134 results match your criteria Antibiotics Ototopical


Controlled release of ciprofloxacin and ceftriaxone from a single ototopical administration of antibiotic-loaded polymer microspheres and thermoresponsive gel.

PLoS One 2020 12;15(10):e0240535. Epub 2020 Oct 12.

Department of Bioengineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, United States of America.

Acute otitis media (AOM) is the main indication for pediatric antibiotic prescriptions, accounting for 25% of prescriptions. While the use of topical drops can minimize the administered dose of antibiotic and adverse systemic effects compared to oral antibiotics, their use has limitations, partially due to low patient compliance, high dosing frequency, and difficulty of administration. Lack of proper treatment can lead to development of chronic OM, which may require invasive interventions. Read More

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December 2020

Pentoxifylline and Tocopherol in the Management of Temporal Bone Osteoradionecrosis: A Case Series.

Otol Neurotol 2020 12;41(10):1438-1446

Department of Head and Neck Surgery, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas.

Objective: Temporal bone osteoradionecrosis (TBORN) is a rare, chronic complication of head and neck radiation. Initial treatment consists of conservative management, with surgical resection of necrotic bone indicated for cases of severe, symptomatic, or progressive disease. Pentoxifylline-tocopherol (PENTO) has demonstrated usefulness for osteoradionecrosis of other head and neck subsites. Read More

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December 2020

Ototopical drops containing a novel antibacterial synthetic peptide: Safety and efficacy in adults with chronic suppurative otitis media.

PLoS One 2020 14;15(4):e0231573. Epub 2020 Apr 14.

Department of Ear Nose and Throat, Leiden University Medical Centre (LUMC), Leiden, The Netherlands.

Objective: Chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) is a chronic infectious disease with worldwide prevalence that causes hearing loss and decreased quality of life. As current (antibiotic) treatments often unsuccessful and antibiotic resistance is emerging, alternative agents and/or strategies are urgently needed. We considered the synthetic antimicrobial and anti-biofilm peptide P60. Read More

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Aminoglycoside Vestibulotoxicity.

Authors:
John Rutka

Adv Otorhinolaryngol 2019 15;82:101-110. Epub 2019 Jan 15.

Many pharmaceuticals have ototoxicity (both cochlear and/or vestibular) as part of their adverse medication profile. The aminoglycoside class of antimicrobials has been especially well studied in this regard. Many questions remain unanswered as to how to best monitor and prevent this complication. Read More

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December 2019

Fabrication of levofloxacin polyethylene glycol decorated nanoliposomes for enhanced management of acute otitis media: Statistical optimization, trans-tympanic permeation and in vivo evaluation.

Int J Pharm 2019 Mar 23;559:201-209. Epub 2019 Jan 23.

Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt. Electronic address:

Acute otitis media (AOM), an infection in the middle ear, is usually treated through systemic administration of antibiotics because the stratum corneum of the intact tympanic-membrane (TM) possesses low permeability that holds against the ototopical antibiotics use. Therefore, the objective of this work was to encapsulate levofloxacin (LFX) into polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG 400) decorated nanoliposomes (PNLs) as an approach for drug delivery through the intact tympanic-membrane. LFX loaded-PNLs were primed by ethanol injection technique. Read More

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Auditory and Histopathological Effects of Topical Mercurochrome Treatment in Rats with Tympanic Membrane Perforation.

J Int Adv Otol 2019 Apr;15(1):22-27

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Health Sciences University, İzmir Bozyaka Training and Research Hospital, İzmir, Turkey.

Objectives: Topical treatment is first choice in the treatment of uncomplicated chronic otitis media. It was intended to assess auditory and histopathological safety of ototopical use of mercurochrome solution in rats with induced tympanic membrane perforation.

Materials And Methods: The study was conducted on 21 female Wistar-Albino rats which were randomly assigned into 3 groups. Read More

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Tympanostomy tube placement and ear drops: Evidence-based cost saving models.

Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2018 Jul 16;110:110-113. Epub 2018 May 16.

University of Texas Health San Antonio, Department of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, United States. Electronic address:

Objectives/introduction: Tympanostomy tube placement is the most common surgical procedure in the pediatric population with important financial implications to our healthcare institutions. The purpose of this study is to apply various cost models in different clinical environments to determine the most cost effective way to prescribe ear drops after tympanostomy tube insertion.

Methods: Two distinct practice models were designed: a Uniform Treatment Model and a Disease Specific Model. Read More

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First reported case of multidrug-resistant in Canada.

Can Commun Dis Rep 2017 Jul 6;43(7-8):150-153. Epub 2017 Jul 6.

Section of Infectious Diseases, Departments of Internal Medicine and Medical Microbiology, Max Rady College of Medicine, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB.

is a fungal pathogen that has recently emerged as a global threat to public health. It was first described in Japan in 2009 and has since been reported in 17 countries on five continents. This case report describes the first reported case of multidrug-resistant in Canada. Read More

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Efficacy of topical 2% mupirocin ointment for treatment of tympanostomy tube otorrhea caused by community-acquired methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2018 Jun 24;109:36-39. Epub 2018 Mar 24.

Department of Otolaryngology - Head & Neck Surgery, Lewis Katz School of Medicine at Temple University, USA; Department of Pediatrics, Lewis Katz School of Medicine at Temple University, USA. Electronic address:

Objective: To demonstrate the safety and effectiveness of topical 2% mupirocin ointment as an adjunctive therapy for tympanostomy tube otorrhea (TTO) caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).

Methods: We treated children with community-acquired MRSA TTO by aural suctioning and culture-directed systemic antibiotics (+/- ototopical drops) alone (control group) or with the addition of single 1 ml dose of mupirocin ointment applied to the tube and ear canal (mupirocin group). Patient age, laterality, response to treatment, associate hearing loss, duration of follow-up, and recurrence of infection by MRSA or by other organisms were compared. Read More

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In Vitro Susceptibility of Ciprofloxacin-Resistant Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus to Ototopical Therapy.

Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2018 05 13;158(5):923-929. Epub 2018 Mar 13.

1 Section of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Chicago Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Objective Despite the rising incidence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) otologic infections, choice of treatment remains controversial. Only fluoroquinolone-containing ototopical preparations are approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for middle ear application. Furthermore, American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation guidelines advocate ototopical monotherapy for both tympanostomy tube otorrhea and acute otitis externa. Read More

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Effects of Common Ear Drops on Tympanic Membrane Healing in Rats.

Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2018 05 20;158(5):917-922. Epub 2018 Feb 20.

1 Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, College of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA.

Objective Ciprofloxacin + dexamethasone ear drops have been associated with higher rates of tympanic membrane perforations than ofloxacin. This was thought to be an effect of the steroid; however, ciprofloxacin (sans steroid) has been found to be more toxic to tympanic membrane fibroblasts than ofloxacin in vitro. This study aimed to compare the effect of these agents on tympanic membrane healing in vivo. Read More

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Evaluating the ototoxicity of an anti-MRSA peptide KR-12-a2.

Braz J Otorhinolaryngol 2018 Jul - Aug;84(4):441-447. Epub 2017 May 31.

Chonnam National University Medical School, Department of Otolaryngology, Gwangju, South Korea. Electronic address:

Introduction: Methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus is an emerging problem for the treatment of chronic suppurative otitis media, and also for pediatric tympanostomy tube otorrhea. To date, there are no effective topical antibiotic drugs to treat methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus otorrhea.

Objective: In this study, we evaluated the ototoxicity of topical KR-12-a2 solution on the cochlea when it is applied topically in the middle ear of guinea pigs. Read More

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Enhanced non invasive trans-tympanic delivery of ciprofloxacin through encapsulation into nano-spanlastic vesicles: Fabrication, in-vitro characterization, and comparative ex-vivo permeation studies.

Int J Pharm 2017 Apr 7;522(1-2):157-164. Epub 2017 Mar 7.

Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Egypt.

The aim of this research was to encapsulate ciprofloxacin, a broad spectrum fluoroquinolone antibiotic, into Span 60 based nano-elastic vesicles, nano-spanlastics, for accomplishing improved non invasive trans-tympanic delivery, providing means for ototopical treatment of acute otitis media (AOM). To achieve this purpose, ciprofloxacin-loaded nano-spanlastics were prepared by thin film hydration (TFH) technique, using several non-ionic edge activators (EAs) according to full factorial design (3). The investigation of the effect of formulation variables on nano-spanlastic characteristics and selection of the optimum formula were performed using Design-Expert software. Read More

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The Effect of Nystatin Solution on Otoacoustic Emissions in Rats.

J Int Adv Otol 2017 Apr 7;13(1):105-109. Epub 2016 Nov 7.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Erciyes University School of Medicine, Kayseri, Turkey.

Objective: In patients with a perforated tympanic membrane, topically administered medication reaches the middle ear and thus creates a risk of ototoxicity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possible ototoxic effect of the antifungal medication nystatin when administered to the rat middle ear cavity.

Materials And Methods: Three groups (negative control, positive control, and study groups), each containing eight rats, were formed. Read More

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Collagen and α-Tubulin of Mouse Tympanic Membrane Fibroblasts Treated with Quinolones and Aminoglycosides.

Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2017 02 3;156(2):341-349. Epub 2016 Oct 3.

1 Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA.

Objective To assess collagen and α-tubulin levels of mouse tympanic membrane fibroblasts treated with quinolone and aminoglycoside antibiotics at concentrations found in eardrops. Study Design Prospective controlled cell culture study. Setting Academic tertiary medical center. Read More

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February 2017

National Utilization and Forecasting of Ototopical Antibiotics: Medicaid Data Versus "Dr. Google".

Otol Neurotol 2016 09;37(8):1049-54

Division of Head and Neck Surgery & Communication Sciences, Department of Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina.

Objectives: To forecast national Medicaid prescription volumes for common ototopical antibiotics, and correlate prescription volumes with internet user search interest using Google Trends (GT).

Study Design: National United States Medicaid prescription and GT user search database analysis.

Methods: Quarterly national Medicaid summary drug utilization data and weekly GT search engine data for ciprofloxacin-dexamethasone (CD), ofloxacin (OF), and Cortisporin (CS) ototopicals were obtained from January 2008 to July 2014. Read More

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September 2016

Why are ototopical aminoglycosides still first-line therapy for chronic suppurative otitis media? A systematic review and discussion of aminoglycosides versus quinolones.

J Laryngol Otol 2016 Jan 20;130(1):2-7. Epub 2015 Nov 20.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology,Betsi Cadwaladr University Health Board,Rhyl,Wales,UK.

Objective: This systematic review aimed to establish that quinolones are as effective as aminoglycosides when used to treat chronic suppurative otitis media.

Method: The review included good quality, randomised, controlled trials on human subjects, published in English, that compared topical aminoglycosides with topical quinolones for the treatment of chronic suppurative otitis media.

Results: Nine trials met the criteria. Read More

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January 2016

Provider and patient drivers of ototopical antibiotic prescription variability.

Am J Otolaryngol 2015 Nov-Dec;36(6):814-9. Epub 2015 Jul 7.

Division of Otolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC.

Objective: To determine if providers prescribe more affordable topical antibacterial therapy for patients who are economically disadvantaged or come from economically disadvantaged communities.

Study Design: Prescription drug database review.

Setting: Large academic hospital network. Read More

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Acute otorrhea in children with tympanostomy tubes: prevalence of bacteria and viruses in the post-pneumococcal conjugate vaccine era.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2015 Apr;34(4):355-60

From the *Department of Epidemiology, Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands; †Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands; ‡Virology Department of Medical Microbiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands; §Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Wilhelmina Children's Hospital, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands; and ¶ENT Clinical Trials Programme, Ear Institute, University College London, London, United Kingdom.

Background: Acute tympanostomy-tube otorrhea is a common sequela in children with tympanostomy tubes. Acute tympanostomy-tube otorrhea is generally a symptom of an acute middle ear infection, whereby middle ear fluid drains through the tube. The widespread use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination (PCV) has changed the bacterial prevalence in the upper respiratory tract of children, but its impact on bacterial and viral pathogens causing acute tympanostomy-tube otorrhea is yet unknown. Read More

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Effect of Haemophilus influenzae exposure on Staphylococcus aureus tympanostomy tube attachment and biofilm formation.

JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2015 Feb;141(2):148-53

Department of Otolaryngology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville.

Importance: Tympanostomy tube (TT) biofilm formation may lead to sequelae.

Objective: To determine whether the acute pathogen Haemophilus influenzae promotes TT attachment and biofilm formation by the chronic pathogen Staphylococcus aureus.

Design And Setting: Controlled, in vitro microbiological study at an academic research laboratory using TTs treated with 0 (untreated), 10, or 3000 µg/mL ciprofloxacin or ethylene oxide and TTs with and without prior H influenzae exposure. Read More

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February 2015

Nano-transfersomal ciprofloxacin loaded vesicles for non-invasive trans-tympanic ototopical delivery: in-vitro optimization, ex-vivo permeation studies, and in-vivo assessment.

Int J Pharm 2014 Sep 24;472(1-2):304-14. Epub 2014 Jun 24.

Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Kasr El Aini Street, Cairo 11562, Egypt.

Ciprofloxacin is a synthetic fluoroquinolone antibiotic that has been used for systemic treatment of otitis media in adults. It was approved for topical treatment of otorrhea in children with tympanostomy tubes. The aim of this work was to enhance the local non-invasive delivery of ciprofloxacin to the middle ear across an intact tympanic membrane (TM) in an attempt to treat acute otitis media (AOM) ototopically. Read More

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September 2014

Congenital cholesteatoma in siblings.

J Laryngol Otol 2013 Nov 29;127(11):1143-4. Epub 2013 Oct 29.

Department of Otology and Laryngology, Medical University of Vienna, Austria.

Introduction: The exact aetiology of congenital cholesteatoma, the less common form of this destructive disease, is still under debate.

Case Report: A two-year-old boy was referred to paediatric otolaryngology with persistent, bloody, left-sided otorrhoea refractory to oral and ototopical antibiotics. Prior to its onset at age 16 months, all ear examinations on the affected side were normal. Read More

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November 2013

Ciprofloxacin 0.3% + dexamethasone 0.1% for the treatment for otitis media.

Expert Opin Pharmacother 2013 Dec 7;14(17):2399-405. Epub 2013 Oct 7.

University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Department of Otolaryngology , 5323 Harry Hines Blvd, Dallas, TX 75390 , USA

Introduction: Ciprofloxacin 0.3% with dexamethasone 0.1% (ciprofloxacin/dexamethasone) is an ototopical preparation for acute otitis externa, otorrhea with tympanostomy tubes, and is frequently used to treat chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM). Read More

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December 2013

Draining ears and tympanostomy tubes: a survey of pediatric otolaryngologists and pediatric emergency medicine physicians.

Pediatr Emerg Care 2013 Feb;29(2):203-8

Inova Fairfax Hospital for Children, Pediatric Residency Program, Falls Church, VA 22042-3300, USA.

Introduction: Posttympanostomy tube otorrhea also known as acute otitis media with tympanostomy tubes (AOMT) occurs in 15% to 80% of children with tympanostomy tubes. Its management is fairly standardized among pediatric ear, nose, and throat (ENT) physicians owing to recommendations published by the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery. Pediatric emergency medicine (EM) physicians have no such guidelines. Read More

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February 2013

Acute otitis externa in children.

Can Fam Physician 2012 Nov;58(11):1222-4

BC Children's Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Room K4-226, Ambulatory Care Bldg, 4480 Oak St, Vancouver, BC V6H 3V4.

Question: In the summer months I see many children with uncomplicated acute otitis externa (AOE). I am aware of the multiple ototopical preparations. Which is the best first-line agent to treat AOE, and is there a role for an oral antibiotic?

Answer: There are no specific Canadian guidelines for the management of AOE. Read More

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November 2012

Formulations for trans-tympanic antibiotic delivery.

Biomaterials 2013 Jan 9;34(4):1281-8. Epub 2012 Nov 9.

Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.

We have developed a drug delivery system for prolonged trans-tympanic antibiotic delivery from a single dose administration. Increased permeability to ciprofloxacin of the intact tympanic membrane (TM) was achieved by chemical permeation enhancers (CPEs--bupivacaine, limonene, sodium dodecyl sulfate); this was also seen by CPEs contained within a hydrogel (poloxamer 407) to maintain the formulation at the TM. The CPE-hydrogel formulation had minimal effects on auditory thresholds and tissue response in vivo. Read More

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January 2013

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) pediatric tympanostomy tube otorrhea.

Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2012 Dec 25;76(12):1795-8. Epub 2012 Sep 25.

Division of Pediatric Otolaryngology, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Objectives: To describe our experience and clinical outcomes with the management of pediatric tympanostomy tube otorrhea secondary to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).

Methods: Retrospective review of pediatric patients (age <18) diagnosed with culture-positive MRSA tympanostomy tube otorrhea.

Results: MRSA positive ear cultures in the presence of tympanostomy tubes were identified in 41 patients (6. Read More

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December 2012

Ototopical neomycin exposure in children with nonintact tympanic membranes.

Laryngoscope 2012 Nov 10;122(11):2529-32. Epub 2012 Sep 10.

Department of Pharmaceutical Outcomes and Policy, College of Pharmacy, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA.

Objectives/hypothesis: Although contraindicated, neomycin otic preparations may be administered to children with nonintact tympanic membranes (TMs), such as tympanostomy tubes or TM perforations. The goal of this study was to assess the magnitude of neomycin exposure in children with nonintact TMs.

Study Design: Retrospective drug utilization study. Read More

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November 2012

Novel rat model of tympanostomy tube otorrhea.

Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2012 Feb 22;76(2):179-82. Epub 2011 Dec 22.

Department of Otolaryngology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA.

Objective: Tympanostomy tube otorrhea (TTO), caused by the presence of pathogenic bacteria in the middle ear, is the most common complication of TT insertion. No studies have described a reproducible animal model of TTO. We aimed to develop a rat model of TTO which, in turn, could be used to assay the levels of TNF-α and IL-1β through the course of the infection. Read More

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February 2012

Is ototopical nystatin ototoxic? A chinchilla model.

Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2011 Dec 22;145(6):1022-4. Epub 2011 Aug 22.

Department of Pediatric Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, McGill University, Montreal Children's Hospital, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

In this prospective controlled animal study, the authors investigated the potential ototoxic effects of ototopical application of nystatin through a tympanostomy tube, using their established chinchilla animal model. Each of the 10 animals used had ventilation tubes inserted in both ears; 1 ear was randomly assigned to receive nystatin suspension, whereas the other ear did not receive any medication, serving as control. Distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) were measured in each animal before application of nystatin and at 45 and 60 days after application. Read More

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December 2011