169,066 results match your criteria Antiepileptic Drugs

Effects of central nervous system drugs on androgen, estrogen α, glucocorticoid, and thyroid receptors.

Chem Biol Interact 2022 Jun 24:110030. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Pharmacy, SI-1000, Ljubljana, Slovenia. Electronic address:

Some drugs that act on the central nervous system (CNS) are known to affect the endocrine system, although the mechanisms of endocrine toxicity are not well characterized to date. Such CNS drugs include antipsychotics, anticonvulsants, and antidepressants. In the present study, in-vitro firefly luciferase reporter-gene assays using the AR-EcoScreen assay using Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line, hERα-HeLa9903, MDA-kb2, and GH3. Read More

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Sex Differences in Bipolar Disorders: Impact on Psychopathological Features and Treatment Response.

Front Psychiatry 2022 10;13:926594. Epub 2022 Jun 10.

Section of Psychiatry, Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy.

Introduction: Sex differences were demonstrated in bipolar disorders (BD) concerning epidemiological, clinical, and psychopathological characteristics, but consensus is lacking. Moreover, data concerning the influence of sex on treatment response in BD is contrasting. The present cross-sectional study aimed to analyze sex differences in a population of BD subjects, with specific focus on psychopathological features and treatment response. Read More

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Effects of antiepileptic drugs on sleep architecture parameters in adults.

Sleep Sci 2022 Apr-Jun;15(2):224-244

University of Porto, UMIB - Unidade Multidisciplinar de Investigação Biomédica, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas Abel Salazar, Universidade do Porto - Porto - Portugal.

Objectives: Physiological and restorative sleep is fundamental for physical and mental well-being. Polysomnography parameters are objective methods to access sleep structure. Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are a group of drugs whose interference in the sleep structure is still not well known, especially in what concern the new ones. Read More

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Community pharmacists' measurement of health-related quality of life in outpatients taking high-risk drugs.

Pharmazie 2022 Jun;77(6):202-206

Study group for Comprehensive Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Pharmacotherapy, Koto-ku, Tokyo; Department of Pharmacy, The Cancer Institute Hospital of Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Koto-ku, Tokyo; Department of Nursing, School of Nursing and Rehabilitation Sciences, Showa University, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo, Japan;, Email:

Patients experiencing severe side effects when taking high-risk drugs may have a significantly reduced health-related quality of life (QOL); therefore, it is important to identify changes in the health-related QOL in these patients. This study aimed to determine the health-related QOL in community pharmacy outpatients taking high-risk drugs. This prospective observational study was conducted in 29 community pharmacies with 71 pharmacists in 12 regions and cities in Japan from October to December 2020 and 760 patients were enrolled. Read More

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50 Years Ago in TheJournalofPediatrics: Rickets and Antiepileptic Drugs: What Have We Learned?

J Pediatr 2022 Jul;246:122

Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, Children's Hospital at Montefiore, The Bronx, New York.

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Enhanced healing efficacy of an optimized gabapentin-melittin nanoconjugate gel-loaded formulation in excised wounds of diabetic rats.

Drug Deliv 2022 Dec;29(1):1892-1902

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

The present study aimed to design and optimize, a nanoconjugate of gabapentin (GPN)-melittin (MLT) and to evaluate its healing activity in rat diabetic wounds. To explore the wound healing potency of GPN-MLT nanoconjugate, an in vivo study was carried out. Diabetic rats were subjected to excision wounds and received daily topical treatment with conventional formulations of GPN, MLT, GPN-MLT nanoconjugate and a marketed formula. Read More

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December 2022

Comprehensive Analysis of Metabolic Changes in Male Mice Exposed to Sodium Valproate Based on GC-MS Analysis.

Drug Des Devel Ther 2022 17;16:1915-1930. Epub 2022 Jun 17.

Department of Neurosurgery, Affiliated Hospital of Jining Medical University, Jining, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: Sodium valproate (VPA) is the most widely used broad-spectrum antiepileptic first-line drug in clinical practice and is effective against various types of epilepsy. However, VPA can induce severe cardiotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, and neurotoxicity, which limits its use. Metabolomic studies of VPA-induced toxicity have focused primarily on changes in serum and urine metabolites but have not evaluated changes in major organs or tissues. Read More

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The Role of Saponins in the Treatment of Neuropathic Pain.

Molecules 2022 Jun 20;27(12). Epub 2022 Jun 20.

Key Laboratory of Neuropharmacology and Translational Medicine of Zhejiang Province, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, Hangzhou 310053, China.

Neuropathic pain is a chronic pain caused by tissue injury or disease involving the somatosensory nervous system, which seriously affects the patient's body function and quality of life. At present, most clinical medications for the treatment of neuropathic pain, including antidepressants, antiepileptic drugs, or analgesics, often have limited efficacy and non-negligible side effects. As a bioactive and therapeutic component extracted from Chinese herbal medicine, the role of the effective compounds in the prevention and treatment of neuropathic pain have gradually become a research focus to explore new analgesics. Read More

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Anticonvulsant Effect of Turmeric and Resveratrol in Lithium/Pilocarpine-Induced Status Epilepticus in Wistar Rats.

Molecules 2022 Jun 14;27(12). Epub 2022 Jun 14.

Facultad de Química Farmacéutica Biológica, Universidad Veracruzana, Xalapa 91000, Mexico.

Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder that lacks a cure. The use of plant-derived antioxidant molecules such as those contained in turmeric powder and resveratrol may produce short-term anticonvulsant effects. A total of 42 three-month-old male Wistar rats were divided into six groups ( = 7 in each group): Vehicle (purified water), turmeric (150 and 300 mg/kg, respectively), and resveratrol (30 and 60 mg/kg, respectively), administered (p. Read More

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Asymmetric Michael Addition in Synthesis of β-Substituted GABA Derivatives.

Molecules 2022 Jun 13;27(12). Epub 2022 Jun 13.

V.P. Kukhar Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry and Petrochemistry, The National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 1 Murmanska Str., 02094 Kyiv, Ukraine.

γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) represents one of the most prolific structural units widely used in the design of modern pharmaceuticals. For example, β-substituted GABA derivatives are found in numerous neurological drugs, such as baclofen, phenibut, tolibut, pregabalin, phenylpiracetam, brivaracetam, and rolipram, to mention just a few. In this review, we critically discuss the literature data reported on the preparation of substituted GABA derivatives using the Michael addition reaction as a key synthetic transformation. Read More

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The Ameliorative Effect of Empagliflozin in Vigabatrin-Induced Cerebellar/Neurobehavioral Deficits: Targeting mTOR/AMPK/SIRT-1 Signaling Pathways.

Molecules 2022 Jun 7;27(12). Epub 2022 Jun 7.

Anatomy and Embryology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Tanta 31527, Egypt.

Vigabatrin (VGB) is an antiepileptic drug that acts to irreversibly inhibit the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transaminase enzyme, elevating GABA levels. Broad studies have established that long-term treatment and/or high doses of VGB lead to variable visual defects. However, little attention has been paid to its other side effects, especially those demonstrating cerebellar involvement. Read More

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Sex-Related Differences in Pharmacological Response to CNS Drugs: A Narrative Review.

J Pers Med 2022 May 31;12(6). Epub 2022 May 31.

Faculty of Medicine, "Victor Babeş" University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 2 Eftimie Murgu Street, 300041 Timisoara, Romania.

In the last decades, both animal and human studies have neglected female subjects with the aim of evading a theorized intricacy of feminine hormonal status. However, clinical experience proves that pharmacological response may vary between the two sexes since pathophysiological dissimilarities between men and women significantly influence the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of drugs. Sex-related differences in central nervous system (CNS) medication are particularly challenging to assess due to the complexity of disease manifestation, drugs' intricate mechanisms of action, and lack of trustworthy means of evaluating the clinical response to medication. Read More

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In Vitro Effect of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabidiol on Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts Isolated from Lung Cancer.

Int J Mol Sci 2022 Jun 17;23(12). Epub 2022 Jun 17.

Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Universitat de València, 46010 Valencia, Spain.

There is evidence that demonstrates the effect of cannabinoid agonists inhibiting relevant aspects in lung cancer, such as proliferation or epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Most of these studies are based on evidence observed in in vitro models developed on cancer cell lines. These studies do not consider the complexity of the tumor microenvironment (TME). Read More

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Cannabidiol Interacts Antagonistically with Cisplatin and Additively with Mitoxantrone in Various Melanoma Cell Lines-An Isobolographic Analysis.

Int J Mol Sci 2022 Jun 17;23(12). Epub 2022 Jun 17.

Department of Pathophysiology, Medical University of Lublin, 20-090 Lublin, Poland.

The medical application of cannabidiol (CBD) has been gathering increasing attention in recent years. This non-psychotropic cannabis-derived compound possesses antiepileptic, antipsychotic, anti-inflammatory and anxiolytic properties. Recent studies report that it also exerts antineoplastic effects in multiple types of cancers, including melanoma. Read More

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Pharmacoeconomics Aspects of Antiepileptic Drugs in Pediatric Patients with Epilepsy.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2022 Jun 20;19(12). Epub 2022 Jun 20.

Department of Pharmacoeconomics and Social Pharmacy, Karol Marcinkowski University of Medical Sciences in Poznań, 60-865 Poznan, Poland.

Objective: This study assessed the differentiation of treatment costs with newer and older antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) through its correlation with treatment effectiveness and an adverse event (AE) in pediatric patients with epilepsy (PPE).

Methods: PPE on monotherapy of AEDs for the last 6 months were screened for this study. Seizure frequency during the study was compared with that within 6 months before the study. Read More

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The Management of Poststroke Thalamic Pain: Update in Clinical Practice.

Songjin Ri

Diagnostics (Basel) 2022 Jun 10;12(6). Epub 2022 Jun 10.

Department for Neurology, Meoclinic, Berlin, Friedrichstraße 71, 10117 Berlin, Germany.

Poststroke thalamic pain (PS-TP), a type of central poststroke pain, has been challenged to improve the rehabilitation outcomes and quality of life after a stroke. It has been shown in 2.7-25% of stroke survivors; however, the treatment of PS-TP remains difficult, and in majority of them it often failed to manage the pain and hypersensitivity effectively, despite the different pharmacotherapies as well as invasive interventions. Read More

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New Phenylglycinamide Derivatives with Hybrid Structure as Candidates for New Broad-Spectrum Anticonvulsants.

Cells 2022 06 7;11(12). Epub 2022 Jun 7.

Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Medyczna 9, 30-688 Krakow, Poland.

In the present study, a focused combinatorial chemistry approach was applied to merge structural fragments of well-known TRPV1 antagonists with a potent anticonvulsant lead compound, , that was previously discovered by our group. Consequently, a series of 22 original compounds has been designed, synthesized, and characterized in the in vivo and in vitro assays. The obtained compounds showed robust in vivo antiseizure activity in the maximal electroshock (MES) test and in the 6 Hz seizure model (using both 32 and 44 mA current intensities). Read More

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Cannabidiol and Cannabigerol Inhibit Cholangiocarcinoma Growth In Vitro via Divergent Cell Death Pathways.

Biomolecules 2022 Jun 20;12(6). Epub 2022 Jun 20.

School of Biological Sciences, University of Northern Colorado, Greeley, CO 80639, USA.

Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a rare and highly lethal disease with few effective treatment options. Cannabinoids, cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabigerol (CBG) are non-psychedelic components extracted from cannabis. These non-psychoactive compounds have shown anti-proliferative potential in other tumor models; however, the efficacy of CBD and CBG in CCA is unknown. Read More

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Development of a Microgram Scale Video-Microscopic Method to Investigate Dissolution Behavior of Poorly Water-Soluble Drugs.

AAPS PharmSciTech 2022 Jun 24;23(6):173. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Department of Pharmacy, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 2, DK-2100, Copenhagen Ø, Denmark.

Poor aqueous solubility is a common characteristic of new drug candidates, which leads to low or inconsistent oral bioavailability. This has sparked an interest in material efficient testing of solubility and dissolution rate. The aim was to develop a microgram scale video-microscopic method to screen the dissolution rates of poorly water-soluble drugs. Read More

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Single-cell transcriptomics and surface epitope detection in human brain epileptic lesions identifies pro-inflammatory signaling.

Nat Neurosci 2022 Jun 23. Epub 2022 Jun 23.

Translational Immunology Institute, SingHealth/Duke-NUS Academic Medical Centre, Singapore, Singapore.

Epileptogenic triggers are multifactorial and not well understood. Here we aimed to address the hypothesis that inappropriate pro-inflammatory mechanisms contribute to the pathogenesis of refractory epilepsy (non-responsiveness to antiepileptic drugs) in human patients. We used single-cell cellular indexing of transcriptomes and epitopes by sequencing (CITE-seq) to reveal the immunotranscriptome of surgically resected epileptic lesion tissues. Read More

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Intravenous magnesium sulfate inducing acute respiratory failure in a patient with myasthenia gravis.

Kayleigh Jessop

BMJ Case Rep 2022 Jun 23;15(6). Epub 2022 Jun 23.

Anaesthetics, East Kent Hospitals University NHS Foundation Trust, Canterbury, UK

A woman in her 90s with a background of myasthenia gravis and atrial fibrillation presented to hospital following a fall. While in the emergency department it was noted that she was in atrial fibrillation with a fast-ventricular response and as part of her management was given intravenous magnesium. Following this she developed acute respiratory failure and required intubation and ventilation. Read More

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Cardiac Morbidity and Mortality Associated with the Use of Lamotrigine.

Epilepsia 2022 Jun 23. Epub 2022 Jun 23.

National Centre for Register-based Research, Department of Economics and Business Economics, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.

Objective: The US Food and Drug Administration recently issued a warning against the use of the antiseizure medication lamotrigine in people at risk of cardiac rhythm and conduction abnormalities. This study assessed the risk of cardiac morbidity and mortality in new users of lamotrigine.

Methods: In a Danish population-based cohort study, we followed cohort members aged ≥15 years for the first two years after they initiated lamotrigine therapy. Read More

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Assessing ultrasonographic optic nerve sheath diameter in animal model with anesthesia regimens.

Acta Cir Bras 2022 15;37(3):e370308. Epub 2022 Jun 15.

MD. PhD. Universidade de São Paulo - School of Medicine - Hospital das Clínicas - Division of Neurological Surgery - São Paulo (SP), Brazil.

Purpose: To determine the normal optical nerve sheath (ONS) diameter ultrasonography (ONSUS) and evaluate the possible effects of drugs on ONS diameter during anesthetic induction in healthy pigs.

Methods: Healthy piglets were divided into three groups: a control group, that received xylazine and ketamine (X/K); other that received xylazine, ketamine and propofol (X/K/P); and a third group that received xylazine, ketamine, and thiopental (X/K/T). The sheath diameter was assessed by ultrasonography calculating the average of three measurements of each eye from the left and right sides. Read More

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Targeted gut microbiota manipulation attenuates seizures in a model of infantile spasms syndrome.

JCI Insight 2022 Jun 22;7(12). Epub 2022 Jun 22.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

Infantile spasms syndrome (IS) is a devastating early-onset epileptic encephalopathy associated with poor neurodevelopmental outcomes. When first-line treatment options, including adrenocorticotropic hormone and vigabatrin, are ineffective, the ketogenic diet (KD) is often employed to control seizures. Since the therapeutic impact of the KD is influenced by the gut microbiota, we examined whether targeted microbiota manipulation, mimicking changes induced by the KD, would be valuable in mitigating seizures. Read More

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Digoxin at sub-cardiotonic dose modulates the anticonvulsive potential of valproate, levetiracetam and topiramate in experimental primary generalized seizures.

Ceska Slov Farm 2022 ;71(2):78-88

The prevalence of epilepsy in the world population together with a high percentage of patients resistant to existing antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) stimulates the constant search for new approaches to the treatment of the disease. Previously a significant anticonvulsant potential of cardiac glycoside digoxin has been verified by enhancing a weak activity of AEDs in low doses under screening models of seizures induced by pentylenetetrazole and maximal electroshock. The aim of the present study is to investigate the influence of digoxin at a sub-cardiotonic dose on the anticonvulsant activity of valproate, levetiracetam, and topiramate in models of primary generalized seizures with different neurochemical mechanisms. Read More

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Ethnic disparity in clozapine dosing and cardiotoxicity in New Zealand.

N Z Med J 2022 May 20;135(1555):32-40. Epub 2022 May 20.

Associate Professor, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacology, The University of Auckland.

Aims: To investigate ethnic disparities in the treatment and incidence of cardiotoxicity for patients prescribed clozapine in New Zealand.

Methods: A post hoc analysis was undertaken using data from four studies investigating clozapine cardiotoxicities in New Zealand: two population studies (one prospective, one retrospective) conducted in the Auckland District Health Board (2011-2017), and two studies of coronial autopsy records (2001-2016). The relationship between ethnicity and cases (N=26) of myocarditis and/or cardiomyopathy was examined in comparison to non-cases in the rest of the study population (N=161). Read More

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Psychotropic Drug Prescription in Nursing Homes During the COVID-19 Pandemic.

Drugs Aging 2022 Jun 21;39(6):467-475. Epub 2022 Jun 21.

Department of Pharmacy, Ricardo Bermingham Hospital (Matia Foundation), Camino de los Pinos nº35, 20018, Donostia-San Sebastian, Gipuzkoa, Spain.

Background: To limit the introduction of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) into nursing homes, restrictive measures and social distancing were implemented; however, these caused an increase in affective disorders such as depression and anxiety and an alteration of the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia. Therefore, it is expected that prescription trends of psychotropic drugs in nursing homes during the pandemic may have changed significantly.

Objective: This study aims to compare patterns of prescribing psychotropic drugs in nursing homes during the COVID-19 pandemic to those of the pre-pandemic period. Read More

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DRESS characteristics according to the causative medication.

Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2022 Jun 20. Epub 2022 Jun 20.

Service de Pharmacologie Clinique, CHU/Faculté de Médecine, Université de Monastir, Rue 1er Juin 1955, 5019, Monastir, Tunisia.

Background: To date, no study has identified a clear relationship between drug and a specific clinical presentation of DRESS.

Objectives: To investigate the particularities of DRESS and analyze the variation of DRESS pattern according to culprit drugs.

Methods: We analyzed cases of DRESS notified to the Department of Clinical Pharmacology at the University Hospital of Monastir over a 15-year period. Read More

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