122,127 results match your criteria Antiviral Chemistry & Chemotherapy[Journal]


Detection of norovirus epidemic genotypes in raw sewage using next generation sequencing.

Environ Int 2018 Dec 12;123:282-291. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Laboratory of Comparative and Environmental Virology, Oswaldo Cruz Institute, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.

Noroviruses are a leading cause of epidemic and pandemic acute gastroenteritis (AGE) worldwide, and contaminated food and water are important routes for its transmission. Raw sewage has been used for viral surveillance to monitor the emergence of new norovirus strains with the potential to cause epidemics. In this study, we investigated norovirus occurrence and norovirus RNA levels in 156 samples collected from May 2013 to May 2014, across three different stages (52 samples each) of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Non-covalent hitchhiking on endogenous carriers as a protraction mechanism for antiviral macromolecular prodrugs.

J Control Release 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Chemistry, Aarhus University, 8000 Aarhus C, Denmark. Electronic address:

Albumin is a highly successful tool of drug delivery providing drastically extended body and blood residence time for the associated cargo, but it only traffics single drug copies at a time. In turn, macromolecular prodrugs (MP) are advantaged in carrying a high drug payload but offering only a modest extension of residence time to the conjugated drugs. In this work, we engineer MP to contain terminal groups that bind to albumin via non-covalent association and reveal that this facile measure affords a significant protraction for the associated polymers. Read More

View Article
December 2018

First report of two consecutive respiratory syncytial virus outbreaks by the novel genotypes ON-1 and NA-2 in a neonatal intensive care unit.

J Pediatr (Rio J) 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Santa Casa de São Paulo, Unidade de Doenças Infecciosas Pediátricas, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

Objective: Respiratory syncytial virus is a pathogen frequently involved in nosocomial outbreaks. Although several studies have reported nosocomial outbreaks in neonatal intensive care units, molecular epidemiology data are scarce. Here, the authors describe two consecutive respiratory syncytial virus outbreaks caused by genotypes ON-1 and NA-2 in a neonatal intensive care unit in São Paulo, Brazil. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Emergence of oncogenic-enhancing hepatitis B virus X gene mutants in patients receiving suboptimal entecavir treatment.

Hepatology 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Molecular Medicine Research Center, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan.

Entecavir is a widely used nucleoside analogue for antiviral therapy against chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Despite its remarkable efficacy in suppressing HBV replication, a substantial proportion of cirrhotic patients still developed hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after entecavir treatment (1). Presumably, it is largely attributed to the existing precancerous hepatocytes, which sturdily progresses into cancer despite effective viral suppression. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Clinical effectiveness of pharmacy-led versus conventionally delivered antiviral treatment for hepatitis C in patients receiving opioid substitution therapy: a study protocol for a pragmatic cluster randomised trial.

BMJ Open 2018 Dec 14;8(12):e021443. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Division of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, University of Dundee, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Dundee, UK.

Introduction: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection affects 0.7% of the general population, and up to 40% of people prescribed opioid substitution therapy (OST) in Scotland. In conventional care, less than 10% of OST users are tested for HCV and less than 25% of these initiate treatment. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Contrasting patterns of virus protection and functional incompatibility genes in two conspecific strains from .

Appl Environ Microbiol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

School of Biological Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia

infections can present different phenotypes in hosts, including different forms of reproductive manipulation and antiviral protection, which may influence infection dynamics within host populations. In populations of two distinct strains co-exist, each manipulating host reproduction: PanCI, causes cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI), whereas PanMK, causes male-killing (MK). CI occurs when a -infected male mates with a female not infected with a compatible type of leading to non-viable offspring. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Aging of Antiviral CD8 Memory T Cells Fosters Increased Survival, Metabolic Adaptations, and Lymphoid Tissue Homing.

J Immunol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Anesthesiology, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO 80045;

Aging of established antiviral T cell memory can foster a series of progressive adaptations that paradoxically improve rather than compromise protective CD8 T cell immunity. We now provide evidence that this gradual evolution, the pace of which is contingent on the precise context of the primary response, also impinges on the molecular mechanisms that regulate CD8 memory T cell (T) homeostasis. Over time, CD8 T generated in the wake of an acute infection with the natural murine pathogen lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus become more resistant to apoptosis and acquire enhanced cytokine responsiveness without adjusting their homeostatic proliferation rates; concurrent metabolic adaptations promote increased CD8 T quiescence and fitness but also impart the reacquisition of a partial effector-like metabolic profile; and a gradual redistribution of aging CD8 T from blood and nonlymphoid tissues to lymphatic organs results in CD8 T accumulations in bone marrow, splenic white pulp, and, particularly, lymph nodes. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Direct-acting antiviral therapy in sub-Saharan Africa.

Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Division of Hepatology, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town 7925, South Africa.

View Article
December 2018

Treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus infection in Rwanda with ledipasvir-sofosbuvir (SHARED): a single-arm trial.

Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, USA.

Background: Limited treatment data are available for hepatitis C virus (HCV) in sub-Saharan Africa, especially for genotype 4. Our objective was to establish the safety and efficacy of ledipasvir-sofosbuvir for chronic HCV genotype 1 or 4 infection in adults in Rwanda.

Methods: We did a single-arm trial to evaluate the safety and efficacy of ledipasvir-sofosbuvir in Rwandan adults with chronic HCV infection at a single study site (Rwanda Military Hospital, Kigali, Rwanda). Read More

View Article
December 2018

Molecular targeting for treatment of human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 infection.

Biomed Pharmacother 2019 Jan 5;109:770-778. Epub 2018 Nov 5.

Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran; Surgical Oncology Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. Electronic address:

Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection is linked to adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma (ATLL) and HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) and several other disorders. ATLL occurs in approximately 5% of the 15-20 million people infected by HTLV-1 in the world. In general, ATLL is resistant to chemotherapy, which underlines the need for new and effective therapeutic strategies. Read More

View Article
January 2019
1 Read

Diagnostics and therapeutics for Ebola hemorrhagic fever: application of monoclonal antibody.

Authors:
Ayato Takada

Nihon Rinsho 2016 Dec;74(12):2080-2085

Ebolaviruses, members of the family Filoviridae, cause severe hemorrhagic fever (Ebola virus disease: EVD) in humans and nonhuman primates with case fatality rates of up to 90%. No effective prophylaxis or treatment for EVD is yet commercially available. The latest out- break of EVD in West Africa has highlighted the urgent need for the development of thera- peutics and diagnostics. Read More

View Article
December 2016

The mechanism for emergence of viral drug-resistance.

Authors:
Tetsuya Mizutani

Nihon Rinsho 2016 Dec;74(12):2070-2075

Antiviral drug was firstly reported regarding thiosemicarbazones developed for poxviruses in 1951. Then, human beings have been developed antiviral drugs using the latest technolo- gies including drug-design by computer, selection from huge compounds, antibodies and ge- nome editing. However, drug-resistant viruses always emerge because viruses are able to easily mutate. Read More

View Article
December 2016

Dengue fever.

Nihon Rinsho 2016 Dec;74(12):2042-2046

Dengue fever is mosquito-transmitted viral diseases. Dengue viruses (DENV) belong to the family Flaviviridae, which includes other clinically important human pathogenic flavivi- ruses. No effective antiviral drugs exist to treat dengue, however, a vaccine for dengue has been licensed in several countries recently. Read More

View Article
December 2016

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever.

Authors:
Saijo Masayuki

Nihon Rinsho 2016 Dec;74(12):2003-2007

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF), caused by infection with CCHF virus (CCHFV), is viral hemorrhagic fever with high case fatality rate. CCHFV is classified to Family Bunyaviridae, Genus Nairovirus. CCHF is endemic to Africa, Eastern Europe, the Middle East, central Asia, and southern Asia. Read More

View Article
December 2016

Fish antiviral tripartite motif (TRIM) proteins.

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

INRA, Virologie et Immunologie Moléculaires, Université Paris-Saclay, Jouy-en-Josas, France. Electronic address:

Tripartite motif (TRIM) family or RBCC proteins comprises characteristic zinc-binding domains (a RING (R), a B-box type 1 (B1) and a B-box type 2 (B2)) and coiled-coil (CC) domain followed by a C-terminus variable domain. There are about 80 different TRIM proteins in human, but more than 200 in zebrafish with several large gene expansions (ftr >70 genes; btr >30 genes; trim35 > 30 genes). Repertoires of trim genes in fish are variable across fishes, but they have been remarkably diversified independently in a number of species. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Recovery of metabolic impairment of patients who cleared HCV infections after direct-acting antiviral therapy.

Int J Antimicrob Agents 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

National Institute for Infectious Diseases Lazzaro Spallanzani-IRCCS- Via Portuense, 292- 00149 Rome, Italy. Electronic address:

Chronic Hepatitis C (CHC) is a complex disease that can affect different metabolic processes, including glucose and lipids metabolic pathways, with a significant impact on development of heart disease and stroke. The recent therapy with Direct Antiviral Agents (DAAs) beyond the high efficacy on CHC eradication, showed a beneficial impact on glucose and lipid metabolism. This review aims to describe current evidences about the association between HCV infection and impairment of glucose and lipids metabolism and discuss potential public health implications at the light of new DAA therapy and their availability at global level. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Virus and host interactions critical for filoviral RNA synthesis as therapeutic targets.

Antiviral Res 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA.

Filoviruses, which include Ebola virus and Marburg virus, are negative-sense RNA viruses associated with sporadic outbreaks of severe viral hemorrhagic fever characterized by uncontrolled virus replication. The extreme virulence and emerging nature of these zoonotic pathogens make them a significant threat to human health. Replication of the filovirus genome and production of viral RNAs requires the function of a complex of four viral proteins, the nucleoprotein (NP), viral protein 35 (VP35), viral protein 30 (VP30) and large protein (L). Read More

View Article
December 2018

Maternal vaccination with a novel chimeric glycoprotein formulated with a polymer-based adjuvant provides protection from human parainfluenza virus type 3 in newborn lambs.

Antiviral Res 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

VIDO-InterVac, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5E3, Canada; Microbiology & Immunology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5E3, Canada. Electronic address:

Human parainfluenza virus 3 (PIV3) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) are major causative agents of serious respiratory tract illness in newborns and infants. Maternal vaccination could be a promising approach to provide immediate protection against severe PIV3 and RSV infection in young infants. Previously, we demonstrated that maternal immunization with a subunit vaccine consisting of the RSV fusion (F) protein formulated with TriAdj, an adjuvant consisting of poly(I:C), immune defense regulatory peptide and polyphosphazene, protects newborn lambs from RSV. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Antiviral effects of selected nucleoside analogs against human parechoviruses A1 and A3.

Antiviral Res 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

KU Leuven, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Rega Institute for Medical Research, Laboratory of Virology and Chemotherapy, Leuven, Belgium. Electronic address:

Parechoviruses A (HPeV, Picornaviridae) are neglected human pathogens that cause sepsis-like illness and severe neurological complications in infants. There are no antivirals available for the treatment of HPeV infections. We here report on cell-based assays that allow for medium-throughput antiviral screening of compound libraries against HPeV. Read More

View Article
December 2018
1 Read

Modulation of the unfolded protein response pathway as an antiviral approach in airway epithelial cells.

Antiviral Res 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Division of Respiratory Medicine, Department of Paediatrics, University Hospital Bern, Bern, Switzerland; Institute of Virology and Immunology, Bern, Switzerland; Department of Infectious Diseases and Pathobiology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Introduction: Rhinovirus (RV) infection is a major cause of cystic fibrosis (CF) lung morbidity with limited therapeutic options. Various diseases involving chronic inflammatory response and infection are associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and subsequent activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR), an adaptive response to maintain cellular homeostasis. Recent evidence suggests impaired ER stress response in CF airway epithelial cells, this might be a reason for recurrent viral infection in CF. Read More

View Article
December 2018

West Nile virus epizootic in Germany, 2018.

Antiviral Res 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Federal Research Institute for Animal Health, Institute of Novel and Emerging Infectious Diseases, Greifswald-Insel Riems, Germany; German Centre for Infection Research (DZIF), Partner Site Hamburg-Luebeck-Borstel, Greifswald-Insel Riems, Germany. Electronic address:

The summer of 2018 in Germany was the second hottest and driest on record. These generally extremely favorable climatic conditions most likely triggered the further expansion and the efficient propagation of the zoonotic arthropod-borne West Nile virus in many Southern/Southeastern and even Central European countries. WNV infections were detected for the first time in resident wild and aviary birds, such as common blackbirds, northern goshawks and great grey owls in Eastern and Southeastern Germany. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Protein Interaction Mapping Identifies RBBP6 as a Negative Regulator of Ebola Virus Replication.

Cell 2018 Dec;175(7):1917-1930.e13

Department of Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA; Quantitative Biosciences Institute, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA; J. David Gladstone Institutes, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA. Electronic address:

Ebola virus (EBOV) infection often results in fatal illness in humans, yet little is known about how EBOV usurps host pathways during infection. To address this, we used affinity tag-purification mass spectrometry (AP-MS) to generate an EBOV-host protein-protein interaction (PPI) map. We uncovered 194 high-confidence EBOV-human PPIs, including one between the viral transcription regulator VP30 and the host ubiquitin ligase RBBP6. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Deception through Mimicry: A Cellular Antiviral Strategy.

Cell 2018 Dec;175(7):1728-1729

Department of Integrative Structural and Computational Biology, the Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. Electronic address:

Viruses use mimicry to hijack cellular machinery, but can human cells use mimicry as an antiviral approach? Batra et al. identify a novel antiviral restriction factor, RBBP6, by characterizing the cellular interactome of Ebola virus. RBBP6 targets the Ebola virus transcription factor VP30 by mimicking the binding of Ebola virus nucleoprotein. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Effect of Macrolide Prophylactic Therapy on AIDS-Defining Conditions and HIV-Associated Mortality.

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Research Institute for Tropical Medicine, Muntinlupa City, Philippines.

Background: Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) prophylaxis is recommended for patients with advanced HIV infection. With the decrease in incidence of disseminated MAC infection and the availability of antiretroviral therapy (ART), the benefits of macrolide prophylaxis were investigated. This study examined the impact of macrolide prophylaxis on AIDS-defining conditions and HIV-associated mortality in a cohort of HIV-infected patients on ART. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Label-free Proteomic Analysis of Exosomes Secreted from THP-1-derived Macrophages Treated with IFN-α Identifies Antiviral Proteins Enriched in Exosomes.

J Proteome Res 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Exosomes are extracellular vesicles that function in intercellular communication. We have previously reported that exosomes play an important role in the transmission of antiviral molecules during interferon-α (IFN-α) treatment. In this study, the protein profiles of THP-1-derived macrophages with or without interferon-α treatment and the exosomes secreted from these cells were analyzed by label-free LC-MS/MS quantitation technologies. Read More

View Article
December 2018

[Modern ethiotropic chemotherapy of human cytomegalovirus infection: clinical effectiveness, molecular mechanism of action, drug resistance, new trends and prospects. Part 1.]

Authors:
V L Andronova

Vopr Virusol 2018 ;63(5):202-211

National Research Center for Epidemiology and Microbiology named after the honorary academician N.F. Gamaleya, Moscow, 123098, Russian Federation.

Modern chemotherapy of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections has a very limited arsenal of first-line drugs. These are preparations of ganciclovir (GCV) belonging to the class of modified nucleosides and its metabolic precursor ganciclovir valine ester. After three-step phosphorylation, GCV, as a structural analogue of the natural nucleotide, competes with it for binding to DNA polymerase and, due to its structural features, inhibits its activity. Read More

View Article
January 2018

Tolerability and effectiveness of generic direct-acting antiviral drugs in eradication of hepatitis C genotype 4 among Egyptian patients.

Liver Int 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Tropical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University Cairo, Egypt.

Background: We investigated tolerability and effectiveness of generic, less expensive direct antiviral drugs in the treatment of hepatitis C virus genotype 4(HCV- GT-4) in an Egyptian cohort.

Patients And Methods: Retrospectively, we analyzed data from 648 patients with HCV-GT4 attending Alexandria Main University Hospital from January 2016 to May 2017 [488 treatment naïve/160 treatment experienced/288 with chronic hepatitis/360 with cirrhosis]. Patients received generic sofosbuvir/ledipasvir (n= 168, treatment naïve = 136, treatment-experienced = 32) or sofosbuvir/daclatasvir (n= 480, treatment naïve = 352, treatment-experienced = 128) ± ribavirin. Read More

View Article
December 2018

The presence of varices in patients after hepatitis C eradication predicts deterioration in the FIB-4 index.

Hepatol Res 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto.

Aims: The liver function of patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection who obtained sustained virological response (SVR) has been known to improve after HCV eradication. However, a predictor of liver function after SVR has not been definitively identified. The aim of this retrospective study was to identify a predictor of deteriorated liver function and FIB-4 index after SVR was achieved by direct-acting antiviral (DAA) treatment. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Type I IFNs in the female reproductive tract: The first line of defense in an ever-changing battleground.

J Leukoc Biol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Medical Gerontology, Trinity Translational Medicine Institute, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.

The primary function of the female reproductive tract (FRT) is to enable successful reproduction, yet the biologic mechanisms required to accomplish this, which include fluctuating sex hormones and tolerance of semen and a semi-allogeneic fetus, can leave this unique mucosal environment susceptible to pathogenic challenge. Consequently, the FRT has evolved specialized innate and adaptive immune responses tailored to protecting itself from infection without compromising reproductive success. A family of innate immune cytokines that has emerged as important regulators of these immune responses is the type I IFNs. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Entecavir and peginterferon alfa-2a in adults with HBeAg-positive immune tolerant chronic hepatitis B virus infection.

Hepatology 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

University of Michigan.

Background/aim: Monotherapy with interferon or nucleoside analog is generally not recommended during the immune tolerant (IT) phase of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Recognition that high HBV DNA levels are associated with hepatocellular carcinoma has increased interest in treating HBV in the IT phase. Small pediatric studies reported efficacy with combination nucleoside analog and interferon therapy. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Considering hepatitis C virus infection as a systemic disease.

Semin Dial 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

UMR 7211, and Inflammation-Immunopathology-Biotherapy Department (DHU i2B), Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, Paris, France.

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has been demonstrated to result in several adverse hepatic outcomes and has been associated with a number of important extrahepatic manifestations. The scope of extrahepatic clinical possibilities includes systemic diseases such as vasculitis and lymphoproliferative disorders, cardiovascular disease, myalgia, arthritis, and sicca syndrome. These end-organ effects of HCV may dominate the clinical course beyond the hepatic complications and significantly worsen the long-term prognosis of infected patients. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Efficacy and safety of sofosbuvir-based therapy in hepatitis C virus recurrence post living donor liver transplant: A real life egyptian experience.

J Med Virol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Endemic Medicine and Hepatology, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

Background And Aim: Direct acting antiviral has offered treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) recurrence post liver transplantation (LT) with an all-oral regimen for short duration, excellent safety profile, and high sustained virological response (SVR). The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of sofosbuvir (SOF)-based regimens in the real world among a cohort of Egyptian patients with recurrent HCV post living donor LT (LDLT).

Methods: Patients with HCV-G4 recurrence post-LDLT were recruited from National Committee of Control of Viral Hepatitis, Egypt, from November 2014 to May 2017. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Optimizing the Clinical Utility of Sirolimus-Based Immunosuppression for Kidney Transplantation.

Clin Transplant 2018 Dec 13:e13464. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Clínica Universitaria Colombia, Fundacion Universitária de Ciencias de la Salud, Bogotá, Colombia.

While calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) are effective for preventing acute rejection in kidney transplant recipients, long-term use may cause chronic kidney injury and is associated with increased risks of cardiovascular events, cancer, and infection-associated death. Immunosuppression strategies are needed to balance risks of acute and subclinical rejection with long-term benefits of improved kidney function. Sirolimus, an inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin, is used for immunosuppression in kidney transplantation. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Research advancements in the neurological presentation of flaviviruses.

Rev Med Virol 2018 Dec 12:e2021. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Tropical Disease Research, School of Public Health, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Owing to the large-scale epidemic of Zika virus disease and its association with microcephaly, properties that allow flaviviruses to cause nervous system diseases are an important area of investigation. At present, although potential pathogenic mechanisms of flaviviruses in the nervous system have been examined, they have not been completely elucidated. In this paper, we review the possible mechanisms of blood-brain barrier penetration, the pathological effects on neurons, and the association between virus mutations and neurotoxicity. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Uptake of direct acting antiviral therapies for the treatment of hepatitis C virus among people who inject drugs in a universal health-care system.

Drug Alcohol Rev 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia.

Introduction And Aims: Direct acting antiviral (DAA) treatment can reduce hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection incidence and mortality, although large scale uptake of these treatments is necessary to achieve those reductions. Targeting people who inject drugs (PWID) will be crucial to achieve the necessary reductions. Previously, treatment uptake has been very low (1-2%) among PWID, but these new DAAs have been subsidised in Australia since March 2016. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Varicella Zoster Virus Encephalitis in Solid Organ Transplant Recipients: Case Series and Review of Literature.

Transpl Infect Dis 2018 Dec 12:e13038. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases and Global Public Health, University of California San Diego, San Diego, CA, USA.

Herpes zoster encephalitis (HZE) is a rare complication of varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection. We report two cases of HZE in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients and review ten other cases in the literature. In this review, rash was present in 67% of cases. Read More

View Article
December 2018

A scaffold hopping strategy towards the identification of inhibitors of cyclin G associated kinase.

ChemMedChem 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Katholieke Universiteit Leuven Rega Institute for Medical Research, Medicinal Chemistry, Herestraat 49 - Box 1030, 3000, Leuven, BELGIUM.

We recently reported the discovery of isothiazolo[4,3-b]pyridine based inhibitors of cyclin G associated kinase (GAK) displaying low nanomolar binding affinity for GAK and demonstrating broad-spectrum antiviral activity. In order to come up with novel core structures that act as GAK inhibitors, a scaffold hopping approach was applied starting from two different isothiazolo[4,3-b]pyridines. In total, 13 novel 5,6- and 6,6-fused bicyclic heteroaromatic scaffolds were synthesized. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Intron-containing RNA from the HIV-1 provirus activates type I interferon and inflammatory cytokines.

Nat Commun 2018 Dec 13;9(1):5305. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Program in Molecular Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, 01605, USA.

HIV-1-infected people who take drugs that suppress viremia to undetectable levels are protected from developing AIDS. Nonetheless, HIV-1 establishes proviruses in long-lived CD4 memory T cells, and perhaps other cell types, that preclude elimination of the virus even after years of continuous antiviral therapy. Here we show that the HIV-1 provirus activates innate immune signaling in isolated dendritic cells, macrophages, and CD4 T cells. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Hepatitis C virus direct-acting antiviral nonadherence: Relationship to sustained virologic response and identification of at-risk patients.

J Am Pharm Assoc (2003) 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Objectives: There is a dearth of literature on effects of nonadherence to hepatitis C virus (HCV) direct-acting antiviral (DAA) regimens; thus, the objective of our study was to assess the impact of adherence on sustained virologic response (SVR) and evaluate factors associated with nonadherence, such as race, psychiatric comorbidities, and therapy length.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients completing DAA treatment between January 2014 and May 2016 within an interdisciplinary hepatology clinic. Adherence was defined a priori as 95% or greater of DAA doses taken within the prescribed treatment period. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Association Between High Neutrophil to Lymphocyte Ratio and Delayed Recovery From Bell's Palsy.

Clin Exp Otorhinolaryngol 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Graduate School, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Korea.

Objectives: Factors predictive of the severity of and recovery from Bell's palsy remain unclear. This study evaluated the association between neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and the severity of and recovery from Bell's palsy.

Methods: This retrospective study included 51 patients who were hospitalized with Bell's palsy from 2015 to 2017. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Modulation of Innate Immune Responses by the Influenza A NS1 and PA-X Proteins.

Viruses 2018 Dec 12;10(12). Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York, NY 14642, USA.

Influenza A viruses (IAV) can infect a broad range of animal hosts, including humans. In humans, IAV causes seasonal annual epidemics and occasional pandemics, representing a serious public health and economic problem, which is most effectively prevented through vaccination. The defense mechanisms that the host innate immune system provides restrict IAV replication and infection. Read More

View Article
December 2018
1 Read

Strategic Syntheses of Vine and Wine Resveratrol Derivatives to Explore their Effects on Cell Functions and Dysfunctions.

Diseases 2018 Dec 11;6(4). Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Institut de Chimie Moléculaire de l'Université de Bourgogne, ICMUB-UMR CNRS 6302, Université de Bourgogne Franche-Comté, 9, avenue A. Savary, 21078 DIJON CEDEX, France.

-resveratrol, the most well-known polyphenolic stilbenoid, is found in grapes and accordingly in wine and it is considered to be beneficial for human health, especially towards the aging-linked cell alterations by providing numerous biological activities, such as anti-oxidant, antitumoral, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, and platelet anti-aggregation properties. Although -resveratrol is a promising molecule, it cannot be considered as a drug, due to its weak bio-availability and fast metabolism. To overcome these weaknesses, several research teams have undertaken the synthesis of innovative -resveratrol derivatives, with the aim to increase its solubility in water and pharmacological activities towards cell targets. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Host-Driven Phosphorylation Appears to Regulate the Budding Activity of the Lassa Virus Matrix Protein.

Pathogens 2018 Dec 9;7(4). Epub 2018 Dec 9.

Department of Medicine, Division of Immunobiology, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05405, USA.

Lassa mammarenavirus (LASV) is an enveloped RNA virus that can cause Lassa fever, an acute hemorrhagic fever syndrome associated with significant morbidity and high rates of fatality in endemic regions of western Africa. The arenavirus matrix protein Z has several functions during the virus life cycle, including coordinating viral assembly, driving the release of new virus particles, regulating viral polymerase activity, and antagonizing the host antiviral response. There is limited knowledge regarding how the various functions of Z are regulated. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Chaperoning the : Current Knowledge and Future Directions.

Viruses 2018 Dec 8;10(12). Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Institute for Integrative Systems Biology (I2SysBio), Universitat de Valencia-CSIC, 46980 Valencia, Spain.

The order harbors numerous viruses of significant relevance to human health, including both established and emerging infections. Currently, vaccines are only available for a small subset of these viruses, and antiviral therapies remain limited. Being obligate cellular parasites, viruses must utilize the cellular machinery for their replication and spread. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Decreases Endothelial Damage and Oxidative Stress Indicators in Patients with Systemic Arterial Hypertension: Results from Exploratory Controlled Clinical Trial.

Mar Drugs 2018 Dec 8;16(12). Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Departamento de Bioquímica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad de México 04510, Mexico.

(1) Background: () has shown beneficial effects such as being anti-dyslipidemic, antiviral, antioxidant and antihypertensive. However, there are few and limited clinical studies. (2) Methods: a prospective, randomized, parallel pilot study of 4. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Oral oxymatrine for hepatitis B cirrhosis: A systematic review protocol.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2018 Dec;97(49):e13482

Acupuncture and massage department, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, China.

Background: Characterized by diffuse hepatic fibrosis and nodule formation, hepatitis B cirrhosis (HBC), an important result of chronic hepatitis B development, mainly contains compensated and decompensated stage. Compensated cirrhosis can further develop into decompensated stage and hepatocellular carcinoma with serious complications and high mortality. Antiviral therapy using interferon (IFN) or nucleos(t)ide analogs (NUCs) is essential for improving the prognosis of the disease but IFN has large side effects while NUCs often develop drug resistance. Read More

View Article
December 2018
1 Read

Gallic acid improved inflammation via NF-κB pathway in TNBS-induced ulcerative colitis.

Int Immunopharmacol 2018 Dec 10;67:129-137. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Gastroenterology, Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University of Traditional Chinese Medicine (Jiang Su Province Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine), Nanjing 210029, China. Electronic address:

Gallic acid (GA), as an active component, has been found in many fruits and plants, and it exhibits potential protective effects, such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiviral and anticancer. However, the effects of GA on ulcerative colitis (UC) remain unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of GA on IL-1β-induced HIEC-6 cells and TNBS-induced UC in mice. Read More

View Article
December 2018

The immune evasion strategies of fish viruses.

Authors:
C J Guo J He J G He

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Marine Resources and Coastal Engineering / State Key Laboratory for Biocontrol, School of Marine, Sun Yat-sen University, 135 Xingang Road West, Guangzhou 510275, PR China; Institute of Aquatic Economic Animals and Guangdong Province Key Laboratory for Aquatic Economic Animals, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, 135 Xingang Road West, Guangzhou 510275, PR China. Electronic address:

Viral infection of a host rapidly triggers intracellular signaling events that induce interferon production and a cellular antiviral state. Viral diseases are important concerns in fish aquaculture. The major mechanisms of the fish antiviral immune response are suggested to be similar to those of mammals, although the specific details of the process require further studies. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Everolimus delayed and suppressed cytomegalovirus DNA synthesis, spread of the infection, and alleviated cytomegalovirus infection.

Antiviral Res 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Virology, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani, Toyama, 930-0194, Japan. Electronic address:

Everolimus is an inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and reduces the risk of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in transplant recipients. Everolimus inhibits mTOR complex 1, which regulates factors involved in several crucial cellular functions and is required for CMV replication. However, it is not clear how everolimus regulates CMV replication and prevents and alleviates CMV infection. Read More

View Article
December 2018