801,250 results match your criteria Antibiotics Basel Switzerland[Journal]


More targeted use of oseltamivir and in-hospital isolation facilities after implementation of a multifaceted strategy including a rapid molecular diagnostic panel for respiratory viruses in immunocompromised adult patients.

J Clin Virol 2019 Apr 7;116:11-17. Epub 2019 Apr 7.

Department of Infectious Diseases, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands.

Background: Immunocompromised adults are more vulnerable to a complicated course of viral respiratory tract infections (RTI).

Objectives: Provide evidence on the effect of implementation of rapid molecular diagnostics for viruses on use of in-hospital isolation facilities, oseltamivir and antibiotic usage, and other clinical outcomes in immunocompromised patients.

Study Design: A before-after study during two consecutive respiratory viral seasons, including immunocompromised adult patients presenting at a tertiary care emergency department with clinical suspicion of RTI. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S13866532193007
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcv.2019.04.003DOI Listing
April 2019
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Impacts of rare earth elements on animal health and production: Highlights of cerium and lanthanum.

Sci Total Environ 2019 Mar 13;672:1021-1032. Epub 2019 Mar 13.

Pharmacology Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia 41522, Egypt. Electronic address:

Because the use of antibiotics as growth promoters was banned due to global health concerns, researchers are focusing on exploring alternative safe and effective feed additives. Rare earth elements (REEs) are located in group III of the periodic table, which includes cerium (Ce), lanthanum (La), and other elements. Recently, REEs have been involved in many medical, industrial, zootechnical, and agricultural applications. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00489697193076
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.02.270DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Reconciliation of Recent Helicobacter pylori Treatment Guidelines in a Time of Increasing Resistance to Antibiotics.

Gastroenterology 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and infectious diseases, Otto-von-Guericke University, Magdeburg, Germany, and Ludwig Maximilian University Clinic, Med. Clinic II, Muenchen, Germany.

Increasing resistance to antibiotics, worldwide, has adverse effects on the effectiveness of standard therapies to eradicate Helicobacter pylori infection. We reviewed guidelines developed by expert groups in Europe, Canada, and the United States for the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection. We compared the recommendations of these guidelines, reconciled them, and addressed the increasing resistance of H pylori to antibiotic therapy regimens. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00165085193570
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2019.04.011DOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads

A Performance Improvement Project in Antibiotic Administration for Open Fractures.

J Am Acad Orthop Surg 2019 Apr 12. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

From the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE (Dr. Siebler, Dr. Ogden, Dr. Deans, and Dr. Mormino), Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (Dr. McCarthy), Department of Infectious Disease, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE (Dr. Hewlett), and Department of Public Health, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE (Lyden).

Introduction: To evaluate the effects of a trauma performance improvement project involving standardized protocols for the administration of antibiotics in open fractures at a level one trauma center. This study specifically evaluated the protocol's efficacy for improving the timing of delivery and appropriate therapy administration and sought to identify factors that lead to the delay in antibiotic delivery.

Methods: Retrospective comparative cohort study comparing patients with open fractures treated at our hospital between January 2013 and September 2015 (group 1) and between April 2016 and June 2017 (group 2). Read More

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http://Insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00124635-900000000-9938
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5435/JAAOS-D-18-00528DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Case 265: Lemmel Syndrome or Biliary Obstruction Due to a Periampullary Duodenal Diverticulum.

Radiology 2019 May;291(2):542-545

From the Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Singapore General Hospital, Outram Road, Singapore 169608.

History A 70-year-old man presented to the emergency department with fever, chills, rigors, and upper abdominal discomfort. Physical examination revealed jaundice and mild right upper quadrant tenderness. Laboratory tests revealed an increased C-reactive protein level of 133 mg/L (normal range, 0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1148/radiol.2019162375DOI Listing

Eradication therapy for Burkholderia cepacia complex in people with cystic fibrosis.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2019 Apr 18;4:CD009876. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

NHS Lothian, Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, 51 Little France Crescent, Edinburgh, UK, EH16 4SA.

Background: Chronic infection with Burkholderia cepacia complex species remains a significant problem for clinicians treating people with cystic fibrosis. Colonisation with Burkholderia cepacia complex species is linked to a more rapid decline in lung function and increases morbidity and mortality. There remain no objective guidelines for strategies to eradicate Burkholderia cepacia complex in cystic fibrosis lung disease, as these are inherently resistant to the majority of antibiotics and there has been very little research in this area. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD009876.pub4DOI Listing

Silica Coated Gold-Silver Nanocages as Photothermal Antibacterial Agents for Combined Anti-Infective Therapy.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2019 Apr 18. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Due to the abuse of antibiotics and the threats of antibiotic-resistance, bacterial infection is still one of the most difficult issues to be resolved. Thus, it is of great significance to explore novel antibacterial agents. In this paper, we investigate a type of silica coated gold-silver nanocages (Au-Ag@SiO2 NCs) as antibacterial candidates. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.9b01149DOI Listing

Use of the ptxD gene as a portable selectable marker for chloroplast transformation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

Mol Biotechnol 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Unidad Profesional Interdisciplinaria de Biotecnología, Av. Acueducto SN, Col. Barrio la Laguna Ticomán, 07340, Mexico City, Mexico.

Synthetic biology and genetic engineering in algae offer an unprecedented opportunity to develop species with traits that can help solve the problems associated with food and energy supply in the 21st century. In the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, foreign genes can be expressed from the chloroplast genome for molecular farming and metabolic engineering to obtain commodities and high-value molecules. To introduce these genes, selectable markers, which rely mostly on the use of antibiotics, are needed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12033-019-00177-3DOI Listing

Reducing inappropriate outpatient antibiotic prescribing: normative comparison using unblinded provider reports.

BMJ Open Qual 2019 13;8(1):e000351. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Center for Healthcare Innovation, Ochsner Health System, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA.

Importance: Antibiotic resistance is a global health issue. Up to 50% of antibiotics are inappropriately prescribed, the majority of which are for acute respiratory tract infections (ARTI).

Objective: To evaluate the impact of unblinded normative comparison on rates of inappropriate antibiotic prescribing for ARTI. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjoq-2018-000351DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6440589PMC
February 2019

Predictors of Bloodstream Infection in Patients Presenting With Cardiovascular Implantable Electronic Device Pocket Infection.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2019 Apr 21;6(4):ofz084. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine and Science, Rochester Minnesota.

Background: Generator pocket infection is the most frequent presentation of cardiovascular implantable electronic device (CIED) infection. We aim to identify predictors of underlying bloodstream infection (BSI) in patients presenting with CIED pocket infection.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed all adults with CIED pocket infection cared for at our institution from January 2005 through January 2016. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ofid/ofz084DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6456888PMC

Favorable Outcome in a Patient with Systemic BCGitis After Intra-bladder Instillation of Calmette-Guerin Bacillus Highlighting the Importance of Making the Correct Diagnosis in this Rare Form of Sepsis.

J Transl Int Med 2019 Mar 29;7(1):34-38. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Intensive Care Department, Brugmann University Hospital, Brussels Belgium.

We present the case of a patient with sepsis following a traumatic intra-bladder instillation of Calmette-Guerin Bacillus with pneumonia and possibly hepatitis. These complications are rare and could be induced by both immuno-allergic reaction and bacteremia. There is no specific guideline to treat this condition, but many clinicians depicting similar cases seem to agree on prolonged anti-tuberculous antibiotics with associated corticosteroid therapy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/jtim-2019-0007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6463824PMC

Point prevalence survey of healthcare-associated infections and antimicrobial use in Kosovo hospitals.

Infect Dis Rep 2019 Feb 19;11(1):7975. Epub 2019 Mar 19.

National Institute for Infectious Diseases "Lazzaro Spallanzani"- IRCCS, Rome, Italy.

Health care-associated infections (HAIs) and antimicrobial resistance constitute a major public health challenge. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence rate of HAIs and antimicrobial use in acute care hospitals in Kosovo. A multicenter study was performed in all hospitals in Kosovo. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4081/idr.2019.7975DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6444376PMC
February 2019

Molecular detection of virulence factors and biofilm formation in obtained from different clinical specimens in Bandar Abbas.

Iran J Microbiol 2019 Feb;11(1):25-30

Department of Microbiology, College of Sciences, Agriculture and Modern Technology, Shiraz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shiraz, Iran.

Background And Objectives: is a ubiquitous opportunistic pathogen. The presence of several virulence factors such as exotoxin and exoenzyme genes and biofilm may contribute to its pathogenicity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the presence of and , the determination of biofilm production and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns among clinical isolates of . Read More

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February 2019

Trend of antibiotic susceptibility of isolated from respiratory tract infections in tertiary care hospital in south Karnataka.

Iran J Microbiol 2019 Feb;11(1):13-18

Department of Microbiology, Deendayalupadhyay Hospital, New Delhi, India.

Background And Objectives: is recognized as an important pathogen of respiratory tract infections. The rapidly, emerging problem of antibiotic resistant is a major issue nowadays. The present study aimed to evaluate the antibiotic susceptibility of isolated from upper respiratory tract infections in tertiary care hospital of south Karnataka. Read More

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February 2019

X-ray Crystallography Deciphers the Activity of Broad-Spectrum Boronic Acid β-Lactamase Inhibitors.

ACS Med Chem Lett 2019 Apr 27;10(4):650-655. Epub 2019 Mar 27.

Department of Life Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Via Campi 103, 41125 Modena, Italy.

Recent decades have witnessed a dramatic increase of multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria, compromising the efficacy of available antibiotics, and a continual decline in the discovery of novel antibacterials. We recently reported the first library of benzo[b]thiophen-2-ylboronic acid inhibitors sharing broad spectrum activity against β-lactamases (BLs). The ability of these compounds to inhibit structurally and mechanistically different types of β-lactamases has been here structurally investigated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsmedchemlett.8b00607DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6466825PMC

PANDAS/PANS in childhood: Controversies and evidence.

Paediatr Child Health 2019 May 9;24(2):85-91. Epub 2018 Dec 9.

Division of Neurology, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Since first defined in 1998, paediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS) and its later, broader iteration, paediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndrome (PANS), have garnered significant attention and controversy. The role of streptococcal infection in children with explosive onset obsessive-compulsive disorder and new onset tics, the natural history of this entity, and the role of symptomatic and disease-modifying therapies, including antibiotics, immunotherapy, and psychoactive drugs, are all issues that have yet to be definitively addressed. While definitive proof of the autoimmune hypothesis of PANDAS is lacking, given the heightened attention to this entity and apparent rise in use of this diagnostic category, addressing questions around diagnosis, treatment, and etiology is imperative. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/pch/article/24/2/85/5236858
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/pch/pxy145DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6462125PMC
May 2019
1 Read

[Exogenous lipoid pneumonia induced by long-term usage of compound menthol nasal drops: a case report].

Authors:
M Lu W Yan X Zhu H Zhu

Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2019 Apr;51(2):359-361

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing 100191, China.

Here we reported a case of exogenous lipoid pneumonia from Peking University Third Hospital. A 62-year-old male presented with chronic cough and expectoration for 8 years, without chest pain, hemoptysis or short of breath. He was an ex-smoker. Read More

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[Lamotrigine induced hypersensitivity syndrome in children: a case report].

Authors:
N X Cui X P Zhu

Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2019 Apr;51(2):356-358

Department of Neonatology, Children's Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou 215025, Jiangsu, China.

Drug induced hypersensitivity syndrome (DIHS) is often manifested as severe systemic drug trans-reactions characterized by acute and extensive skin lesions (mostly measles-like rash), fever, enlargement of lymph nodes, multiple organ involvement (hepatitis, nephritis, and pneumonia), eosinophilia and mononucleosis,within 2-6 weeks of the application of sensitizing drugs. In the early stage of the lesion, macular papules or erythema multiforme were common, and in severe cases, exfoliative dermatitis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis were also common. Most of them developed after taking allergic drugs for 2-6 weeks (average: 3 weeks). Read More

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April 2019
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Methanol extract of Lonicera caerulea var. emphyllocalyx fruit has antibacterial and anti-biofilm activity against Streptococcus pyogenes in vitro.

Biosci Trends 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Pharmacognosy, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nagoya City University.

Streptococcus pyogenes causes several infectious diseases such as tonsillitis, cellulitis, and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. As antibiotics are used for the general treatment of S. pyogenes infection, cases of treatment failure due to drug-resistant bacteria have increased. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5582/bst.2019.01005DOI Listing

The Authors' Reply to "The Addition of Prophylactic Antibiotics Can Achieve a Favorable Outcome".

Intern Med 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Division of Hematology, Tokyo Metropolitan Cancer and Infectious Diseases Center, Komagome Hospital, Japan.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2169/internalmedicine.2793-19DOI Listing

The Addition of Prophylactic Antibiotics Can Achieve a Favorable Outcome.

Intern Med 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Division of General Medicine, Jichi Medical University Saitama Medical Center, Japan.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2169/internalmedicine.2661-19DOI Listing

A Live Vaccine Delivering PcrV through the Type III Secretion System Protects against Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

mSphere 2019 Apr 17;4(2). Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Departamento de Genética, Facultad de Biología, Universidad de Sevilla, Seville, Spain

is a common Gram-negative opportunistic pathogen that is intrinsically resistant to a wide range of antibiotics. The development of a broadly protective vaccine against remains a major challenge. Here, we used an attenuated strain of serovar Typhimurium as a vehicle to express antigens. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mSphere.00116-19DOI Listing

Filamentous bacteriophages are associated with chronic lung infections and antibiotic resistance in cystic fibrosis.

Sci Transl Med 2019 Apr;11(488)

Center for Excellence in Pulmonary Biology, Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.

Filamentous bacteriophage (Pf phage) contribute to the virulence of infections in animal models, but their relevance to human disease is unclear. We sought to interrogate the prevalence and clinical relevance of Pf phage in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) using sputum samples from two well-characterized patient cohorts. Bacterial genomic analysis in a Danish longitudinal cohort of 34 patients with CF revealed that 26. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/scitranslmed.aau9748DOI Listing

Early origins of oral penicillin dosing for children.

Arch Dis Child 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Institute for Infection and Immunity, St George's University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/archdischild-2018-316531DOI Listing

species isolated from camel meat: quorum sensing-dependent virulence, biofilm formation and antibiotic resistance.

Future Microbiol 2019 Apr 18. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Private Sector Veterinarian, Cairo, Egypt.

This research pioneers the process of obtaining information concerning the distribution and existence of seven genes linked to , three virulence and five quorum sensing separated from 100 camel meat samples using PCR. The Vitek system was used to identify species. Phenotypic antibiotic resistance of 16 antibiotics was tested by disc diffusion. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/fmb-2018-0293DOI Listing

Caustic Agents Ingestion in Children: A 51-Year Retrospective Cohort Study.

Ear Nose Throat J 2019 Apr 17:145561319843109. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

3 Clinic of Pediatric Otolaryngology, Phoniatrics and Audiology, Medical University of Lublin, Lublin, Poland.

Objectives: Children experience serious gastrointestinal tract injuries due to consumption of caustic agents more often than adults. The aim of the study was to analyze diagnostic methods and treatment of children with esophageal burns according to the degree of the injury.

Methods: Our one-center population-based retrospective cohort study included 150 children admitted between 1967 and 2018 to Clinic of Pediatric Otolaryngology, Phoniatrics and Audiology of University Children's Hospital in Lublin, Poland, due to the chemical burn of the mouth, throat, larynx, and esophagus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0145561319843109DOI Listing
April 2019
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Systematic Review of Important Bacterial Zoonoses in Africa in the Last Decade in Light of the 'One Health' Concept.

Pathogens 2019 Apr 16;8(2). Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Infectious Diseases and Anti-Infective Therapy Research Group, Sharjah Medical Research Institute and College of Pharmacy, University of Sharjah, Sharjah 27272, UAE.

Zoonoses present a major public health threat and are estimated to account for a substantial part of the infectious disease burden in low-income countries. The severity of zoonotic diseases is compounded by factors such as poverty, living in close contact with livestock and wildlife, immunosuppression as well as coinfection with other diseases. The interconnections between humans, animals and the environment are essential to understand the spread and subsequent containment of zoonoses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pathogens8020050DOI Listing

Detection of Antibiotic Residues in Consumer Milk Supplies in North America using the Charm Test II Procedure.

J Food Prot 1988 Aug;51(8):632-633

Department of Environmental Biology, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario N1G 2W1.

Two hundred and fourteen consumer milk samples from across North America were examined for antibiotics residues by means of the Bacillus stearothermophilus disc assay (Charm test) and the competitive isotopic (Charm Test II) procedure. Of the 174 samples taken from 16 states, 150 results were positive for one or more antibiotics. The greatest number of positives were sulphamethazine, 82, and tetracyline, 48. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X-51.8.632DOI Listing

Simultaneous Determination of Six Tetracyclines in Bovine Tissue, Plasma and Urine by Reverse-Phase High-Performance Liquid Chromatography.

J Food Prot 1989 Jan;52(1):41-44

Department of Veterinary Public Health and Department of Veterinary Pathology, Faculty of Agriculture, Miyazaki University, I-chome, Kibanadai-nishi. Gakuen, Miyazaki-shi, Japan 889-21.

A simple and rapid high-performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for the simultaneous separation and identification of six different tetracycline antibiotics (minocycline, oxytetracycline, tetracycline, dimethylchlortetracycline, chlortetracycline, and methacycline) in bovine kidney, plasma and urine. The antibiotics were separated at ambient temperature on a μ-Bondapak C column using a mobile phase [water 760 ml, acetonitrile 240 ml, N,N'-dimethylfolmamine 60 ml, ethanolamine 5.0 ml and NaHPO 5. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X-52.1.41DOI Listing
January 1989

A Microbial Assay System for the Confirmation of Results of Receptor Assays for Antibiotic Residues in Milk .

J Food Prot 1989 Mar;52(3):198-201

Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, Cook College, New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station, Rutgers-The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey 08903.

A microbial assay system has been devised as a unified confirmation procedure for antibiotic residues found in milk using the Charm II receptor assay. Chlortetracycline, streptomycin, erythromycin, penicillin and chloramphenicol residues are assayed using three organisms and five types of agar. Assay specificity is achieved by making use of the differences in the antibiotics' activity at selected pH's and differences in stability with regard to enzymes and temperatures, as well as differences in the sensitivity of the organisms to different antibiotics. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X-52.3.198DOI Listing

Improved Method for the Determination of Residual Aminoglycoside Antibiotics in Animal Tissues by Electrophoresis and Bioautography.

J Food Prot 1989 Feb;52(2):96-99

Department of Veterinary Public Health, Faculty of Agriculture, Miyazaki University, 1, 1-chome, Kibanadai-nishi, Gakuen, Miyazaki-shi, Japan 889-21.

The use of agar gel electrophoresis and bioautography for the identification of small amounts of seven aminoglycoside antibiotics (streptomycin, dihydrostreptomycin, kanamycin, bekanamycin, gentamicin, fradiomycin and paromomycin) was studied. The procedure used for the electrophoretic separation of these components is described. The antibiotics were detected with high sensitivity using Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 as a test organism, Tris buffer at pH 8. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X-52.2.96DOI Listing
February 1989

An extensively shared antibiotic resistome among four seasons suggests management prioritization in a subtropical riverine ecosystem.

Sci Total Environ 2019 Apr 4;673:533-540. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

Aquatic EcoHealth Group, Key Laboratory of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021, China. Electronic address:

Although seasonality is a key driver of environmental fluctuation in aquatic ecosystems, there exists limited knowledge on the factors controlling the distribution of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) across seasons at a watershed scale. Here we used high-throughput quantitative PCR to quantify 285 ARGs conferring resistance to most major classes of antibiotics, reveal their spatial and seasonal distribution patterns, and depict the underlying mechanisms in a subtropical riverine ecosystem under low and high human pressures, in Xiamen city, southeast China. Our results showed that spatial differences in ARG richness and abundance overwhelmed their seasonal variations, with only ARGs that confer resistance to sulfonamide and vancomycin being significantly different across seasons. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.04.031DOI Listing

Structural basis for E. coli Penicillin Binding Protein (PBP) 2 inhibition, a platform for drug design.

J Med Chem 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) are the targets of the β-lactams, the most successful class of antibiotics ever developed against bacterial infections. Unfortunately, the worldwide and rapid spread of large spectrum β-lactam resistance genes such as carbapenemases is detrimental to the use of antibiotics in this class. New potent PBP inhibitors are needed, especially compounds that resist β-lactamase hydrolysis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jmedchem.9b00338DOI Listing

Crystal Structure of GenD2, an NAD-Dependent Oxidoreductase Involved in the Biosynthesis of Gentamicin.

ACS Chem Biol 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Gentamicins are clinically relevant aminoglycoside antibiotics produced by several Micromonospora species. Gentamicins are highly methylated and functionalized molecules and their biosynthesis include glycosyltransferases, dehydratase/oxidoreductases, aminotransferases, and methyltransferases. The biosynthesis of gentamicin A from gentamicin A2 involves three enzymatic steps that modify the hydroxyl group at position 3'' of the unusual garosamine sugar to provide its substitution for an amino group, followed by an N-methylation. Read More

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http://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acschembio.9b00115
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acschembio.9b00115DOI Listing
April 2019
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Changing paradigm of antibiotic resistance amongst Escherichia coli isolates in Indian pediatric population.

PLoS One 2019 17;14(4):e0213850. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Microbiology, University College of Medical Sciences & GTB Hospital (University of Delhi), Delhi, India.

Antimicrobial resistance happens when microorganisms mutates in manners that render the drugs like antibacterial, antiviral, antiparasitic and antifungal, ineffective. The normal mutation process is encouraged by the improper use of antibiotics. Mutations leading to quinolone resistance occur in a highly conserved region of the quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR) of DNA gyrAse and topoisomerase IV gene. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0213850PLOS

Pharmacokinetics of Cefazolin and Vancomycin in Infants Undergoing Open-Heart Surgery With Cardiopulmonary Bypass.

Anesth Analg 2019 May;128(5):935-943

Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine, Division of Pediatric Cardiac Anesthesia, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California.

Background: Gram-positive bacteria account for nearly three-quarters of all surgical site infections. Antibiotic prophylaxis against these bacteria with cephalosporins or, in select circumstances, with vancomycin is considered standard of care for prevention of surgical site infections. There is little evidence to describe the optimal dosing regimen for surgical site infection prophylaxis in infants undergoing cardiac surgery, and a great deal of institutional variability exists in dosing prophylactic antibiotics. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1213/ANE.0000000000003876DOI Listing
May 2019
1 Read

Saline extract from Malpighia emarginata DC leaves showed higher polyphenol presence, antioxidant and antifungal activity and promoted cell proliferation in mice splenocytes.

An Acad Bras Cienc 2019 8;91(1):e20190916. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Department of Antibiotics, Biosciences Centre, Federal University of Pernambuco, Av. Prof. Artur de Sá, s/n, 50740-520 Recife, PE, Brazil.

Currently, the research of new natural compounds with biological potential demonstrates great ethnopharmacological importance. In this study, we evaluated the biological properties promoted by saline extract from Malpighia emarginata DC leaves, whose objective is to evaluate the antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxicity potential. Phytochemical characterization was performed by UPLC-MS chromatography to identify the chemical compounds. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0001-3765201920180358DOI Listing

The Leukocyte Esterase Test for Periprosthetic Joint Infection Is Not Affected by Prior Antibiotic Administration.

J Bone Joint Surg Am 2019 Apr;101(8):739-744

The Rothman Institute at Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Background: It has been demonstrated that administration of antibiotics prior to performing diagnostic testing for periprosthetic joint infection can interfere with the accuracy of the standard diagnostic tests. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of antibiotic administration prior to performing the synovial leukocyte esterase strip test for periprosthetic joint infection.

Methods: We identified 121 patients who underwent revision hip or knee arthroplasty for a Musculoskeletal Infection Society (MSIS)-confirmed periprosthetic joint infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2106/JBJS.18.00615DOI Listing

With Better Information, Can We Stop Blowing Smoke About Prophylactic Antibiotics?

Anesth Analg 2019 May;128(5):839-840

From the Department of Anesthesiology.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1213/ANE.0000000000003998DOI Listing
May 2019
3 Reads

Identification of CTX-M-15 and CTX-M-27 in Antibiotic-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacteria Isolated from Three Rivers Running in Central Italy.

Microb Drug Resist 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

2 Department of Medical, Oral and Biotechnological Sciences, and Center of Excellence on Aging and Translational Medicine (CeSI-MeT), "G. d'Annunzio" University of Chieti-Pescara, Chieti, Italy.

The main goal of this study was to identify Gram-negative bacteria resistant to antibiotics, in particular β-lactams, in stream waters and effluents from urban wastewater treatment plants draining into Fino, Tavo, and Saline rivers of the Abruzzo region, Italy. Eight sampling sites were selected because they were the most contaminated by coliforms during previous sampling campaign. One sample for each site was collected for the detection of total and fecal coliforms, and species by Colilert-18 and Enterolert-E Quanti-Tray/2000. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/mdr.2019.0016DOI Listing

Oxidative Effects of Gemifloxacin on Some Biological Traits of Drosophila melanogaster (Diptera: Drosophilidae).

Environ Entomol 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Biology Department, Zonguldak Bülent Ecevit University, Zonguldak, Turkey.

In recent times, several studies have been undertaken on the artificial mass-rearing of insects in which clinical antibacterial antibiotics, including gemifloxacin, which is a DNA gyrase and topoisomerases inhibitor, are amended into the diet to control microbial contamination and preserve diet. The findings of these studies have suggested the possibility that these antibiotics influence the biological traits of insects in relation to their oxidative effects. This study investigated the effects of gemifloxacin on Drosophila melanogaster (Meigen) survival rates, development times, and male-female adult longevity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ee/nvz039DOI Listing

Catalytic mechanism and properties of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate independent racemases: how enzymes alter mismatched acidity and basicity.

Nat Prod Rep 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Chemistry, University of Alberta, 11227 Saskatchewan Drive, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2G2.

Covering: up to March 2019Amino acid racemases and epimerases are key enzymes that invert the configuration of common amino acids and supply many corresponding d-isomers in living organisms. Some d-amino acids are inherently bioactive, whereas others are building blocks for important biomolecules, for example lipid II, the bacterial cell wall precursor. Peptides containing them have enhanced proteolytic stability and can act as important recognition elements in mammalian systems. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9np00017hDOI Listing

Rural South African Community Perceptions of Antibiotic Access and Use: Qualitative Evidence from a Health and Demographic Surveillance System Site.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department of Public Health Sciences, Global Health (IHCAR), Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Knowledge and practices of rural South African populations with regard to antibiotic access and use (ABACUS) remain understudied. By using the case of four villages in the north east of the country, our aim was to investigate popular notions and social practices related to antibiotic use to inform patient-level social interventions for appropriate antibiotic use. To achieve this, we investigated where community members (village residents) were accessing and sourcing medication, and what they understood antibiotics and antibiotic resistance (ABR) to be. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0171DOI Listing

Structure Elucidation of Macrolide Antibiotics Using MS Analysis and Deuterium Labelling.

J Am Soc Mass Spectrom 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Chemistry, Indiana University, 800 East Kirkwood Avenue, Bloomington, IN, 47405, USA.

The 14- and 16-membered macrolide antibiotics are an important structural class. Ubiquitously produced by a number of bacterial strains, namely actinomycetes, purification and structure elucidation of the wide array of analogs is challenging, both for discovery efforts and methodologies to monitor for byproducts, metabolites, and contaminants. Collision-induced dissociation mass spectrometry offers an attractive solution, enabling characterization of mixtures, and providing a wealth of structural information. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13361-019-02210-wDOI Listing
April 2019
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Outpatient Parenteral Antimicrobial Therapy in Children.

Curr Infect Dis Rep 2019 Apr 16;21(5):17. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Paediatric Infectious Diseases & Immunology, Southampton Children's Hospital, University Hospital Southampton NHS Foundation Trust, Mailpoint 43, Tremona Road, Southampton, SO16 6YD, UK.

Purpose Of Review: Over recent years, there has been a marked increase in the number of centres delivering paediatric outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (pOPAT). Various factors have fuelled this drive, including the significant economic pressures faced by high-income countries to contain the cost of healthcare, resulting in a significant reduction of in-patient beds over the past 20 years. It is essential that pOPAT services have formal clinical governance structures in place to ensure the safe and effective management of children being ambulated on intravenous antibiotics. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11908-019-0669-6
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11908-019-0669-6DOI Listing
April 2019
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Pharmacological intervention in the field of ototoxicity.

Authors:
G Laurell

HNO 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Surgical Sciences, Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Uppsala University, Akademiska sjukhuset ing 78-79, 75185, Uppsala, Sweden.

Modern research on ototoxicity goes back to the 1940s, when streptomycin was introduced into clinical practice. Today, aminoglycoside antibiotics and platinum-based chemotherapy, mainly cisplatin, are the most important drugs that damage the inner ear and cause hearing loss. The mode of drug administration as well as drug characteristics influence the likelihood that adequate monitoring of drug pharmacokinetics can be performed. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00106-019-0663-1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00106-019-0663-1DOI Listing
April 2019
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SME-4-producing Serratia marcescens from Argentina belonging to clade 2 of the S. marcescens phylogeny.

J Antimicrob Chemother 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

EA7361 'Structure, dynamic, function and expression of broad spectrum β-lactamases', Paris-Sud University, Faculty of Medicine, Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, France.

Background: SME carbapenemases are increasingly reported, especially from North and South America. Here, we describe an SME-4-producing Serratia marcescens (SME-Sm) clinical isolate from Argentina and compare its genome with other SME-Sm and Sm isolates recovered from public databases.

Methods: Sm isolates were characterized by WGS using Illumina technology, susceptibility testing and MIC determination. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/jac/advance-article/doi/10.1093/jac
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jac/dkz115DOI Listing
April 2019
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Antimicrobial use in UK long-term care facilities: results of a point prevalence survey.

J Antimicrob Chemother 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Boots UK Ltd, Thane Road, Nottingham NG90 1BS, UK.

Background: The majority of people in long-term care facilities (LTCFs) are aged 65 years and older, and most of their care needs are provided by the LTCF staff. Provision of healthcare services for residents in LTCFs is variable and can result in disjointed care between carers and NHS healthcare professionals.

Objectives: Our aim was to understand the use of antibiotics in LTCFs across the UK and to identify potential gaps in knowledge and support for carers and residents when using antibiotics, in order to determine how community pharmacy teams can provide additional support. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/jac/advance-article/doi/10.1093/jac
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jac/dkz135DOI Listing
April 2019
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Exposure of ciprofloxacin-resistant Escherichia coli broiler isolates to subinhibitory concentrations of a quaternary ammonium compound does not increase antibiotic resistance gene transfer.

Poult Sci 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Flanders Research Institute for Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (ILVO), Technology and Food Science Unit, Brusselsesteenweg 370, 9090 Melle, Belgium.

Resistance to antibiotics threatens to become a worldwide health problem. An important attributing phenomenon in this context is that pathogens can acquire antibiotic resistance genes through conjugative transfer of plasmids. To prevent bacterial infections in agricultural settings, the use of veterinary hygiene products, such as disinfectants, has gained popularity and questions have been raised about their contribution to such spreading of antibiotic resistance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3382/ps/pez185DOI Listing
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