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    3778 results match your criteria Antiviral Research[Journal]

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    CD163 knockout pigs are fully resistant to highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.
    Antiviral Res 2018 Jan 11. Epub 2018 Jan 11.
    National Engineering Research Center for Breeding Swine Industry, College of Animal Science, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, China; Wens Foodstuff Group Co., Ltd, Yunfu, China. Electronic address:
    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes severe economic losses to current swine production worldwide. Highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV), originated from a genotype 2 PRRSV, is more virulent than classical PRRSV and further exacerbates the economic impact. HP-PRRSV has become the predominant circulating field strain in China since 2006. Read More

    Establishment of intracellular tenofovir-diphosphate as the key determinant for in vitro-in vivo translation of antiviral efficacy.
    Antiviral Res 2018 Jan 11;151:1-3. Epub 2018 Jan 11.
    Antiviral Research, MSD, West Point, PA, 19486, USA.
    In vitro evaluation of tenofovir disproxil fumarate (TDF) and tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) revealed comparable antiviral effects with respect to the tenofovir-diphosphate (TFV-DP) level in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), despite the EC50 values determined based on prodrug concentrations were nearly two orders of magnitude apart. In vivo EC50 obtained from meta-analyses were in good agreement with the in vitro results, indicating intracellular TFV-DP can be employed for in vitro-in vivo translation of viral inhibition for tenofovir prodrugs. Current analysis indicated that the intracellular concentrations of TFV-DP achieving maximal antiviral effect in vitro can be directly translatable in the clinic to accomplish maximal viral load suppression attainable by tenofovir-prodrugs. Read More

    Identification of novel antivirals inhibiting recognition of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus capsid protein by the Importin α/β1 heterodimer through high-throughput screening.
    Antiviral Res 2018 Jan 11. Epub 2018 Jan 11.
    Nuclear Signalling Laboratory, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Biomedical Sciences, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia. Electronic address:
    Although the alphavirus Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) has been the cause of multiple outbreaks resulting in extensive human and equine mortality and morbidity, there are currently no anti-VEEV therapeutics available. VEEV pathogenicity is largely dependent on targeting of the viral capsid protein (CP) to the host cell nucleus through the nuclear transporting importin (Imp) α/β1 heterodimer. Here we perform a high-throughput screen, combined with nested counterscreens to identify small molecules able to inhibit the Impα/β1:CP interaction for the first time. Read More

    Utility of ultra-deep sequencing for detection of varicella-zoster virus antiviral resistance mutations.
    Antiviral Res 2018 Jan 11. Epub 2018 Jan 11.
    Persistent Viral Infections Team, U1135, CR7, CIMI-UPMC and AP-HP, Hôpitaux Universitaires La Pitié Salpêtrière - Charles Foix, Service de Virologie, Paris, France. Electronic address:
    We report the first application of ultra-deep sequencing (UDS) to varicella-zoster virus (VZV) genotypic antiviral testing in a case of acyclovir-resistant VZV infection initially detected by Sanger sequencing within a deeply immunocompromised heart transplant recipient. As added-value compared to Sanger analysis, UDS revealed complex dynamics of viral population under antiviral pressure. Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a ubiquitous human herpesvirus affecting populations worldwide. Read More

    Zika, dengue and yellow fever viruses induce differential anti-viral immune responses in human monocytic and first trimester trophoblast cells.
    Antiviral Res 2018 Jan 10. Epub 2018 Jan 10.
    Department of Microbiology & Immunology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555, USA; Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555, USA; Sealy Center for Vaccine Development, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555, USA; Institute for Human Infections and Immunity, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, USA. Electronic address:
    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus associated with severe neonatal birth defects, but the causative mechanism is incompletely understood. ZIKV shares sequence homology and early clinical manifestations with yellow fever virus (YFV) and dengue virus (DENV) and are all transmitted in urban cycles by the same species of mosquitoes. However, YFV and DENV have been rarely reported to cause congenital diseases. Read More

    A novel double-antigen sandwich ELISA for the species-independent detection of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus-specific antibodies.
    Antiviral Res 2018 Jan 9. Epub 2018 Jan 9.
    Institute of Novel and Emerging Infectious Diseases, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Federal Research Institute for Animal Health, Greifswald-Isle of Riems, Germany. Electronic address:
    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a tick-borne disease in humans caused by the CCHF virus (CCHFV). The detection of anti-CCHFV antibodies in animals is used to reveal infection risk areas. Therefore a simple, quick and reliable multispecies assay for the detection of CCHFV-specific antibodies is needed. Read More

    The role of adjuvant immunomodulatory agents for treatment of severe influenza.
    Antiviral Res 2018 Jan 8;150:202-216. Epub 2018 Jan 8.
    Leidos Biomedical Research Inc, Support to National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.
    A severe inflammatory immune response with hypercytokinemia occurs in patients hospitalized with severe influenza, such as avian influenza A(H5N1), A(H7N9), and seasonal A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infections. The role of immunomodulatory therapy is unclear as there have been limited published data based on randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Passive immunotherapy such as convalescent plasma and hyperimmune globulin have some studies demonstrating benefit when administered as an adjunctive therapy for severe influenza. Read More

    Lipase inhibitor orlistat prevents hepatitis B virus infection by targeting an early step in the virus life cycle.
    Antiviral Res 2018 Jan 5;151:4-7. Epub 2018 Jan 5.
    Institute of Virology, Technische Universität München/Helmholtz Zentrum München, Trogerstrasse 30, 81675 Munich, Germany; German Center for Infection Research (DZIF), Munich site, Germany. Electronic address:
    Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) is a strictly hepatotropic pathogen which is very efficiently targeted to the liver and into its host cell, the hepatocyte. The sodium taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide (NTCP) has been identified as a key virus entry receptor, but the early steps in the virus life cycle are still only barely understood. Here, we investigated the effect of lipase inhibition and lipoprotein uptake on HBV infection using differentiated HepaRG cells and primary human hepatocytes. Read More

    Filovirus proteins for antiviral drug discovery: Structure/function of proteins involved in assembly and budding.
    Antiviral Res 2018 Jan 2;150:183-192. Epub 2018 Jan 2.
    Laboratoire Architecture et Fonction des Macromolécules Biologiques (AFMB), UMR7257 CNRS, Parc Scientifique de Luminy, Aix-Marseille Université, Marseille, France. Electronic address:
    There are no approved medications for the treatment of Marburg or Ebola virus infection. In two previous articles (Martin et al., 2016, Martin et al. Read More

    A high throughput screen identifies benzoquinoline compounds as inhibitors of Ebola virus replication.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Dec 30;150:193-201. Epub 2017 Dec 30.
    Center of Microbial Pathogenesis, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA, USA. Electronic address:
    Ebola virus (EBOV) is an enveloped negative-sense, single-stranded RNA virus of the filovirus family that causes severe disease in humans. Approved therapies for EBOV disease are lacking. EBOV RNA synthesis is carried out by a virus-encoded complex with RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity that is required for viral propagation. Read More

    Efficacy of favipiravir (T-705) in nonhuman primates infected with Ebola virus or Marburg virus.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Dec 28. Epub 2017 Dec 28.
    Division of Molecular & Translational Sciences, USA; The Geneva Foundation, USA. Electronic address:
    Favipiravir is a broad-spectrum antiviral agent that has demonstrated efficacy against Ebola virus (EBOV) in rodents. However, there are no published reports of favipiravir efficacy for filovirus infection of nonhuman primates (NHPs). Here we evaluated the pharmacokinetic profile of favipiravir in NHPs, as well as in vivo efficacy against two filoviruses, EBOV and Marburg virus (MARV). Read More

    Disulfiram can inhibit MERS and SARS coronavirus papain-like proteases via different modes.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Dec 28;150:155-163. Epub 2017 Dec 28.
    Department of Life Sciences and Institute of Genome Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan. Electronic address:
    Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) emerged in southern China in late 2002 and caused a global outbreak with a fatality rate around 10% in 2003. Ten years later, a second highly pathogenic human CoV, MERS-CoV, emerged in the Middle East and has spread to other countries in Europe, North Africa, North America and Asia. As of November 2017, MERS-CoV had infected at least 2102 people with a fatality rate of about 35% globally, and hence there is an urgent need to identify antiviral drugs that are active against MERS-CoV. Read More

    Intracellular conversion and in vivo dose response of favipiravir (T-705) in rodents infected with Ebola virus.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Dec 28. Epub 2017 Dec 28.
    Division of Molecular & Translational Sciences, USA; The Geneva Foundation, USA. Electronic address:
    During the 2013-2016 Ebola virus (EBOV) outbreak in West Africa, our team at USAMRIID evaluated the antiviral activity of a number of compounds, including favipiravir (T-705), in vitro and in mouse and nonhuman primate (NHP) models of Ebola virus disease. In this short communication, we present our findings for favipiravir in cell culture and in mice, while an accompanying paper presents the results of NHP studies. We confirmed previous reports that favipiravir has anti-EBOV activity in mice. Read More

    Erythrosin B is a potent and broad-spectrum orthosteric inhibitor of the flavivirus NS2B-NS3 protease.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Dec 27;150:217-225. Epub 2017 Dec 27.
    Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, 120 New Scotland Ave, Albany, NY 12208, USA; Department of Biomedical Sciences, School of Public Health, University at Albany, PO Box 509, Empire State Plaza, Albany NY 12201, USA. Electronic address:
    Many flaviviruses, such as Zika virus (ZIKV), Dengue virus (DENV1-4) and yellow fever virus (YFV), are significant human pathogens. Infection with ZIKV, an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus, is associated with increased risk of microcephaly in newborns and Guillain-Barré syndrome and other complications in adults. Currently, specific therapy does not exist for any flavivirus infections. Read More

    Development of a replicon cell line-based high throughput antiviral assay for screening inhibitors of Zika virus.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Dec 27;150:148-154. Epub 2017 Dec 27.
    Key Laboratory of Special Pathogens and Biosafety, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Science, Wuhan 430071, China. Electronic address:
    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an important emerging human pathogen associated with microcephaly, Guillain-Barré syndrome and meningoencephalitis. Developing rapid and reliable HTS assay is important for ZIKV drug discovery. Here, we constructed a dicistronic ZIKV replicon (ZIKV-Pac-Rluc-Rep) that contained the Renilla luciferase (Rluc) reporter gene separated from the puromycin N-acetyl-transferase (Pac) selectable marker by a short peptide cleavage site. Read More

    Discovery of a non-nucleoside RNA polymerase inhibitor for blocking Zika virus replication through in silico screening.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Dec 21. Epub 2017 Dec 21.
    School of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, USA; Nebraska Center for Virology, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68583, USA. Electronic address:
    Zika virus (ZIKV), an emerging arbovirus, has become a major human health concern globally due to its association with congenital abnormalities and neurological diseases. Licensed vaccines or antivirals against ZIKV are currently unavailable. Here, by employing a structure-based approach targeting the ZIKV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), we conducted in silico screening of a library of 100,000 small molecules and tested the top ten lead compounds for their ability to inhibit the virus replication in cell-based in vitro assays. Read More

    Repurposing the clinically approved calcium antagonist manidipine dihydrochloride as a new early inhibitor of human cytomegalovirus targeting the Immediate-Early 2 (IE2) protein.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Dec 22;150:130-136. Epub 2017 Dec 22.
    Department of Molecular Medicine, University of Padua, 35121 Padua, Italy. Electronic address:
    Currently, there are no therapeutic alternatives to DNA polymerase inhibitors to treat human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infections, a major threat for immunocompromised patients and pregnant women. Here, we explored the potential to repurpose manidipine dihydrochloride (MND), a calcium antagonist clinically approved to treat hypertension, as a new anti-HCMV agent. MND emerged in a previous drug repurposing screen to find early inhibitors of HCMV replication, and now we confirm that it inhibits in the low micromolar range the replication of different HCMV strains, including clinical isolates and viruses resistant to approved DNA polymerase inhibitors. Read More

    Hantavirus Gc induces long-term immune protection via LAMP-targeting DNA vaccine strategy.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Dec 20;150:174-182. Epub 2017 Dec 20.
    Department of Immunology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, China. Electronic address:
    Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) occurs widely throughout Eurasia. Unfortunately, there is no effective treatment, and prophylaxis remains the best option against the major pathogenic agent, hantaan virus (HTNV), which is an Old World hantavirus. However, the absence of cellular immune responses and immunological memory hampers acceptance of the current inactivated HFRS vaccine. Read More

    Deciphering the potential of baicalin as an antiviral agent for Chikungunya virus infection.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Dec 19;150:101-111. Epub 2017 Dec 19.
    Tropical Infectious Disease Research and Education Centre (TIDREC), Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; Department of Paediatrics, School of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, USA. Electronic address:
    The past decade has seen the re-emergence of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) as a major global health threat, affecting millions around the world. Although fatal infections are rare among infected patients, the occurrence of long-lasting polyarthralgia has a significant impact on patients' quality of lives and ability to work. These issues were the stimuli for this study to determine the potential of baicalin, a bioflavonoid, as the novel antiviral compound against CHIKV. Read More

    Broad-spectrum antiviral activity of the eIF4A inhibitor silvestrol against corona- and picornaviruses.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Dec 16;150:123-129. Epub 2017 Dec 16.
    Institut für Pharmazeutische Chemie, Philipps-Universität Marburg, Marbacher Weg 6, 35037 Marburg, Germany. Electronic address:
    Coronaviruses (CoV) and picornaviruses are plus-strand RNA viruses that use 5' cap-dependent and cap-independent strategies, respectively, for viral mRNA translation initiation. Here, we analyzed the effects of the plant compound silvestrol, a specific inhibitor of the DEAD-box RNA helicase eIF4A, on viral translation using a dual luciferase assay and virus-infected primary cells. Silvestrol was recently shown to have potent antiviral activity in Ebola virus-infected human macrophages. Read More

    Enhancing the antiviral potency of ER α-glucosidase inhibitor IHVR-19029 against hemorrhagic fever viruses in vitro and in vivo.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Dec 15;150:112-122. Epub 2017 Dec 15.
    Baruch S. Blumberg Institute, Hepatitis B Foundation, Doylestown, PA, USA. Electronic address:
    Targeting host functions essential for viral replication has been considered as a broad spectrum and resistance-refractory antiviral approach. However, only a few host functions have, thus far, been validated as broad-spectrum antiviral targets in vivo. ER α-glucosidases I and II have been demonstrated to be essential for the morphogenesis of many enveloped viruses, including members from four families of viruses causing hemorrhagic fever. Read More

    Research priorities for the discovery of a cure for chronic hepatitis B: Report of a workshop.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Dec 14;150:93-100. Epub 2017 Dec 14.
    Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA.
    In early 2017, the Hepatitis B Foundation invited 30 experts in the fields of hepatitis B and liver cancer research to identify projects they deemed important to the goal of finding a cure for chronic hepatitis B and D and the diseases with which these viral infections are associated. They were also asked to identify general categories of research and to prioritize sub-project topics within those areas. The experts generally agreed on broadly defined areas of research, but there was usually little difference between the highest and lowest scoring projects; for the most part, all programs described in this document were considered valuable and necessary. Read More

    Tat-enhanced delivery of the C terminus of HDAg-L inhibits assembly and secretion of hepatitis D virus.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Dec 14;150:69-78. Epub 2017 Dec 14.
    Department of Biotechnology and Laboratory Science in Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan; Department of Earth and Life Sciences, University of Taipei, Taipei, Taiwan. Electronic address:
    Hepatitis D virus (HDV) contains a single-stranded circular RNA genome that encodes two forms of hepatitis delta antigen (HDAg), the small delta antigen (HDAg-S) and the large delta antigen (HDAg-L). The two proteins have an identical amino acid sequence, except that HDAg-L has a 19-amino-acid extension at the C terminus. The domain spanning amino acid residues 198-210 of the HDAg-L (HDAg-L(198-210)) contains a nuclear export signal (NES), which is important for the nuclear export of HDV ribonucleoprotein to the cytoplasm. Read More

    A recombinant VSV-vectored MERS-CoV vaccine induces neutralizing antibody and T cell responses in rhesus monkeys after single dose immunization.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Dec 12;150:30-38. Epub 2017 Dec 12.
    State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, Harbin Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Harbin 150069, Heilongjiang Province, PR China. Electronic address:
    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) has been a highly threatening zoonotic pathogen since its outbreak in 2012. Similar to SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV belongs to the coronavirus family and can induce severe respiratory symptoms in humans, with an average case fatality rate of 35% according to the World Health Organization. Spike (S) protein of MERS-CoV is immunogenic and can induce neutralizing antibodies, thus is a potential major target for vaccine development. Read More

    A flavonoid compound library screen revealed potent antiviral activity of plant-derived flavonoids on human enterovirus A71 replication.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Dec 9;150:60-68. Epub 2017 Dec 9.
    Laboratory of Molecular RNA Virology and Antiviral Strategies, Department of Microbiology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University Health System, National University of Singapore, Singapore; Collaborative and Translational Unit for HFMD, Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR), Singapore. Electronic address:
    Hand Foot Mouth Disease (HFMD), resulting from human enterovirus A71 (HEVA71) infection can cause severe neurological complications leading to fatality in young children. Currently, there is no approved antiviral for therapeutic treatment against HEVA71 infection. In this study, a 500-compound flavonoid library was screened to identify potential inhibitors of HEVA71 using high-throughput immunofluorescence-based phenotypic screening method. Read More

    A natural small molecule inhibitor corilagin blocks HCV replication and modulates oxidative stress to reduce liver damage.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Dec 7;150:47-59. Epub 2017 Dec 7.
    Department of Microbiology and Cell Biology, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, 560012, India. Electronic address:
    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection causes chronic liver disease, which often leads to hepatocellular carcinoma. Earlier, we have demonstrated anti-HCV property of the methanolic extract of Phyllanthus amarus, an age-old folk-medicine against viral hepatitis. Here, we report identification of a principal bioactive component 'corilagin', which showed significant inhibition of the HCV key enzymes, NS3 protease and NS5B RNA-dependent-RNA-polymerase. Read More

    A novel three-dimensional cell culture method enhances antiviral drug screening in primary human cells.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Dec 7;150:20-29. Epub 2017 Dec 7.
    Robert Koch Institute, Seestr. 10, 13353 Berlin, Germany. Electronic address:
    Gefitinib is a specific inhibitor of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and FDA approved for treatment of non-small cell lung cancer. In a previous study we could show the in vitro efficacy of gefitinib for treatment of poxvirus infections in monolayer (2D) cultivated cell lines. Permanent cell lines and 2D cultures, however, are known to be rather unphysiological; therefore it is difficult to predict whether determined effective concentrations or the drug efficacy per se are transferable to the in vivo situation. Read More

    Association of heterozygous CCR5Δ32 deletion with survival in HIV-infection: A cohort study.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Dec 6;150:15-19. Epub 2017 Dec 6.
    Laboratory of Immunovirology, Institute of Biomedicine of Seville (IBiS), Virgen del Rocío University Hospital/CSIC/University of Seville, Seville, Spain. Electronic address:
    The role of a 32 base pair deletion in the CCR5 gene (CCR5Δ32) in HIV-disease progression and response to combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) is well established. However, the impact of CCR5Δ32 in the long-term survival pre-cART and after cART introduction in a large cohort of HIV-infected patients is unknown. We analyzed the association of CCR5Δ32 deletion in the long-term survival of HIV-infected patients recruited between June 1981 and October 2016 (n = 1006). Read More

    Availability of hepatitis C diagnostics and therapeutics in European and Eurasia countries.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Dec 5;150:9-14. Epub 2017 Dec 5.
    Infectious Diseases, Hôpitaux Universitaires Paris Centre, Université Paris Descartes, Paris, France.
    Background: Treatment with direct acting antiviral agents (DAAs) has provided sustained virological response rates in >95% of patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. However treatment is costly and market access, reimbursement and governmental restrictions differ among countries. We aimed to analyze these differences among European and Eurasian countries. Read More

    Identification of a peptide derived from the heptad repeat 2 region of the porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) spike glycoprotein that is capable of suppressing PEDV entry and inducing neutralizing antibodies.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Dec 5;150:1-8. Epub 2017 Dec 5.
    Institute of Preventive Veterinary Medicine and Key Laboratory of Animal Virology of Ministry of Agriculture, College of Animal Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058, China. Electronic address:
    Heptad repeat (HR) regions are highly conserved motifs located in the glycoproteins of enveloped viruses that form a six-helix bundle structure and is important in the process of virus fusion. Peptides derived from the HR regions of some viruses have also been shown to inhibit viral entry. Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) was predicted to have HR regions (HR1 and HR2) in the spike glycoprotein S2 subunit. Read More

    Second International Conference on Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Dec 2;150:137-147. Epub 2017 Dec 2.
    Department of Microbiology, Medical School, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece. Electronic address:
    The Second International Conference on Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) was held in Thessaloniki, Greece, from September 10-13, 2017, and brought together international public health professionals, clinicians, ecologists, and basic laboratory researchers. Nearly 100 participants, representing 24 countries and the World Health Organization (WHO), were in attendance. Meeting sessions covered the epidemiology of CCHF in humans; ticks and virus-tick interactions; wild and domestic animal hosts; molecular virology; taxonomic classification; pathogenesis and animal models; clinical aspects and diagnosis; clinical management and clinical trials; and disease prevention in humans. Read More

    Antivirals acting on viral envelopes via biophysical mechanisms of action.
    Antiviral Res 2018 Jan 27;149:164-173. Epub 2017 Nov 27.
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2S2, Canada; Baker Institute for Animal Health, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, United States. Electronic address:
    Most antivirals target viral proteins and are specific for only one virus, or viral type. Whereas viral proteins are encoded in the plastic viral genome, virion lipids are not and their rearrangements during fusion are conserved among otherwise unrelated enveloped viruses. Antivirals that inhibit these lipid rearrangements could thus pose a high barrier to resistance and have broad-spectrum activity. Read More

    The diverse functions of the hepatitis B core/capsid protein (HBc) in the viral life cycle: Implications for the development of HBc-targeting antivirals.
    Antiviral Res 2018 Jan 26;149:211-220. Epub 2017 Nov 26.
    Department of Basic Medical Sciences and Purdue Center for Cancer Research, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, 47907, USA. Electronic address:
    Virally encoded proteins have evolved to perform multiple functions, and the core protein (HBc) of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a perfect example. While HBc is the structural component of the viral nucleocapsid, additional novel functions for the nucleus-localized HBc have recently been described. These results extend for HBc, beyond its structural role, a regulatory function in the viral life cycle and potentially a role in pathogenesis. Read More

    Hsc70 regulates the IRES activity and serves as an antiviral target of enterovirus A71 infection.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Nov 24;150:39-46. Epub 2017 Nov 24.
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China; Biotechnology and Health Center, CityU Shenzhen Research Institute, Shenzhen, China. Electronic address:
    Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) is a small positive-stranded RNA virus that causes human hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) and fatal neurological disorders in some cases without effective treatment. Here we show that heat shock cognate protein 70 (Hsc70), a molecular chaperone, displays pivotal role in viral infections. Knockdown of Hsc70 significantly suppresses viral replication evidenced by reducing not only the level of both viral replication intermediates (negative stranded RNA) and viral genomic RNA (positive stranded RNA), but also the level of viral protein expression; whereas ectopic expression of Hsc70 markedly promotes viral replication. Read More

    An evaluation of Chloroquine as a broad-acting antiviral against Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease.
    Antiviral Res 2018 Jan 22;149:143-149. Epub 2017 Nov 22.
    Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR), 61 Biopolis Drive, Proteos #06-05, Singapore, 138673, Singapore; Laboratory of Molecular RNA Virology and Antiviral Strategies, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, National University Health System, National University of Singapore, Singapore, 117597, Singapore. Electronic address:
    A common childhood affliction of viral origin in young children and immunocompromised adults, the Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease (HFMD) has become a significant public health concern in the Asia-Pacific Region. Characterized by the appearance of vesiculopapular rashes on the hands, feet and mouth, the disease is generally mild and self-limiting. In a minority of cases, patients can develop neurological complications that could result in permanent morbidity or even fatality. Read More

    Retro-2 and its dihydroquinazolinone derivatives inhibit filovirus infection.
    Antiviral Res 2018 Jan 22;149:154-163. Epub 2017 Nov 22.
    Texas Biomedical Research Institute, San Antonio, TX, USA. Electronic address:
    Members of the family Filoviridae cause severe, often fatal disease in humans, for which there are no approved vaccines and only a few experimental drugs tested in animal models. Retro-2, a small molecule that inhibits retrograde trafficking of bacterial and plant toxins inside host cells, has been demonstrated to be effective against a range of bacterial and virus pathogens, both in vitro and in animal models. Here, we demonstrated that Retro-2 and its derivatives, Retro-2. Read More

    Low incidence of precore W28* mutant variants in treated hepatitis B virus and human immunodeficiency virus co-infected patients.
    Antiviral Res 2018 Jan 21;149:174-178. Epub 2017 Nov 21.
    Cancer Research Center of Lyon, INSERM, Unité 1052, CNRS, UMR 5286, Université de Lyon, Lyon, France; Hepatology Department, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon, France. Electronic address:
    The precore (pc) W28* mutation arises from immune-selective pressures during the hepatitis B "e" antigen (HBeAg)-positive phase of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and has been linked to severe liver-related morbidity. Here, we examined the determinants of harboring this mutation and its rate of emergence in treated patients co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and HBV. In a three-year prospective cohort of 165 HIV-HBV co-infected patients, pcW28* mutation was determined via DNA-chip during yearly sampling. Read More

    Prevention and treatment of respiratory viral infections: Presentations on antivirals, traditional therapies and host-directed interventions at the 5th ISIRV Antiviral Group conference.
    Antiviral Res 2018 Jan 21;149:118-142. Epub 2017 Nov 21.
    Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Alberta, Canada.
    The International Society for Influenza and other Respiratory Virus Diseases held its 5th Antiviral Group (isirv-AVG) Conference in Shanghai, China, in conjunction with the Shanghai Public Health Center and Fudan University from 14-16 June 2017. The three-day programme encompassed presentations on some of the clinical features, management, immune responses and virology of respiratory infections, including influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and A(H7N9) viruses, MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV, adenovirus Type 80, enterovirus D68, metapneumovirus and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Updates were presented on several therapeutics currently in clinical trials, including influenza polymerase inhibitors pimodivir/JNJ6362387, S033188, favipiravir, monoclonal antibodies MHAA45449A and VIS410, and host directed strategies for influenza including nitazoxanide, and polymerase ALS-008112 and fusion inhibitors AK0529, GS-5806 for RSV. Read More

    A new promising candidate to overcome drug resistant herpes simplex virus infections.
    Antiviral Res 2018 Jan 15;149:202-210. Epub 2017 Nov 15.
    Department of Immune Modulation, University Hospital Erlangen, Erlangen, Germany. Electronic address:
    Infections with Herpes simplex viruses (HSV) belong to the most common human diseases worldwide, resulting in symptoms ranging from painful, but commonly self-limiting lesions of the orofacial or genital tract to severe infections of the eye or life-threatening generalized infections. Frequent HSV-reactivations at the eye may lead to the development of herpetic stromal keratitis, which is one of the major causes of infectious blindness in developed countries. The vast majority of life-threatening generalized infections occur in immunocompromised individuals, such as transplant recipients or patients suffering from advanced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection with concurrent HSV-reactivation. Read More

    Antifungal azoles itraconazole and posaconazole exhibit potent in vitro antiviral activity against clinical isolates of parechovirus A3 (Picornaviridae).
    Antiviral Res 2018 Jan 15;149:75-77. Epub 2017 Nov 15.
    Children's Mercy Hospital, Kansas City, MO, United States.
    Parechovirus A3 (Par-A3, formerly human parechovirus 3) is an emerging viral infection of the central nervous system in children. We used an automated, homogeneous, cell based assay to identify itraconazole and posaconazole as inhibitors of Par-A3, with antiviral activity below concentrations clinically attainable in pediatric patients. Currently, there is no approved antiviral treatment for Par-A3 infection, despite numerous reports of serious Par-A3 disease in neonates and infants. Read More

    Rational design of antiviral drug combinations based on equipotency using HCV subgenomic replicon as an in vitro model.
    Antiviral Res 2018 Jan 14;149:150-153. Epub 2017 Nov 14.
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, University of Leuven (KU Leuven), B-3000 Leuven, Belgium.
    Combination therapy of directly acting antivirals (DAA's) for the treatment of chronic HCV infections has proven to be a highly effective strategy to cure chronic infections with this virus. Here we studied, using HCV as an example, how to best design in vitro studies that explore the combined antiviral efficiency of combinations of three or more DAA's. To that end we used a HCV NS3 protease inhibitor, a NS5A targeting compound and two non-nucleoside NS5B polymerase inhibitors (each one targeting a different drug binding site). Read More

    HBsAg mRNA degradation induced by a dihydroquinolizinone compound depends on the HBV posttranscriptional regulatory element.
    Antiviral Res 2018 Jan 10;149:191-201. Epub 2017 Nov 10.
    Arbutus BioPharma, 701 Veterans Circle, Warminster, PA 18974, United States. Electronic address:
    In pursuit of novel therapeutics targeting the hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, we evaluated a dihydroquinolizinone compound (DHQ-1) that in the nanomolar range reduced the production of virion and surface protein (HBsAg) in tissue culture. This compound also showed broad HBV genotype coverage, but was inactive against a panel of DNA and RNA viruses of other species. Oral administration of DHQ-1 in the AAV-HBV mouse model resulted in a significant reduction of serum HBsAg as soon as 4 days following the commencement of treatment. Read More

    Efficacy of hepatitis B virus ribonuclease H inhibitors, a new class of replication antagonists, in FRG human liver chimeric mice.
    Antiviral Res 2018 Jan 10;149:41-47. Epub 2017 Nov 10.
    Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology & the Saint Louis University Liver Center, Saint Louis University School of Medicine, 1100 S. Grand Blvd., St. Louis, MO 63104, USA. Electronic address:
    Chronic hepatitis B virus infection cannot be cured by current therapies, so new treatments are urgently needed. We recently identified novel inhibitors of the hepatitis B virus ribonuclease H that suppress viral replication in cell culture. Here, we employed immunodeficient FRG KO mice whose livers had been engrafted with primary human hepatocytes to ask whether ribonuclease H inhibitors can suppress hepatitis B virus replication in vivo. Read More

    APOBEC3B edits HBV DNA and inhibits HBV replication during reverse transcription.
    Antiviral Res 2018 Jan 10;149:16-25. Epub 2017 Nov 10.
    Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology on Infectious Diseases (Ministry of Education), Institute for Viral Hepatitis, Department of Infectious Diseases, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Chongqing Medical University, 1 Yi Xue Yuan Road, Yuzhong District, Chongqing 400016, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:
    Hepatitis B virus is a partially double-stranded DNA virus that replicates by reverse transcription, which occurs within viral core particles in the cytoplasm. The cytidine deaminase APOBEC3B is a cellular restriction factor for HBV. Recently, it was reported that APOBEC3B can edit HBV cccDNA in the nucleus, causing its degradation. Read More

    Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of novel 7-deazapurine nucleoside derivatives as potential anti-dengue virus agents.
    Antiviral Res 2018 Jan 10;149:95-105. Epub 2017 Nov 10.
    Guangzhou Institutes of Biomedicine and Heath, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 190 Kaiyuan Road, Guangzhou, 510530, PR China; State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease, Guangzhou Institute of Respiratory Disease, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, PR China. Electronic address:
    Dengue fever, caused by four distinct serotypes of dengue virus (DENV-1 to -4), has become the fastest spreading human infectious disease in recent years. Despite extensive efforts, there is no specific antiviral treatment approved for dengue until now. Nucleoside inhibitors represent an actively pursued area to develop small-molecule anti-dengue virus agents. Read More

    A virus-like particle of the hepatitis B virus preS antigen elicits robust neutralizing antibodies and T cell responses in mice.
    Antiviral Res 2018 Jan 10;149:48-57. Epub 2017 Nov 10.
    Department of Chemistry, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30302, USA; Center for Diagnostics and Therapeutics, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30302, USA. Electronic address:
    The preS antigen of hepatitis B virus (HBV) corresponds to the N-terminal polypeptide in the large (L) antigen in addition to the small (S) antigen. The virus-like particle (VLP) of the S antigen is widely used as a vaccine to protect the population from HBV infection. The presence of the S antigen and its antibodies in patient blood has been used as markers to monitor hepatitis B. Read More

    Nsp3 of coronaviruses: Structures and functions of a large multi-domain protein.
    Antiviral Res 2018 Jan 8;149:58-74. Epub 2017 Nov 8.
    Institute of Biochemistry, Center for Structural and Cell Biology in Medicine, University of Lübeck, Ratzeburger Allee 160, 23562 Lübeck, Germany; German Center for Infection Research (DZIF), Hamburg - Lübeck - Borstel - Riems Site, University of Lübeck, Germany. Electronic address:
    The multi-domain non-structural protein 3 (Nsp3) is the largest protein encoded by the coronavirus (CoV) genome, with an average molecular mass of about 200 kD. Nsp3 is an essential component of the replication/transcription complex. It comprises various domains, the organization of which differs between CoV genera, due to duplication or absence of some domains. Read More

    Activity of nucleic acid polymers in rodent models of HBV infection.
    Antiviral Res 2018 Jan 8;149:26-33. Epub 2017 Nov 8.
    Replicor Inc. Montréal, Québec, Canada. Electronic address:
    Nucleic acid polymers (NAPs) block the release of HBsAg from infected hepatocytes. These compounds have been previously shown to have the unique ability to eliminate serum surface antigen in DHBV-infected Pekin ducks and achieve multilog reduction of HBsAg or HBsAg loss in patients with chronic HBV infection and HBV/HDV coinfection. In ducks and humans, the blockage of HBsAg release by NAPs occurs by the selective targeting of the assembly and/or secretion of subviral particles (SVPs). Read More

    Merimepodib, an IMPDH inhibitor, suppresses replication of Zika virus and other emerging viral pathogens.
    Antiviral Res 2018 Jan 8;149:34-40. Epub 2017 Nov 8.
    Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, 301 University Blvd, Galveston, TX 77555, USA. Electronic address:
    Zika virus (ZIKV), a member of the Flaviviridae family, has recently been linked to abnormal pregnancies, fetal death, microcephaly, and Guillain-Barré syndrome in humans. Merimepodib (MMPD, VX-497), a potent inhibitor of inosine-5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH), has shown antiviral activity against HCV and a variety of DNA and RNA viruses in vitro. In this report, we expand the antiviral spectrum of MMPD, and demonstrate that MMPD inhibits ZIKV RNA replication with an EC50 of 0. Read More

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