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    Partial Body UV Exposure in Chronic Kidney Disease and Extrarenal Vitamin D Metabolism.
    Anticancer Res 2018 02;38(2):1217-1219
    Section Endocrinology, Nutrition and Diabetes, Department of Medicine and Vitamin D, Skin and Bone Research Laboratory, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, U.S.A.
    Background/aim: Exposure of the skin to sunshine is the major natural source of vitamin D. In order to imitate this natural production of vitamin D for patients with chronic kidney disease, hemodialysis patients were exposed three times a week to radiation of the front part of both legs to normalize the vitamin D status.

    Patients And Methods: Partial body UVB irradiation was performed during the routine dialysis session. Read More

    Tandem Affinity Purification and Nano HPLC-ESI-MS/MS Reveal Binding of Vitamin D Receptor to p53 and other New Interaction Partners in HEK 293T Cells.
    Anticancer Res 2018 02;38(2):1209-1216
    Department of Dermatology, The Saarland University Hospital, Homburg, Germany
    While nuclear cofactors that contribute to vitamin D receptor (VDR)-mediated gene transcription, including retinoid X receptors, nuclear co-activators and co-repressors, have been extensively investigated, little is known about cytoplasmic VDR-binding partners and the physiological relevance of their interaction. To gain new insight into this topic, we isolated whole-cell protein extracts of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin Dstimulated and UV-B-irradiated vs. non-irradiated HEK 293T cells transfected with a plasmid called pURB VDR C-Term TAP tag. Read More

    Effects of Combined Treatment with Vitamin D and COX2 Inhibitors on Breast Cancer Cell Lines.
    Anticancer Res 2018 02;38(2):1201-1207
    Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Agaplesion Markus Hospital, Frankfurt am Main, Germany.
    Background: Vitamin D is known for its anticancer potential. Prostaglandin E(PGE) is a proliferative and inflammation-activating agent. The production of PGEis dependent on the activity of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2). Read More

    Solarium Use and Risk for Malignant Melanoma: Meta-analysis and Evidence-based Medicine Systematic Review.
    Anticancer Res 2018 02;38(2):1187-1199
    Center for Clinical and Experimental Photodermatology, Saarland University, Campus Homburg, Homburg, Germany
    Background: There is an ongoing debate whether solarium use (indoor tanning/artificial UV) may increase the risk for primary cutaneous malignant melanoma.

    Aim: A systematic literature search was conducted using MEDLINE and ISI Web of Science. Included studies were critically assessed regarding their risk of bias, and methodological shortcomings. Read More

    Vitamin D Status, Supplementation and Cardiovascular Disease.
    Anticancer Res 2018 02;38(2):1179-1186
    Clinic for Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Heart and Diabetes Center North Rhine-Westphalia, Ruhr-University of Bochum, Bad Oeynhausen, Germany
    This review was conducted to assess the dose-response relationship between vitamin D and cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcomes in humans: Prospective cohort studies indicate a multivariable-adjusted non-linear increase in CVD events at levels of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] of less than 50 nmol/l. However, Mendelian randomization studies do not support these findings. Although meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) do not rule out small beneficial vitamin D effects on surrogate parameters of CVD risk, such as arterial stiffness, at vitamin D doses equivalent to 1,000-5,333 IU daily, other meta-analyses of RCTs show no reduction in CVD events by vitamin D supplementation. Read More

    The Winding Path Towards an Inverse Relationship Between Sun Exposure and All-cause Mortality.
    Anticancer Res 2018 02;38(2):1173-1178
    Clintec, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden
    For a long time, skin cancer has been known to be related to extensive UV exposure. New emerging data have, however, shown low UV exposure/low vitamin D levels to be related to increased mortality rate due to skin cancer. In addition, low sun exposure habits in regions of low solar intensity have been shown to be a major risk factor for all-cause mortality in the same range as that for smoking. Read More

    The Impact of UV-dose, Body Surface Area Exposed and Other Factors on Cutaneous Vitamin D Synthesis Measured as Serum 25(OH)D Concentration: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.
    Anticancer Res 2018 02;38(2):1165-1171
    Center for Clinical and Experimental Photodermatology, The Saarland University Hospital, Homburg, Germany
    Background/aim: To optimize public health campaigns concerning UV exposure, it is important to characterize factors that influence UV-induced cutaneous vitamin D production. This systematic review and meta-analysis investigated the impact of different individual and environmental factors including exposed body surface area (BSA), UVB dose and vitamin D status, on serum 25(OH)D concentration.

    Materials And Methods: In accordance with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses, and Meta-analysis of Observational studies in Epidemiology guidelines, a systematic literature search was conducted (MEDLINE; 01/1960-07/2016) investigating the impact of these factors on vitamin D status after artificial UV exposure as main outcome measure. Read More

    Xeroderma Pigmentosum - Facts and Perspectives.
    Anticancer Res 2018 02;38(2):1159-1164
    Clinic for Dermatology and Venereology, University Medical Center Rostock, Rostock, Germany
    Ultraviolet (UV)-induced DNA lesions are almost exclusively removed by the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway, which is essential for prevention of skin cancer development. Patients with xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) are extremely sun sensitive due to a genetic defect in components of the NER cascade. They present with first signs of premature skin aging at an early age, with a considerably increased risk of developing UV-induced skin cancer. Read More

    Photocarcinogenesis and Skin Cancer Prevention Strategies: An Update.
    Anticancer Res 2018 02;38(2):1153-1158
    Clinic and Polyclinic for Dermatology and Venerology, University Medical Center Rostock, Rostock, Germany
    UV radiation is acknowledged as the primary cause of photocarcinogenesis and therefore contributes to the development of skin cancer entities such as squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), basal cell carcinoma (BCC), and melanoma. Typical DNA photoproducts and indirect DNA damage caused by reactive oxygen species are the result of UV radiation. UV-induced DNA damage is repaired by nucleotide excision repair, which consequently counteracts the development of mutations and skin carcinogenesis. Read More

    Vitamin D: Current Guidelines and Future Outlook.
    Anticancer Res 2018 02;38(2):1145-1151
    Medical Clinic V (Nephrology, Hypertensiology, Endocrinology, Diabetology, Rheumatology), Mannheim Medical Faculty, University of Heidelberg, Mannheim, Germany.
    Vitamin D is of public health interest because its deficiency is common and is associated with musculoskeletal diseases, as well as extraskeletal diseases, such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and infections. Several health authorities have reviewed the existing literature and published nutritional vitamin D guidelines for the general population. There was a wide consensus that serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration should be used to assess vitamin D status and intake, and that musculoskeletal, and not extraskeletal, effects of vitamin D should be the basis for nutritional vitamin D guidelines. Read More

    Analytical Methods for Quantification of Vitamin D and Implications for Research and Clinical Practice.
    Anticancer Res 2018 02;38(2):1137-1144
    Institute of Bioanalytical Chemistry, Saarland University, Saarbrücken, Germany
    A plethora of contradictory research surrounds vitamin D and its influence on health and disease. This may, in part, result from analytical difficulties with regard to measuring vitamin D metabolites in serum. Indeed, variation exists between analytical techniques and assays used for the determination of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Read More

    A Review of the Evidence Supporting the Vitamin D-Cancer Prevention Hypothesis in 2017.
    Anticancer Res 2018 02;38(2):1121-1136
    Sunlight, Nutrition, and Health Research Center, San Francisco, CA, U.S.A.
    The vitamin D-cancer prevention hypothesis has been evaluated through several types of studies, including geographical ecological studies related to indices of solar ultraviolet-B (UVB) dose (the primary source of vitamin D for most people), observational studies related to UVB exposure or serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations, laboratory studies of mechanisms, and clinical trials. Each approach has strengths and limitations. Ecological studies indirectly measure vitamin D production and incorporate the assumption that vitamin D mediates the effect of UVB exposure. Read More

    A Critical Appraisal of the Recent Reports on Sunbeds from the European Commission's Scientific Committee on Health, Environmental and Emerging Risks and from the World Health Organization.
    Anticancer Res 2018 02;38(2):1111-1120
    Boston University Medical Center, Boston, MA, U.S.A.
    The European Commission's Scientific Committee on Health, Environmental and Emerging Risks and the World Health Organization recently published reports which concluded that a large proportion of melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer is attributable to sunbed use, and that there is no need to use sunbeds as there are no health benefits and they are not needed to achieve an optimal vitamin D level. The overall conclusion from both bodies was that there is no safe limit for UV irradiance from sunbeds. We are, however, deeply concerned that these assessments appear to be based on an incomplete, unbalanced and non-critical evaluation of the literature. Read More

    Is Ki-67 of Diagnostic Value in Distinguishing Between Partial and Complete Hydatidiform Moles? A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.
    Anticancer Res 2018 02;38(2):1105-1110
    Biological Sciences & Engineering Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA, U.S.A.
    Background/aim: To demonstrate the value of Ki-67 in distinguishing between partial and complete hydatidiform moles.

    Materials And Methods: We searched electronic databases included Medline, WOK, Cochrane Library and CNKI, through January 24, 2015. Experts were consulted, and references from related articles were examined. Read More

    Fibrinogen Levels Are Associated with Lymph Node Involvement and Overall Survival in Gastric Cancer Patients.
    Anticancer Res 2018 02;38(2):1097-1104
    Department of Oncological Surgery, St. Elizabeth Cancer Institute, Slovak Republic and Faculty of Medicine in Bratislava of the Comenius University, Bratislava, Slovak Republic.
    Background/aim: Combination of perioperative chemotherapy with gastrectomy with D2 lymphadenectomy improves long-term survival in patients with gastric cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the predictive value of preoperative levels of CRP, albumin, fibrinogen, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and routinely used tumor markers (CEA, CA 19-9, CA 72-4) for lymph node involvement.

    Materials And Methods: This retrospective study was conducted in 136 patients who underwent surgery between 2007 and 2015. Read More

    Intensity and Pattern of Enhancement on CESM: Prognostic Significance and its Relation to Expression of Podoplanin in Tumor Stroma - A Preliminary Report.
    Anticancer Res 2018 02;38(2):1085-1095
    The Oncology Unit Department, Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Centre and Institute of Oncology, Cracow, Poland.
    Background/aim: It is possible that the degree of enhancement on contrast-enhanced spectral mammography (CESM), a new diagnostic method, might provide prognostic information for breast cancer patients. Therefore, in a group of 82 breast cancer patients, we analyzed the prognostic significance of degree and pattern of enhancement on CESM as well as its relation to: (a) breast cancer immunophenotype (based on ER/PR/HER2 status) (b) podoplanin expression in cancer stroma (lymphatic vessel density plus podoplanin-positivity of cancer-associated fibroblasts), and (c) other histological parameters.

    Materials And Methods: For each tumor the intensity of enhancement on CESM was qualitatively assessed as strong or weak/medium, while the pattern - as homogenous and heterogenous. Read More

    Association Between Clinicopathological Features and Programmed Death Ligand 1 Expression in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer.
    Anticancer Res 2018 02;38(2):1077-1083
    Department of Thoracic Oncology and Respiratory Medicine, Tokyo Metropolitan Cancer and Infectious Diseases Centre, Komagome Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.
    Background/aim: Programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression is a predictive marker for immunotherapy effects in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but its association with patient characteristics or specimens is controversial. We aimed to retrospectively analyze the association of PD-L1 expression with clinicopathological features of NSCLC patients.

    Materials And Methods: The PD-L1 expression and clinicopathological features of NSCLC patients were assessed from January 2017 to June 2017 in the Tokyo Metropolitan Cancer and Infectious Diseases Centre, Komagome Hospital were reviewed (n=108). Read More

    Circulating Tumor Cells Accurately Predicting Progressive Disease After Treatment in a Patient with Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Showing Response on Scans.
    Anticancer Res 2018 02;38(2):1073-1076
    Division of Hematology and Oncology, College of Medicine, Stephenson Cancer Center, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK, U.S.A.
    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Most patients present with advanced inoperable disease. Traditionally, responses to treatments are evaluated using different imaging modalities, which can sometimes be confusing. Read More

    Associations Between PET Textural Features and GLUT1 Expression, and the Prognostic Significance of Textural Features in Lung Adenocarcinoma.
    Anticancer Res 2018 02;38(2):1067-1071
    Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, Republic of Korea
    Background/aim: We evaluated the association between positron emission tomography (PET) textural features and glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) expression level and further investigated the prognostic significance of textural features in lung adenocarcinoma.

    Patients And Methods: We evaluated 105 adenocarcinoma patients. We extracted texture-based PET parameters of primary tumors. Read More

    Visceral Adipose Tissue and Skeletal Muscle Index Distribution Predicts Severe Pancreatic Fistula Development After Pancreaticoduodenectomy.
    Anticancer Res 2018 02;38(2):1061-1066
    Department of Surgery, Onomichi General Hospital, Onomichi, Japan.
    Background/aim: In this study, we investigated the effect of body composition on pancreatic fistula (PF) development after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD).

    Materials And Methods: All consecutive patients with pancreatic and extrahepatic biliary malignancy following PD who were treated between 2006 and 2016 were enrolled.

    Results: PF developed in 30. Read More

    Microvascular Invasion in Small-sized Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Significance for Outcomes Following Hepatectomy and Radiofrequency Ablation.
    Anticancer Res 2018 02;38(2):1053-1060
    Department of Gastroenterological Surgery, Graduate School of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, Japan.
    Background/aim: The significance of microvascular invasion (MVI) of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is unknown.

    Patients And Methods: We studied 149 patients with solitary small-sized HCC (≤3 cm) who underwent hepatectomy, and developed a predictive model of MVI using independent factors related to the presence of MVI. The predictive model was applied to 159 patients who underwent RFA, and their outcomes were examined. Read More

    Long-term Favorable Outcomes of Radiofrequency Ablation for Hepatocellular Carcinoma as an Initial Treatment: A Single-center Experience Over a 10-Year Period.
    Anticancer Res 2018 02;38(2):1047-1052
    Department of Gastroenterological Surgery, Kumamoto University Graduate School of Life Sciences, Kumamoto, Japan
    Background: Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is an alternative to hepatic resection and one of the major therapeutic options for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here, we investigated the long-term outcomes of RFA as an initial treatment for HCC.

    Patients And Methods: From January 2000 to December 2014, we treated 1,043 patients with RFA for HCC at the Kumamoto University Hospital; 327 of these patients (31. Read More

    Which Primary Organ Is Most Suitable for Performing Pulmonary Metastasectomy?
    Anticancer Res 2018 02;38(2):1041-1045
    Department of Surgery and Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.
    Background/aim: The aim of this study was to assess the appropriateness of pulmonary metastasectomy (MT), with a focus on the primary organ.

    Patients And Methods: The pathological status of the primary organ, outcome of the MT, disease-free interval, and overall survival were assessed.

    Results: The primary organ was the most significant prognostic factor analyzed, with a relative risk of 4. Read More

    Radiation Therapy for Patients with Bone Metastasis from Uterine Cervical Cancer: Its Role and Optimal Radiation Regimen for Palliative Care.
    Anticancer Res 2018 02;38(2):1033-1040
    Department of Radiology, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama, Japan.
    Aim: To determine the role of radiation therapy for patients with bone metastasis from uterine cervical cancer and identify an optimal radiation regimen.

    Patients And Methods: A total of 20 patients with bone metastases from uterine cervical cancer received radiation therapy to the pelvis. The median total dose of 60. Read More

    Efficacy and Safety of Drug Eluting Bead TACE with Microspheres <150 μm for the Treatment of Hepatocellular Carcinoma.
    Anticancer Res 2018 02;38(2):1025-1032
    Clinic of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Krankenhaus Barmherzige Brueder Muenchen/The Hospital of the Order of St. John of God, Munich, Germany.
    Background/aim: To retrospectively evaluate the efficacy and safety of drug eluting bead (DEB) transarterial chemoembolisation (TACE) with microspheres <150 μm for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with respect to overall survival, progression-free survival, tumor response and the peri-interventional toxicity.

    Materials And Methods: In this retrospective, single-center study we analyzed 32 HCC-patients (BCLC A: 10 patients, BCLC B: 17 patients, BCLC C: 5 patients), who were treated with (DEB) <15 μm (DCBeadM1®) loaded with epirubicin between 2011 and 2015. We analyzed MRI and CT-scans as well as blood results like AFP, bilirubin and liver enzymes before (t0) and after (t1=first follow-up, t2=last follow-up within 6 months) locoregional treatment. Read More

    Effects of Neoadjuvant 5-Fluorouracil and Cisplatin Therapy in Patients with Clinical Stage II/III Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma.
    Anticancer Res 2018 02;38(2):1017-1023
    Division of Digestive Surgery, Department of Surgery, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan.
    Background: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) with 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin (FP) has been administered to patients with clinical stage II or III esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). We aimed to confirm the clinical efficacy and outcomes of NAC with FP.

    Patients And Methods: The clinicopathological features and survival of 152 patients with clinical stage II/III ESCC who received NAC with FP followed by radical esophagectomy were analyzed. Read More

    Comparison of Two Radiotherapy Regimens for Metastatic Spinal Cord Compression: Subgroup Analyses from a Randomized Trial.
    Anticancer Res 2018 02;38(2):1009-1015
    Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ, U.S.A.
    Background/aim: According to our randomized trial, 5×4Gy was comparable to 10×3Gy for metastatic spinal cord compression. Since it remained unclear whether findings applied to poor and intermediate prognoses patients, subgroup analyses were performed.

    Patients And Methods: In patients with poor prognoses, 58 received 5×4Gy, 53 received 10×3Gy. Read More

    Patients with Increased Levels of the Oxidative Stress Biomarker SOD1 Appear to Have Diminished Postoperative Pain After Midline Laparotomy: A Randomised Trial with Special Reference to Postoperative Pain Score (NRS).
    Anticancer Res 2018 02;38(2):1003-1008
    Department of Surgery, Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio, Finland
    Background/aim: The levels of the oxidative stress biomarker superoxide dismutase (SOD1) in plasma in relation to pain at rest 24 hours after (NRS) midline laparotomy in patients with rectus sheath block (RSB) analgesia is unknown.

    Patients And Methods: Initially, 56 patients (39 with cancer), each with an intravenous oxycodone pump as patient-controlled analgesia, were randomized to four groups: control group, no RSB (n=12), single-dose (n=16), repeated-dose (n=12) and continuous infusion (n=16) of RSB analgesia. The plasma levels of SOD1 were measured directly before, immediately after and 24 hours after surgery. Read More

    Protrusion on the Depressed Surface of Non-polypoid T1 Colorectal Cancer Is Associated with Venous Invasion.
    Anticancer Res 2018 02;38(2):993-1002
    Department of Surgical Oncology, the University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Aim: The treatment strategies for T1 colorectal cancer (CRC) include both surgical and endoscopic resection. Surgical resection is indicated if lymphovascular invasion is present; however, the endoscopic prediction of lymphovascular invasion has not been reported. We aimed to correlate endoscopic morphology with pathological findings, including lymphovascular invasion, in non-polypoid T1 CRC. Read More

    Preoperative Platelet to Albumin Ratio Predicts Outcome of Patients with Cholangiocarcinoma.
    Anticancer Res 2018 02;38(2):987-992
    Department of Surgery, The Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.
    Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prognostic index of the preoperative platelet to albumin ratio (PAR) in patients who underwent primary resection for cholangiocarcinoma.

    Patients And Methods: A total of 59 patients were divided into two groups: those with PAR ≥72.6×10or <72. Read More

    Two-step Intensity-modulated Radiation Therapy for Oropharyngeal Cancer: Initial Clinical Experience and Validation of Clinical Staging.
    Anticancer Res 2018 02;38(2):979-986
    Department of Radiation Oncology, Kindai University Faculty of Medicine, Osaka, Japan.
    Aim: To evaluate the clinical results of two-step intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for oropharyngeal cancer.

    Patients And Methods: Eighty patients were treated with two-step IMRT between 2002 and 2014. Whole-neck radiotherapy (44. Read More

    Image Quality Assessment of 2D3D T2WI and Evaluation of Ultra-high b-Value (b=2,000 mm/s) DWI for Response Assessment in Rectal Cancer.
    Anticancer Res 2018 02;38(2):969-978
    Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Aim: The purpose of this IRB-approved, retrospective study was to compare image quality between 2D and high-resolution 3D, T2-weighted (T2WI) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences and to investigate the additional value of ultra-high b-value diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI; b=2,000 mm/s) for both rectal cancer staging and evaluating treatment response.

    Materials And Methods: From 12 February to 24 August 2016, 26 consecutive patients (22 males, four females; mean age: 61.9±14. Read More

    Comparison of Laparoscopic and Open Surgery for Colorectal Cancer in Patients with Severe Comorbidities.
    Anticancer Res 2018 02;38(2):963-967
    Department of Surgery, Yokohama City University, Yokohama, Japan.
    Background/aim: To evaluate the safety of laparoscopic colorectal cancer surgery for patients with severe comorbidities.

    Patients And Methods: A total of 203 consecutive patients with severe comorbidities who underwent resection for colorectal cancer were retrospectively divided into laparoscopic and open primary resection groups. An age-adjusted Charlson comorbidity index ≥6 was considered as severe comorbidity. Read More

    The Prognostic Implications of Bone Invasion in Gingival Squamous Cell Carcinoma.
    Anticancer Res 2018 02;38(2):955-962
    Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama, Japan.
    Background/aim: This study evaluated the associations between bone invasion of gingival squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and clinicopathological manifestations, and aimed to determine whether bone invasion is an independent prognostic factor in gingival SCC.

    Patients And Methods: The study was a retrospective review of 78 patients with gingival SCC who underwent surgery with curative intent. The level of bone invasion was pathologically categorized as medullary, cortical or no bone invasion. Read More

    Clinical Assessment of Micro-residual Tumors during Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Hepatocellular Carcinoma.
    Anticancer Res 2018 02;38(2):945-954
    Miyakojima IGRT Clinic, Osaka, Japan.
    Background: This study aimed to assess the need to consider microscopic invasion in terms of treatment planning in stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for hepatocellular carcinoma and elucidate the appropriate clinical target volume (CTV) margin.

    Patients And Methods: A total of 121 patients (with 146 liver tumors) who underwent SBRT between July 2007 and August 2016 were analyzed, regarding overall survival and local control (LC).

    Results: The 2- and 5-year LC rates were 91. Read More

    High STMN1 Expression Is Associated with Tumor Differentiation and Metastasis in Clinical Patients with Pancreatic Cancer.
    Anticancer Res 2018 02;38(2):939-944
    Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, Gunma University, Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi, Japan.
    Background: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Stathmin 1 (STMN1) suppression was reported to reduce cellular viability and migration potential. However, no previous studies have addressed whether STMN1 overexpression is associated with malignant potential in PDAC. Read More

    Association of Preoperative Nutritional Status with Prognosis in Patients with Esophageal Cancer Undergoing Salvage Esophagectomy.
    Anticancer Res 2018 02;38(2):933-938
    Department of General Surgical Science, Gunma University, Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi, Japan.
    Background: To investigate whether malnutrition is associated with poor prognosis of patients who undergo salvage esophagectomy. We examined the association between the preoperative prognostic nutritional index (PNI) and prognosis of patients who undergo salvage esophagectomy.

    Patients And Methods: We conducted a single-center retrospective study and reviewed hospital patient records for tumor characteristics and patient outcomes. Read More

    Low-dose Pressurized Intrathoracic Aerosol Chemotherapy (PITAC) as an Alternative Therapy for Pleuropulmonary Involvement in Pseudomyxoma Peritonei.
    Anticancer Res 2018 02;38(2):929-932
    Unit of Surgical Oncology, Candiolo Cancer Institute, IRCCS - FPO, Candiolo, Italy.
    Background/aim: Pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP) is a rare disease characterized by mucinous ascites and widespread peritoneal implants. It usually originates from the rupture of an adenoma/adenocarcinoma of the appendix. Although this tumor is only superficially invasive and does not metastasize, it could be a fatal disease. Read More

    Surgical Outcomes and Morbidity After Radical Surgery for Ovarian Cancer in Aberdeen Royal Infirmary, the Northeast of Scotland Gynaecologic Oncology Centre.
    Anticancer Res 2018 02;38(2):923-928
    Department of Gynecologic Oncology, Aberdeen Royal Infirmary, Aberdeen, U.K.
    Background/aim: Ovarian cancer (OC) has a high mortality rate and usually presents late in advanced stage, which poses challenges to management. Better understanding of the disease biology and application of radical surgery (RS) to achieve no visible residual tumor, alongside with chemotherapy, may lead to longer survival amongst these patients. Our purpose was to examine the demographic characteristics, surgical morbidity and outcomes of patients undergoing RS for OC. Read More

    Gut-associated Lymphoid Tissue (GALT) Carcinoma in Ulcerative Colitis.
    Anticancer Res 2018 02;38(2):919-921
    Division of Pathology, Geneva University Hospital, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Background: In ulcerative colitis (UC), the majority of colorectal carcinomas (CRC) arise in the vast colorectal mucosal domain built with mucus-producing goblet cells and columnar cells. Conversely, CRC in UC rarely evolve in the tiny, spotty gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) mucosal domain. Here we review the four reported cases of colonic carcinoma developing in GALT mucosa in UC, searching for possible precursor lesions connected with the evolution of these tumours. Read More

    Adverse Prognostic Factors of Advanced Esophageal Cancer in Patients Undergoing Induction Therapy with Docetaxel, Cisplatin and 5-Fluorouracil.
    Anticancer Res 2018 02;38(2):911-918
    First Department of Surgery, Dokkyo Medical University, Tochigi, Japan.
    Background/aim: The purpose of this study was to identify adverse prognostic factors for patients with advanced esophageal cancer undergoing chemotherapy with docetaxel, cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil (DCF).

    Patients And Methods: The study cohort comprised of 45 patients with advanced esophageal cancer who underwent induction DCF therapy followed by esophagectomy or chemoradiotherapy. Treatment outcomes and factors affecting early recurrence and death were analyzed. Read More

    Phase II Study of S-1 plus Trastuzumab for HER2-positive Metastatic Breast Cancer (GBCCSG-01).
    Anticancer Res 2018 02;38(2):905-909
    Breast Surgery, Ota Memorial Hospital, Gunma, Japan.
    Aim: Treatment strategies for patients with human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2)-positive metastatic breast cancer (MBC) have significantly progressed. The use of trastuzumab, a monoclonal antibody targeting the HER2 (human epidermal growth factor 2) protein, in combination with chemotherapy improves survival in patients with HER2-positive breast cancer. S-1, an oral combination of fluorouracil derivatives, is widely used in Japan and is more convenient than intravenous drugs. Read More

    Does Patient-reported Dyspnea Reflect Thoracic Disease Characteristics in Patients with Incurable Cancer?
    Anticancer Res 2018 02;38(2):901-904
    Department of Oncology and Palliative Medicine, Nordland Hospital Trust, Bodø, Norway.
    Background/aim: A considerable proportion of patients with incurable cancer experience dyspnea. This study evaluates associations between the feeling of dyspnea, as quantified by radiotherapy patients scoring their symptoms before palliative treatment with the Edmonton symptom assessment system (ESAS), and potential underlying causes.

    Patients And Methods: Retrospective comparison of the incidence of different parameters that could cause a feeling of dyspnea in two groups, patients with no or minimal dyspnea (ESAS score 0-2) and those with dyspnea scores >2. Read More

    Effect of Neoadjuvant Chemoradiotherapy on Lymph Node Micrometastases in Thoracic Esophageal Cancer.
    Anticancer Res 2018 02;38(2):893-900
    Department of Digestive Surgery, Breast and Thyroid Surgery, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima, Japan.
    Aim: The purpose of this study was to clarify the effect of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT) on lymph node micrometastasis (LNM) in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC).

    Patients And Methods: The therapeutic efficacy of nCRT was analyzed in 41 ESCC patients randomized to the Surgery group (n=21) and the nCRT group (n=20). Lymph node specimens from patients were classified into two categories, micrometastasis (MM) and tumor cell microinvolvement (MI), after immunohistochemical evaluation. Read More

    A Phase I Study of Hypofractionated Carbon-ion Radiotherapy for Stage III Non-small Cell Lung Cancer.
    Anticancer Res 2018 02;38(2):885-891
    Gunma University Heavy Ion Medical Center, Gunma, Japan.
    Background/aim: The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility and safety of hypofractionated carbon-ion radiotherapy (C-ion RT) in patients with stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

    Patients And Methods: Patients with untreated, histologically proven, unresectable stage III NSCLC and not candidates for chemotherapy were included in this study. C-ion RT was planned and administered with 4 Gy (relative biological effectiveness (RBE)) in daily fractions for a total dose of 64 Gy (RBE) without combined chemotherapy. Read More

    Control of Nausea and Vomiting in Patients Receiving Anthracycline/Cyclophosphamide Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer.
    Anticancer Res 2018 02;38(2):877-884
    Department of Pharmacy, Gifu University Hospital, Gifu, Japan.
    Background/aim: Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is one of most distressing adverse events during cancer chemotherapy. In breast cancer patients receiving anthracycline and cyclophosphamide (AC) chemotherapy, CINV is poorly controlled.

    Patients And Methods: The prevalence of guideline-consistent antiemetic medication and control of CINV were investigated retrospectively in breast cancer patients receiving the first cycle of AC chemotherapy. Read More

    Survival in Limited Disease Small Cell Lung Cancer According to N3 Lymph Node Involvement.
    Anticancer Res 2018 02;38(2):871-876
    Department of Clinical and Molecular Medicine, NTNU, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Background/aim: There are several definitions of limited disease (LD) in small cell lung cancer (SCLC), differing with respect to N3 disease accepted. We analyzed patients from a randomized trial comparing two schedules of thoracic radiotherapy (TRT) in LD SCLC to investigate whether there were survival differences between N3 subcategories (n=144).

    Patients And Methods: Patients with a baseline CT scan available were analysed. Read More

    Maspin Enhances the Anticancer Activity of Curcumin in Hormone-refractory Prostate Cancer Cells.
    Anticancer Res 2018 02;38(2):863-870
    Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan, R.O.C.
    Background/aim: Androgen deprivation therapy remains the principal treatment for patients with advanced prostate cancer, though, most patients will eventually develop hormone-refractory prostate cancer (HRPC). Androgen ablation mediated maspin-induction has been identified in cancer patients. However, the role of maspin on the anticancer activity of curcumin derived from turmeric (Curcuma longa) in HRPC cells has not been elucidated. Read More

    Antitumor Effect of Burchellin Derivatives Against Neuroblastoma.
    Anticancer Res 2018 02;38(2):855-862
    Department of Clinical Medicine, School of Pharmacy, Nihon University, Funabashi, Japan
    Background: Neuroblastoma is one of the most commonly encountered malignant solid tumors in the pediatric age group. We examined the antitumor effects of five burchellin derivatives against human neuroblastoma cell lines.

    Materials And Methods: We evaluated cytotoxicity by the MTT assay for four human neuroblastoma and two normal cell lines. Read More

    Ursolic Acid Causes Cell Death in PC-12 Cells by Inducing Apoptosis and Impairing Autophagy.
    Anticancer Res 2018 02;38(2):847-853
    Department of Life and Nanopharmaceutical Sciences, Graduate School, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Republic of Korea
    Ursolic acid (UA) is a natural pentacyclic triterpene that has various biological activities, including anticancer and anti-inflammatory effects. This study investigated the ability of UA to cause cell death in pheochromocytoma (PC-12) cells. UA was cytotoxic to PC-12 cells (half-maximum inhibitory concentration=53. Read More

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