Japan.

The concept of immune evasion is a longstanding topic of debate during chronic Hepatitis B Virus infection. The 292 million individuals chronically infected by HBV are clear evidence that the virus avoids elimination by the immune system. The exact mechanisms of immune evasion remain undefined and are distinct, but likely interconnected, between innate and adaptive immunity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2020.104816DOI Listing

Imiquimod suppresses respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) replication via PKA pathway and reduces RSV induced-inflammation and viral load in mice lungs.

Antiviral Res 2020 May 6;179:104817. Epub 2020 May 6.

Universidad de Buenos Aires, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Departamento de Química Biológica, Laboratorio de Virología, Buenos Aires, Argentina; CONICET - Universidad de Buenos Aires, Instituto de Química Biológica de la Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales (IQUIBICEN). Buenos Aires, Argentina. Electronic address:

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a leading cause of lower respiratory tract disease and bronchiolitis in children, as well as an important cause of morbidity and mortality in elderly and immunocompromised individuals. However, there is no safe and efficacious RSV vaccine or antiviral treatment. Toll Like Receptors (TLR) are important molecular mediators linking innate and adaptive immunity, and their stimulation by cognate agonists has been explored as antiviral agents. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2020.104817DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7202858PMC

BX795 Demonstrates Potent Antiviral Benefits against Herpes Simplex Virus-1 Infection of Human Cell Lines.

Antiviral Res 2020 May 4:104814. Epub 2020 May 4.

Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Illinois Medical Center, Chicago, IL 60612, USA; Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois, Chicago, IL 60607, USA. Electronic address:

Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) infection is known to cause skin blisters, keratitis as well as deadly cases of encephalitis in some situations. Only a few therapeutic modalities are available for this globally prevalent infection. Very recently, a small molecule BX795 was identified as an inhibitor of HSV-1 protein synthesis in an ocular model of infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2020.104814DOI Listing
May 2020
3.938 Impact Factor

HBV replication inhibitors.

Antiviral Res 2020 May 5;179:104815. Epub 2020 May 5.

Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Saint Louis University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, MO, USA. Electronic address:

Chronic Hepatitis B Virus infections afflict >250 million people and kill nearly 1 million annually. Current non-curative therapies are dominated by nucleos(t)ide analogs (NAs) that profoundly but incompletely suppress DNA synthesis by the viral reverse transcriptase. Residual HBV replication during NA therapy contributes to maintenance of the critical nuclear reservoir of the HBV genome, the covalently-closed circular DNA, and to ongoing infection of naive cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2020.104815DOI Listing

Alphavirus capsid protease inhibitors as potential antiviral agents for Chikungunya infection.

Antiviral Res 2020 May 4;179:104808. Epub 2020 May 4.

Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee, 247667, Uttarakhand, India. Electronic address:

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthritogenic alphavirus and currently, no antiviral drug is available to combat it. Capsid protein (CP) of alphaviruses present at the N-terminus of the structural polyprotein possesses auto-proteolytic activity which is essential for initiating the structural polyprotein processing. We are reporting for the first time antiviral molecules targeting capsid proteolytic activity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2020.104808DOI Listing
May 2020
3.938 Impact Factor

Anti-flavivirus activity of polyoxometalate.

Antiviral Res 2020 May 4;179:104813. Epub 2020 May 4.

CAS Key Laboratory of Molecular Virology and Immunology, Unit of Viral Hepatitis, Institut Pasteur of Shanghai, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 200031, China. Electronic address:

Viruses in the Flaviviridae family such as Zika virus (ZIKV), dengue virus (DENV), and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) are major public health concerns. The development of antiviral agents against these viruses is urgently needed. We have previously discovered that the Keggin structured polyoxometalate POM-12 has potent inhibitory activity against hepatitis C virus, another member of the Flaviviridae family. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2020.104813DOI Listing

Current knowledge on Hepatitis Delta Virus replication.

Antiviral Res 2020 Apr 29;179:104812. Epub 2020 Apr 29.

INSERM, U1052, Cancer Research Center of Lyon (CRCL), Université de Lyon (UCBL1), CNRS UMR_5286, France.

Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) that infects liver parenchymal cells is responsible for severe liver diseases and co-infection with Hepatitis Delta Virus (HDV) leads to the most aggressive form of viral hepatitis. Even tough being different for their viral genome (relaxed circular partially double stranded DNA for HBV and circular RNA for HDV), HBV and HDV are both maintained as episomes in the nucleus of infected cells and use the cellular machinery for the transcription of their viral RNAs. We propose here an update on the current knowledge on HDV replication cycle that may eventually help to identify new antiviral targets. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2020.104812DOI Listing

Artemisinin inhibits the replication of flaviviruses by promoting the type I interferon production.

Antiviral Res 2020 Apr 29;179:104810. Epub 2020 Apr 29.

State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, Hubei, 430070, PR China; Laboratory of Animal Virology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, Hubei, 430070, PR China; The Cooperative Innovation Center for Sustainable Pig Production, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, Hubei, 430070, PR China. Electronic address:

Flaviviruses are considered to be major emerging human pathogens globally. Currently available anti-flavivirus approaches are ineffective, thus there is a desperate need for broad-spectrum drugs that can be active against existing and emerging flaviviruses. Artemisinin has been found to cause an antiviral effect against several viruses; however, its antiviral effect against flaviviruses remains unexplored. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2020.104810DOI Listing
April 2020
3.938 Impact Factor

The involvement of annexin A1 in human placental response to maternal Zika virus infection.

Antiviral Res 2020 Apr 29;179:104809. Epub 2020 Apr 29.

Department of Biology, School of Biosciences, Humanities and Exact Sciences, São Paulo State University (UNESP), São José Do Rio Preto, São Paulo, Brazil; Post-graduation in Structural and Functional Biology, Federal University of São Paulo (UNIFESP), SP, Brazil. Electronic address:

The association of Zika virus infection (ZIKV) with congenital malformation and neurological sequelae brought a significant global concern. Recent studies have shown that maternal viral infection leads to inflammation in the placental tissue. In this context, the antiinflammatory protein annexin 1 (ANXA1) has a major determination of the resolution of inflammation and it has been positively associated with antiparasitic activity in infected placental explants. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2020.104809DOI Listing

Antiviral activities of type I interferons to SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Antiviral Res 2020 Apr 29;179:104811. Epub 2020 Apr 29.

Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, USA; Institute for Human Infections and Immunity, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, USA. Electronic address:

There is an urgent need to identify antivirals to curtail the COVID-19 pandemic. Herein, we report the sensitivity of SARS-CoV-2 to recombinant human interferons α and β (IFNα/β). Treatment with IFN-α or IFN-β at a concentration of 50 international units (IU) per milliliter reduces viral titers by 3. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2020.104811DOI Listing
April 2020
3.938 Impact Factor

LINCS dataset-based repositioning of rosiglitazone as a potential anti-human adenovirus drug.

Antiviral Res 2020 Apr 27;179:104789. Epub 2020 Apr 27.

Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing, 100850, PR China; Experimental Center, Shandong University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Jinan, 250355, PR China. Electronic address:

Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) often cause mild respiratory infections. These infections, however, can potentially become fatal in immunosuppressive patients. Unfortunately, there has been no specific anti-HAdV drug approved for treatment of HAdV infections. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2020.104789DOI Listing
April 2020
3.938 Impact Factor

Characterization of contemporary influenza B recombinant viruses harboring mutations of reduced susceptibility to baloxavir marboxil, in vitro and in mice.

Antiviral Res 2020 Apr 25;179:104807. Epub 2020 Apr 25.

CHUQ-CHUL and Laval University, Québec City, Québec, Canada. Electronic address:

Baloxavir marboxil (BXM) is a potent inhibitor of the polymerase acidic (PA) protein of influenza viruses. However, clinical trials predominantly involving influenza A(H1N1) and A(H3N2) infections showed that BXM exhibited a low barrier of resistance. Contrasting with influenza A viruses, BXM-resistant influenza B variants remain poorly documented. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2020.104807DOI Listing

Antiviral efficacy against influenza virus and pharmacokinetic analysis of a novel MEK-inhibitor, ATR-002, in cell culture and in the mouse model.

Antiviral Res 2020 Apr 15;178:104806. Epub 2020 Apr 15.

Interfaculty Institute for Cell Biology, Department of Immunology, Eberhard Karls University, Tübingen, Germany; Atriva Therapeutics GmbH, Christophstr. 32, 72072, Tübingen, Germany. Electronic address:

Antiviral therapies against influenza are required, especially for high-risk patients, severe influenza and in case of highly pathogenic influenza virus (IV) strains. However, currently, licensed drugs that target the virus directly are not very effective and often lead to the development of resistant IV variants. This may be overcome by targeting host cell factors that are required for IV propagation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2020.104806DOI Listing

In vitro and in vivo growth inhibition of human cervical cancer cells via human papillomavirus E6/E7 mRNAs' cleavage by CRISPR/Cas13a system.

Antiviral Res 2020 Apr 14;178:104794. Epub 2020 Apr 14.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China. Electronic address:

Sustained infection of high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPVs), especially HPV16 and HPV18, is a major cause of cervical cancer. E6 and E7 oncoproteins, encoded by the HPV genome, are critical for transformation and maintenance of malignant phenotypes of cervical cancer. Here, we used an emerging programmable clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/Cas13a system to cleave HPV 16/18 E6/E7 messenger RNAs (mRNAs). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2020.104794DOI Listing
April 2020
3.938 Impact Factor

Remdesivir and SARS-CoV-2: Structural requirements at both nsp12 RdRp and nsp14 Exonuclease active-sites.

Antiviral Res 2020 Apr 10;178:104793. Epub 2020 Apr 10.

Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS UMR 7257, Architecture et Fonction des Macromolécules Biologiques, 163 Avenue de Luminy, 13288, Marseille, France. Electronic address:

The rapid global emergence of SARS-CoV-2 has been the cause of significant health concern, highlighting the immediate need for antivirals. Viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RdRp) play essential roles in viral RNA synthesis, and thus remains the target of choice for the prophylactic or curative treatment of several viral diseases, due to high sequence and structural conservation. To date, the most promising broad-spectrum class of viral RdRp inhibitors are nucleoside analogues (NAs), with over 25 approved for the treatment of several medically important viral diseases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2020.104793DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7151495PMC

Type 1 interferons as a potential treatment against COVID-19.

Antiviral Res 2020 Apr 7;178:104791. Epub 2020 Apr 7.

Université de Paris, IAME, INSERM, F-75018, Paris, France; Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, Assistance Publique - Hôpitaux de Paris, Bichat-Claude Bernard University Hospital, 75018, Paris, France. Electronic address:

Type 1 interferons have a broad antiviral activity in vitro and are currently evaluated in a clinical trial to treat MERS-CoV. In this review, we discuss preliminary data concerning the potential activity of type 1 interferons on SARS-CoV-2, and the relevance of evaluating these molecules in clinical trials for the treatment of COVID-19. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2020.104791DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7138382PMC

Low replicative fitness of neuraminidase inhibitor-resistant H7N9 avian influenza a virus with R292K substitution in neuraminidase in cynomolgus macaques compared with I222T substitution.

Antiviral Res 2020 Apr 6;178:104790. Epub 2020 Apr 6.

Division of Pathogenesis and Disease Regulation, Department of Pathology, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu, Shiga, 520-2192, Japan; Research Center for Animal Life Science, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu, Shiga, 520-2192, Japan.

Human cases of H7N9 influenza A virus infection have been increasing since 2013. The first choice of treatment for influenza is neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors (NAIs), but there is a concern that NAI-resistant viruses are selected in the presence of NAIs. In our previous study, an H7N9 virus carrying AA substitution of threonine (T) for isoleucine (I) at residue 222 in NA (NA222T, N2 numbering) and an H7N9 virus carrying AA substitution of lysine (K) for arginine (R) at residue 292 in NA (NA292K, N2 numbering) were found in different macaques that had been infected with A/Anhui/1/2013 (H7N9) and treated with NAIs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2020.104790DOI Listing

p53 and p53-related mediators PAI-1 and IGFBP-3 are downregulated in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of HIV-patients exposed to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors.

Antiviral Res 2020 Apr 6;178:104784. Epub 2020 Apr 6.

Departamento de Farmacología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Valencia, Valencia, Spain; FISABIO (Fundación para el Fomento de la Investigación Sanitaria y Biomédica de la Comunidad Valenciana), Valencia, Spain; CIBERehd (Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas), Spain. Electronic address:

The improved effectiveness and safety of the combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) has largely diminished mortality and AIDS-defining morbidity of HIV-patients. Nevertheless, chronic age-related diseases in these individuals are more common and their underlying pathogenic mechanisms of these actions seem to involve accelerated aging and enhanced inflammation. The present study explores markers of these processes in a heterogenous Spanish HIV cohort using peripheral blood samples of HIV-patients and matched uninfected controls. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2020.104784DOI Listing

Coronavirus membrane fusion mechanism offers a potential target for antiviral development.

Antiviral Res 2020 Apr 6;178:104792. Epub 2020 Apr 6.

Robert Frederick Smith School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, 14853, USA. Electronic address:

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has focused attention on the need to develop effective therapies against the causative agent, SARS-CoV-2, and also against other pathogenic coronaviruses (CoV) that have emerged in the past or might appear in future. Researchers are therefore focusing on steps in the CoV replication cycle that may be vulnerable to inhibition by broad-spectrum or specific antiviral agents. The conserved nature of the fusion domain and mechanism across the CoV family make it a valuable target to elucidate and develop pan-CoV therapeutics. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2020.104792DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7194977PMC

The trimeric artesunate derivative TF27 exerts strong anti-cytomegaloviral efficacy: Focus on prophylactic efficacy and oral treatment of immunocompetent mice.

Antiviral Res 2020 Apr 3;178:104788. Epub 2020 Apr 3.

Institute for Clinical and Molecular Virology, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Erlangen, Germany. Electronic address:

Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) causes serious and even life-threatening diseases, particularly upon congenital or post-transplant infection. Treatment of HCMV infections with currently available drugs targeting viral enzymes is often limited by severe side effects and the emergence of drug-resistant viruses. To avoid this problem, novel therapeutic options directed to host proteins involved in virus replication are being investigated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2020.104788DOI Listing

The FDA-approved drug ivermectin inhibits the replication of SARS-CoV-2 in vitro.

Antiviral Res 2020 Apr 3;178:104787. Epub 2020 Apr 3.

Biomedicine Discovery Institute, Monash University, Clayton, Vic, 3800, Australia. Electronic address:

Although several clinical trials are now underway to test possible therapies, the worldwide response to the COVID-19 outbreak has been largely limited to monitoring/containment. We report here that Ivermectin, an FDA-approved anti-parasitic previously shown to have broad-spectrum anti-viral activity in vitro, is an inhibitor of the causative virus (SARS-CoV-2), with a single addition to Vero-hSLAM cells 2 h post infection with SARS-CoV-2 able to effect ~5000-fold reduction in viral RNA at 48 h. Ivermectin therefore warrants further investigation for possible benefits in humans. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2020.104787DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7129059PMC

Remdesivir, lopinavir, emetine, and homoharringtonine inhibit SARS-CoV-2 replication in vitro.

Antiviral Res 2020 Apr 3;178:104786. Epub 2020 Apr 3.

School of Public Health, LKS Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China. Electronic address:

An escalating pandemic by the novel SARS-CoV-2 virus is impacting global health and effective therapeutic options are urgently needed. We evaluated the in vitro antiviral effect of compounds that were previously reported to inhibit coronavirus replication and compounds that are currently under evaluation in clinical trials for SARS-CoV-2 patients. We report the antiviral effect of remdesivir, lopinavir, homorringtonine, and emetine against SARS-CoV-2 virus in Vero E6 cells with the estimated 50% effective concentration at 23. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2020.104786DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7127386PMC

An efficient method for simultaneously screening for HIV, syphilis, and HCV based on one dried blood spot sample.

Antiviral Res 2020 Apr 1:104775. Epub 2020 Apr 1.

National HIV/HCV Reference Laboratory, National Center for AIDS/STD Control and Prevention, China CDC, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Objective: The aim of this study was to optimize the parameters of a dried blood spot (DBS)-based ELISA method to simultaneously screen for anti-HIV, anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) and anti-treponema pallidum (TP) antibodies, and investigate the assay performance.

Methods: Experiments were performed to establish optimized parameters for a DBS-based ELISA method to simultaneously screen for anti-HIV, anti-HCV, and anti-TP antibodies. Then, 429 paired plasma and DBS samples were collected to evaluate the performance of the assay with optimized parameters. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2020.104775DOI Listing

Effect of antiviral treatment in older patients hospitalized with confirmed influenza.

Antiviral Res 2020 Mar 29;178:104785. Epub 2020 Mar 29.

Departament de Medicina, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Madrid, Spain.

Seasonal influenza causes significant morbidity and mortality in people aged ≥65 years. Antiviral treatment can reduce complications and disease severity. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of antiviral treatment in patients aged ≥65 years hospitalized with confirmed influenza in preventing intensive care unit (ICU) admission or death. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2020.104785DOI Listing

Synthesis and antiviral effect of novel fluoxetine analogues as enterovirus 2C inhibitors.

Antiviral Res 2020 Mar 29;178:104781. Epub 2020 Mar 29.

School of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences, Cardiff University, King Edward VII Avenue, Cardiff, CF10 3NB, UK. Electronic address:

Enteroviruses (EV) are a group of positive-strand RNA (+RNA) viruses that include many important human pathogens (e.g. poliovirus, coxsackievirus, echovirus, numbered enteroviruses and rhinoviruses). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2020.104781DOI Listing

Put a cork in it: Plugging the M2 viral ion channel to sink influenza.

Antiviral Res 2020 Mar 27;178:104780. Epub 2020 Mar 27.

Faculty of Health Sciences, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, Canada; The Wistar Institute, Philadelphia, PA, USA. Electronic address:

The ongoing threat of seasonal and pandemic influenza to human health requires antivirals that can effectively supplement existing vaccination strategies. The M2 protein of influenza A virus (IAV) is a proton-gated, proton-selective ion channel that is required for virus replication and is an established antiviral target. While licensed adamantane-based M2 antivirals have been historically used, M2 mutations that confer major adamantane resistance are now so prevalent in circulating virus strains that these drugs are no longer recommended. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2020.104780DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7102647PMC

Glibenclamide inhibits BK polyomavirus infection in kidney cells through CFTR blockade.

Antiviral Res 2020 Mar 27;178:104778. Epub 2020 Mar 27.

School of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Faculty of Biological Sciences and Astbury Centre for Structural Molecular Biology, University of Leeds, Leeds, West Yorkshire, LS2 9JT, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

BK polyomavirus (BKPyV) is a ubiquitous pathogen in the human population that is asymptomatic in healthy individuals, but can be life-threatening in those undergoing kidney transplant. To-date, no vaccines or anti-viral therapies are available to treat human BKPyV infections. New therapeutic strategies are urgently required. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2020.104778DOI Listing

Identification of entry inhibitors with 4-aminopiperidine scaffold targeting group 1 influenza A virus.

Antiviral Res 2020 May 25;177:104782. Epub 2020 Mar 25.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612, USA. Electronic address:

Influenza A viruses (IAVs) cause seasonal flu and occasionally pandemics. The current therapeutics against IAVs target two viral proteins - neuraminidase (NA) and M2 ion-channel protein. However, M2 ion channel inhibitors (amantadine and rimantadine) are no longer recommended by CDC for use due to the emergence of high level of antiviral resistance among the circulating influenza viruses, and resistant strains to NA inhibitors (oseltamivir and zanamivir) have also been reported. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2020.104782DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7243365PMC

Amide-containing α-hydroxytropolones as inhibitors of hepatitis B virus replication.

Antiviral Res 2020 May 23;177:104777. Epub 2020 Mar 23.

Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Saint Louis University School of Medicine, 1100 S. Grand Blvd, Saint Louis, MO, 63104, USA. Electronic address:

The Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) ribonuclease H (RNaseH) is a promising but unexploited drug target. Here, we synthesized and analyzed a library of 57 amide-containing α-hydroxytropolones (αHTs) as potential leads for HBV drug development. Fifty percent effective concentrations ranged from 0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2020.104777DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7199283PMC

Reasons to consider early treatment in chronic hepatitis B patients.

Antiviral Res 2020 May 23;177:104783. Epub 2020 Mar 23.

Barts Liver Centre, Blizard Institute, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, London, UK. Electronic address:

In spite of a decrease in the prevalence and incidence seen in recent years, chronic hepatitis B (CHB) still remains a major healthcare challenge, prevalent mostly in developing but also in developed regions. CHB is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, secondary to the complications of disease progression; cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Historically, antiviral treatment has been restricted to patients with active hepatitis, established liver disease, fibrosis or cirrhosis and/or the risk of HCC development. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2020.104783DOI Listing

The human α-defensin-derived peptide HD5(1-9) inhibits cellular attachment and entry of human cytomegalovirus.

Antiviral Res 2020 May 21;177:104779. Epub 2020 Mar 21.

Institute for Medical Virology and Epidemiology of Viral Diseases, University Hospital Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany. Electronic address:

Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection causes severe illness in newborns and immunocompromised patients. Since treatment options are limited there is an unmet need for new therapeutic approaches. Defensins are cationic peptides, produced by various human tissues, which serve as antimicrobial effectors of the immune system. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2020.104779DOI Listing

TEMPORARY REMOVAL: DDX3 inhibitors show antiviral activity against positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses but not against negative-sense single-stranded RNA viruses: The coxsackie B model.

Antiviral Res 2020 Mar 20;178:104750. Epub 2020 Mar 20.

Retrovirus Centre, Department of Translational Medicine and New Technologies in Medicine and Surgery, University of Pisa, Italy; Clinical Virology Service Pisa University Hospital Pisa, Italy.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2020.104750DOI Listing
March 2020
3.938 Impact Factor

Evaluation of the immune response of a H7N9 candidate vaccine virus derived from the fifth wave A/Guangdong/17SF003/2016.

Antiviral Res 2020 May 19;177:104776. Epub 2020 Mar 19.

State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Highly pathogenic influenza H7N9 viruses that emerged in the fifth wave of H7N9 outbreak pose a risk to human health. The World Health Organization has updated the candidate vaccine viruses for H7N9 viruses recently. In this study, we evaluated the immune response to an updated H7N9 candidate vaccine virus, which derived from the highly pathogenic A/Guangdong/17SF003/2016 (GD/16) in mice and rhesus macaques. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2020.104776DOI Listing

Labyrinthopeptins as virolytic inhibitors of respiratory syncytial virus cell entry.

Antiviral Res 2020 May 18;177:104774. Epub 2020 Mar 18.

Institute for Experimental Virology, TWINCORE, Centre for Experimental and Clinical Infection Research, Hannover, Germany; German Centre of Infection Research (DZIF), Partner Site Hannover-Braunschweig, Germany; Cluster of Excellence RESIST (EXC 2155), Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany. Electronic address:

Acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRI) caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) are associated with a severe disease burden among infants and elderly patients. Treatment options are limited. While numerous drug candidates with different viral targets are under development, the utility of RSV entry inhibitors is challenged by a low resistance barrier and by single mutations causing cross-resistance against a wide spectrum of fusion inhibitor chemotypes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2020.104774DOI Listing

Structure guided maturation of a novel humanized anti-HBV antibody and its preclinical development.

Antiviral Res 2020 Mar 11:104757. Epub 2020 Mar 11.

State Key Laboratory of Molecular Vaccinology and Molecular Diagnostics, National Institute of Diagnostics and Vaccine Development in Infectious Diseases, School of Public Health, School of Life Science, Xiamen University; Xiamen, 361105, China.

We have reported that E6F6, a mouse monoclonal antibody, is a promising treatment option for patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). A humanized E6F6 antibody B11 with affinity loss was obtained by CDR-grafting approach. To address this issue, in silico affinity maturation through scanning mutagenesis using CHARMM force field methods was performed on an predicted immune complex model of the B11:HBsAg. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2020.104757DOI Listing

Role of hepatitis B antibody in predicting reactivation of resolved hepatitis B virus infection in leukemia patients.

Antiviral Res 2020 May 27;177:104765. Epub 2020 Mar 27.

Peking University People's Hospital, Peking University Hepatology Institute, Beijing Key Laboratory of Hepatitis C and Immunotherapy for Liver Diseases, Beijing, China; Hangzhou Normal University, School of Medicine, Department of Basic Medical Science, Key Laboratory of Aging and Cancer Biology of Zhejiang Province, Key Laboratory of Inflammation and Immunoregulation of Hangzhou, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: Quantification of anti-HBs and anti-HBc predicts the risk of HBV reactivation (HBVr) in lymphoma patients receiving rituximab treatment. However, it remains unclear whether the quantification is predictive of HBVr in leukemia patients undergoing immunosuppression.

Methods: and patients: Clinical and laboratory data of the leukemia patients with resolved HBV infection diagnosed between January 2013 and March 2018 were retrospectively collected. Read More

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May 2020
3.938 Impact Factor

Inhibition of herpes simplex virus by myricetin through targeting viral gD protein and cellular EGFR/PI3K/Akt pathway.

Antiviral Res 2020 May 9;177:104714. Epub 2020 Mar 9.

Key Laboratory of Marine Drugs, Chinese Ministry of Education; School of Medicine and Pharmacy, Ocean University of China, Qingdao, 266003, PR China; Laboratory for Marine Drugs and Bioproducts of Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao, 266237, PR China. Electronic address:

Myricetin, a common dietary flavonoid, was reported to possess many different biological activities such as anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiviral effects. In this study, we explored the anti-HSV effects and mechanisms of myricetin both in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that myricetin possessed anti-HSV-1 and HSV-2 activities with very low toxicity, superior to the effects of acyclovir. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2020.104714DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7111628PMC

Clinical and virological responses to a broad-spectrum human monoclonal antibody in an influenza virus challenge study.

Antiviral Res 2020 Mar 6:104763. Epub 2020 Mar 6.

Visterra, Inc., Waltham, MA, 02451, USA. Electronic address:

Influenza A infections cause significant seasonal morbidity and mortality as well as periodic pandemic infections. Currently, no approved therapies exist for patients hospitalized with influenza. The efficacy of VIS410, a broadly neutralizing human immunoglobulin IgG1 monoclonal antibody engineered to bind to the stem region of group 1 and 2 influenza A hemagglutinins, was explored in experimental human influenza infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2020.104763DOI Listing

Of chloroquine and COVID-19.

Antiviral Res 2020 05 5;177:104762. Epub 2020 Mar 5.

Unité des Virus Emergents, UVE: Aix Marseille Univ, IRD 190, INSERM 1207, IHU Méditerranée Infection, 13005, Marseille, France. Electronic address:

Recent publications have brought attention to the possible benefit of chloroquine, a broadly used antimalarial drug, in the treatment of patients infected by the novel emerged coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). The scientific community should consider this information in light of previous experiments with chloroquine in the field of antiviral research. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2020.104762DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7132364PMC

SOX9 represses hepatitis B virus replication through binding to HBV EnhII/Cp and inhibiting the promoter activity.

Antiviral Res 2020 May 5;177:104761. Epub 2020 Mar 5.

State Key Laboratory of Virology, College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430072, China; Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Virology, Institute of Medical Microbiology, Jinan University, Guangzhou, 510632, China. Electronic address:

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection affects 364 million people worldwide and causes a serious global public health problem. The SRY-related high mobility group-box 9 (SOX9) is a risk of developing cirrhosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B and a cancer stem cell marker. However, the role of SOX9 in HBV replication has not been reported. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2020.104761DOI Listing

The broad spectrum antiviral ivermectin targets the host nuclear transport importin α/β1 heterodimer.

Antiviral Res 2020 May 3;177:104760. Epub 2020 Mar 3.

Nuclear Signalling Laboratory, Monash Biomedicine Discovery Institute and Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Monash University, Clayton, Vic, 3800, Australia. Electronic address:

Infection by RNA viruses such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1, influenza, and dengue virus (DENV) represent a major burden for human health worldwide. Although RNA viruses replicate in the infected host cell cytoplasm, the nucleus is central to key stages of the infectious cycle of HIV-1 and influenza, and an important target of DENV nonstructural protein 5 (NS5) in limiting the host antiviral response. We previously identified the small molecule ivermectin as an inhibitor of HIV-1 integrase nuclear entry, subsequently showing ivermectin could inhibit DENV NS5 nuclear import, as well as limit infection by viruses such as HIV-1 and DENV. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2020.104760DOI Listing

Ribavirin does not potentiate favipiravir antiviral activity against Ebola virus in non-human primates.

Antiviral Res 2020 May 2;177:104758. Epub 2020 Mar 2.

Université de Paris, IAME, INSERM, F-75018, Paris, France. Electronic address:

Background: In spite of recurrent and dramatic outbreaks, there are no therapeutics approved against Ebola virus disease. Favipiravir, a RNA polymerase inhibitor active against several RNA viruses, recently demonstrated significant but not complete protection in a non-human primate model of Ebola virus disease. In this study, we assessed the benefit of the combination of favipiravir and ribavirin, another broad spectrum antiviral agent, in the same model. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2020.104758DOI Listing