2,840 results match your criteria Antibiotics - A Review of ED Use


Laboratory Diagnosis of Paratyphoid Fever: Opportunity of Surface Plasmon Resonance.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2020 Jun 28;10(7). Epub 2020 Jun 28.

Institute for Research in Molecular Medicine (INFORMM), Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan 16150, Malaysia.

Paratyphoid fever is caused by the bacterium serovar Paratyphi (A, B and C), and contributes significantly to global disease burden. One of the major challenges in the diagnosis of paratyphoid fever is the lack of a proper gold standard. Given the absence of a licensed vaccine against Paratyphi, this diagnostic gap leads to inappropriate antibiotics use, thus, enhancing antimicrobial resistance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics10070438DOI Listing

Recent Progress of Fluorogenic Probes/Inhibitors of β-Lactamase and their Applications in Drug-Resistant Bacteria.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2020 Jun 26. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Nanjing Tech University, Institute of Advanced Materials, CHINA.

β-Lactam antibiotics are generally perceived as one of the greatest inventions of the 20 th century, and these small molecular compounds have saved millions of lives. However, upon clinical application of antibiotics, the β-lactamase secreted by pathogenic bacteria can lead to the gradual development of drug resistance . β-Lactamase is a hydrolase that can efficiently hydrolyze and destroy β-lactam antibiotics. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202006635DOI Listing

The role of an antibiotic envelope in the prevention of major cardiac implantable electronic device infections: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2020 Jun;99(26):e20834

College of Basic Education, Public Authority for Applied Education and Training, Kuwait City, Kuwait.

Background: Over the past decade, rates of cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) related infections have increased and been associated with increased morbidity, mortality and financial burden on healthcare systems.

Methods: To examine the effect of an antibacterial envelope in reducing major CIED related infections, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis by searching PubMed/MEDLINE, CENTRAL, Google scholar and Clinicaltrials.gov for studies that examined the effect of an antibiotic envelope in reducing major related CIED infections, comprising of device-related endocarditis, systemic infection requiring systemic antibiotics and or device extraction, compared to control up till February 15th, 2020. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000020834DOI Listing

A pain in the neck: Salmonella spp. as an unusual cause of a thyroid abscess. A case report and review of the literature.

BMC Infect Dis 2020 Jun 22;20(1):436. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Division of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Department of Surgery, Dalhousie University, 5850 University Avenue, Halifax, NS, B3K 6R8, Canada.

Background: Thyroid gland infections are rare. Their incidence is estimated to be less than 1% in immunocompromised hosts. Most common pathogens isolated are Gram positive aerobic cocci. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-020-05161-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7310241PMC

Emerging High-Level Tigecycline Resistance: Novel Tetracycline Destructases Spread via the Mobile Tet(X).

Bioessays 2020 Jun 22:e2000014. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

National Risk Assessment Laboratory for Antimicrobial Resistance of Animal Original Bacteria, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, 510642, China.

Antibiotic resistance in bacteria has become a great threat to global public health. Tigecycline is a next-generation tetracycline that is the final line of defense against severe infections by pan-drug-resistant bacterial pathogens. Unfortunately, this last-resort antibiotic has been challenged by the recent emergence of the mobile Tet(X) orthologs that can confer high-level tigecycline resistance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bies.202000014DOI Listing

Efficacy and safety of antibiotic agents in children with COVID-19: a rapid review.

Ann Transl Med 2020 May;8(10):619

School of Public Health, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, China.

Background: The aim of this review was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of antibiotic agents in children with COVID-19, as well as to introduce the present situation of antibiotics use and bacterial coinfections in COVID-19 patients.

Methods: We searched Cochrane library, Medline, Embase, Web of Science, CBM, Wanfang Data and CNKI from their inception to March 31, 2020. In addition, we searched related studies on COVID-19 published before March 31, 2020 through Google Scholar. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm-20-3300DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7290645PMC

Use of an enterocolitis triage and treatment protocol in children with Hirschsprung disease reduces hospital admissions.

J Pediatr Surg 2020 May 11. Epub 2020 May 11.

Primary Children's Hospital, University of Utah School of Medicine, SLC, UT.

Background: While a consensus for the definition of Hirschsprung associated enterocolitis (HAEC) is lacking, the mainstay of treatment includes rectal irrigations with or without antibiotics. This treatment is often effective when initiated as an outpatient. Our institution implemented a triage algorithm in an effort to standardize care thus providing more timely treatment and preventing unnecessary hospital admissions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2020.05.004DOI Listing

Pharmacist-Driven Implementation of Outpatient Antibiotic Prescribing Algorithms Improves Guideline Adherence in the Emergency Department.

J Pharm Pract 2020 Jun 17:897190020930979. Epub 2020 Jun 17.

UnityPoint Health-Meriter, Madison, WI, USA.

Background: Inappropriate prescribing of antibiotics has been identified as the most important modifiable risk factor for antimicrobial resistance.

Objective: The purpose of this project was to improve guideline adherence and promote optimal use of outpatient antibiotics in the emergency department (ED).

Methods: Prescribing algorithms for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI), and urinary tract infections (UTI) were developed to integrate clinical practice guideline recommendations with local ED antibiogram data. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0897190020930979DOI Listing

The Revaluation of Plant-Derived Terpenes to Fight Antibiotic-Resistant Infections.

Antibiotics (Basel) 2020 Jun 13;9(6). Epub 2020 Jun 13.

Center For Life Nano Science@Sapienza, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Viale Regina Elena 291, 00161 Rome, Italy.

The discovery of antibiotics has revolutionized the medicine and treatment of microbial infections. However, the current scenario has highlighted the difficulties in marketing new antibiotics and an exponential increase in the appearance of resistant strains. On the other hand, research in the field of drug-discovery has revaluated the potential of natural products as a unique source for new biologically active molecules and scaffolds for the medicinal chemistry. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9060325DOI Listing

Antibiotic prescription practices in primary care in low- and middle-income countries: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

PLoS Med 2020 Jun 16;17(6):e1003139. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Occupational Health, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Background: The widespread use of antibiotics plays a major role in the development and spread of antimicrobial resistance. However, important knowledge gaps still exist regarding the extent of their use in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), particularly at the primary care level. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies conducted in primary care in LMICs to estimate the prevalence of antibiotic prescriptions as well as the proportion of such prescriptions that are inappropriate. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1003139DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7297306PMC

Cost Saving of Short Hospitalization Nonoperative Management for Acute Uncomplicated Appendicitis.

J Surg Res 2020 Jun 15;255:77-85. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

Department of Surgery, UCLA David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California.

Background: Nonoperative management (NOM) of uncomplicated appendicitis has gained recognition as an alternative to surgery. In the largest published randomized trial (Appendicitis Acuta), patients received a 3-d hospital stay for intravenous antibiotics; however, cost implications for health care systems remain unknown. We hypothesized short stay protocols would be cost saving compared with a long stay protocol. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2020.05.028DOI Listing

Polymorphonuclear Leukocyte Transendothelial Migration Proceeds at Blood-Brain Barrier in Neonatal Meningitis.

Front Microbiol 2020 26;11:969. Epub 2020 May 26.

Department of Developmental Cell Biology, Key Laboratory of Cell Biology, Ministry of Public Health, Key Laboratory of Medical Cell Biology, Ministry of Education, China Medical University, Shenyang, China.

Neonatal bacterial meningitis remains a life-threatening and causative sequelae disease in newborns, despite the effective usage of antibiotics and improved critical medical care. Polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) transendothelial migration across the blood-brain barrier, one of the three hallmarks of bacterial meningitis, now is considered as a "double-edge sword". When participating in host immune system defending against virulent pathogens, it results in tissue inflammation and following severe damage of central nervous system at the same time, which contributes to a disastrous consequence. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.00969DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7264371PMC

A Narrative Review of Early Oral Stepdown Therapy for the Treatment of Uncomplicated Bacteremia: Yay or Nay?

Open Forum Infect Dis 2020 Jun 5;7(6):ofaa151. Epub 2020 May 5.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee, USA.

Historically, intravenous (IV) antibiotics have been the cornerstone of treatment for uncomplicated bacteremia (SAB). However, IV antibiotics are expensive, increase the rates of hospital readmission, and can be associated with catheter-related complications. As a result, the potential role of oral antibiotics in the treatment of uncomplicated SAB has become a subject of interest. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ofid/ofaa151DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7270708PMC

Influence of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms on Rifampin Pharmacokinetics in Tuberculosis Patients.

Antibiotics (Basel) 2020 Jun 8;9(6). Epub 2020 Jun 8.

Department of Pharmacy Practice, Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, Karnataka 576104, India.

Rifampin (RF) is metabolized in the liver into an active metabolite 25-desacetylrifampin and excreted almost equally via biliary and renal routes. Various influx and efflux transporters influence RF disposition during hepatic uptake and biliary excretion. Evidence has also shown that Vitamin D deficiency (VDD) and Vitamin D receptor (VDR) polymorphisms are associated with tuberculosis (TB). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9060307DOI Listing

Fighting antibiotic resistance: a narrative review of public knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of antibiotics use.

Perspect Public Health 2020 Jun 9:1757913920921209. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Faculty of Education, Health and Wellbeing, University of Wolverhampton, UK.

Introduction: The increasing threat of antibiotic resistance (ABR) is, inevitably, the consequence of antibiotic use and is largely influenced by the knowledge and perceptions of people and their socioeconomic environment.

Aims: The aims of this study were to ascertain the comprehensive knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes of people from varying socioeconomic regions towards antibiotic use; identify the misperceptions and malpractices; and inform health policy and practice.

Method: EBSCO host databases, PubMed, and Google Scholar were searched to obtain relevant primary research papers within the years 2010-2018. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1757913920921209DOI Listing

Systemic Melioidosis With Ruptured Splenic Abscess.

Cureus 2020 May 4;12(5):e7956. Epub 2020 May 4.

Surgery, Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, Puducherry, IND.

Melioidosis is a severe systemic disease caused by the bacterium , commonly found in soil, ground water, and ponds of endemic regions. It is transmitted to humans via percutaneous inoculation while working in these areas without protective clothing and footwear giving rise to the disease which has a high case fatality rate. It has a wide range of clinical manifestations, varying from asymptomatic infection to localized abscess formation to fulminating disease with multiple organ involvement and even death. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.7956DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7270831PMC

Potential therapeutic targets for combating SARS-CoV-2: Drug repurposing, clinical trials and recent advancements.

Life Sci 2020 Jun 1;256:117883. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Gottfried Schatz Research Centre for Cell Signalling, Metabolism and Aging, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria.. Electronic address:

The present pandemic of SARS-CoV-2 has been a tough task for the whole world to deal with. With the absence of specific drugs or vaccines against SARS-CoV-2, the situation is very difficult to control. Apart from the absence of specific therapies, the lack of knowledge about potential therapeutic targets and individual perception is adding to the complications. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2020.117883DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7263255PMC

Early switch/early discharge opportunities for hospitalized patients with methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus complicated skin and soft tissue infections: Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates.

J Infect Public Health 2020 May 30. Epub 2020 May 30.

Pfizer, Groton, CT, United States.

Objectives: To describe opportunities for early switch (ES) from intravenous (IV) to oral (PO) antibiotics and early discharge (ED) of patients hospitalized in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) and the United Arab Emirates (UAE) with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) complicated skin and soft tissue infections (cSSTIs).

Methods: This retrospective medical chart review study enrolled physicians from 16 KSA and UAE sites to collect data for 107 MRSA cSSTI patients.

Results: Actual length of MRSA-active treatment was 13. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jiph.2020.03.018DOI Listing

An Updated Systematic Review of the Therapeutic Role of Hydroxychloroquine in Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19).

Clin Drug Investig 2020 Jul;40(7):591-601

Department of Pharmacology, ICARE Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Haldia, 721 645, India.

Background And Objective: The world is currently experiencing the Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic. There is no approved drug for the definitive treatment of the disease. Various drugs are being tried for the treatment of COVID-19, including hydroxychloroquine (HCQ). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40261-020-00927-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7255448PMC

Shufeng Jiedu capsules for treating acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

BMC Complement Med Ther 2020 May 24;20(1):151. Epub 2020 May 24.

Centre for Evidence-Based Chinese Medicine, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, No. 11 North Sanhuan East Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing, 100029, China.

Background: Chinese herbal medicine is widely used in combination with usual care for acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) in China. Chinese patent medicine Shufeng Jiedu (SFJD) capsules is widely used for respiratory infectious diseases. This review aims to evaluate effectiveness and safety of SFJD for AECOPD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12906-020-02924-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7245765PMC

Views regarding use of complementary therapies for acute respiratory infections: Systematic review of qualitative studies.

Complement Ther Med 2020 May 10;50:102382. Epub 2020 Mar 10.

School of Primary Care, Population Sciences and Medical Education, University of Southampton, Aldermoor Close, Southampton SO16 5ST, United Kingdom.

Background: Unnecessary antibiotic prescribing and use are most common for uncomplicated acute respiratory infections (ARIs). Some Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) treatments have evidence of effectiveness for symptom relief and could be used instead of antibiotics.

Aim: To understand views of the general public and health professionals regarding use of CAM for uncomplicated ARIs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ctim.2020.102382DOI Listing

The Canadian Dermatology Association's Top Five Choosing Wisely Canada Recommendations.

J Cutan Med Surg 2020 May 20:1203475420928904. Epub 2020 May 20.

2129 Division of Dermatology, Department of Medicine, University of Calgary, AB, Canada.

Introduction: In this article, we present the Canadian Dermatology Association's (CDA) Choosing Wisely Canada (CWC) list of top "Five Things Physicians and Patients Should Question in Dermatology" and the evidence in support of each recommendation.

Methods: Using a nominal technique, the CDA Working Group and Task Force generated an initial list based on literature review and expert consultation. After several rounds of list refinement via a modified Delphi process, a final list of recommendations was generated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1203475420928904DOI Listing

Association of initial empirical antibiotic therapy with increased risk of necrotizing enterocolitis.

Eur J Pediatr 2020 Jul 18;179(7):1047-1056. Epub 2020 May 18.

Department of Pediatrics, West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610041, China.

Whether the prophylactic use of antibiotics increase the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) remains controversial. This review aims to investigate initial empirical antibiotic therapy (IEAT) and is associated with the risk of NEC. PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science databases were searched through March 1, 2020. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00431-020-03679-4DOI Listing

Nano-based anti-tubercular drug delivery: an emerging paradigm for improved therapeutic intervention.

Drug Deliv Transl Res 2020 Aug;10(4):1111-1121

Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Jamia Hamdard, Hamdard Nagar, New Delhi, 110062, India.

Tuberculosis (TB) classified as one of the most fatal contagious diseases is of prime concern globally. Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the causative agent that ingresses within the host cells. The approved conventional regimen, though the only viable option available, is unfavorably impacting the quality of life of the affected individual. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13346-020-00786-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7229880PMC

An antibiotic stewardship programme to reduce inappropriate antibiotic prescribing for acute respiratory infections in rural Chinese primary care facilities: study protocol for a clustered randomised controlled trial.

Trials 2020 May 12;21(1):394. Epub 2020 May 12.

National Center for Respiratory Diseases, State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease, Guangzhou Institute of Respiratory Health, Laboratory of Guangdong-Hong Kong -Macao Great Bay, Guangzhou Medical University, 151 Yanjiang Xi Rd, Guangzhou City, 510120, Guangdong, China.

Background: Inappropriate prescribing of antibiotics for acute respiratory infections at the primary care level represents the major source of antibiotic misuse in healthcare, and is a major driver for antimicrobial resistance worldwide. In this study we will develop, pilot and evaluate the effectiveness of a comprehensive antibiotic stewardship programme in China's primary care hospitals to reduce inappropriate prescribing of antibiotics for acute respiratory infections among all ages.

Methods: We will use a parallel-group, cluster-randomised, controlled, superiority trial with blinded outcome evaluation but unblinded treatment (providers and patients). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13063-020-04303-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7216131PMC

Potential Antimicrobial Peptides Elucidation From The Marine Bacteria.

Cardiovasc Hematol Agents Med Chem 2020 05 11. Epub 2020 May 11.

Eco-Microbiology Laboratory Department of Microbiology, Alagappa University, Science Campus, Karaikudi-630 003, Tamil Nadu. India.

In recent years, over use of antibiotics has been raising its head to a serious problem all around the world as pathogens become drug resistant and create challenges to the medical field. This failure of most potent antibiotics that kill pathogens increases the thirst for research to look further way of killing pathogens. It has been led to the findings of antimicrobial peptide which is the most potent peptide to destroy pathogens. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1871525718666200512074400DOI Listing

Systematic review of patient-oriented interventions to reduce unnecessary use of antibiotics for upper respiratory tract infections.

Syst Rev 2020 May 8;9(1):106. Epub 2020 May 8.

Clinical Epidemiology Program, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Ottawa, Canada.

Background: Antibiotics are prescribed frequently for upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) even though most URTIs do not require antibiotics. This over-prescription contributes to antibiotic resistance which is a major health problem globally. As physicians' prescribing behaviour is influenced by patients' expectations, there may be some opportunities to reduce antibiotic prescribing using patient-oriented interventions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13643-020-01359-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7210679PMC

Nanomaterials with active targeting as advanced antimicrobials.

Wiley Interdiscip Rev Nanomed Nanobiotechnol 2020 May 3:e1636. Epub 2020 May 3.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Mendel University in Brno, Brno, Czech Republic.

With a growing health threat of bacterial resistance to antibiotics, the nanomaterials have been extensively studied as an alternative. It is assumed that antimicrobial nanomaterials can affect bacteria by several mechanisms simultaneously and thereby overcome antibiotic resistance. Another promising potential use is employing nanomaterials as nanocarriers for antibiotics in order to overcome bacterial defense mechanisms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/wnan.1636DOI Listing

Impact of a Multifaceted Pharmacist-Led Intervention on Antimicrobial Stewardship in a Gastroenterology Ward: A Segmented Regression Analysis.

Front Pharmacol 2020 15;11:442. Epub 2020 Apr 15.

School of Medicine and Health Management, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Background: Irrational use of antimicrobial agents for gastrointestinal diseases deserves attention, but corresponding antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) are generally not a priority for managers. We conducted this study to evaluate the effectiveness of multifaceted pharmacist-led (MPL) interventions in the gastroenterology ward (GW) to provide evidence for the efficacy of ASPs in a non-priority department.

Methods: This was an interventional, retrospective study implemented in China. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2020.00442DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7174747PMC

[Modern pharmacotherapy of uncomplicated infections of the lower urinary tract: the position of antibacterial and herbal preparations].

Urologiia 2020 Apr(2):76-84

Federal State Autonomous Educational Institution of Higher Education Peoples Friendship University of Russia, Moscow, Russian.

Lower urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the most common types of infections in women. The existing high risk of recurrent forms, including relapses and reinfection, suggests the paramount importance of the pharmacotherapy strategy chosen by the doctor for the primary episode of lower urinary tract infection, especially acute cystitis, determining the degree of rehabilitation. Current data on the resistance of the main pathogens of UTI to many broad-spectrum antibacterial drugs, on the one hand, and the risk of subsequent resistance formation with the use of reserve antibiotics, such as fluoroquinolones, cephalosporins of 3-4 generation, on the other hand, make the search for optimal antibiotic therapy an urgent task for clinical pharmacologists, urologists and therapists. Read More

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Recent breakthroughs in antimicrobial resistance induced quorum sensing biosynthetic pathway mediated various targets and design of their inhibitors.

Comb Chem High Throughput Screen 2020 Apr 25. Epub 2020 Apr 25.

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Global Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Affiliated to Uttarakhand Technical University, Kashipur-244713. India.

Objective: The world is under the grasp of dangerous post-antibiotics and antimicrobials attack where common infections may become untreatable leading to premature deaths due to antimicrobial resistance (AMR). While an estimated 7,00,000 people die annually due to AMR which is a public health threat to all communities in different parts of the world regardless of their economic status. However, this threat is enough in low- and middle-income countries having lack of sanitation and health infrastructure. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1386207323666200425205808DOI Listing

Central venous catheter infection in Canadian home parenteral nutrition patients: a 5-year multicenter retrospective study.

Br J Nurs 2020 Apr;29(8):S34-S42

Toronto General Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Highlights: A lower central venous catheter (CVC) infection rate suggests an improvement in practice and education. CVC infection remains a complication that often requires significant health care resources. Use of tunneled CVC and patient education on catheter care reduces CVC infection rates. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12968/bjon.2020.29.8.S34DOI Listing

Time to antibiotic administration: Sepsis alerts called in emergency department versus in the field via emergency medical services.

Am J Emerg Med 2020 Apr 11. Epub 2020 Apr 11.

UCHealth-North Department of Pharmacy, 1024 S Lemay Ave, Fort Collins, CO 80524, United States of America.

Introduction: The Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock Early Management Bundle (SEP-1) identifies patients with "severe sepsis" and mandates antibiotics within a specific time window. Rapid time to administration of antibiotics may improve patient outcomes. The goal of this investigation was to compare time to antibiotic administration when sepsis alerts are called in the emergency department (ED) with those called in the field by emergency medical services (EMS). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajem.2020.04.008DOI Listing

Isolated cerebellar abscess by : A case report with review of literature.

J Family Med Prim Care 2020 Feb 28;9(2):1232-1235. Epub 2020 Feb 28.

Department of Medical Microbiology, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Chandigarh, India.

Human nocardiosis is primarily an opportunistic infection affecting immunocompromised patients, however, one-third of them are immunocompetent. CNS involvement is less commonly reported and associated with a grave prognosis. The majority of these patients are organ transplant recipients on immune suppressants. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_1005_19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7113929PMC
February 2020

[Current trends in the development of resistance to clinically significant antibiotics in Salmonella (review of literature).]

Klin Lab Diagn 2020 ;65(5):308-315

State University of Humanities and Technology, 142611, Orekhovo-Zuyevo, Moscow region.

Salmonella is one of the leading bacterial pathogens of acute diarrhea as well as foodborne outbreaks. Salmonellosis can occur as gastroenteritis with the development of complications and generalization of infection, also the extra intestinal diseases that require antibiotic therapy are often registered. Currently, the effectiveness of many antibiotics is reduced due to the development of resistance in Salmonella. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.18821/0869-2084-2020-65-5-308-315DOI Listing
January 2020

The effects of ceftriaxone by intravenous push on adverse drug reactions in the emergency department.

Am J Emerg Med 2020 Mar 30. Epub 2020 Mar 30.

Cook County Health, 1950 W Polk St, 7th Floor, Chicago, IL 60612, United States of America.

Objective: At our hospital, a shortage of sterile saline bags led to changing ceftriaxone from intravenous infusion to intravenous push. We examined if this change led to an increase in adverse reactions.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective chart analysis on patients 18 and older that were administered ceftriaxone in the ED between January to March 2018. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajem.2020.03.022DOI Listing

Colistin and its role in the Era of antibiotic resistance: an extended review (2000-2019).

Emerg Microbes Infect 2020 Dec;9(1):868-885

Department of Microbiology, Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China.

Increasing antibiotic resistance in multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacteria (MDR-GNB) presents significant health problems worldwide, since the vital available and effective antibiotics, including; broad-spectrum penicillins, fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides, and β-lactams, such as; carbapenems, monobactam, and cephalosporins; often fail to fight MDR Gram-negative pathogens as well as the absence of new antibiotics that can defeat these "superbugs". All of these has prompted the reconsideration of old drugs such as polymyxins that were reckoned too toxic for clinical use. Only two polymyxins, polymyxin E (colistin) and polymyxin B, are currently commercially available. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/22221751.2020.1754133DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7241451PMC
December 2020

How ESKD complicates the management of diabetic foot ulcers: The vital role of the dialysis team in prevention, early detection, and support of multidisciplinary treatment to reduce lower extremity amputations.

Semin Dial 2020 05 10;33(3):245-253. Epub 2020 Apr 10.

Division of Nephrology, Tufts Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA.

Diabetic foot ulcers do not heal as well in ESKD as in the absence of kidney failure, and rates of recurrent foot ulcers, as well as lower extremity amputation, are higher. This review of the literature highlights the vital role of the dialysis team in prevention, early detection, and support of treatment of diabetic foot ulcers. Our review has five goals-(a) increase nephrologists' understanding of the high morbidity and mortality associated with chronic foot ulcers and (lower extrimity) LE amputations in ESKD; (b) promote nephrologists' understanding of grading systems for diabetic foot ulcer severity, in order to expedite communication with local diabetic foot experts; (c) promote collaboration between nephrologists and infectious disease specialists regarding the dose, route, and delivery logistics of intravenous antibiotics for infected chronic foot ulcers, in particular in the presence of osteomyelitis and other deep-seated infections; (d) increase the awareness of dialysis nurses, technicians, dietitians, social workers and administrators regarding evidence-based and multidisciplinary approaches to patients' diabetic foot ulcers; (e) encourage the application of published works integrating patient-centered diabetic foot education into the dialysis setting to reduce lower extremity amputations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/sdi.12875DOI Listing

Antibiotics for prophylaxis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis: systematic review & Bayesian network meta-analysis.

Hepatol Int 2020 May 7;14(3):399-413. Epub 2020 Apr 7.

Department of Hepatology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India.

Background: Various antibiotic regimens are used for primary and secondary prevention of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP). A systematic review and network meta-analysis to compare various antibiotics regimens for primary and secondary prevention of SBP were done.

Methods: We did a comprehensive literature search using various databases (i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12072-020-10025-1DOI Listing
May 2020
2.468 Impact Factor

Screening for Bacterial Vaginosis in Pregnant Persons to Prevent Preterm Delivery: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement.

JAMA 2020 04;323(13):1286-1292

Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts.

Importance: Bacterial vaginosis is common and is caused by a disruption of the microbiological environment in the lower genital tract. In the US, reported prevalence of bacterial vaginosis among pregnant women ranges from 5.8% to 19. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.2020.2684DOI Listing

Coumarin-containing hybrids and their antibacterial activities.

Arch Pharm (Weinheim) 2020 Jun 6;353(6):e1900380. Epub 2020 Apr 6.

Dong Medicine Key Laboratory of Hunan Province, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Hunan University of Medicine, Huaihua, Hunan, China.

Infections caused by Gram-positive and -negative bacteria are one of the foremost causes of morbidity and mortality globally. Antibiotics are the mainstay of therapy for bacterial infections, but the emergence and wide spread of drug-resistant pathogens have already become a huge issue for public healthcare systems. The coumarin moiety, which is ubiquitous in nature, could bind to the B subunit of DNA gyrase in bacteria and inhibit DNA supercoiling by blocking the ATPase activity; hence, coumarin derivatives possess potential antibacterial activity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ardp.201900380DOI Listing
June 2020
1.396 Impact Factor

Significance of Clostridium difficile in community-acquired diarrhea in a tertiary care center in Lebanon.

Sci Rep 2020 Mar 30;10(1):5678. Epub 2020 Mar 30.

Department of Emergency Medicine, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Beirut, Lebanon.

Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is becoming a cause of community-acquired diarrhea. The aim is to describe (CDI) as a cause of acute diarrhea in patients presenting from the community to the Emergency Department (ED) of a tertiary care center in Lebanon. A retrospective study conducted in the ED at the American University of Beirut Medical Center (AUBMC). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-62418-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7105455PMC

Alternatives to antibiotics in a One Health context and the role genomics can play in reducing antimicrobial use.

Clin Microbiol Infect 2020 Mar 24. Epub 2020 Mar 24.

The Roslin Institute and Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, Edinburgh, UK. Electronic address:

Background: This review follows on from the International Conference on One Health Antimicrobial Resistance (ICOHAR 2019), where strategies to improve the fundamental understanding and management of antimicrobial resistance at the interface between humans, animals and the environment were discussed.

Objective: This review identifies alternatives to antimicrobials in a One Health context, noting how advances in genomic technologies are assisting their development and enabling more targeted use of antimicrobials.

Sources: Key articles on the use of microbiota modulation, livestock breeding and gene editing, vaccination, antivirulence strategies and bacteriophage therapy are discussed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cmi.2020.02.028DOI Listing

Infection-Associated Opsoclonus: A Retrospective Case Record Analysis and Review of Literature.

J Child Neurol 2020 Jun 27;35(7):480-484. Epub 2020 Mar 27.

Pediatric Neurology Unit, Department of Pediatrics, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Chandigarh, India.

Opsoclonus, an uncommon clinical sign, and is often described in the context of opsoclonus myoclonus ataxia syndrome (OMAS). OMAS may be paraneoplastic or postinfectious. However, opsoclonus with or without OMAS may occur in association with a wide gamut of infections. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0883073820911327DOI Listing
June 2020
1.666 Impact Factor

Assessing the Utility of Ultrasound and Urinalysis for Patients with Possible Epididymo-Orchitis - A Retrospective Study.

Open Access Emerg Med 2020 13;12:47-51. Epub 2020 Mar 13.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Kendall Regional Medical Center, Miami, FL, USA.

Purpose: Many experts recommend ordering an ultrasound and a urinalysis on all patients with scrotal pain. While the ultrasound may help diagnose a number of potential causes of scrotal pain, the urinalysis primarily has value in assessing for epididymo-orchitis. This study sought to evaluate the utility of these diagnostic tests for patients who presented to the emergency department (ED) with acute scrotal pain and possible epididymo-orchitis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OAEM.S234413DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7081061PMC

Review: antimicrobial properties of allicin used alone or in combination with other medications.

Folia Microbiol (Praha) 2020 Jun 23;65(3):451-465. Epub 2020 Mar 23.

School of Biosciences, Taylor's University, Subang Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia.

Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is a well-known spice widely utilised for its medicinal properties. There is an extensive record of the many beneficial health effects of garlic which can be traced back to as early as the ancient Egyptian era. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12223-020-00786-5DOI Listing

Erythrocytes as Carriers: From Drug Delivery to Biosensors.

Pharmaceutics 2020 Mar 18;12(3). Epub 2020 Mar 18.

Laboratory of Biophysics, Dmitriy Rogachev National Medical Research Center of Pediatric Hematology, Oncology, and Immunology, Ministry of Healthcare of Russian Federation, Samory Mashela str., 1, GSP-7, Moscow 117198, Russia.

Drug delivery using natural biological carriers, especially erythrocytes, is a rapidly developing field. Such erythrocytes can act as carriers that prolong the drug's action due to its gradual release from the carrier; as bioreactors with encapsulated enzymes performing the necessary reactions, while remaining inaccessible to the immune system and plasma proteases; or as a tool for targeted drug delivery to target organs, primarily to cells of the reticuloendothelial system, liver and spleen. To date, erythrocytes have been studied as carriers for a wide range of drugs, such as enzymes, antibiotics, anti-inflammatory, antiviral drugs, etc. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12030276DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7151026PMC

Quorum-Sensing Regulation of Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria.

Microorganisms 2020 Mar 17;8(3). Epub 2020 Mar 17.

College of Biosystems Engineering and Food Science, National-Local Joint Engineering Laboratory of Intelligent Food Technology and Equipment, Zhejiang Key Laboratory for Agro-Food Processing, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China.

Quorum sensing is a cell-to-cell communication system that exists widely in the microbiome and is related to cell density. The high-density colony population can generate a sufficient number of small molecule signals, activate a variety of downstream cellular processes including virulence and drug resistance mechanisms, tolerate antibiotics, and harm the host. This article gives a general introduction to the current research status of microbial quorum-sensing systems, focuses on the role of quorum-sensing systems in regulating microbial resistance mechanisms, such as drug efflux pump and microbial biofilm formation regulation, and discusses a new strategy for the treatment of drug-resistant bacteria proposed by using quorum quenching to prevent microbial resistance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8030425DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7143945PMC

Actinomycosis of the Tongue: A Case Report and Review of Literature.

Antibiotics (Basel) 2020 Mar 16;9(3). Epub 2020 Mar 16.

Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche, Chirurgiche ed Odontoiatriche, Università degli Studi di Milano, 20142 Milano, Italy.

: Actinomycosis of the tongue is an uncommon, suppurative infection of lingual mucosa, caused by actinomyces. The clinical diagnosis may present serious difficulties because of its ability to mimic other lesions, including both benign and malignant neoplasms. : Here, we describe the case of a 52-years-old patient affected by an asymptomatic, tumor-like tongue swelling, then diagnosed as actinomycosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9030124DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7148533PMC

Antibiotic Prescribing for Viral Respiratory Infections in the Pediatric Emergency Department and Urgent Care.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2020 05;39(5):406-410

Section of Pediatric Emergency Medicine, University of Colorado.

Background: Viral acute respiratory tract infections (vARTI) are a frequent source of inappropriate antibiotic prescribing. We describe the prevalence of antibiotic prescribing for vARTI in the pediatric emergency department (ED) and urgent care (UC) within a health system, and identify factors associated with overall and broad-spectrum antibiotic prescribing.

Methods: Retrospective chart review within a single pediatric referral health system. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/INF.0000000000002586DOI Listing