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    3844 results match your criteria Antiviral Research[Journal]

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    Analysis of spontaneous resolution of cytomegalovirus replication after transplantation in CMV-seropositive patients with pretransplant CD8+IFNG+ response.
    Antiviral Res 2018 May 18. Epub 2018 May 18.
    Instituto Maimónides de Investigación Biomédica de Córdoba (IMIBIC)/Reina Sofia University Hospital/University of Cordoba, Cordoba, Spain.
    This prospective study evaluates whether CMV-seropositive (R+) transplant patients with pretransplant CD8+IFNG+ T-cell response to cytomegalovirus (CMV) (CD8+IFNG+ response) can spontaneously clear the CMV viral load without requiring treatment. A total of 104 transplant patients (kidney/liver) with pretransplant CD8+IFNG+ response were evaluable. This response was determined using QuantiFERON-CMV assay. Read More

    Effect of interferon alpha and cyclosporine treatment separately and in combination on Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) replication in a human in-vitro and ex-vivo culture model.
    Antiviral Res 2018 May 17;155:89-96. Epub 2018 May 17.
    Department of Pathology, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Queen Mary Hospital, Pokfulam, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. Electronic address:
    Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) has emerged as a coronavirus infection of humans in the past 5 years. Though confined to certain geographical regions of the world, infection has been associated with a case fatality rate of 35%, and this mortality may be higher in ventilated patients. As there are few readily available animal models that accurately mimic human disease, it has been a challenge to ethically determine what optimum treatment strategies can be used for this disease. Read More

    Identification of Compound-B, a novel anti-dengue virus agent targeting the non-structural protein 4A.
    Antiviral Res 2018 May 11;155:60-66. Epub 2018 May 11.
    Drug Discovery & Disease Research Laboratory, Shionogi & Co., Ltd., Osaka, Japan; Division of Molecular Pathobiology, Research Center for Zoonosis Control, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan. Electronic address:

    Innovation and trends in the development and approval of antiviral medicines: 1987-2017 and beyond.
    Antiviral Res 2018 May 15;155:76-88. Epub 2018 May 15.
    Alios BioPharma, Inc., A Janssen Pharmaceutical Company of Johnson & Johnson, South San Francisco, CA, USA. Electronic address:
    2017 marked the 30th anniversary of the approval of zidovudine (AZT) as the first HIV/AIDS therapy. Since then, more than eighty antiviral drugs have received FDA approval, half of which treat HIV infection. Here, we provide a retrospective analysis of approved antiviral drugs, including therapeutics against other major chronic infections such as hepatitis B and C, and herpes viruses, over the last thirty years. Read More

    Feasibility and biological rationale of repurposing sunitinib and erlotinib for dengue treatment.
    Antiviral Res 2018 May 16;155:67-75. Epub 2018 May 16.
    Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases and Geographic Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA; Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA. Electronic address:
    There is an urgent need for strategies to combat dengue virus (DENV) infection; a major global threat. We reported that the cellular kinases AAK1 and GAK regulate intracellular trafficking of multiple viruses and that sunitinib and erlotinib, approved anticancer drugs with potent activity against these kinases, protect DENV-infected mice from mortality. Nevertheless, further characterization of the therapeutic potential and underlying mechanism of this approach is required prior to clinical evaluation. Read More

    IRF-1, RIG-I and MDA5 display potent antiviral activities against norovirus coordinately induced by different types of interferons.
    Antiviral Res 2018 May 10;155:48-59. Epub 2018 May 10.
    Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Erasmus MC-University Medical Center, Rotterdam, Netherlands. Electronic address:
    Norovirus represents the main cause of acute nonbacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. In immunocompromised patients, it bears high risk of causing chronic infection with significant morbidity and mortality. The lack of specific treatment prompts the development of anti-norovirus agents. Read More

    Minocycline suppresses dengue virus replication by down-regulation of macrophage migration inhibitory factor-induced autophagy.
    Antiviral Res 2018 May 9;155:28-38. Epub 2018 May 9.
    Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan. Electronic address:
    Dengue virus (DENV) infection is the most prevalent mosquito-borne viral infection of which there is no licensed therapeutic drug available. Previous studies have shown that minocycline, an antibiotic, can inhibit DENV infection in vitro. However, the mechanism is not fully understood. Read More

    Peptides P4 and P7 derived from E protein inhibit entry of dengue virus serotype 2 via interacting with β3 integrin.
    Antiviral Res 2018 Apr 28;155:20-27. Epub 2018 Apr 28.
    Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China; Center of Epilepsy, Beijing Institute for Brain Disorders, Beijing, China. Electronic address:
    Dengue virus (DENV) infection has become a severe public health problem worldwide. However, there is no specific antiviral drug available yet. In this study, we found that DENV serotype 2 (DENV2) infection enhanced the expression of β3 integrin on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and that DENV2 antigens co-localized with β3 integrin. Read More

    Characterization and structure-activity relationship analysis of a class of antiviral compounds that directly bind dengue virus capsid protein and are incorporated into virions.
    Antiviral Res 2018 Apr 27;155:12-19. Epub 2018 Apr 27.
    Vaccine and Gene Therapy Institute, Oregon Health & Science University, Beaverton, OR, USA. Electronic address:
    Dengue viruses (DENV) are endemic pathogens of tropical and subtropical regions and cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although a partially effective vaccine is in use in several countries in which DENV are endemic, no antiviral therapeutics are approved for combating DENV-associated disease. Herein, we report the characterization of novel small molecule inhibitors of DENV replication, VGTI-A3 and VGTI-A3-03, as well as structure-activity relationship analysis of the molecules using a panel of chemical analogs. Read More

    Novel cyclo-peptides inhibit Ebola pseudotyped virus entry by targeting primed GP protein.
    Antiviral Res 2018 Apr 27;155:1-11. Epub 2018 Apr 27.
    Department of Immunology, Institute of Medicinal Biotechnology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing 100050, China. Electronic address:
    Ebola virus (EBOV) causes fatal hemorrhagic fever with high death rates in human. Currently, there are no available clinically-approved prophylactic or therapeutic treatments. The recently solved crystal structure of cleavage-primed EBOV glycoprotein (GPcl) in complex with the C domain of endosomal protein Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1) provides a new target for the development of EBOV entry inhibitors. Read More

    Chinese herbal extract Su-duxing had potent inhibitory effects on both wild-type and entecavir-resistant hepatitis B virus (HBV) in vitro and effectively suppressed HBV replication in mouse model.
    Antiviral Res 2018 Apr 24;155:39-47. Epub 2018 Apr 24.
    Research Center for Clinical and Translational Medicine, Beijing 302 Hospital, Beijing, China. Electronic address:
    This study aimed to investigate anti-HBV effect and major active compounds of Su-duxing, a medicine extracted from Chinese herbs. HBV-replicating cell lines HepG2.2. Read More

    Novel activities of safe-in-human broad-spectrum antiviral agents.
    Antiviral Res 2018 Jun 23;154:174-182. Epub 2018 Apr 23.
    Department of Clinical and Molecular Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim 7028, Norway; Institute of Technology, University of Tartu, Tartu 50090, Estonia. Electronic address:
    According to the WHO, there is an urgent need for better control of viral diseases. Re-positioning existing safe-in-human antiviral agents from one viral disease to another could play a pivotal role in this process. Here, we reviewed all approved, investigational and experimental antiviral agents, which are safe in man, and identified 59 compounds that target at least three viral diseases. Read More

    Identification of small molecule inhibitors of the Chikungunya virus nsP1 RNA capping enzyme.
    Antiviral Res 2018 Jun 20;154:124-131. Epub 2018 Apr 20.
    Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Pathology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, USA; School of Biomedical Engineering, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, USA. Electronic address:
    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthropod-borne alphavirus. Alphaviruses are positive strand RNA viruses that require a 5' cap structure to direct translation of the viral polyprotein and prevent degradation of the viral RNA genome by host cell nucleases. Formation of the 5' RNA cap is orchestrated by the viral protein nsP1, which binds GTP and provides the N-7 methyltransferase and guanylyltransferase activities that are necessary for cap formation. Read More

    The immunogenicity of recombinant vaccines based on modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA) viruses expressing African horse sickness virus VP2 antigens depends on the levels of expressed VP2 protein delivered to the host.
    Antiviral Res 2018 Jun 18;154:132-139. Epub 2018 Apr 18.
    The Pirbright Institute, Ash Road, Pirbright, Surrey, GU24 0NF, UK. Electronic address:
    African horse sickness (AHS) is a lethal equine disease transmitted by Culicoides biting midges and caused by African horse sickness virus (AHSV). AHS is endemic to sub-Saharan Africa, but devastating outbreaks have been recorded periodically outside this region. The perceived risk of an AHS outbreak occurring in Europe has increased following the frequent epidemics caused in ruminants by bluetongue virus, closely related to AHSV. Read More

    Anti-respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) G monoclonal antibodies reduce lung inflammation and viral lung titers when delivered therapeutically in a BALB/c mouse model.
    Antiviral Res 2018 Jun 17;154:149-157. Epub 2018 Apr 17.
    National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Division of Viral Diseases, Gastroenteritis and Respiratory Viruses Laboratory Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Atlanta, GA, USA.
    RSV continues to be a high priority for vaccine and antiviral drug development. Unfortunately, no safe and effective RSV vaccine is available and treatment options are limited. Over the past decade, several studies have focused on the role of RSV G protein on viral entry, viral neutralization, and RSV-mediated pathology. Read More

    Impact of R152K and R368K neuraminidase catalytic substitutions on in vitro properties and virulence of recombinant A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses.
    Antiviral Res 2018 Jun 16;154:110-115. Epub 2018 Apr 16.
    CHUQ-CHUL and Laval University, Québec City, Québec, Canada. Electronic address:
    Neuraminidase (NA) mutations conferring resistance to NA inhibitors (NAIs) are expected to occur at framework or catalytic residues of the NA enzyme. Numerous clinical and in vitro reports already described NAI-resistant A(H1N1)pdm09 variants harboring various framework NA substitutions. By contrast, variants with NA catalytic changes remain poorly documented. Read More

    Insect cell-produced recombinant protein subunit vaccines protect against Zika virus infection.
    Antiviral Res 2018 Jun 14;154:97-103. Epub 2018 Apr 14.
    CAS Key Laboratory of Molecular Virology & Immunology, Institut Pasteur of Shanghai, Chinese Academy of Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031, China. Electronic address:
    Infection with Zika virus (ZIKV) may lead to severe neurologic disorders. It is of significant importance and urgency to develop safe and effective vaccines to prevent ZIKV infection. Here we report the development of ZIKV subunit vaccines based on insect cell-produced recombinant proteins. Read More

    Luteolin escape mutants of dengue virus map to prM and NS2B and reveal viral plasticity during maturation.
    Antiviral Res 2018 Jun 14;154:87-96. Epub 2018 Apr 14.
    Program in Emerging Infectious Disease, Duke-NUS Medical School, 8 College Road, Singapore 169857, Singapore; Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore 119228, Singapore. Electronic address:
    We previously showed that luteolin, a well-known plant-derived component found in the "heat clearing" class of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) herbs, is an uncompetitive inhibitor (Ki 58.6 μM) of the host proprotein convertase furin, an endoprotease that is required for maturation of flaviviruses in the trans-Golgi compartment. Luteolin also weakly inhibited recombinant dengue virus NS2B/NS3 protease (Ki 140. Read More

    Spectrum of activity testing for therapeutics against all four dengue virus serotypes in AG129 mouse models: Proof-of-concept studies with the adenosine nucleoside inhibitor NITD-008.
    Antiviral Res 2018 Jun 14;154:104-109. Epub 2018 Apr 14.
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555, USA; Sealy Center for Vaccine Development, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555, USA; Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555, USA. Electronic address:
    Dengue is a mosquito-borne disease of global public health importance caused by four genetically and serologically related viruses (DENV-1 to DENV-4). Efforts to develop effective vaccines and therapeutics for dengue have been slowed by the paucity of preclinical models that mimic human disease. DENV-2 models in interferon receptor deficient AG129 mice were an important advance but only allowed testing against a single DENV serotype. Read More

    Human monoclonal antibodies against West Nile virus from Japanese encephalitis-vaccinated volunteers.
    Antiviral Res 2018 Jun 14;154:58-65. Epub 2018 Apr 14.
    Department of Immunology, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, Toyama, 930-0194, Japan. Electronic address:
    West Nile virus (WNV) is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA flavivirus belonging to the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) serocomplex of the Flaviviridae family and causes mosquito-borne infections. Although most human infection cases are asymptomatic, approximately one in 150 infected individuals develops meningoencephalitis, with a mortality rate of 4-14%. While the development of human neutralizing antibody therapeutics against WNV is strongly anticipated, WNV is difficult to study in conventional laboratories due to its high safety level requirement. Read More

    Caffeic acid inhibits HCV replication via induction of IFNα antiviral response through p62-mediated Keap1/Nrf2 signaling pathway.
    Antiviral Res 2018 Jun 12;154:166-173. Epub 2018 Apr 12.
    Laboratory of Immunopharmacology, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; Laboratory of Immunology and Virology, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:
    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and its related liver disease have constituted a heavy burden worldwide. It had been reported that Drinking coffee could decrease mortality risk of HCV infected patients. Caffeic Acid (CA), the Coffee-related organic acid could inhibit HCV replication, however, the detailed mechanism of CA against HCV is unclear. Read More

    Sofosbuvir inhibits hepatitis A virus replication in vitro assessed by a cell-based fluorescent reporter system.
    Antiviral Res 2018 Jun 10;154:51-57. Epub 2018 Apr 10.
    Key Laboratory of Molecular Virology and Immunology, Institut Pasteur of Shanghai, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China; Institut Pasteur of Shanghai, Chinese Academy of Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, China. Electronic address:
    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection remains a major cause of acute hepatitis worldwide and even leads to fulminant hepatitis. For screening antivirals against HAV in vitro, we develop a cell-based fluorescent reporter system named Huh-7.5. Read More

    BET bromodomain inhibitors show anti-papillomavirus activity in vitro and block CRPV wart growth in vivo.
    Antiviral Res 2018 Jun 11;154:158-165. Epub 2018 Apr 11.
    The Jake Gittlen Cancer Research Foundation, H069, Department of Pathology, C7800, The Pennsylvania State University, College of Medicine, 500 University Drive, Hershey, PA 17033-0850, USA.
    The DNA papillomaviruses infect squamous epithelium and can cause persistent, benign and sometimes malignant hyperproliferative lesions. Effective antiviral drugs to treat human papillomavirus (HPV) infection are lacking and here we investigate the anti-papillomavirus activity of novel epigenetic targeting drugs, BET bromodomain inhibitors. Bromodomain and Extra-Terminal domain (BET) proteins are host proteins which regulate gene transcription, they bind acetylated lysine residues in histones and non-histone proteins via bromodomains, functioning as scaffold proteins in the formation of transcriptional complexes at gene regulatory regions. Read More

    The evolution of nucleoside analogue antivirals: A review for chemists and non-chemists. Part 1: Early structural modifications to the nucleoside scaffold.
    Antiviral Res 2018 Jun 10;154:66-86. Epub 2018 Apr 10.
    1000 Hilltop Circle, Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry, University of Maryland, Baltimore County, Baltimore, MD, USA.
    This is the first of two invited articles reviewing the development of nucleoside-analogue antiviral drugs, written for a target audience of virologists and other non-chemists, as well as chemists who may not be familiar with the field. Rather than providing a simple chronological account, we have examined and attempted to explain the thought processes, advances in synthetic chemistry and lessons learned from antiviral testing that led to a few molecules being moved forward to eventual approval for human therapies, while others were discarded. The present paper focuses on early, relatively simplistic changes made to the nucleoside scaffold, beginning with modifications of the nucleoside sugars of Ara-C and other arabinose-derived nucleoside analogues in the 1960's. Read More

    A Guinea pig cytomegalovirus resistant to the DNA maturation inhibitor BDCRB.
    Antiviral Res 2018 Jun 9;154:44-50. Epub 2018 Apr 9.
    Departments of Pediatrics, Medical College of Virginia Campus of Virginia Commonwealth University, 1101 E. Marshall Street, Richmond, VA 23298-0163, USA. Electronic address:
    Herpesvirus DNA packaging is an essential step in virion morphogenesis and an important target for antiviral development. The halogenated benzimidazole 2-bromo-5,6-dichloro-1-β-d-ribofuranosyl-1H-benzimidazole (BDCRB) was the first compound found to selectively disrupt DNA packaging. It has activity against human cytomegalovirus as well as guinea pig cytomegalovirus. Read More

    Inhibition of dengue virus infection by mannoside glycolipid conjugates.
    Antiviral Res 2018 Jun 6;154:116-123. Epub 2018 Apr 6.
    CNRS, Université de Strasbourg, Immunopathology and Therapeutic Chemistry, UPR 3572, 67000 Strasbourg, France. Electronic address:
    Dengue virus (DENV), a mosquito-borne flavivirus, causes severe and potentially fatal symptoms in millions of infected individuals each year. Although dengue fever represents a major global public health problem, the vaccines or antiviral drugs proposed so far have not shown sufficient efficacy and safety, calling for new antiviral developments. Here we have shown that a mannoside glycolipid conjugate (MGC) bearing a trimannose head with a saturated lipid chain inhibited DENV productive infection. Read More

    Adipocytes impair efficacy of antiretroviral therapy.
    Antiviral Res 2018 Jun 6;154:140-148. Epub 2018 Apr 6.
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX, USA. Electronic address:
    Adequate distribution of antiretroviral drugs to infected cells in HIV patients is critical for viral suppression. In humans and primates, HIV- and SIV-infected CD4 T cells in adipose tissues have recently been identified as reservoirs for infectious virus. To better characterize adipose tissue as a pharmacological sanctuary for HIV-infected cells, in vitro experiments were conducted to assess antiretroviral drug efficacy in the presence of adipocytes, and drug penetration in adipose tissue cells (stromal-vascular-fraction cells and mature adipocytes) was examined in treated humans and monkeys. Read More

    Hepatitis B virus rtA181T/sW172non-stop mutation may increase resistance fold to adefovir- and entecavir-resistant mutants compared to rtA181T/sW172* mutation.
    Antiviral Res 2018 Jun 6;154:26-34. Epub 2018 Apr 6.
    Research Center for Clinical and Translational Medicine, Beijing 302 Hospital, Beijing 100039, China; Clinical Medical School, Guilin Medical University, Guilin 541004, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China; Institute of Infectious Diseases, Beijing 302 Hospital, Beijing 100039, China. Electronic address:
    The study aimed to characterize rtA181T/sW172stop (*) and rtA181T/sW172non-stop mutations of hepatitis B virus (HBV). Total of 22,009 patients who visited Beijing 302 Hospital from 2007 to 2016 were enrolled. These patients all received nucleos(t)ide analogues (NAs) treatment and their serum samples were collected for sequence analysis of HBV reverse-transcriptase (RT) and S regions. Read More

    A tetravalent vaccine comprising hexon-chimeric adenoviruses elicits balanced protective immunity against human adenovirus types 3, 7, 14 and 55.
    Antiviral Res 2018 Jun 4;154:17-25. Epub 2018 Apr 4.
    State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease, National Clinical Research Center for Respiratory Disease, Guangzhou Institute of Respiratory Health, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China. Electronic address:
    Human adenovirus (Ad) species B contains several of the most important types associated with acute respiratory diseases, Ad3, -7, -14 and -55, which often lead to severe lower respiratory tract diseases and epidemic outbreaks. However, there is currently no Ad vaccine approved for general use. The major capsid protein, hexon, is the primary determinant recognized by neutralizing antibodies (NAbs). Read More

    Susceptibility of paramyxoviruses and filoviruses to inhibition by 2'-monofluoro- and 2'-difluoro-4'-azidocytidine analogs.
    Antiviral Res 2018 May 27;153:101-113. Epub 2018 Mar 27.
    US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA. Electronic address:
    Ebolaviruses, marburgviruses, and henipaviruses are zoonotic pathogens belonging to the Filoviridae and Paramyxoviridae families. They exemplify viruses that continue to spill over into the human population, causing outbreaks characterized by high mortality and significant clinical sequelae in survivors of infection. There are currently no approved small molecule therapeutics for use in humans against these viruses. Read More

    Ribavirin-related compounds exert in vitro inhibitory effects toward rabies virus.
    Antiviral Res 2018 Jun 28;154:1-9. Epub 2018 Mar 28.
    Division of Molecular Pathobiology, Research Center for Zoonosis Control, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 001-0020, Japan; Global Institution for Collaborative Research and Education (GI-CoRE), Hokkaido University, Sapporo 001-0020, Japan; Global Virus Network, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA. Electronic address:
    Rabies remains an invariably fatal neurological disease despite the availability of a preventive vaccination and post-exposure prophylaxis that must be immediately administered to the exposed individual before symptom onset. There is no effective medication for treatment during the symptomatic phase. Ribavirin, a guanine nucleoside analog, is a potent inhibitor of rabies virus (RABV) replication in vitro but lacks clinical efficacy. Read More

    Susceptibility of Brazilian influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses to neuraminidase inhibitors in the 2014-2016 seasons: Identification of strains bearing mutations associated with reduced inhibition profile.
    Antiviral Res 2018 Jun 28;154:35-43. Epub 2018 Mar 28.
    Laboratório de Vírus Respiratórios e do Sarampo, National Influenza Center (NIC)/ World Health Organization (WHO), Instituto Oswaldo Cruz/Fiocruz, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs) are the main class of antivirals currently used for the treatment of influenza infections. As influenza viruses are constantly evolving, drug-resistance can emerge resulting in reduced effectiveness of treatment. This study evaluated the presence of molecular markers associated with NAI susceptibility in 724 influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 positive samples from Brazilian surveillance system from the 2014-2016 seasons, including 76 isolates tested for oseltamivir (OST) susceptibility and 23 isolates also tested for zanamivir, peramivir and laninamivir susceptibility. Read More

    Tumor suppressor ZHX2 restricts hepatitis B virus replication via epigenetic and non-epigenetic manners.
    Antiviral Res 2018 May 23;153:114-123. Epub 2018 Mar 23.
    Key Laboratory for Experimental Teratology of Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory of Infection and Immunity of Shandong Province, and Department of Immunology, Shandong University School of Basic Medical Science, Jinan, Shandong, PR China; State Key Laboratory of Microbial Technology, Shandong University, Jinan, PR China. Electronic address:
    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA), the stable genomic form as the template for viral transcription, plays a crucial role in viral persistence which remains a major global health problem. While accumulating evidence suggests the involvement of transcription factors and epigenetic machinery in cccDNA transcription, the roles of host transcription factors which contribute to epigenetic modification of cccDNA remain largely unknown. Zinc finger and homeoboxes 2 (ZHX2) is abundantly expressed in adult hepatocytes, where it acts as a transcriptional repressor and tumor suppressor by directly inhibiting the promoter activities of target genes. Read More

    Identification of Indonesian clade 2.1 highly pathogenic influenza A(H5N1) viruses with N294S and S246N neuraminidase substitutions which further reduce oseltamivir susceptibility.
    Antiviral Res 2018 May 21;153:95-100. Epub 2018 Mar 21.
    Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Emergency Centre for Transboundary Animal Diseases (ECTAD), Jakarta, Indonesia. Electronic address:
    We have tested the in vitro susceptibility to the neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors of 96 highly pathogenic clade 2.1 A(H5N1) viruses from Indonesia, isolated between 2008 and 2011. HPAI virus samples obtained through the Influenza Virus Monitoring (IVM) surveillance program in Indonesia were tested for susceptibility to oseltamivir and zanamivir. Read More

    PrEP-001 prophylactic effect against rhinovirus and influenza virus - RESULTS of 2 randomized trials.
    Antiviral Res 2018 May 19;153:70-77. Epub 2018 Mar 19.
    Janssen Research & Development, Turnhoutseweg 30, B-2340 Beerse, Belgium.
    Background: PrEP-001 Nasal Powder, a proprietary formulation of polyriboinosinic and polyribocytidylic acid effectively elicits a cellular innate immune response in nasal epithelium. The aim of these 2 studies was to investigate the safety and efficacy of PrEP-001 prophylaxis against rhinovirus (HRV-A16) and influenza-A (H3N2-IAV).

    Methods: Healthy subjects randomly received 2 doses of PrEP-001 or placebo, 48 and 24 h pre-challenge with 10 TCID of HRV-A16 (Study 1) or H3N2-IAV (Study 2). Read More

    An in silico-designed flavone derivative, 6-fluoro-4'-hydroxy-3',5'-dimetoxyflavone, has a greater anti-human cytomegalovirus effect than ganciclovir in infected cells.
    Antiviral Res 2018 Jun 17;154:10-16. Epub 2018 Mar 17.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hokuriku University, Ho-3 Kanagawa-machi, Kanazawa 920-1181, Japan. Electronic address:
    A novel type of antiviral agent for human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is required, because the appearance of ganciclovir (GCV) resistant viruses has been reported. Tricin (4',5,7-trihydroxy-3',5'-dimethoxyflavone) has been shown to suppress significantly HCMV replication in human embryonic lung (HEL) fibroblast cells. Recently, we revealed that the action of tricin is different from that of GCV and cyclin-dependent kinase 9 (CDK9) is one of the target proteins of tricin. Read More

    Improved immune response against HIV-1 Env antigen by enhancing EEV production via a K151E mutation in the A34R gene of replication-competent vaccinia virus Tiantan.
    Antiviral Res 2018 May 14;153:49-59. Epub 2018 Mar 14.
    Mucosal Immunity Research Group, State Key Laboratory of Virology, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, Hubei, 430071, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100049, China. Electronic address:
    The development of an effective HIV-1 vaccine is still a global priority. In recent years, vaccinia virus (VV) has been widely used as an HIV-1 vaccine vector, but its immune efficacy against HIV-1 antigens needs to be optimized. The extracellular enveloped virus (EEV) of VV is capable of faster entry, earlier release, and long-range dissemination. Read More

    Favipiravir as a potential countermeasure against neglected and emerging RNA viruses.
    Antiviral Res 2018 May 7;153:85-94. Epub 2018 Mar 7.
    KU Leuven - University of Leuven, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Rega Institute for Medical Research, Laboratory of Virology and Chemotherapy, Herestraat 49, B-3000, Leuven, Belgium.
    Favipiravir, also known as T-705, is an antiviral drug that has been approved in 2014 in Japan to treat pandemic influenza virus infections. The drug is converted intracellularly into its active, phosphoribosylated form, which is recognized as a substrate by the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. Interestingly, besides its anti-influenza virus activity, this molecule is also able to inhibit the replication of flavi-, alpha-, filo-, bunya-, arena-, noro-, and of other RNA viruses, which include neglected and (re)emerging viruses for which no antiviral therapy is currently available. Read More

    Erratum to 'Inhibition of human cytomegalovirus replication by tricin is associated with depressed CCL2 expression' [Antiviral Research (2017) 15-19].
    Antiviral Res 2018 Mar;151:105
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hokuriku University, Ho-3 Kanagawa-machi, Kanazawa 920-1181, Japan. Electronic address:

    Profiling the in vitro drug-resistance mechanism of influenza A viruses towards the AM2-S31N proton channel blockers.
    Antiviral Res 2018 May 6;153:10-22. Epub 2018 Mar 6.
    BIO5 Institute, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, United States; Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, United States. Electronic address:
    The majority of human influenza A viruses currently in circulation carry the amantadine-resistant AM2-S31N channel mutation. We previously discovered a series of AM2-S31N inhibitors with potent antiviral activity against both oseltamivir-sensitive and -resistant influenza A viruses. To understand the drug-resistance mechanism of AM2-S31N inhibitors, we performed serial viral passage experiments using the influenza virus A/California/07/2009 (H1N1) to select drug-resistant AM2 mutations against two representative AM2-S31N channel blockers (1 and 2). Read More

    USC-087 protects Syrian hamsters against lethal challenge with human species C adenoviruses.
    Antiviral Res 2018 May 3;153:1-9. Epub 2018 Mar 3.
    Saint Louis University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63104, USA. Electronic address:
    Human adenoviruses (AdV) cause generally mild infections of the respiratory and GI tracts as well as some other tissues. However, AdV can cause serious infection in severely immunosuppressed individuals, especially pediatric patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, where mortality rates are up to 80% with disseminated disease. Despite the seriousness of AdV disease, there are no drugs approved specifically to treat AdV infections. Read More

    Nasal route favors the induction of CD4 T cell responses in the liver of HBV-carrier mice immunized with a recombinant hepatitis B surface- and core-based therapeutic vaccine.
    Antiviral Res 2018 May 3;153:23-32. Epub 2018 Mar 3.
    INSERM U994, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France.
    Immunization routes and number of doses remain largely unexplored in therapeutic vaccination. The aim of the present work is to evaluate their impact on immune responses in naïve and hepatitis B virus (HBV)-carrier mouse models following immunization with a non-adjuvanted recombinant vaccine comprising the hepatitis B surface (HBsAg) and core (HBcAg) antigens. Mice were immunized either by intranasal (i. Read More

    Bivalent vaccine platform based on ca influenza virus vaccine elicits protective immunity against human adenoviruses.
    Antiviral Res 2018 May 1;153:78-84. Epub 2018 Mar 1.
    Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology, State Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Biosecurity, Beijing 100071, China; Beijing 302 Hospital, Beijing 100039, China. Electronic address:
    Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) are prevalent in pediatric and adult patients with severe acute respiratory disease (ARD). To date, there have been no widely used HAdV vaccines available. In this report, we developed a cold-adapted attenuated influenza virus, termed rg HAdV-Flu ca, carrying epitopes from HAdV hexon protein in the backbone of the ca influenza vaccine neuraminidase (NA) gene using reverse genetics. Read More

    Inhibition of NF-κB-dependent HIV-1 replication by the marine natural product bengamide A.
    Antiviral Res 2018 Apr 22;152:94-103. Epub 2018 Feb 22.
    Faculty of Health Sciences, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, Canada; Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, Canada; British Columbia Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS, Vancouver, BC, Canada. Electronic address:
    HIV-1 inhibitors that act by mechanisms distinct from existing antiretrovirals can provide novel insights into viral replication and potentially inform development of new therapeutics. Using a multi-cycle HIV-1 replication assay, we screened 252 pure compounds derived from marine invertebrates and microorganisms and identified 6 (actinomycin Z, bastadin 6, bengamide A, haliclonacyclamine A + B, keramamine C, neopetrosiamide B) that inhibited HIV-1 with 50% effective concentrations (ECs) of 3.8 μM or less. Read More

    A virus-like particle vaccine protects mice against coxsackievirus A10 lethal infection.
    Antiviral Res 2018 Apr 20;152:124-130. Epub 2018 Feb 20.
    Unit of Vaccinology & Antiviral Strategies, CAS Key Laboratory of Molecular Virology & Immunology, Institut Pasteur of Shanghai, Chinese Academy of Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031, China; Joint Center for Infection and Immunity, Guangzhou Institute of Pediatrics, Department of Gastroenterology, Guangzhou Women and Children's Medical Center, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou 510623, China. Electronic address:
    Coxsackievirus A10 (CVA10) has emerged worldwide as one of the main pathogens of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) in recent years. However, there is currently no commercial vaccine available to prevent CVA10 infection. Here we report the development of a recombinant virus-like particle (VLP) based candidate vaccine for CVA10. Read More

    Antiviral activity of pyrrole-imidazole polyamides against SV40 and BK polyomaviruses.
    Antiviral Res 2018 Apr 16;152:68-75. Epub 2018 Feb 16.
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, University of Florida College of Medicine, 1200 Newell Drive, Gainesville, FL 32610, United States. Electronic address:
    The ability of antiviral polyamides (AVP) to act upon polyomaviruses (PyV) was evaluated. Initial studies found that a single treatment of AVP protected SV40-infected BSC-1 cells from cytopathic effect (CPE) for as long as 11 days p.i. Read More

    Artesunate-derived monomeric, dimeric and trimeric experimental drugs - Their unique mechanistic basis and pronounced antiherpesviral activity.
    Antiviral Res 2018 Apr 16;152:104-110. Epub 2018 Feb 16.
    Institute for Clinical and Molecular Virology, Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nürnberg, Schlossgarten 4, 91054 Erlangen, Germany. Electronic address:
    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a major human pathogen and is associated with severe pathology, such as life-threatening courses of infection in immunocompromised individuals and neonates. Currently, antiviral therapy is still hampered by a considerable toxicity of the available drugs and induction of viral resistance. Recently, we and others reported the very potent antiviral activity of the broad antiinfective drug artesunate in vitro and in vivo. Read More

    Therapeutic drug monitoring in treatment-experienced HIV-infected patients receiving darunavir-based salvage regimens: A case series.
    Antiviral Res 2018 Apr 17;152:111-116. Epub 2018 Feb 17.
    Faculté de pharmacie, Université de Montréal, C.P. 6128, succ. Centre-ville, Montréal, Québec, H3C 3J7, Canada; Chronic Viral Illness Service, McGill University Health Centre, 1001 boulevard Décarie, D02.4110, Montréal, Québec, H4A 3J1, Canada; Pharmacy Department, McGill University Health Centre, 1001 boulevard Décarie, CRC.6004, Montréal, Québec, H4A 3J1, Canada. Electronic address:
    Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) constitutes a compelling approach for the optimization of antiretroviral therapy in treatment-experienced HIV-1 patients. While various inhibitory indices have been proposed to predict virologic outcome, there is a lack of consensus on the clinical value of TDM. Here, we report the comparative results of TDM in 14 HIV-1-infected patients who had previously received at least two different PI-based regimens and who initiated darunavir (DRV)-based salvage therapy. Read More

    Inhibition of hepatitis B virus replication via HBV DNA cleavage by Cas9 from Staphylococcus aureus.
    Antiviral Res 2018 Apr 16;152:58-67. Epub 2018 Feb 16.
    State Key Laboratory of Organ Failure Research, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Viral Hepatitis Research, Department of Infectious Diseases and Hepatology Unit, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China. Electronic address:
    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is difficult to cure due to the presence of covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA). Accumulating evidence indicates that the CRISPR/Cas9 system effectively disrupts HBV genome, including cccDNA, in vitro and in vivo. However, efficient delivery of CRISPR/Cas9 system to the liver or hepatocytes using an adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector remains challenging due to the large size of Cas9 from Streptococcus pyogenes (Sp). Read More

    Impact of RNA polymerase I inhibitor CX-5461 on viral kinase-dependent and -independent cytomegalovirus replication.
    Antiviral Res 2018 May 16;153:33-38. Epub 2018 Feb 16.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Marquette University and the Medical College of Wisconsin Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA. Electronic address:
    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infections cause congenital birth defects and disease in immunosuppressed individuals. Antiviral compounds can control infection yet their use is restricted due to concerns of toxicity and the emergence of drug resistant strains. We have evaluated the impact of an RNA Polymerase I (Pol I) inhibitor, CX-5461 on HCMV replication. Read More

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