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    3736 results match your criteria Antiviral Research[Journal]

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    HBsAg mRNA degradation induced by dihydroquinolizinone molecule depends on HBV posttranscriptional regulatory element.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Nov 10. Epub 2017 Nov 10.
    Arbutus BioPharma, 701 Veterans Circle, Warminster, PA 18974, United States. Electronic address:
    In pursuit of novel therapeutics targeting the hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, we evaluated a dihydroquinolizinone compound (DHQ-1) that possessed nanomolar activities against the production of virion and surface protein (HBsAg) in tissue culture. This compound also showed broad HBV genotype coverage and was inactive against a panel of DNA and RNA viruses of other species. Oral administration of DHQ-1 in the AAV-HBV mouse model resulted in a strong reduction of serum HBsAg as soon as 4 days following the commencement of treatment. Read More

    Efficacy of hepatitis B virus ribonuclease H inhibitors, a new class of replication antagonists, in FRG human liver chimeric mice.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Nov 9. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology & the Saint Louis University Liver Center, Saint Louis University School of Medicine, 1100 S. Grand Blvd., St. Louis, MO 63104, USA. Electronic address:
    Chronic hepatitis B virus infection cannot be cured by current therapies, so new treatments are urgently needed. We recently identified novel inhibitors of the hepatitis B virus ribonuclease H that suppress viral replication in cell culture. Here, we employed immunodeficient FRG KO mice whose livers had been engrafted with primary human hepatocytes to ask whether ribonuclease H inhibitors can suppress hepatitis B virus replication in vivo. Read More

    APOBEC3B edits HBV DNA and inhibits HBV replication during reverse transcription.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Nov 10;149:16-25. Epub 2017 Nov 10.
    Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology on Infectious Diseases (Ministry of Education), Institute for Viral Hepatitis, Department of Infectious Diseases, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Chongqing Medical University, 1 Yi Xue Yuan Road, Yuzhong District, Chongqing 400016, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:
    Hepatitis B virus is a partially double-stranded DNA virus that replicates by reverse transcription, which occurs within viral core particles in the cytoplasm. The cytidine deaminase APOBEC3B is a cellular restriction factor for HBV. Recently, it was reported that APOBEC3B can edit HBV cccDNA in the nucleus, causing its degradation. Read More

    Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of novel 7-deazapurine nucleoside derivatives as potential anti-dengue virus agents.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Nov 9. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    Guangzhou Institutes of Biomedicine and Heath, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 190 Kaiyuan Road, Guangzhou, 510530, PR China; State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease, Guangzhou Institute of Respiratory Disease, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, PR China. Electronic address:
    Dengue fever, caused by four distinct serotypes of dengue virus (DENV-1 to -4), has become the fastest spreading human infectious disease in recent years. Despite extensive efforts, there is no specific antiviral treatment approved for dengue until now. Nucleoside inhibitors represent an actively pursued area to develop small-molecule anti-dengue virus agents. Read More

    A virus-like particle of the hepatitis B virus preS antigen elicits robust neutralizing antibody and T cell responses in mice.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Nov 9. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    Department of Chemistry, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30302, USA; Center for Diagnostics and Therapeutics, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30302, USA. Electronic address:
    The preS antigen of hepatitis B virus (HBV) corresponds to the N-terminal polypeptide in the large (L) antigen in addition to the small (S) antigen. The virus-like particle (VLP) of the S antigen is widely used as a vaccine to protect the population from HBV infection. The presence of the S antigen and its antibodies in patient blood has been used as markers to monitor hepatitis B. Read More

    Nsp3 of coronaviruses: Structures and functions of a large multi-domain protein.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Nov 8. Epub 2017 Nov 8.
    Institute of Biochemistry, Center for Structural and Cell Biology in Medicine, University of Lübeck, Ratzeburger Allee 160, 23562, Lübeck, Germany; German Center for Infection Research (DZIF), Hamburg - Lübeck - Borstel - Riems Site, University of Lübeck, Germany. Electronic address:
    The multi-domain non-structural protein 3 (Nsp3) is the largest protein encoded by the coronavirus (CoV) genome, with an average molecular mass of about 200 kD. Nsp3 is an essential component of the replication/transcription complex. It comprises various domains, the organization of which differs between CoV genera, due to duplication or absence of some domains. Read More

    Activity of nucleic acid polymers in rodent models of HBV infection.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Nov 8;149:26-33. Epub 2017 Nov 8.
    Replicor Inc. Montréal, Québec, Canada. Electronic address:
    Nucleic acid polymers (NAPs) block the release of HBsAg from infected hepatocytes. These compounds have been previously shown to have the unique ability to eliminate serum surface antigen in DHBV-infected Pekin ducks and achieve multilog reduction of HBsAg or HBsAg loss in patients with chronic HBV infection and HBV/HDV coinfection. In ducks and humans, the blockage of HBsAg release by NAPs occurs by the selective targeting of the assembly and/or secretion of subviral particles (SVPs). Read More

    Merimepodib, an IMPDH inhibitor, suppresses replication of Zika virus and other emerging viral pathogens.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Nov 8;149:34-40. Epub 2017 Nov 8.
    Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, 301 University Blvd, Galveston, TX 77555, USA. Electronic address:
    Zika virus (ZIKV), a member of the Flaviviridae family, has recently been linked to abnormal pregnancies, fetal death, microcephaly, and Guillain-Barré syndrome in humans. Merimepodib (MMPD, VX-497), a potent inhibitor of inosine-5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH), has shown antiviral activity against HCV and a variety of DNA and RNA viruses in vitro. In this report, we expand the antiviral spectrum of MMPD, and demonstrate that MMPD inhibits ZIKV RNA replication with an EC50 of 0. Read More

    Infection of neuroblastoma cells by rabies virus is modulated by the virus titer.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Nov 6. Epub 2017 Nov 6.
    Laboratory of Diagnostic, Pasteur Institute, São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:
    Rabies is a lethal viral infection that can affect almost all mammals, including humans. To better understand the replication of Rabies lyssavirus, we investigated if the viral load in brains naturally infected with rabies influences viral internalization and viral growth kinetics in neuroblastoma cells, and if the viral load affects mortality in mice after intradermal infection. We noted that high initial viral loads in brains (group II) were unfavourable for increasing viral titers during serial passages in neuroblastoma cells when compared to low initial viral loads in brains (group I). Read More

    Efficacy of pritelivir and acyclovir in the treatment of herpes simplex virus infections in a mouse model of herpes simplex encephalitis.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Nov 4;149:1-6. Epub 2017 Nov 4.
    The University of Alabama at Birmingham, School of Medicine, Birmingham, AL, USA.
    Pritelivir, a helicase-primase inhibitor, has excellent in vitro and in vivo activity against human herpes simplex virus (HSV). Mice lethally infected with HSV type 1 or 2, including acyclovir-resistant strains, were treated 72 h after infection for 7 days with pritelivir or acyclovir. Both drugs were administered orally twice daily either alone or in combination. Read More

    A third component of the human cytomegalovirus terminase complex is involved in letermovir resistance.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Dec 28;148:1-4. Epub 2017 Oct 28.
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Oregon Health and Science University, Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Portland, OR, USA. Electronic address:
    Letermovir is a human cytomegalovirus (CMV) terminase inhibitor that was clinically effective in a Phase III prevention trial. In vitro studies have shown that viral mutations conferring letermovir resistance map primarily to the UL56 component of the terminase complex and uncommonly to UL89. After serial culture of a baseline CMV laboratory strain under letermovir, mutation was observed in a third terminase component in 2 experiments, both resulting in amino acid substitution P91S in gene UL51 and adding to a pre-existing UL56 mutation. Read More

    Immunogenicity and efficacy of replication-competent recombinant influenza virus carrying multimeric M2 extracellular domains in a chimeric hemagglutinin conjugate.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Dec 26;148:43-52. Epub 2017 Oct 26.
    Center for Inflammation, Immunity & Infection, Institute for Biomedical Sciences, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA, 30303, USA. Electronic address:
    Current influenza vaccines provide hemagglutinin (HA) strain-specific protection. To improve cross protection, we engineered replication-competent influenza A virus to express tandem repeats of heterologous M2 extracellular (M2e) domains in a chimeric HA. M2e epitopes conjugated to HA glycoproteins (M2e4x-HA) were found to be expressed on the surfaces of a replicable influenza virus as examined by electron microscopy. Read More

    A pharmacologically immunosuppressed mouse model for assessing influenza B virus pathogenicity and oseltamivir treatment.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Dec 31;148:20-31. Epub 2017 Oct 31.
    Department of Infectious Diseases, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN 38105, USA. Electronic address:
    Immunocompromised patients are highly susceptible to influenza virus infections. Although neuraminidase inhibitor (NAI) therapy has proved effective in these patients, the treatment regimens require optimization, which can be partly addressed via animal models. Here, we describe a pharmacologically immunosuppressed mouse model for studying the pathogenesis of influenza B viruses and evaluating the efficacy of antiviral treatment. Read More

    The role of the NLRP3 inflammasome in regulation of antiviral responses to influenza A virus infection.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Dec 31;148:32-42. Epub 2017 Oct 31.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Melbourne at the Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity, Melbourne, Victoria, 3000, Australia. Electronic address:
    The innate immune system provides the host with both a dynamic barrier to prevent infection and a means to which rapid anti-microbial responses can be mounted. The inflammasome pathway is a critical host early response mechanism that enables detection of pathogens and initiates production of inflammatory cytokines, inducing recruitment of effector cells to the site of infection. The complete mechanism of inflammasome activation requires two signals: an initial priming step upon detection of pathogen, followed by activation of intracellular pattern recognition receptors critical to the formation of the inflammasome complex. Read More

    Interferon lambda (IFN-λ) efficiently blocks norovirus transmission in a mouse model.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Nov 10;149:7-15. Epub 2017 Nov 10.
    KU Leuven - University of Leuven, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Rega Institute for Medical Research, Laboratory of Virology and Chemotherapy, Leuven, Belgium. Electronic address:
    Human noroviruses are highly efficient in person to person transmission thus associated with explosive outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis. Outbreak control is limited to disinfection and isolation measures. Strategies to control the spread of noroviruses should be developed and models to study norovirus transmission will greatly facilitate this. Read More

    A novel neutralizing human monoclonal antibody broadly abrogates hepatitis C virus infection in vitro and in vivo.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Dec 23;148:53-64. Epub 2017 Oct 23.
    Department of Clinical Chemistry, Microbiology and Immunology, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium. Electronic address:
    Infections with hepatitis C virus (HCV) represent a worldwide health burden and a prophylactic vaccine is still not available. Liver transplantation (LT) is often the only option for patients with HCV-induced end-stage liver disease. However, immediately after transplantation, the liver graft becomes infected by circulating virus, resulting in accelerated progression of liver disease. Read More

    Avasimibe: A novel hepatitis C virus inhibitor that targets the assembly of infectious viral particles.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Dec 23;148:5-14. Epub 2017 Oct 23.
    State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease, Sino-French Hoffmann Institute, School of Basic Medical Science, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, 511436, China. Electronic address:
    Direct-acting antivirals (DAAs), which target hepatitis C virus (HCV) proteins, have exhibited impressive efficacy in the management of chronic hepatitis C. However, the concerns regarding high costs, drug resistance mutations and subsequent unexpected side effects still call for the development of host-targeting agents (HTAs) that target host factors involved in the viral life cycle and exhibit pan-genotypic antiviral activity. Given the close relationship between lipid metabolism and the HCV life cycle, we investigated the anti-HCV activity of a series of lipid-lowering drugs that have been approved by government administrations or proven safety in clinical trials. Read More

    A novel glycoprotein D-specific monoclonal antibody neutralizes herpes simplex virus.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Nov 20;147:131-141. Epub 2017 Oct 20.
    State Key Laboratory of Virology, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, 430071, PR China. Electronic address:
    The worldwide prevalence of herpes simplex virus (HSV) and the shortage of efficient vaccines and novel therapeutic strategies against HSV are widely global concerns. The abundance on the virion and the major stimulus for the virus-neutralizing antibodies makes gD a predominant candidate for cure of HSV infection. In this study, we generated a monoclonal antibody (mAb), termed m27f, targeting to glycoprotein D (gD) of HSV-2, which also has cross-reactivity against HSV-1 gD. Read More

    Antiviral activity of N-(4-hydroxyphenyl) retinamide (4-HPR) against Zika virus.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Nov 16;147:124-130. Epub 2017 Oct 16.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunobiology, Harvard Medical School, 77 Avenue Louis Pasteur, Boston, MA 02115, USA. Electronic address:
    The rapid spread of Zika virus (ZIKV) in recent years has highlighted the severe diseases associated with ZIKV infection, such as Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults and microcephaly in newborns; yet no vaccines or antivirals currently exist to prevent or treat ZIKV infection. We and others have previously identified N-(4-hydroxyphenyl) retinamide (fenretinide or 4-HPR) as an antiviral compound that inhibits dengue virus 2 (DV2) and other flaviviruses by limiting the steady-state accumulation of viral RNA. Here we show that 4-HPR potently inhibits ZIKV in mammalian cell culture and significantly reduces both serum viremia and brain viral burden in a murine model of ZIKV infection. Read More

    Characterization of a dengue NS4B inhibitor originating from an HCV small molecule library.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Nov 14;147:149-158. Epub 2017 Oct 14.
    Janssen Pharmaceutica NV, Janssen Pharmaceutical Companies of Johnson & Johnson, Turnhoutseweg 30, 2340, Beerse, Belgium. Electronic address:
    Dengue is the most important mosquito-transmitted viral disease and a major global health concern. Over the last decade, dengue virus (DENV) drug discovery and development has intensified, however, this has not resulted in approved DENV-specific antiviral treatments yet. DENV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) belong to the same Flaviviridae family and, in contrast to DENV, antiviral treatments for HCV have been licensed. Read More

    Modular cell-based platform for high throughput identification of compounds that inhibit a viral interferon antagonist of choice.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Oct 13. Epub 2017 Oct 13.
    School of Biology, Biomedical Sciences Research Complex, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, KY16 9ST, United Kingdom. Electronic address:
    Viral interferon (IFN) antagonists are a diverse class of viral proteins that counteract the host IFN response, which is important for controlling viral infections. Viral IFN antagonists are often multifunctional proteins that perform vital roles in virus replication beyond IFN antagonism. The critical importance of viral IFN antagonists is highlighted by the fact that almost all viruses encode one of these proteins. Read More

    Divalent copper complexes as influenza A M2 inhibitors.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Nov 12;147:100-106. Epub 2017 Oct 12.
    Dept. of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602, USA. Electronic address:
    New M2 blockers effective against the ubiquitous amantadine-resistant S31N M2 mutation in influenza A are needed. Six copper complexes, 2, 4, 6, 8, 9, and 10, were synthesized and found to block both wild type and S31N M2. Free Cu(2+) also blocks M2 S31N but not S31N/H37A. Read More

    Structure-based drug design for envelope protein E2 uncovers a new class of bovine viral diarrhea inhibitors that block virus entry.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Oct 12. Epub 2017 Oct 12.
    Instituto de Investigaciones Biotecnológicas, CONICET, Universidad Nacional de San Martín, Argentina. Electronic address:
    Antiviral targeting of virus envelope proteins is an effective strategy for therapeutic intervention of viral infections. Here, we took a computer-guided approach with the aim of identifying new antivirals against the envelope protein E2 of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). BVDV is an enveloped virus with an RNA genome responsible for major economic losses of the cattle industry worldwide. Read More

    Modulation of proteolytic polyprotein processing by coxsackievirus mutants resistant to inhibitors targeting phosphatidylinositol-4-kinase IIIβ or oxysterol binding protein.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Nov 9;147:86-90. Epub 2017 Oct 9.
    Department of Infectious Diseases & Immunology, Virology Division, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands. Electronic address:
    Enteroviruses (e.g. poliovirus, coxsackievirus, and rhinovirus) require several host factors for genome replication. Read More

    Protective effect of an alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist against enterovirus 71 infection in neuronal cells.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Oct 9. Epub 2017 Oct 9.
    Laboratory of Virology, Beijing Municipal Laboratory of Infection and Immunity, Capital Institute of Pediatrics, Beijing 100020, China. Electronic address:
    Enterovirus 71, as one of the dominant pathogens associated with severe hand, foot, and mouth disease, has been well reported to trigger severe neurological symptoms among young children over the last decade, particularly among children in the Asia-Pacific region. To date, no effective antiviral agent has been developed for the treatment of severe enterovirus 71 infection. PNU-282987, a selective alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) agonist, has been reported to have a neuroprotective effect by participating in inflammatory regulation in previous studies. Read More

    Identification of 2'-deoxy-2'-fluorocytidine as a potent inhibitor of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus replication using a recombinant fluorescent reporter virus.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Nov 9;147:91-99. Epub 2017 Oct 9.
    Viral Special Pathogens Branch, Division of High-Consequence Pathogens and Pathology, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road, MS G-14, Atlanta, GA, 30329, USA. Electronic address:
    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), a tick-borne orthonairovirus, causes a severe hemorrhagic disease in humans (Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, CCHF). Currently, no vaccines are approved to prevent CCHF; treatment is limited to supportive care and the use of ribavirin, the therapeutic benefits of which remain unclear. CCHF is part of WHO's priority list of infectious diseases warranting further research and development. Read More

    Targeted inhibition of hantavirus replication and intracranial pathogenesis by a chimeric protein-delivered siRNA.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Nov 7;147:107-115. Epub 2017 Oct 7.
    Department of Immunology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, 710032, China. Electronic address:
    Hantavirus (HV) infection, which underlies hantavirus hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, remains to be a severe clinical challenge. Here, we synthesized small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) that target the encoding sequences of HV strain 76-118, and validated their inhibitory role in virus replication in HV-infected monkey kidney Vero E6 cells. A chimeric protein, 3G1-Cκ-tP, consisting of a single-chain antibody fragment (3G1) against the HV surface envelop glycoprotein, the constant region of human immunoglobulin κ chain (Cκ), and truncated protamine (amino acids 8-29, tP), was further generated. Read More

    New class of early-stage enterovirus inhibitors with a novel mechanism of action.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Nov 7;147:67-74. Epub 2017 Oct 7.
    Laboratory of Virology and Chemotherapy, Rega Institute for Medical Research, KU Leuven, Belgium.
    4-dimethylamino benzoic acid (compound 12, synonym: 4EDMAB) was identified as an in vitro inhibitor of Coxsackie virus B3 (CVB3) replication in CPE-based assays (EC50 of 9.1 ± 1.5 μM). Read More

    Altered expression of interferon-stimulated genes is strongly associated with therapeutic outcomes in hepatitis B virus infection.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Nov 6;147:75-85. Epub 2017 Oct 6.
    Department and Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China. Electronic address:
    Our previous OSST study shows that switching to pegylated interferon (Peg-IFN)-α2a results in higher rates of response hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) seroconversion and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) loss at the end of treatment, compared with nucleot(s)ide analogues (NAs) monotherapy in long term NA-treated chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients. In order to characterize the correlation between Peg-IFN-α antiviral effect and IFN-inducing signaling in CHB patients who switched to Peg-IFN from long time entecavir (ETV) treatment, we investigated the dynamic expression of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs), including STAT1, MX, and a negative regulatory factor, suppressor of cytokine signaling 3(SOCS3), which negatively regulate IFN JAK-STAT signaling pathway by interacting with STAT1 and STAT2, in peripheral blood and paired liver samples, obtained from 54 CHB patients enrolled in a clinical trial, OSST study. In Peg-IFN group, responders showed a more significant decline in HBsAg, compared with non-responders. Read More

    The susceptibility of circulating human influenza viruses to tizoxanide, the active metabolite of nitazoxanide.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Nov 3;147:142-148. Epub 2017 Oct 3.
    WHO Collaborating Centre for Reference and Research on Influenza, VIDRL, Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity, Melbourne, VIC 3000, Australia; University of Melbourne, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Parkville, VIC 3010, Australia. Electronic address:
    Nitazoxanide is a thiazolide compound that was originally developed as an anti-parasitic agent, but has recently been repurposed for the treatment of influenza virus infections. Thought to exert its anti-influenza activity via the inhibition of hemagglutinin maturation and intracellular trafficking in infected cells, the effectiveness of nitazoxanide in treating patients with non-complicated influenza is currently being assessed in phase III clinical trials. Here, we describe the susceptibility of 210 seasonal influenza viruses to tizoxanide, the active circulating metabolite of nitazoxanide. Read More

    A cell-based high throughput screening assay for the discovery of cGAS-STING pathway agonists.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Nov 2;147:37-46. Epub 2017 Oct 2.
    Baruch S. Blumberg Institute, Hepatitis B Foundation, Doylestown, PA, USA. Electronic address:
    Stimulator of interferon genes (STING) is an endoplasmic reticulum transmembrane protein that serves as a molecular hub for activation of interferon and inflammatory cytokine response by multiple cellular DNA sensors. Not surprisingly, STING has been demonstrated to play an important role in host defense against microorganisms and pharmacologic activation of STING is considered as an attractive strategy to treat viral diseases and boost antitumor immunity. In light of this we established a HepAD38-derived reporter cell line that expresses firefly luciferase in response to the activation of cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS)-STING pathway for high throughput screening (HTS) of small molecular human STING agonists. Read More

    Inhibition of rubella virus replication by the broad-spectrum drug nitazoxanide in cell culture and in a patient with a primary immune deficiency.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Nov 30;147:58-66. Epub 2017 Sep 30.
    Division of Viral Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Rd NE, MS C22, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA. Electronic address:
    Persistent rubella virus (RV) infection has been associated with various pathologies such as congenital rubella syndrome, Fuchs's uveitis, and cutaneous granulomas in patients with primary immune deficiencies (PID). Currently there are no drugs to treat RV infections. Nitazoxanide (NTZ) is an FDA-approved drug for parasitic infections, and has been recently shown to have broad-spectrum antiviral activities. Read More

    Inhibition of human cytomegalovirus replication by tricin is associated with depressed CCL2 expression.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Dec 28;148:15-19. Epub 2017 Sep 28.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hokuriku University, Ho-3 Kanagawa-machi, Kanazawa 920-1181, Japan. Electronic address:
    We previously reported that treatment with tricin (4',5,7-trihydroxy-3',5'-dimethoxyflavone) after human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection significantly suppressed both infectious virion production and HCMV replication in human embryonic lung fibroblast (HEL) cells. Moreover, we recently demonstrated that HCMV infection can increase the expression of CC-motif ligand 2 (CCL2/MCP-1) and of CCR2, a CCL2-specific receptor, effects that can in turn enhance HCMV infection and replication. Hence, we here examined whether the CCL2-CCR2 axis is involved in the anti-HCMV effects of tricin in HEL cells. Read More

    Interplay between dengue virus and Toll-like receptors, RIG-I/MDA5 and microRNAs: Implications for pathogenesis.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Nov 28;147:47-57. Epub 2017 Sep 28.
    Institut Jacques Monod, CNRS - Université Paris-Diderot, 15 Rue Hélène Brion, 75205, Paris Cedex 13, France. Electronic address:
    A growing body of evidence has demonstrated the role of components of innate immunity, including Toll-like receptors (TLRs), the retinoic acid-inducible gene I/melanoma-differentiation factor 5 (RIG-I/MDA5) and microRNAs (miRNAs) in the recognition of dengue virus (DENV) or its components by infected cells. TLR3, TLR7/8 and RIG-I/MDA5 sense genomic RNA or dsRNA, the product of an intermediate step of DENV replication, activating intracellular pathways leading to the production of antiviral effectors, including interferon and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Recognition by TLR2 and TLR4 also promotes the activation of other intracellular pathways and alters viral replication in an interferon-independent manner. Read More

    IFNA2 p.Ala120Thr impairs the inhibitory activity of Interferon-α2 against the hepatitis B virus through altering its binding to the receptor.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Nov 25;147:11-18. Epub 2017 Sep 25.
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Third Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China. Electronic address:
    Background: Our previous study found that a rare genetic mutation IFNA2p.Ala120Thr affects the structure of IFN-α2 and contributes to increased host susceptibility to CHB. However, the way in which the single amino acid residue mutation affects IFN-α2 activity is unclear. Read More

    Antiviral treatment efficiently inhibits chikungunya virus infection in the joints of mice during the acute but not during the chronic phase of the infection.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Sep 25. Epub 2017 Sep 25.
    University of Leuven, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Rega Institute for Medical Research, Laboratory of Virology and Chemotherapy, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium.
    Favipiravir (T-705) is a broad spectrum antiviral which has been approved in Japan for the treatment of severe influenza virus infections. We reported earlier that favipiravir inhibits the in vitro replication of CHIKV and protects against disease progression in CHIKV-infected immunodeficient mice. We here explored whether favipiravir is also able to inhibit CHIKV replication in the joints of mice either when treatment is initiated during the acute or during the chronic phase of the infection. Read More

    Recombinant hemagglutinin proteins formulated in a novel PELC/CpG adjuvant for H7N9 subunit vaccine development.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Oct 22;146:213-220. Epub 2017 Sep 22.
    Institute of Biotechnology, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, 30013, Taiwan; Department of Medical Science, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, 30013, Taiwan. Electronic address:
    Humans infected with H7N9 avian influenza viruses can result in severe pneumonia and acute respiratory syndrome with an approximately 40% mortality rate, and there is an urgent need to develop an effective vaccine to reduce its pandemic potential. In this study, we used a novel PELC/CpG adjuvant for recombinant H7HA (rH7HA) subunit vaccine development. After immunizing BALB/c mice intramuscularly, rH7HA proteins formulated in this adjuvant instead of an alum adjuvant elicited higher IgG, hemagglutination-inhibition, and virus neutralizing antibodies in sera; induced higher numbers of H7HA-specific IFN-γ-secreting T cells and antibody secreting cells in spleen; and provided improved protection against live virus challenges. Read More

    Immune efficacy of an adenoviral vector-based swine influenza vaccine against antigenically distinct H1N1 strains in mice.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Nov 20;147:29-36. Epub 2017 Sep 20.
    State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, Harbin Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Harbin 150069, China. Electronic address:
    Avian-like H1N1 swine influenza viruses are prevalent in pigs and have occasionally crossed the species barrier and infected humans, which highlights the importance of preventing swine influenza. Human adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) has been tested in human influenza vaccine clinical trials and has exhibited a reliable safety profile. Here, we generated a replication-defective, recombinant adenovirus (designated as rAd5-avH1HA) expressing the hemagglutinin gene of an avian-like H1N1 virus (A/swine/Zhejiang/199/2013, ZJ/199/13). Read More

    Use of whole genome deep sequencing to define emerging minority variants in virus envelope genes in herpesvirus treated with novel antimicrobial K21.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Oct 19;146:201-204. Epub 2017 Sep 19.
    Department of Pathogen Molecular Biology, London School Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, University of London, UK. Electronic address:
    New antivirals are required to prevent rising antimicrobial resistance from replication inhibitors. The aim of this study was to analyse the range of emerging mutations in herpesvirus by whole genome deep sequencing. We tested human herpesvirus 6 treatment with novel antiviral K21, where evidence indicated distinct effects on virus envelope proteins. Read More

    A novel candidate HPV vaccine: MS2 phage VLP displaying a tandem HPV L2 peptide offers similar protection in mice to Gardasil-9.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Nov 20;147:116-123. Epub 2017 Sep 20.
    Department of Biological Sciences, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI 49931, USA. Electronic address:
    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) cause approximately 5% of cancer cases worldwide. Fortunately, three prophylactic vaccines have been approved to protect against HPV infections. Gardasil-9, the most recent HPV vaccine, is predicted to offer protection against the HPV types that cause ∼90% of cervical cancer, 86% of HPV-associated penile cancers, and ∼93% of HPV-associated head & neck cancers. Read More

    Recurrent herpetic keratitis despite antiviral prophylaxis: A virological and pharmacological study.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Oct 20;146:205-212. Epub 2017 Sep 20.
    Service d'Ophtalmologie, Hôpital Bicêtre, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Université Paris-Sud, DHU Vision et Handicaps, 78, rue du Général Leclerc, 94275 Le Kremlin Bicêtre, France; Service d'Immunologie des Infections Virales et des Maladies Auto-immunes (IMVA), 18, Route du Panorama, 92260 Fontenay-aux-Roses, France. Electronic address:
    Recurrent herpes simplex keratitis (HSK) is a leading infectious cause of blindness in industrialized countries. Antiviral prophylaxis (AVP) may fail to prevent recurrence of HSK due to viral resistance, inadequate dosing, or poor patient compliance. In this prospective multicenter study, we enrolled immunocompetent patients with recurrent HSK despite AVP. Read More

    Celastrol inhibits hepatitis C virus replication by upregulating heme oxygenase-1 via the JNK MAPK/Nrf2 pathway in human hepatoma cells.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Oct 19;146:191-200. Epub 2017 Sep 19.
    Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan; Center of Infectious Disease and Signaling Research, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan; Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan. Electronic address:
    Background And Purpose: Celastrol, a quinone methide triterpene isolated from the root extracts of Tripterygium wilfordii, can greatly induce the gene expression activity of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) to achieve disease prevention and control. HO-1 induction was recently shown to result in anti-HCV activity by inducing type I interferon and inhibiting hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3/4A protease activity. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the anti-HCV activity of celastrol and characterize its mechanism of inhibition. Read More

    STD-NMR experiments identify a structural motif with novel second-site activity against West Nile virus NS2B-NS3 protease.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Oct 18;146:174-183. Epub 2017 Sep 18.
    Center for Structural and Cell Biology in Medicine, Institute of Chemistry, University of Luebeck, Ratzeburger Allee 160, 23562 Luebeck, Germany. Electronic address:
    West Nile virus (WNV) belongs to the genus Flavivirus of the family Flaviviridae. This mosquito-borne virus that is highly pathogenic to humans has been evolving into a global threat during the past two decades. Despite many efforts, neither antiviral drugs nor vaccines are available. Read More

    A pilot study to expand treatment of chronic hepatitis C in resource-limited settings.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Oct 18;146:184-190. Epub 2017 Sep 18.
    Division of Clinical Care and Research at the Institute of Human Virology (IHV), University of Maryland, School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA; Global Virus Network, Baltimore, MD, USA. Electronic address:
    The past five years have seen a revolution in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C, as short duration oral regimens of direct-acting antiviral drugs (DAAs), with nearly 100% cure rates for all genotypes, have replaced longer courses of ribavirin and injected interferon. Although initially very expensive, these DAAs are now becoming available in generic equivalents in countries with large numbers of chronically infected people, such as India. However, a number of obstacles may hinder the delivery of these drugs in resource-limited settings, including lack of access to diagnostic testing and the restriction of treatment to a small number of medical specialists. Read More

    Pentagalloylglucose, a highly bioavailable polyphenolic compound present in Cortex moutan, efficiently blocks hepatitis C virus entry.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Nov 18;147:19-28. Epub 2017 Sep 18.
    Institute of Experimental Virology, Twincore Centre for Experimental and Clinical Infection Research, a joint venture between the Medical School Hannover (MHH) and the Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research (HZI), Hannover, Germany; German Centre for Infection Research, Hannover-Braunschweig Site, Germany. Electronic address:
    Approximately 142 million people worldwide are infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). Although potent direct acting antivirals are available, high costs limit access to treatment. Chronic hepatitis C virus infection remains a major cause of orthotopic liver transplantation. Read More

    Cell-line dependent antiviral activity of sofosbuvir against Zika virus.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Oct 11;146:161-163. Epub 2017 Sep 11.
    Department of Viroscience, Unit Clinical Virology, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. Electronic address:
    The recent epidemic of Zika virus (ZIKV) in the Americas and its association with fetal and neurological complications has shown the need to develop a treatment. Repurposing of drugs that are already FDA approved or in clinical development may shorten drug development timelines in case of emerging viral diseases like ZIKV. Initial studies have shown conflicting results when testing sofosbuvir developed for treatment of infections with another Flaviviridae virus, hepatitis C virus. Read More

    Human polyclonal antibodies produced in transchromosomal cattle prevent lethal Zika virus infection and testicular atrophy in mice.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Oct 8;146:164-173. Epub 2017 Sep 8.
    Zoonotic Diseases and Special Pathogens, National Microbiology Laboratory, Public Health Agency of Canada, Winnipeg, MB, Canada; Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada.
    Zika virus (ZIKV) is rapidly spreading throughout the Americas and is associated with significant fetal complications, most notably microcephaly. Treatment with polyclonal antibodies for pregnant women at risk of ZIKV-related complications could be a safe alternative to vaccination. We found that large quantities of human polyclonal antibodies could be rapidly produced in transchromosomal bovines (TcB) and successfully used to protect mice from lethal infection. Read More

    Raltegravir blocks the infectivity of red-fluorescent-protein (mCherry)-labeled HIV-1JR-FL in the setting of post-exposure prophylaxis in NOD/SCID/Jak3(-/-) mice transplanted with human PBMCs.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Sep 8. Epub 2017 Sep 8.
    Departments of Hematology and Infectious Diseases, Kumamoto University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Bethesda, MD, USA; Experimental Retrovirology Section, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA; Experimental Retrovirology Section, Department of Refractory Viral Infection, National Center for Global Health and Medicine Research Institute, Tokyo, Japan. Electronic address:
    Employing NOD/SCID/Jak3(-/-) mice transplanted with human PBMCs (hNOJ mice) and replication-competent, red-fluorescent-protein (mCherry; mC)-labeled HIV-1JR-FL (HIVmC), we examined whether early antiretroviral treatment blocked the establishment of HIV-1 infection. The use of hNOJ mice and HIVmC enabled us to visually locate infection foci and to examine the early dynamics of HIVmC infection without using a large amount of antiretroviral unlike in non-human primate models. Although when raltegravir (RAL) administration was begun 1 day after intraperitoneal (ip) inoculation of HIVmC, no plasma p24 or plasma HIV-1-RNA (pRNA) were detected in 10 of 12 hNOJ (hNOJmC(RAL+)) mice over 14-day observation, all 10 untreated hNOJmC (hNOJmC(RAL-)) mice became positive for p24 and pRNA and had significantly swollen lymph nodes in peritoneal cavity and abundant p24(+)/mC(+)/CD3(+)/CD4(+) T cells and p24(+)/mC(+)/CD68(+) monocytes/macrophages were identified in their omenta and mesenteric lymphoid tissues/lymph nodes. Read More

    DHEA prevents ribavirin-induced anemia via inhibition of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Oct 8;146:153-160. Epub 2017 Sep 8.
    Laboratoire de Virologie EA4294, Université de Picardie Jules Verne, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, 80054, Amiens, France. Electronic address:
    Ribavirin has been widely used for antiviral therapy. Unfortunately, ribavirin-induced anemia is often a cause of limiting or interrupting treatment. Our team has observed that dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) has a protective effect against in vitro and in vivo ribavirin-induced hemolysis. Read More

    Searching for synergy: Identifying optimal antiviral combination therapy using Hepatitis C virus (HCV) agents in a replicon system.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Oct 4;146:149-152. Epub 2017 Sep 4.
    Institute for Therapeutic Innovation, Department of Medicine, University of Florida's College of Medicine, 6550 Sanger Road, Orlando, FL, 32827, USA. Electronic address:
    Direct acting antiviral agents (DAAs) are potent inhibitors of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) that have revolutionized the treatment landscape for this important viral disease. There are currently four classes of DAAs that inhibit HCV replication via distinct mechanisms of action: nonstructural protein (NS) 3/4a protease inhibitors, NS5A inhibitors, NS5B nucleoside polymerase inhibitors, and NS5B non-nucleoside polymerase inhibitors. Combination therapy with two or more DAAs has great potential to further enhance antiviral potency. Read More

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