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    Study on the Validity of Pancreaticoduodenectomy in the Elderly.
    Anticancer Res 2017 09;37(9):5309-5316
    Department of Surgery, The Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.
    Aim: Pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) is still the only curative treatment for periampullary cancer. Confirming the outcomes of PD in elderly patients is important as the aging population continues to grow.

    Patients And Methods: We analyzed 340 patients with periampullary cancer who underwent PD, dividing them into three groups by age: group A: aged 64 years or younger, n=115; group B: 65-74 years, n=144; and group C: 75 years or older, n=81. Read More

    Efficacy of Additional Surgical Resection After Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection for Superficial Esophageal Cancer.
    Anticancer Res 2017 09;37(9):5301-5307
    Division of Digestive Surgery, Department of Surgery, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan.
    Background/aim: This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of additional surgical resection (ASR) after endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for superficial esophageal cancer (SEC).

    Patients And Methods: Clinicopathological features and prognoses were analyzed in esophageal cancer (EC) cases with the indication for additional treatments (AT) after ESD (37 cases) and in cases that underwent primary resection (13 cases).

    Results: Sixteen out of 37 cases underwent ASR. Read More

    Safety for Repeat Lumpectomy Without Radiotherapy for Ipsilateral Breast Tumor Recurrence.
    Anticancer Res 2017 09;37(9):5293-5299
    Department of Breast and Endocrine Surgery, Osaka International Cancer Institute, Osaka, Japan.
    Background: There is little information on the local recurrence risk of patients who undergo repeat lumpectomy without radiotherapy after salvage surgery for ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR).

    Patients And Methods: Sixty-five patients who underwent repeat lumpectomy without radiotherapy after IBTR were retrospectively analyzed. The risk factors of second IBTR, including the breast cancer subtype of IBTR defined by the estrogen receptor (ER) and HER2 status, were assessed. Read More

    Robot-assisted Extracranial Stereotactic Radiotherapy of Adrenal Metastases in Oligometastatic Non-small Cell Lung Cancer.
    Anticancer Res 2017 09;37(9):5285-5291
    University Hospital of Cologne, Department of Radiation-Oncology, Cologne, Germany.
    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) in the treatment of patients with adrenal metastases in oligometastatic non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

    Patients And Methods: Between November 2012 and May 2015, fifteen patients with oligometastatic non-small cell lung cancer and adrenal metastases were treated with the Cyberknife® system. The primary endpoint was local control. Read More

    Surgical Strategy for T1 Duodenal or Ampullary Carcinoma According to the Depth of Tumor Invasion.
    Anticancer Res 2017 09;37(9):5277-5283
    Division of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery, Shizuoka Cancer Center, Shizuoka, Japan.
    Aim: To investigate the utility of local resection (LR) for T1 duodenal carcinoma and T1 ampullary carcinoma.

    Patients And Methods: Between June 2002 and November 2014, a total of 64 patients with pathological T1 (pT1) ampullary carcinoma (25 patients) and pT1 duodenal carcinoma (39 patients) were treated. Of these, 33 patients underwent local resection (LR group), while the other 31 patients underwent pancreatoduodenectomy (PD group). Read More

    Incidence and Oncological Implications of Previously Undetected Tumor Multicentricity Following Pancreaticoduodenectomy for Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma in Patients Undergoing Salvage Pancreatectomy.
    Anticancer Res 2017 09;37(9):5269-5275
    Department of Surgery, Charité Medical University of Berlin, Virchow Campus Hospital, Berlin, Germany.
    Background: The risk for multicentricity of pancreatic adenocarcinoma remains unclear and the question whether pancreaticoduodenectomy represents sufficient oncological treatment for patients with ductal adenocarcinoma of the head of the pancreas needs further investigation.

    Patients And Methods: Clinicopathological data of patients who underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy for pancreatic adenocarcinoma between 2005 and 2015 were assessed and the incidence of tumor multicentricity among patients who required salvage pancreatectomy within 90 postoperative days was evaluated.

    Results: Pancreaticoduodenectomy was performed in 1,005 patients. Read More

    Are Multiple Tumors of the Parotid Gland Uncommon or Underestimated?
    Anticancer Res 2017 09;37(9):5263-5267
    Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Borromaeus Hospital Leer, Leer, Germany
    Background/aim: Parotid gland tumors are mostly solitary tumors of the salivary gland tissue. There is limited evidence about multifocal tumor growth of the parotid gland.

    Patients And Methods: We reviewed medical records of 796 consecutive parotidectomies in 758 patients over the last 40 years in our department, and investigated the incidence and histological type of synchronous and metachronous parotid tumors. Read More

    Value of Additional Digital Breast Tomosynthesis for Preoperative Staging of Breast Cancer in Dense Breasts.
    Anticancer Res 2017 09;37(9):5255-5261
    Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Mannheim, Germany.
    Aim: This retrospective study was initiated to determine the diagnostic value of additional preoperative breast tomosynthesis (DBT) for breast cancer staging in dense breasts.

    Patients And Methods: Sixty-six patients (69 breasts) with findings of American College of Radiology category 3 or 4 with Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System 5, 6 or 0 were included. All patients underwent digital mammography and additional DBT. Read More

    The Local Recurrence of Breast Cancer with Squamous Metaplasia and Obvious Histological Heterogeneity.
    Anticancer Res 2017 09;37(9):5249-5254
    Department of Surgery and Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan
    Case Report: We herein report a case of local recurrence of breast cancer with squamous metaplasia and obvious intratumoral and intertumoral heterogeneity. A 39-year-old female patient was diagnosed with T3N2M0 stage IIIB right breast cancer and underwent right total mastectomy and axillar lymph node dissection. At four years after surgery, she became aware of chest wall pain and diagnostic imaging revealed recurrence in the lung, right thoracic wall and sternum. Read More

    Risk-reducing Salpingo-Oophorectomy in Women at Higher Risk of Ovarian and Breast Cancer: A Single Institution Prospective Series.
    Anticancer Res 2017 09;37(9):5241-5248
    Division of Gynecology, European Institute of Oncology, Milan, Italy.
    Background/aim: Occult cancers' reported rates vary from 2-12% and serous tubal intraepithelial carcinomas (STICs) have been identified in 3-12% of the prophylactically removed tubes of women carrying a BRCA mutation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of tubal minor epithelial atypia (STIL), STIC, and occult invasive cancer and to evaluate the cancer-specific mortality in a prospective series of women at higher risk of ovarian and breast cancer undergoing risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO) n a tertiary cancer center.

    Patients And Methods: A series of RRSO specimens (including endometrial biopsy) from women carrying a BRCA mutation, BRCA-unknown and BRCA-negative were collected between January 1998 and April 2016 at the Division of Gynecology at the European Institute of Oncology. Read More

    Differences in Urinary Renal Failure Biomarkers in Cancer Patients Initially Treated with Cisplatin.
    Anticancer Res 2017 09;37(9):5235-5239
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Pharmacology, Jichi Medical University, Tochigi, Japan.
    Background/aim: We investigated whether measuring the excretion of each acute kidney injury (AKI) biomarker after cisplatin (CDDP) administration is useful for predicting AKI and evaluated the most appropriate AKI marker in patients treated with CDDP.

    Patients And Methods: We measured NAG, Kim-1, and NGAL in urinary samples of 40 cancer patients treated with chemotherapy on day 1 (before chemotherapy), day 2, and day 5 after treatment; serum creatinine (sCr) was compared on days 7 and 28 after CDDP administration vs. baseline. Read More

    Anti-proliferative, Cytotoxic and NF-ĸB Inhibitory Properties of Spiro(Lactone-Cyclohexanone) Compounds in Human Leukemia.
    Anticancer Res 2017 09;37(9):5225-5233
    Unité de Recherche URIE, Ecole Nationale Polytechnique, Alger, Algeria
    Background/aim: NF-ĸB affects most aspects of cellular physiology. Deregulation of NF-ĸB signaling is associated with inflammatory diseases and cancer. In this study, we evaluated the cytotoxic and NF-ĸB inhibition potential of new spiro(lactone-cyclohexanone) compounds in two different human leukemia cell lines (U937 and K562). Read More

    Comparing the Efficacy of DeVIC Therapy and High-dose Methotrexate Monotherapy with Whole-brain Radiation Therapy for Newly-diagnosed Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma: A Single Institution Study.
    Anticancer Res 2017 09;37(9):5215-5223
    Department of Neurosurgery, Nagoya University School of Medicine, Nagoya, Japan.
    Background/aim: In the current study, we aimed to compare DeVIC (dexamethasone, etoposide, ifosfamide and carboplatin) chemotherapy with high-dose methotrexate (HD-MTX) monotherapy plus whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT) for newly-diagnosed primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL), in terms of their efficacies and tolerability.

    Patients And Methods: A total of 21 consecutive patients with PCNSL were treated with DeVIC therapy and WBRT, between 2002 and 2010. From 2010 to 2014, 14 consecutive patients with PCNSL were treated with HD-MTX followed by WBRT. Read More

    Targeted Delivery of Cordycepin to Liver Cancer Cells Using Transferrin-conjugated Liposomes.
    Anticancer Res 2017 09;37(9):5207-5214
    Jilin University, College of Life Science, P. R. China
    Background/aim: Cordycepin is an endogenous nucleoside with significant anticancer biological activity. The objective of this study was to develop targeted liposomes to improve solubility and biological activity of cordycepin.

    Materials And Methods: We established transferrin-conjugated liposomes to deliver cordycepin to liver cancer cells and evaluated the uptake and effect. Read More

    Correlation of Radiation Pneumonitis History Before Nivolumab with Onset of Interstitial Lung Disease and Progression-free Survival of Patients with Pre-treated Advanced Non-small Cell Lung Cancer.
    Anticancer Res 2017 09;37(9):5199-5205
    Department of Clinical Research Center, National Hospital Organization Kinki-chuo Chest Medical Center, Osaka, Japan.
    Background/aim: Nivolumab has a promising efficacy for patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) as second-line or later treatment, and after radiotherapy as abscopal effect. However, the effects of radiation pneumonitis history before nivolumab have not been clarified. Therefore, we retrospectively analyzed the correlation of a history of radiation pneumonitis before nivolumab with onset of interstitial lung disease (ILD) and progression-free survival (PFS) after nivolumab treatment in patients with previously treated NSCLC. Read More

    First-line Treatment of Advanced Biliary Ducts Carcinoma: A Randomized Phase II Study Evaluating 5-FU/LV Plus Oxaliplatin (Folfox 4) Versus 5-FU/LV (de Gramont Regimen).
    Anticancer Res 2017 09;37(9):5193-5197
    Medical Oncology, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome, Italy.
    Background/aim: Few clinical trials are available for advanced biliary tract carcinoma (BTC). We conducted this randomized phase II clinical trial to explore efficacy and safety of 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin (5-FU/LV - de Gramont) or the same regimen plus oxaliplatin (Folfox 4) as first-line treatment of advanced BTC.

    Patients And Methods: Primary endpoint was overall survival (OS); secondary endpoints were progression-free survival (PFS), response and toxicity. Read More

    Role of Densitometric Criteria in Evaluation of Effectiveness of Antiangiogenic Therapies in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer: An Italian Clinical Experience.
    Anticancer Res 2017 09;37(9):5187-5192
    Department of Radiology, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy.
    Background/aim: To evaluate the role of densitometric criterion using the Choi Criteria in the assessment of the response to antiangiogenic treatments of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) compared to the RECIST criteria.

    Patients And Methods: Fifty-four patients (mean age=50.6 years) affected by advanced colorectal cancer and with hepatic and possibly peritoneal and pulmonary metastases, that can be treated with bevacizumab, were prospectively evaluated by computerized tomography (CT) scan. Read More

    Metallothionein Isoform Expression in Benign and Malignant Thyroid Lesions.
    Anticancer Res 2017 09;37(9):5179-5185
    Department of Histology and Embryology, Wroclaw Medical University, Wroclaw, Poland.
    Background: Metallothioneins (MTs) are involved in numerous cell processes such as binding and transport of zinc and copper ions, differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis, therefore contributing to carcinogenesis. Scarce data exist on their expression in benign and malignant lesions of the thyroid.

    Materials And Methods: mRNA expression of functional isoforms of MT genes (MT1A, MT1B, MT1E, MT1F, MT1G, MT1H, MT1X, MT2A, MT4) was studied in 17 nodular goiters (NG), 12 follicular adenomas (FA) and 26 papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC). Read More

    Comparison of Postoperative Outcomes Between Laparoscopic and Open Surgery for Colorectal Cancer.
    Anticancer Res 2017 09;37(9):5173-5177
    Department of Surgery, The Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.
    Background/aim: To determine the superiority of the laparoscopic vs. open technique for colorectal cancer surgery.

    Patients And Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of consecutive patients who underwent curative surgery by laparoscopic colectomy (LC) or open colectomy (OC) for colon cancer. Read More

    A Scoring System to Predict the Development of Bone Metastasis After Radical Resection of Colorectal Cancer.
    Anticancer Res 2017 09;37(9):5169-5172
    Department of Colorectal Surgery, Changhai Hospital, The Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, P.R. China
    Background/aim: To develop a scoring system to predict bone metastasis after radical resection within 5 years.

    Patients And Methods: We evaluated the patient records of 1,749 patients, of whom 50 patients developed bone metastasis. Treatment-related factors (age, gender, localization, histology, preoperative carbohydrate antigen 199 level, T-stage, lymph node metastasis (LN) and pulmonary metastasis (PM)) were analyzed. Read More

    Prognostic Significance of Serum CEA for Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Patients Receiving Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy.
    Anticancer Res 2017 09;37(9):5161-5167
    Department of Radiation Oncology and Image-applied Therapy, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.
    Background/aim: To examine the prognostic significance of serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) for stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT).

    Patients And Methods: In total, 129 stage I NSCLC patients were analyzed and divided into two groups: CEA-High (CEA>5 ng/ml) and CEA-Low (CEA≤5 ng/ml).

    Results: Median follow-up time was 38 months. Read More

    Neoadjuvant Imatinib Therapy Followed by Intersphincteric Resection for Low Rectal Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors.
    Anticancer Res 2017 09;37(9):5155-5160
    Department of Surgical Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Background/aim: Intersphincteric resection (ISR) aims to preserve anal function in patients with very low rectal tumors. Here, we analyzed patients who underwent neoadjuvant imatinib therapy followed by ISR for low rectal gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs).

    Patients And Methods: We retrospectively analyzed patients with low rectal GISTs who underwent neoadjuvant imatinib therapy and ISR between January 2013 and December 2015 at the University of Tokyo hospital. Read More

    Evaluation of Factors Affecting Metastasis for Renal Cell Carcinoma Based on Current Guidelines in Japan.
    Anticancer Res 2017 09;37(9):5147-5153
    Department of Integrative Cancer Therapy and Urology, Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa, Japan.
    Background/aim: To analyze the suitability for metastasis evaluation of each pathologic item on the Fourth Edition of the General Rule for Clinical and Pathologic Studies on Renal Cell Carcinoma in Japan.

    Patients And Methods: We retrospectively examined 457 cases of renal operation after 2011 using the current edition of the guidelines.

    Results: The mean postoperative follow-up period was 25. Read More

    Effects of an Alkaline Diet on EGFR-TKI Therapy in EGFR Mutation-positive NSCLC.
    Anticancer Res 2017 09;37(9):5141-5145
    Karasuma Wada Clinic, Yasaka Karasuma-oike Building 2F, Kyoto, Japan.
    Background: The acidic tumor microenvironment is associated with progression of cancers. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between an alkaline diet and the effect of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients.

    Patients And Methods: Eleven advanced or recurrent NSCLC patients with EGFR mutations treated with EGFR-TKI after being instructed to follow an alkaline diet were retrospectively evaluated. Read More

    Flattening Filter Free vs. Flattened Beams for Lung Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy.
    Anticancer Res 2017 09;37(9):5133-5139
    Department of Radiotherapy, Institut Paoli Calmettes, Marseille, France.
    Background/aim: To assess the clinical impact of high dose rate stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) in patients with lung neoplastic lesions.

    Patients And Methods: From January 2014 to June 2016, a single-center retrospective analysis was performed including all patients treated by either flattening filter free (FFF) beams or flattening filter beams (FF) three-dimensional (3D) SBRT for lung neoplastic lesions.

    Results: A total of 99 SBRT were performed on 75 patients. Read More

    Predictive Role of CYFRA21-1 and CEA for Subsequent Docetaxel in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Patients.
    Anticancer Res 2017 09;37(9):5125-5131
    Department of Respiratory Medicine, Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya, Japan.
    Background/aim: The aim of the present study was to determine the clinical value of tumor marker levels for previously treated NSCLC patients.

    Patients And Methods: We retrospectively screened 113 previously treated patients with advanced NSCLC who were treated with docetaxel monotherapy regarding the pretreatment serum level of cytokeratin 19 fragment (CYFRA21-1) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA).

    Results: The thirty-two patients with normal CYFRA21-1 levels and high CEA levels had a significantly higher response rate than the other 81 patients (25% vs. Read More

    Prospective Evaluation of Neuromediator Dynamics in Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer Patients During Docetaxel.
    Anticancer Res 2017 09;37(9):5117-5124
    Department of Urology, University Hospital Goettingen, Goettingen, Germany
    Aim: Aim of the study was to detect small cell/neuroendocrine (SCNC) transformation in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) that is a challenging procedure. We investigated the role of neuromediator dynamics as potential evidence of SCNC in patients undergoing docetaxel therapy.

    Patients And Methods: A multi-institutional, prospective observational study was conducted. Read More

    Long-term Survival After Stereotactic Radiosurgery of Brain Metastases: A Case Series with 10-year Follow-up.
    Anticancer Res 2017 09;37(9):5113-5115
    Departments of Radiology, Neurosurgery and Pathology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA, U.S.A.
    Patients with brain metastases (BRM) generally have a poor prognosis with infrequent long-term outcomes. Four patients treated by stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for BRM between 2000 and 2010 with a minimum follow-up of 10 years are described. The mean age was 43. Read More

    Metastatic Microcystic Adnexal Carcinoma with DNA Sequencing Results and Response to Systemic Antineoplastic Chemotherapy.
    Anticancer Res 2017 09;37(9):5109-5111
    Section of Satellite Oncology, Moffitt Cancer Center and Division of Hematology/Oncology, Morsani School of Medicine, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, U.S.A.
    Microcystic adnexal carcinoma (MAC) is a rare cutaneous malignancy. Due to its rarity, the molecular characteristics and treatment for metastatic MAC remain undefined. Here we present, as far as we are aware, the first case of metastatic MAC with DNA sequencing results indicating a mutation in TP53 and chromosomal losses in cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (CDKN2A) and cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor 2B (CDKN2B). Read More

    Inconsistent Reporting Between Meta-analysis Protocol and Publication - A Cross-Sectional Study.
    Anticancer Res 2017 09;37(9):5101-5107
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden
    Background: Inconsistent reporting in published meta-analyses compared to registered protocol are poorly understood. The aim of the study was to assess inconsistencies between registered protocols and published reports among oncology drug meta-analyses.

    Materials And Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed including oncology drug meta-analyses published between January 1st and November 14th 2016 with a published protocol. Read More

    Clinical and Oncological Outcomes of Laparoscopic Lateral Pelvic Lymph Node Dissection in Advanced Lower Rectal Cancer: Single-institution Experience.
    Anticancer Res 2017 09;37(9):5095-5100
    Department of Surgery, National Hospital Organization Nagasaki Medical Center, Nagasaki, Japan.
    Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the clinical outcomes of laparoscopic versus open surgery for total mesorectal excision (TME) with lateral pelvic lymph node dissection (LPLD) in advanced lower rectal cancer.

    Patients And Methods: Forty-four patients who underwent TME with LPLD for lower rectal cancer (pStage II/III) between January 2008 and December 2014 were divided into two groups according to the type of surgical approach as follows: open LPLD group (OLD, n=17) and laparoscopic LPLD group (LLD, n=27).

    Results: Operative time was comparable between the groups (p=0. Read More

    Identifying Rational Candidates for Immunotherapy Targeting PD-1/PD-L1 in Cervical Cancer.
    Anticancer Res 2017 09;37(9):5087-5094
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam, Republic of Korea
    Background/aim: To investigate the abundance of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression and identify rational candidates for anti-PD-1/PD-L1 immunotherapies in cervical cancer.

    Patients And Methods: In 27 patients with FIGO stage IB1-IIA cervical cancer, paraffin-embedded tumors were immunohistochemically stained with PD-L1 antibody. The correlation of tumoral PD-L1 expression with clinicopathological factors and survival outcomes were evaluated. Read More

    MRI and Ultrasound Fusion Imaging for Cervical Cancer.
    Anticancer Res 2017 09;37(9):5079-5085
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hôpital Intercommunal de Créteil, Paris Est University, UPEC-Paris XII, Créteil, France
    Background: Evaluating locoregional extension of cervical cancer is a key step in patient management. This study evaluated the feasibility of fusion imaging - a combination of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with real-time high-resolution ultrasound (US) - to diagnose cervical cancer and its extension.

    Patients And Methods: This prospective bi-center study included 13 women who underwent a 1. Read More

    Subcellular Localization of Maspin Correlates with Histone Deacetylase 1 Expression in Human Breast Cancer.
    Anticancer Res 2017 09;37(9):5071-5077
    Division of Organ Pathology, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Tottori University, Tottori, Japan
    Background/aim: Maspin is known to be a tumor suppressor protein. Its nuclear localization and endogenous inhibition of histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) are considered crucial for its tumor suppressor activity. However, it remains unclear whether subcellular localization of maspin correlates with HDAC1 expression level in human breast cancer. Read More

    Detection of Ductal Carcinoma In Situ by Ultrasound and Mammography: Size-dependent Inaccuracy.
    Anticancer Res 2017 09;37(9):5065-5070
    Breast Center, Municipal Hospital Holweide, Cologne, Germany.
    Background: Retrospective analysis of breast cancer imaging methods is a common tool for evaluating the effectiveness of ultrasound and mammography regarding ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). No large number subpopulation of pure DCIS has been reported. It is however known that mammography and ultrasound underestimate tumor dimension with increasing tumor size. Read More

    Inflammatory Breast Cancer Outcomes in a Contemporary Series.
    Anticancer Res 2017 09;37(9):5057-5063
    Los Angeles County and University of Southern California Medical Center Department of Surgery and Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, Division of Breast, Soft Tissue and Endocrine Surgery, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, U.S.A.
    Background: Evidence on the management of inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is limited. This study investigated factors influencing IBC treatment outcomes such as event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS).

    Materials And Methods: Data were collected from 173 patients with stage III non-IBC and 17 patients with IBC diagnosed at the Keck Medical Center and Los Angeles County and University of Southern California (LAC+USC) Medical Center. Read More

    Clinicopathological Features of Ductal Carcinoma In Situ from (18)F-FDG-PET Findings.
    Anticancer Res 2017 09;37(9):5053-5056
    Division of Breast and Endocrine Surgery, Department of General Surgical Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Gunma University, Gunma, Japan.
    Aim: The presence of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) can increase the risk of developing an invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC), but it is difficult to predict what will occur if a DCIS is left untreated. We reported the usefulness of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) for DCIS, and that the presence of FDG uptake in the tumor could be considered a predictor of invasive potential in patients with DCIS. In this study, we retrospectively evaluated the clinicopathological features of DCIS by using FDG-PET findings, and we evaluated the possibility of using FDG-PET in DCIS cases as a biomarker of which lesions will go on to become invasive. Read More

    Clinical Significance of Salvage Esophagectomy for Patients with Esophageal Cancer and Factors of Influencing Long-term Survival.
    Anticancer Res 2017 09;37(9):5045-5051
    Department of General Surgical Science, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi, Japan.
    Background/aim: Definitive chemoradiotherapy (CRT) without planned surgery has been recently widely used as a therapeutic option for locally advanced esophageal cancer. Salvage esophagectomy can offer the chance of prolonged survival for patients who have locoregional failure after definitive CRT, but many clinicians oppose the use of surgery due to the associated excessive morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to identify patients who are good candidates for salvage surgery by investigating factors influencing long-term survival. Read More

    Long-term Clinical Results of Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy for Patients with Cervical Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma.
    Anticancer Res 2017 09;37(9):5039-5044
    Department of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital East, Kashiwa, Japan
    Background/aim: We assessed the efficacy and toxicity of concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the cervical esophagus.

    Patients And Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 37 patients treated with definitive CCRT. The patients received radiotherapy at a fraction dose of 2 Gy (total; 60 or 70 Gy) and concurrent chemotherapy. Read More

    Comparison of the Serum Tumor Markers S100 and Melanoma-inhibitory Activity (MIA) in the Monitoring of Patients with Metastatic Melanoma Receiving Vaccination Immunotherapy with Dendritic Cells.
    Anticancer Res 2017 09;37(9):5033-5037
    Department of Dermatology, Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Erlangen, Germany.
    Background: In patients with melanoma, early dissemination via lymphatic and hematogenous routes is frequently seen. Thus, besides clinical follow-up examination and imaging, reliable melanoma-specific serological tumor markers are needed.

    Patients And Methods: We retrospectively compared two serum markers for melanoma, S100 and melanoma-inhibitory activity (MIA), for monitoring of patients with metastatic melanoma under either adjuvant or therapeutic vaccination immunotherapy with dendritic cells (DC). Read More

    Diffusion-weighted MRI Provides a Useful Biomarker for Evaluation of Radiotherapy Efficacy in Patients with Prostate Cancer.
    Anticancer Res 2017 09;37(9):5027-5032
    Department of Oncology, Medical Imaging Centre, Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, Finland.
    Background: Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) with measurement of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) allows for assessment of tumor aggressiveness. The objective of this study was to evaluate the changes of ADC value in prostate cancer after volumetric-modulated arc radiotherapy (VMAT) and to identify magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) biomarkers for monitoring tissue changes after radiotherapy.

    Patients And Methods: Thirty-seven patients with biopsy-proven prostate cancer treated with VMAT underwent serial MRI examinations including DWI before radiotherapy, and at 3 and 12 months after radiotherapy. Read More

    Outcomes and Prognostic Factors of Resected Salivary Gland Malignancies: Examining a Single Institution's 12-year Experience.
    Anticancer Res 2017 09;37(9):5019-5025
    Hematology/Oncology Section, Department of Medicine - Stephenson Cancer Center, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK, U.S.A.
    Background: Despite adjuvant radiotherapy, survival outcomes remain poor in patients with salivary gland malignancies who have multiple poor prognostic factors. This study aimed to determine which patients may benefit from treatment intensification.

    Patients And Methods: Patients who underwent curative resection with or without adjuvant radiotherapy between 2002 and 2014 were identified and a retrospective chart review was performed. Read More

    Response of OVCAR-3 Cells to Cisplatin and Hyperthermia: Does Hyperthermia Really Matter?
    Anticancer Res 2017 09;37(9):5011-5018
    Institute for Digestive Research, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Background: Hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) is proposed as a promising treatment method, but fundamental information about the contribution of hyperthermia to intraperitoneal chemotherapy is lacking. The purpose of this study was to investigate the cytotoxic effect of hyperthermia and cisplatin on OVCAR-3 cells in vitro.

    Materials And Methods: Imitating the typical clinical conditions of HIPEC, OVCAR-3 cells were exposed to hyperthermia and cisplatin for 1 h. Read More

    Hedgehog Stimulation Suppresses Clonogenicity and Activates NOTCH Signalling in T-lymphoblastic Leukaemia Jurkat Cells.
    Anticancer Res 2017 09;37(9):5005-5009
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan
    Background/aim: Hedgehog (HH) and NOTCH pathways are involved in the regulation of cancer stem cells and haematopoietic malignancies. However, the effects of HH stimulation on cell growth and NOTCH signalling in acute T-lymphoblastic leukaemia (T-ALL) cells have not been elucidated.

    Materials And Methods: Two T-ALL cell lines, Jurkat and KOPT-K1 harbouring activating NOTCH1 mutations, were cultured with recombinant Sonic (S) HH and analysed for proliferation, colony formation, and expression of NOTCH-regulated genes and proteins. Read More

    Usefulness of Flow Cytometry in Diagnosis of IgG4-Related Ophthalmic Disease and Extranodal Marginal Zone B-Cell Lymphoma of the Ocular Adnexa.
    Anticancer Res 2017 09;37(9):5001-5004
    Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine and Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan.
    Background/aim: Although flow cytometry (FCM) is used to evaluate cell surface markers of various leucocyte populations quantitatively, little is known about the usefulness of FCM in lymphoproliferative disorders of the ocular adnexa. The aim of this study was to disclose results of FCM, which were compared among IgG4-related ophthalmic disease (IgG4-ROD), idiopathic orbital inflammation (IOI), and extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma (EMZL).

    Materials And Methods: This is a retrospective observational study. Read More

    Role of Caspase-9 Gene Ex5+32 G>A (rs1052576) Variant in Susceptibility to Primary Brain Tumors.
    Anticancer Res 2017 09;37(9):4997-5000
    Department of Medical Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Yeditepe University, Istanbul, Turkey
    Background/aim: This study is the first to evaluate the relationship of caspase-9 (CASP-9) gene polymorphism with the risk for primary brain tumor development.

    Materials And Methods: The study group included 43 glioma and 27 meningioma patients and 76 healthy individuals. CASP-9 gene Ex5+32 G>A (rs1052576) polymorphism was analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Read More

    Magnetic Resonance Compatibility of a Transponder Aimed for Radiotherapy Positioning - A Phantom Study.
    Anticancer Res 2017 09;37(9):4993-4996
    Department of Oncology, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden
    Background/aim: Electromagnetic Positioning Systems (EMP) is a new position-ing technique in four-dimensional radiotherapy. Patients with implanted transponders may be referred for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) making it important to establish the MR safety.

    Materials And Methods: Oranges were prepared with transponders and imaged on a 3T MR scanner with different sequences. Read More

    Hedgehog Inhibition Upregulates TRK Expression to Antagonize Tumor Suppression in Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells.
    Anticancer Res 2017 09;37(9):4987-4992
    Fukuoka General Cancer Clinic, Fukuoka, Japan.
    Background/aim: Previously we have shown that tropomyosin-related kinase B (TRKB) and Hedgehog (Hh) signalling pathways induce malignant phenotypes in many cancer types. However, results from small cell lung cancer (SCLC) clinical trials using TRK and Hh inhibitors have been disappointing. One reason for this may be the existence of crosstalk between TRKB and Hh signalling pathways. Read More

    Significance of Circulating Galectin-3 in Patients with Pancreatobiliary Cancer.
    Anticancer Res 2017 09;37(9):4979-4986
    Department of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic and Transplant Surgery, Fukushima Medical University, Fukushima, Japan.
    Background/aim: Pancreatobiliary cancer is a disease associated with a dismal prognosis and limited treatment options. The aim of the present study was to clarify the usefulness of circulating galectin-3 in pancreatobiliary cancer.

    Patients And Methods: We examined serum galectin-3 concentrations in 45 patients with pancreatobiliary cancer. Read More

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