2,506 results match your criteria Antibiotics - A Review of ED Use


Nanocrystalline cellulose: Preparation, physicochemical properties, and applications in drug delivery systems.

Int J Biol Macromol 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Immunology Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran. Electronic address:

Cancer is the leading cause of death all over the world and chemotherapy is an important approach to fight cancer, however, there are many obstacles against successful cancer chemotherapy such as development of multidrug resistance, poor solubility of chemotherapeutic agents and adverse side effects to healthy tissues. An important strategy to overcome these obstacles, is the use of nanotechnology. In recent years, natural polymers such as cellulose and its nanoform structure, nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC), have attracted the interest of researchers in the field of nanotechnology and specially drug delivery systems, due to biocompatibility and biodegradability of NCC. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S01418130193169
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2019.04.117DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

A Retrospective Cohort Study to Assess the Impact of an Inpatient Infectious Disease Telemedicine Consultation Service on Hospital and Patient Outcomes.

Clin Infect Dis 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Network Office of Research and Innovation, Lehigh Valley Health Network, Allentown, PA, USA.

Background: Here we review our experience of providing inpatient Infectious Disease (ID) consultation using real-time interactive telemedicine assessment. We sought to obtain a baseline and trends regarding the use of telemedicine ID consults (teleID) as an adjunct to the standard of care through the time period when teleID consultations were begun.

Methods: Data were pulled via manual retrospective chart review of the electronic medical record (EMR). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciz293DOI Listing

Influence of adjuvant antibiotics on fistula formation following incision and drainage of anorectal abscesses: a systematic review protocol.

Syst Rev 2019 Apr 15;8(1):95. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Clinical Epidemiology Program, The University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada.

Background: Development of fistula-in-ano following incision and drainage (I&D) of anorectal abscesses occurs in over 30% of patients. It is associated with significant patient morbidity and societal cost. The use of antibiotics following drainage is controversial, with randomized controlled trials reporting opposing conclusions regarding their influence on the rate of fistula formation. Read More

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https://systematicreviewsjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13643-019-1002-zDOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Using Bioactive Glasses in the Management of Burns.

Front Bioeng Biotechnol 2019 28;7:62. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

Applied Science and Technology Department, Institute of Materials Physics and Engineering, Politecnico di Torino, Turin, Italy.

The management of burn injuries is considered an unmet clinical need and, to date, no fully satisfactory solution exists to this problem. This mini-review aims to explore the potential of bioactive glasses (BGs) for burn care due to the therapeutic effects of their ionic dissolution products. BGs have been studied for more than 40 years and boast a long successful history in the substitution of damaged tissues, especially bone. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fbioe.2019.00062DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6447657PMC
March 2019
1 Read

Microbes, metabolites, and the gut-lung axis.

Mucosal Immunol 2019 Apr 11. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Department of Immunology and Pathology, Central Clinical School, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, 3004, Australia.

The microbiota plays an essential role in the education, development, and function of the immune system, both locally and systemically. Emerging experimental and epidemiological evidence highlights a crucial cross-talk between the intestinal microbiota and the lungs, termed the 'gut-lung axis'. Changes in the constituents of the gut microbiome, through either diet, disease or medical interventions (such as antibiotics) is linked with altered immune responses and homeostasis in the airways. Read More

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http://www.nature.com/articles/s41385-019-0160-6
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41385-019-0160-6DOI Listing
April 2019
4 Reads

Polymyxins: To Combine or Not to Combine?

Antibiotics (Basel) 2019 Apr 10;8(2). Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Medicine Service, Louis Stokes Cleveland Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA.

Polymyxins have been a mainstay for the treatment of extensively drug resistant (XDR) Gram-negative bacteria for the past two decades. Many questions regarding the clinical use of polymyxins have been answered, but whether the administration of polymyxins in combination with other antibiotics leads to better outcomes remains unknown. This review discusses the limitations of observational studies that suggest a benefit of combinations of colistin and carbapenems to treat infections caused by carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), especially carbapenemase (KPC)-producing , and summarizes the results of randomized controlled trials in which treatment with colistin in combination with meropenem or rifampin does not lead to better clinical outcomes than colisitn monotherapy in infections caused by carbapenem-resistant (CRAB). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics8020038DOI Listing
April 2019
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Bacterial Resistance in Pneumonia in Developing Countries-A Role for Iron Chelation.

Trop Med Infect Dis 2019 Apr 10;4(2). Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Department of Anesthesia, Pain Management and Perioperative Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS B3H 1X5, Canada.

Pneumonia represents one of the major infectious diseases in developing countries and is associated with high mortality, in particular in children under the age of five. The main causative bacterial agents are and type B, accounting for 33% and 16%, respectively, of the mortality in under-fives. Iron modulates the immune response in infectious diseases and increased iron levels can lead to complications such as sepsis and multiorgan failure. Read More

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https://www.mdpi.com/2414-6366/4/2/59
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed4020059DOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads

Quality Improvement Opportunities Identified Through Case Review of Pregnancy-Related Deaths From Sepsis.

J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs 2019 Apr 8. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Objective: To analyze quality improvement opportunities (QIOs) identified through review of cases of maternal death from sepsis by the California Pregnancy-Associated Mortality Review Committee.

Design: Qualitative descriptive design using thematic analysis.

Sample: A total of 118 QIOs identified from 27 cases of pregnancy-related deaths from sepsis in California from 2002 to 2007. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S08842175193004
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jogn.2019.02.007DOI Listing
April 2019
6 Reads

Graphene and graphene-based nanocomposites used for antibiotics removal in water treatment: A review.

Chemosphere 2019 Mar 20;226:360-380. Epub 2019 Mar 20.

School of Metallurgy and Environment, Central South University, Lushan South Road, Yuelu District, Changsha, 410083, PR China; School of Architecture and Art, Central South University, Lushan South Road, Yuelu District, Changsha, 410083, PR China. Electronic address:

Due to their extensive application in human and veterinary medicine, antibiotics have been found worldwide and studied as new pollutants in the aquatic environment. In order to remove such pollutants, adsorption and photocatalysis have attracted tremendous attention because of their great potential in antibiotics removal from aqueous solutions. Graphene, as a novel two-dimensional nanomaterial, possesses unique structure and physicochemical properties, which can be used to efficiently adsorb and photodegrade antibiotics. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2019.03.117DOI Listing

[Activities of Choosing Wisely and Role of Pharmacists].

Authors:
Michiko Yamamoto

Yakugaku Zasshi 2019 ;139(4):551-556

Department of Drug Informatics, Center for Education and Research on Clinical Pharmacy, Showa Pharmaceutical University.

Choosing Wisely (CW) is a pharmaceutical campaign activity that is spreading rapidly internationally. Briefly, it is an activity "aiming for appropriate medical care by reviewing the medical practice that is practiced despite lack of evidence from the viewpoint of evidence based medicine (EBM)". Here, healthcare workers and patients, through dialogue, are aiming to be able to carry out medical practices (examinations, treatment) that are scientifically validated, truly necessary, and have few side effects. Read More

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https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/yakushi/139/4/139_18-00
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1248/yakushi.18-00181-2DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Acupuncture-Related Cardiac Complications: A Systematic Review.

J Invasive Cardiol 2019 Apr;31(4):E69-E72

St. Mary Medical Center, 1203 Langhorne-Newtown Road, Suite 320, Langhorne, PA 19047 USA.

Background: The objective of this study is to review acupuncture-related cardiac complications, such as infective endocarditis (IE), cardiac tamponade (CT), pericarditis, and cardiac rupture, as there is no known reported literature to determine the burden of cardiac adverse events due to acupuncture.

Methods: Structured computerized databases were searched using the special Medical Subject Heading (MeSH). Manual search using the references of relevant articles was also performed. Read More

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April 2019
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In search of a primary outcome for community-based newborn infection trials in Eastern Uganda: a nested cohort study within the BabyGel pilot trial.

Pilot Feasibility Stud 2019 13;5:43. Epub 2019 Mar 13.

1Sanyu Research Unit, Department of Women's and Children's Health, University of Liverpool and Liverpool Women's NHS Foundation Trust, members of Liverpool Health Partners, Crown Street, Liverpool, L8 7SS UK.

Background: Due to their immature immune system, neonates are at high risk of infection. This vulnerability when combined with limited resources and health education in developing countries can lead to sepsis, resulting in high global neonatal mortality rates. Many of these deaths are preventable. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40814-019-0428-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6415494PMC
March 2019
2 Reads

The role of community health workers in addressing the global burden of ear disease and hearing loss: a systematic scoping review of the literature.

BMJ Glob Health 2019 1;4(2):e001141. Epub 2019 Mar 1.

Department of ENT, Brighton and Sussex University Hospitals NHS Trust, Brighton, UK.

Introduction: Community health workers (CHWs) have the potential to improve access to ear and hearing services for people across low-income or middle-income countries, remote, underserved, or resource-poor areas of the world. We performed a systematic scoping review to identify evidence on how CHWs are currently deployed in the prevention, screening, diagnosis, treatment and management of ear disease and hearing loss; methods to train and support CHWs in this context; and cost-effectiveness of CHWs.

Methods: We performed a systematic search of the literature from September 1978 to 18 March 2018 from 11 major databases and the grey literature. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjgh-2018-001141DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6407559PMC

4(3H)-Quinazolinone derivatives: Promising antibacterial drug leads.

Eur J Med Chem 2019 May 11;170:157-172. Epub 2019 Mar 11.

Department of Medicinal Chemistry, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (NIPER), Hyderabad 500037, India. Electronic address:

Emergence of drug resistance has created unmet medical need for the development of new classes of antibiotics. Discovery of new antibacterial agents with new mode of action remains a high priority universally. 4(3H)-quinazolinone, a fused nitrogen heterocyclic compound has emerged as a biologically privileged structure, possessing a wide range of biological properties viz. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmech.2019.03.018DOI Listing
May 2019
2 Reads

When to use single-inhaler triple therapy in COPD: a practical approach for primary care health care professionals.

Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis 2019;14:391-401. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Medicines Evaluation Unit, University of Manchester, Manchester University NHS Foundation Hospital Trust, Manchester, UK,

While single-inhaler triple therapy (SITT) devices were not available when the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease strategy and National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidelines were developed, two devices are now available in the UK. This paper offers practical, patient-focused advice to optimize placement of SITT in the management of COPD. A survey of UK health care professionals (HCPs) identified issues around, and attitudes toward, SITT, which informed a multidisciplinary expert panel's discussions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/COPD.S173901DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6388781PMC
February 2019
2 Reads

Prevention Strategies for Recurrent Community-Associated Staphylococcus aureus Skin and Soft Tissue Infections.

Curr Infect Dis Rep 2019 Mar 11;21(4):12. Epub 2019 Mar 11.

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Infectious Diseases, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 S. Euclid Avenue, CB 8116, St. Louis, MO, 63110, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Staphylococcus aureus skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI) are a major source of morbidity. More than half of patients experiencing SSTI will have at least one recurrent infection. These infections frequently cluster in households. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11908-019-0670-0DOI Listing
March 2019
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Implementation of a nursing based order set: Improved antibiotic administration times for pediatric ED patients with therapy-induced neutropenia and fever.

J Pediatr Nurs 2019 Mar 8;46:78-82. Epub 2019 Mar 8.

Children's Hospital and Medical Center, 8200 Dodge St., Omaha, NE 68114, United States of America; University of Nebraska Medical Center, 1230 'O' St. STE 123, Lincoln, NE 68588, United States of America.

Purpose: For patients with chemotherapy-induced neutropenia and fever, delays in antibiotic administration are associated with poor outcomes, such as ICU admission and need for further interventions. The objective of this quality improvement project was to significantly reduce the time from initiation of triage to antibiotic administration for pediatric patients arriving to the emergency department with therapy-induced neutropenia and fever.

Methods: An interdisciplinary team set an evidence-based goal for time to antibiotics (TTA) at 60-min. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pedn.2019.02.028DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Impact of a pharmacist-driven education initiative on treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria.

Am J Health Syst Pharm 2019 Mar 11. Epub 2019 Mar 11.

Department of Pharmacy, Grant Medical Center, OhioHealth, Columbus, OH.

Purpose: The results and methods of a pharmacist-driven multifaceted educational intervention on the appropriate management of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU) within an emergency department (ED) are reported.

Methods: A retrospective, single-center cohort study was conducted to evaluate the effects of an educational intervention aimed at reducing the rates of mismanaged ABU within an ED at a Level 1 trauma center. The education involved a multifaceted approach directed by pharmacists and involved a handout and algorithm communicated through in-person discussions, emails, and general distribution. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajhp/zxy081DOI Listing

Trends in the use of antibiotics among Korean children.

Korean J Pediatr 2019 Apr 4;62(4):113-118. Epub 2019 Mar 4.

School of Pharmacy, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Korea.

Inappropriate antibiotic use is the most important factor causing increased bacterial resistance to antibiotics, thus affecting patient outcomes. Multidrug-resistant bacteria have become a serious public health threat, causing significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. In Korea, the burden of antibioticresistant bacteria has become an important public health issue. Read More

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http://kjp.or.kr/journal/view.php?doi=10.3345/kjp.2018.07290
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3345/kjp.2018.07290DOI Listing
April 2019
6 Reads

A critical review of clay-based composites with enhanced adsorption performance for metal and organic pollutants.

J Hazard Mater 2019 May 5;369:780-796. Epub 2019 Feb 5.

Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Cell Activities and Stress Adaptations, School of Life Science, Lanzhou University, Tianshui South Road #222, Lanzhou, Gansu, 730000, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Adsorption techniques offer unique advantages owing to the use of synthetic (e.g., nanosized metal oxides and polymer-functionalized nanocomposites) and natural (e. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S03043894193013
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2019.02.003DOI Listing
May 2019
2 Reads

Targeting DNA gyrase to combat Mycobacterium tuberculosis: An update.

Curr Top Med Chem 2019 Mar 4. Epub 2019 Mar 4.

Division of Microbiology, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow-226031, Uttar Pradesh. India.

DNA gyrase is a clinically validated drug target, currently targeted only by fluoroquinolone class of antibacterials. However, owing to increasing drug resistance as well as concomitant reduction in availability of newer classes of antibiotics, fluoroquinolones are increasingly being over-utilized in order to treat serious infections, including multi-drug resistant tuberculosis. This in turn, increases the probability of resistance to fluoroquinolones, which is mediated by a single amino acid change in gyrA, leading to class wide resistance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1568026619666190304130218DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Current and future pharmacological therapies for managing cirrhosis and its complications.

World J Gastroenterol 2019 Feb;25(8):888-908

Liver Unit/Division of Integrative Systems Medicine and Digestive Disease, Imperial College London, London W2 1NY, United Kingdom.

Due to the restrictions of liver transplantation, complication-guided pharmacological therapy has become the mainstay of long-term management of cirrhosis. This article aims to provide a complete overview of pharmacotherapy options that may be commenced in the outpatient setting which are available for managing cirrhosis and its complications, together with discussion of current controversies and potential future directions. PubMed/Medline/Cochrane Library were electronically searched up to December 2018 to identify studies evaluating safety, efficacy and therapeutic mechanisms of pharmacological agents in cirrhotic adults and animal models of cirrhosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3748/wjg.v25.i8.888DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6397723PMC
February 2019
8 Reads

Antibiotic Prescription Practice for Pediatric Urinary Tract Infection in a Tertiary Center.

Pediatr Emerg Care 2019 Feb 28. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

Division of Urology, The Hospital for Sick Children and Department of Surgery, University of Toronto.

Objectives: Prescribing antibiotics for suspected urinary tract infection (UTI) is common practice and may lead to unnecessary antibiotic exposure. We aimed to review UTI diagnosis and management in the emergency department and to identify targets for antimicrobial stewardship.

Methods: Single-center, retrospective cohort study of children aged 12 weeks to younger than 18 years discharged from the emergency department with a diagnosis of UTI between October and December 2016. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PEC.0000000000001780DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Alternative to antibiotics for managing asymptomatic and non-symptomatic bacteriuria in older persons: a review.

Authors:
Debbie Duncan

Br J Community Nurs 2019 Mar;24(3):116-119

Lecturer (Education), School of Nursing and Midwifery, Queens University, Belfast.

Recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common reasons for long-term antibiotic use in frail older people, and these individuals often have non-symptomatic bacteriuria. This article reviews the literature and recommendations for the treatment of UTIs particularly in the older population (>65 years). It considers the question: is there an alternative for antibiotics for asymptomatic and non-symptomatic bacteriuria in older adults? D-mannose powder has been recommended for the treatment of UTIs, as when applied locally, it reduces the adherence of Escherichia coli. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12968/bjcn.2019.24.3.116DOI Listing

Challenging Dogma: Optimal Treatment of the "Fight Bite".

Hand (N Y) 2019 Feb 27:1558944719831238. Epub 2019 Feb 27.

1 Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: The optimal treatment of human bites to the dorsal metacarpophalangeal region (ie, "fight bite") in the absence of gross purulence is controversial. Few studies have compared the outcomes of operative debridement with expectant wound care and oral antibiotics.

Methods: We performed a retrospective chart review of all patients evaluated at a Level 1 trauma center over a 10-year period. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1558944719831238DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Determining Best Practices for Management of Bacteriuria in Spinal Cord Injury: Protocol for a Mixed-Methods Study.

JMIR Res Protoc 2019 Feb 14;8(2):e12272. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Center for Innovations in Quality, Effectiveness and Safety, Houston, TX, United States.

Background: Bacteriuria, either asymptomatic (ASB) or symptomatic, urinary tract infection (UTI), is common in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI). Current Veterans Health Administration (VHA) guidelines recommend a screening urinalysis and urine culture for every veteran with SCI during annual evaluation, even when asymptomatic, which is contrary to other national guidelines. Our preliminary data suggest that a positive urine culture (even without signs or symptoms of infection) drives antibiotic use. Read More

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https://www.researchprotocols.org/2019/2/e12272/
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/12272DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6393777PMC
February 2019
11 Reads

Early FAST Examinations during Resuscitation May Compromise Trauma Outcomes.

Am Surg 2018 Oct;84(10):1705-1709

Division of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery, LAC+USC Medical Center, Los Angeles, California, USA.

Focused assessment with Sonography for trauma (FAST) examination is essential to trauma triage. We sought to determine whether FASTs completed early in sequencing portend worse outcomes. A two-year review (2014-2015) of all trauma activations at our Level I trauma center was performed. Read More

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October 2018
6 Reads

Use of microbiology tests in the era of increasing AMR rates- a multicentre hospital cohort study.

Antimicrob Resist Infect Control 2019 4;8:28. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

10Department of Essential Medicines and Health Products, World Health Organization (WHO), Avenue Appia 20, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland.

Background: Effective use of microbiology test results may positively influence patient outcomes and limit the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics. However, studies indicate that their potential is not fully utilized. We investigated microbiology test ordering practices and the use of test results for antibiotic decision-making in hospitals. Read More

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https://aricjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s1375
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13756-019-0480-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6360791PMC
February 2019
8 Reads

Assessing the risk of utilizing tidal coastal wetlands for wastewater management.

J Environ Manage 2019 Apr 6;236:269-279. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

Office of Research and Development, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 26 W. Martin Luther King Drive, Cincinnati, OH, 45268, USA. Electronic address:

Coastal tidal wetlands are well recognized for the key ecosystem services they provide such as flood protection, water quality improvement, and carbon sequestration. In the southeastern United States, some communities rely on coastal wetlands for the management of secondarily treated effluents in forested and emergent wetlands. Advocates for this practice have argued that wetlands can assimilate nitrogen from wastewater, which can improve cypress-tupelo swamp productivity, and enhance marsh accretion rates to mitigate the effects of sea level rise. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2018.12.082DOI Listing

Long-term outcomes of an educational intervention to reduce antibiotic prescribing for childhood upper respiratory tract infections in rural China: Follow-up of a cluster-randomised controlled trial.

PLoS Med 2019 Feb 5;16(2):e1002733. Epub 2019 Feb 5.

School of Health Care Management, Shandong University, Jinan, China.

Background: Inappropriate antibiotic prescribing causes widespread serious health problems. To reduce prescribing of antibiotics in Chinese primary care to children with upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs), we developed an intervention comprising clinical guidelines, monthly prescribing review meetings, doctor-patient communication skills training, and education materials for caregivers. We previously evaluated our intervention using an unblinded cluster-randomised controlled trial (cRCT) in 25 primary care facilities across two rural counties. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1002733DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6363140PMC
February 2019
3 Reads

Obstetric Anal Sphincter Injuries: A Survey of Clinical Practice and Education among Obstetricians and Gynaecologists in Ireland

Ir Med J 2019 Jan 15;112(1):852. Epub 2019 Jan 15.

Rotunda Hospital, Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Parnell Square, Dublin 1

This paper summarises results of a survey of obstetricians in Ireland regarding their technique, management, and education on episiotomy and Obstetric Anal Sphincter Injury (OASIS). An anonymous survey was emailed to all obstetricians and gynaecologists in Ireland, including trainees between January and September 2017. The response rate was 45% (155/343) with 111 out of 144 (77%) reported clinical experience as part of their training and 92 (64%) attended an OASIS workshop or classroom teaching. Read More

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January 2019

Intestinal necrosis cannot be neglected in a patient with hepatic portal vein gas combined with appendicitis: a rare case report and literature review.

BMC Surg 2019 Feb 4;19(1):17. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, the Second Affiliated Hospital, Nanchang University, No. 1, mingde road, Nanchang, Jiang xi, China.

Background: Hepatic portal vein gas (HPVG) is a rare acute abdomen, which is not an independent disease. Meanwhile, HPVG combined with appendicitis has been rarely reported. We found only a similar report by looking for literature, but no intestinal necrosis occurred. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12893-019-0478-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6360744PMC
February 2019
3 Reads

Evidence of factors influencing self-medication with antibiotics in low and middle-income countries: a systematic scoping review.

Public Health 2019 Mar 1;168:92-101. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

School of Nursing and Public Health, University of KwaZulu Natal, Durban, South Africa.

Objectives: Self-medication with antibiotics (SMA) is a practice of global concern with a higher incidence within the low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Despite worldwide efforts to control and promote the rational use of antibiotics, the continuing practice of SMA systematically exposes individuals and communities to the risk of antibiotic resistance and a host of other antibiotic side-effects. This systematic scoping review maps evidence on the factors influencing SMA in these settings. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00333506183038
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.puhe.2018.11.018DOI Listing
March 2019
11 Reads

Importance of antibiotic residues in animal food.

Food Chem Toxicol 2019 Mar 30;125:462-466. Epub 2019 Jan 30.

Hacettepe University, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Toxicology, 06100, Ankara, Turkey.

Veterinary medicines, especially antibiotics, are among the most important components related to animal feed production. Generally, the main use of antibiotics in animals is for the treatment and prevention of diseases and growth promotion. Antibiotic usage in animals may result antibiotic residues in foodstuffs such as milk, egg and meat. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2019.01.033DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Disseminated Nocardia asiatica infection in an immunocompromised individual: A rare entity needs careful vigilance.

J Infect Public Health 2019 Mar - Apr;12(2):167-170. Epub 2019 Jan 28.

Department of Microbiology, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, India.

Nocardia asteroides complex and Nocardia brasiliensis are common etiological agents of disseminated nocardiosis among immunocompromised individuals. Here we reported an uncommon case of disseminated nocardiosis with the involvement of lung, brain, soft tissue & pancreas by a rarely isolated species Nocardia asiatica in a HIV infected individual. Diagnosis was initially misinterpreted as tuberculosis based on the clinical and radiological findings. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jiph.2018.12.008DOI Listing
April 2019
6 Reads

Malaria prevalence, knowledge, perception, preventive and treatment behavior among military in Champasak and Attapeu provinces, Lao PDR: a mixed methods study.

Trop Med Health 2019 25;47:11. Epub 2019 Jan 25.

SATREPS Project for Parasitic Diseases, Vientiane, Lao PDR.

Background: Malaria is a major health problem in Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) with high transmission in remote and forest areas, particularly in the South. The military is at risk of malaria infection especially those deployed in forest areas. This study determined the prevalence of malaria infection and assessed knowledge, perception, and preventive and treatment behavior regarding malaria among military personnel in two southern provinces in Lao PDR. Read More

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https://tropmedhealth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s41
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s41182-019-0138-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6347756PMC
January 2019
13 Reads

Ocular Prophylaxis for Gonococcal Ophthalmia Neonatorum: US Preventive Services Task Force Reaffirmation Recommendation Statement.

JAMA 2019 Jan;321(4):394-398

Tufts University, Medford, Massachusetts.

Importance: In the United States, the rate of gonococcal ophthalmia neonatorum was an estimated 0.4 cases per 100 000 live births per year from 2013 to 2017. Gonococcal ophthalmia neonatorum can cause corneal scarring, ocular perforation, and blindness as early as 24 hours after birth. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.2018.21367DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Electrochemiluminescent functional nucleic acids-based sensors for food analysis.

Luminescence 2019 May 28;34(3):308-315. Epub 2019 Jan 28.

Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Analysis and Detection for Food Safety, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Analysis and Detection for Food Safety, Department of Chemistry, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, Fujian, P. R. China.

Foodborne contaminants widely exist in foods, which can lead to various foodborne diseases and food safety issues. The development of quick, sensitive and universal analytical approaches for foodborne contaminants is imperative. Electrochemiluminescent functional nucleic acids (ECL FNAs)-based sensors are a series of sensing devices using FNAs as the recognition elements and ECL as the transducer. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bio.3596DOI Listing
May 2019
1 Read

Marine natural products as potential anti-tubercular agents.

Eur J Med Chem 2019 Mar 14;165:273-292. Epub 2019 Jan 14.

Key Laboratory of Marine Drugs, The Ministry of Education of China, School of Medicine and Pharmacy, Ocean University of China, Qingdao, 266003, People's Republic of China; Laboratory for Marine Drugs and Bioproducts, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao, 266200, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Tuberculosis has been one of the greatest global health challenges of all time. Although the current first-line anti-tuberculosis (anti-TB) medicines used in the clinic have reduced mortality, multidrug-resistance and extensively drug-resistance forms of the disease have now spread worldwide and become a global problem. Even so, few new clinically approved drugs have emerged during the past 30 years. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmech.2019.01.026DOI Listing
March 2019
3 Reads

Anti-parasitic activity of polyether ionophores.

Eur J Med Chem 2019 Mar 17;166:32-47. Epub 2019 Jan 17.

Department of Bioorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 89b, 61‒614 Poznań, Poland. Electronic address:

Despite some progress in recent years, the fight against parasitic diseases still remains a great challenge. Parasitic diseases affect primarily (but not exclusively) the poorest people living in underdeveloped regions of the world. The distribution of parasitoses are linked to tropical and subtropical climate conditions, to population growth and to impoverishment. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S02235234193004
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmech.2019.01.035DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Do Guidelines Influence Emergency Department Staff Behaviours and Improve Patient Outcomes? Evaluation of a Multifaceted Intervention for the Implementation of Local Acute Exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Guidelines.

Cureus 2018 Nov 13;10(11):e3588. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Emergency Medicine, Saint John Regional Hospital, Saint John, CAN.

Introduction Published national guidelines on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) highlight the importance of oxygen therapy, bronchodilators, corticosteroids, and appropriate antibiotics during acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD). We wished to assess how the implementation of local COPD guidelines affects emergency department (ED) staff awareness, knowledge, the use of such guidelines, and patient outcomes, including treatment failure and rates of return to the ED. Methods This study was conducted at a tertiary hospital ED. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.3588DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6338401PMC
November 2018
4 Reads

The Preclinical and Clinical Progress of Bacteriophages and Their Lytic Enzymes: The Parts are Easier than the Whole.

Viruses 2019 Jan 24;11(2). Epub 2019 Jan 24.

Laboratory of Applied Biotechnology, Department of Biotechnology, Ghent University, Valentin Vaerwijckweg 1, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium.

The therapeutic potential of phages has been considered since their first identification more than a century ago. The evident concept of using a natural predator to treat bacterial infections has, however, since then been challenged considerably. Initially, the vast success of antibiotics almost eliminated the study of phages for therapy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v11020096DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6409994PMC
January 2019

Ameliorating the antimicrobial resistance crisis: phage therapy.

IUBMB Life 2019 Jan 23. Epub 2019 Jan 23.

Department of Biology, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Tirupati, India.

Propelled by the overuse and inappropriate use of antibiotics, antimicrobial resistance is now widespread in the environment, leaving us with limited drugs for treating a large number of resistant pathogens. The use of bacteriophages that kill bacteria has come up as a viable alternative to circumvent the antimicrobial resistance crisis, and phage therapy-based approaches are fast advancing in recent times. In this minireview, we try to describe the advantages associated with phage therapy and update the latest developments in the field including the clinical trials that are underway. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/iub.2010DOI Listing
January 2019

Prenatal determinants of childhood obesity: a review of risk factors .

Can J Physiol Pharmacol 2019 Mar 19;97(3):147-154. Epub 2019 Jan 19.

b Centre de recherche de Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Sherbrooke (CRCHUS) and Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Université de Sherbrooke, Quebec, QC J1H 5N4, Canada.

Childhood obesity is a predictor of adult obesity and has its roots in the pre-pregnancy or pregnancy period. This review presents an overview of the prenatal risk factors for childhood obesity, which were categorized into 2 groups: biological risk factors (maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index, gestational weight gain, diabetes in pregnancy, and caesarean section), and environmental and behavioural risk factors (maternal smoking and exposure to obesogens, maternal dietary patterns, maternal intestinal microbiome and antibiotics exposure, and maternal psychosocial stress). Identifying modifiable predisposing prenatal factors for obesity will inform further development of inventions to prevent obesity over the life course, and future directions for research and intervention are discussed. Read More

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http://www.nrcresearchpress.com/doi/10.1139/cjpp-2018-0403
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/cjpp-2018-0403DOI Listing
March 2019
6 Reads

Rationalizing antimicrobial therapy in the ICU: a narrative review.

Intensive Care Med 2019 Feb 18;45(2):172-189. Epub 2019 Jan 18.

Medical ICU, La Source Hospital, CHR Orléans, Orléans, France.

The massive consumption of antibiotics in the ICU is responsible for substantial ecological side effects that promote the dissemination of multidrug-resistant bacteria (MDRB) in this environment. Strikingly, up to half of ICU patients receiving empirical antibiotic therapy have no definitively confirmed infection, while de-escalation and shortened treatment duration are insufficiently considered in those with documented sepsis, highlighting the potential benefit of implementing antibiotic stewardship programs (ASP) and other quality improvement initiatives. The objective of this narrative review is to summarize the available evidence, emerging options, and unsolved controversies for the optimization of antibiotic therapy in the ICU. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00134-019-05520-5DOI Listing
February 2019
21 Reads

Phage Therapy in the Postantibiotic Era.

Clin Microbiol Rev 2019 04 16;32(2). Epub 2019 Jan 16.

School of Biological Sciences, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia

Antibiotic resistance is arguably the biggest current threat to global health. An increasing number of infections are becoming harder or almost impossible to treat, carrying high morbidity, mortality, and financial cost. The therapeutic use of bacteriophages, viruses that infect and kill bacteria, is well suited to be part of the multidimensional strategies to combat antibiotic resistance. Read More

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http://cmr.asm.org/lookup/doi/10.1128/CMR.00066-18
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/CMR.00066-18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6431132PMC
April 2019
35 Reads

Prevalence and Estimated Economic Burden of Substandard and Falsified Medicines in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

JAMA Netw Open 2018 Aug 3;1(4):e181662. Epub 2018 Aug 3.

Department of Health Behavior, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill.

Importance: Substandard and falsified medicines burden health systems by diverting resources to ineffective or harmful therapies, causing medical complications and prolonging illnesses. However, the prevalence and economic impact of poor-quality medicines is unclear.

Objective: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the prevalence and estimated economic burden of substandard and falsified essential medicines in low- and middle-income countries. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2018.1662DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6324280PMC
August 2018
3 Reads

Antimicrobial resistance in Brachyspira - An increasing problem for disease control.

Vet Microbiol 2019 Feb 17;229:59-71. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

School of Veterinary and Life Sciences, Murdoch University, Murdoch, Western Australia, 6150, Australia.

Across all bacterial species the continuing reduction in susceptibility to antimicrobial agents is a critical and increasing threat for disease control. This mini-review outlines the extent of this problem amongst anaerobic intestinal spirochaetes of the genus Brachyspira, of which there are currently nine officially recognised species. These include some important pathogens that may cause colitis with diarrhoea and/or dysentery in various mammalian and avian species, but most notably in pigs and in adult chickens. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S03781135183130
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2018.12.019DOI Listing
February 2019
9 Reads
2.511 Impact Factor