61 results match your criteria Antibiotic Prophylactic Regimens for Endocarditis


Periprocedural antibiotic treatment in transvascular aortic valve replacement.

J Interv Cardiol 2018 Dec 5;31(6):885-890. Epub 2018 Nov 5.

Department of Internal Medicine III, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.

Background: To date, there are no guidelines recommending a specific prophylactic antibiotic treatment in transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). The aim of this study is to evaluate clinical data after TAVR with different periprocedural antibiotic regimens.

Methods: In May 2015 the institutional rules for periprocedural antibiotic prophylaxis were changed from 3 days to 1 day. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/joic.12567
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/joic.12567DOI Listing
December 2018
12 Reads

Transrectal prostate biopsy-associated prophylaxis and infectious complications: report of a query to the emerging infections network of the infectious diseases society of america.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2015 Jan 27;2(1):ofv002. Epub 2015 Jan 27.

Carver College of Medicine , Iowa City, Iowa.

Background.  Fluoroquinolone-resistant infections after transrectal prostate biopsy (TRPB) are increasing. Methods. Read More

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http://ein.idsociety.org/media/publications/papers/2015/2015
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http://ofid.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/doi/10.1093/ofid/ofv002
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ofid/ofv002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4438883PMC
January 2015
4 Reads

Interventions for replacing missing teeth: antibiotics at dental implant placement to prevent complications.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2013 Jul 31(7):CD004152. Epub 2013 Jul 31.

Cochrane Oral Health Group, School of Dentistry, The University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.

Background: Some dental implant failures may be due to bacterial contamination at implant insertion. Infections around biomaterials are difficult to treat, and almost all infected implants have to be removed. In general, antibiotic prophylaxis in surgery is only indicated for patients at risk of infectious endocarditis; with reduced host-response; when surgery is performed in infected sites; in cases of extensive and prolonged surgical interventions; and when large foreign materials are implanted. Read More

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http://www.thedbgelearning.com/UserFiles/File/Articles/Antib
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https://www.cda-adc.ca/jcda/vol-74/issue-8/705.pdf
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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/14651858.CD004152.pub4
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD004152.pub4DOI Listing
July 2013
23 Reads

Effects of antibiotics on dental implants: a review.

J Clin Med Res 2012 Feb 17;4(1):1-6. Epub 2012 Jan 17.

Schulich School of Medicine & Dentistry, University of Western Ontario, Canada.

Unlabelled: There are many reasons for dental implant failure, the development of bacteremia is concern for dentists. This is due to the possibility of unfavorable result such as implant loss or the need for re-treatment. In general, antibiotic prophylaxis is recommended for high risk patients such as individuals with an immunodeficiency, infectious endocarditis, or previous prosthetic instrumentation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4021/jocmr658wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3279494PMC
February 2012
5 Reads

Interventions for replacing missing teeth: antibiotics at dental implant placement to prevent complications.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2010 Jul 7(7):CD004152. Epub 2010 Jul 7.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Dentistry, The University of Manchester, Higher Cambridge Street, Manchester, UK, M15 6FH.

Background: Some dental implant failures may be due to bacterial contamination at implant insertion. Infections around biomaterials are difficult to treat and almost all infected implants have to be removed. In general, antibiotic prophylaxis in surgery is only indicated for patients at risk of infectious endocarditis, for patients with reduced host-response, when surgery is performed in infected sites, in cases of extensive and prolonged surgical interventions and when large foreign materials are implanted. Read More

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http://www.thedbgelearning.com/UserFiles/File/Articles/Antib
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https://www.cda-adc.ca/jcda/vol-74/issue-8/705.pdf
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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/14651858.CD004152.pub3
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD004152.pub3DOI Listing
July 2010
2 Reads

Diagnosis of infective endocarditis: is it always easy?

Authors:
Serkan Cay

Int J Cardiol 2010 Nov 19;145(2):226. Epub 2009 Jul 19.

Department of Cardiology, Yuksek Ihtisas Heart-Education and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey. Electronic address:

Causative microorganism is not always isolated from blood and infected tissues although some major and minor criteria have been proposed for diagnosis of infective endocarditis (IE). Prophylactic antibiotic regimens are generally used for these culture-negative IE. Further diagnostic tools such as PCR, however, can demonstrate the organism and decrease the ratio of culture-negative IE. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S01675273090071
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2009.06.037DOI Listing
November 2010
1 Read

Infective endocarditis after body art: a review of the literature and concerns.

J Adolesc Health 2008 Sep 12;43(3):217-25. Epub 2008 May 12.

School of Nursing, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center at Highland Lakes, Marble Falls, Texas 78654, USA.

Purpose: Infective endocarditis (IE) is a rare but dangerous complication of tattooing and body piercing in adolescents and young adults 15-30 years of age, with and without congenital heart disease (CHD). Because body art, including tattooing and piercing, is increasing and IE cases continue to be reported in the literature, a longitudinal assessment of IE and body art cases is important to examine for trends.

Methods: A 22-year (1985-2007) longitudinal electronic Medline and Scopus review of all published cases of IE and body art was conducted. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2008.02.008DOI Listing
September 2008
1 Read

Interventions for replacing missing teeth: antibiotics at dental implant placement to prevent complications.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2008 Jul 16(3):CD004152. Epub 2008 Jul 16.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Dentistry, University of Manchester, Higher Cambridge Street, Manchester, UK, M15 6FH.

Background: Some dental implant failures may be due to bacterial contamination at implant insertion. Infections around biomaterials are difficult to treat and almost all infected implants have to be removed. In general, antibiotic prophylaxis in surgery is only indicated for patients at risk of infectious endocarditis, for patients with reduced host-response, when surgery is performed in infected sites, in cases of extensive and prolonged surgical interventions and when large foreign materials are implanted. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD004152.pub2DOI Listing
July 2008
10 Reads

Best practice policy statement on urologic surgery antimicrobial prophylaxis.

J Urol 2008 Apr 20;179(4):1379-90. Epub 2008 Feb 20.

American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc.

Purpose: Antimicrobial prophylaxis is the periprocedural systemic administration of an antimicrobial agent intended to reduce the risk of postprocedural local and systemic infections. The AUA convened a BPP Panel to formulate recommendations on the use of antimicrobial prophylaxis during urologic surgery.

Materials And Methods: Recommendations are based on a review of the literature and the Panel members' expert opinions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.juro.2008.01.068DOI Listing
April 2008
5 Reads

Efficacy of antibiotic prophylactic regimens for the prevention of bacterial endocarditis of oral origin.

J Dent Res 2007 Dec;86(12):1142-59

Special Needs Unit, School of Medicine and Dentistry, Santiago de Compostela University, Spain.

Despite the controversy about the risk of individuals developing bacterial endocarditis of oral origin, numerous Expert Committees in different countries continue to publish prophylactic regimens for the prevention of bacterial endocarditis secondary to dental procedures. In this paper, we analyze the efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis in the prevention of bacteremia following dental manipulations and in the prevention of bacterial endocarditis (in both animal models and human studies). Antibiotic prophylaxis guidelines remain consensus-based, and there is scientific evidence of the efficacy of amoxicillin in the prevention of bacteremia following dental procedures, although the results reported do not confirm the efficacy of other recommended antibiotics. Read More

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http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/154405910708601203
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/154405910708601203DOI Listing
December 2007
3 Reads

Retrospective analysis of 736 implants inserted without antibiotic therapy.

J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2007 Nov;65(11):2321-3

Private Practice, Bergamo, Italy.

Purpose: The routine use of antibiotics in oral implant treatment seems to be widespread. The principle of antibiotic prophylaxis before oral surgical procedures in patients at risk for endocarditis or in those who are severely immunocompromised is well established. Antibiotic therapy in conjunction with implant surgery in fit patients and its correlation with failure and success rates remains poorly documented, however. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.joms.2007.06.620DOI Listing
November 2007
1 Read

The pediatric cardiology pharmacopoeia: 2004 update.

Pediatr Cardiol 2004 Nov-Dec;25(6):623-46

Department of Pediatrics and Anesthesiology, Rush Medical College, Chicago, IL, USA.

Seven years ago, Pediatric Cardiology published the first version of a review article outlining the various medications used in the field of heart diseases in children. This article is an update and expansion to what we have previously presented. Therapeutic intervention, both surgical and through cardiac catheterization, has enabled cure and palliation of an increasingly expanding spectrum of diseases at earlier ages and with more complex lesions. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00246-003-0692-z
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00246-003-0692-zDOI Listing
July 2006
4 Reads

Antibiotics to prevent complications following dental implant treatment.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2003 (3):CD004152

Department of Biomaterials and Department of Prosthetic Dentistry/Dental Material Sciences, The Sahlgrenska Academy at Goteborg University, PO Box 412, Medicinaregatan 8B, Goteborg, Sweden.

Background: Some dental implant failures may be due to bacterial contamination at implant insertion. Infections around biomaterials are difficult to treat and almost all infected implants have to be removed. In general, antibiotic prophylaxis in surgery is only indicated for patients at risk of infectious endocarditis, for patients with reduced host-response, when surgery is performed in infected sites, in cases of extensive and prolonged surgical interventions and when large foreign materials are implanted. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/14651858.CD004152
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD004152DOI Listing
September 2003
2 Reads

Antibiotic prophylaxis in endoscopic and minimally invasive surgery.

Authors:
A P Wilson

J Chemother 2001 Nov;13 Spec No 1(1):102-7

Department of Clinical Microbiology, University College London Hospitals, UK.

Infections are unusual following minimally invasive surgery but antibiotic prophylaxis is given in the same way as for the open surgery equivalents. Most prophylactic regimens have not been subjected to randomised placebo controlled trials. Antibiotic prophylaxis has been shown to be beneficial in transurethral resection of the prostate. Read More

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https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1179/joc.2001.13.Sup
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1179/joc.2001.13.Supplement-2.102DOI Listing
November 2001
3 Reads

Differential diagnosis of infective endocarditis.

Authors:
S E Thornton

J Am Acad Nurse Pract 2000 May;12(5):177-83; quiz 184-6

Infective endocarditis (IE) is a deadly disease if left untreated. Early detection and treatment of IE reduces the high mortality rate. Mitral valve prolapse is now the leading risk factor for development of IE. Read More

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May 2000
3 Reads

Treatment and prevention of infective endocarditis.

Expert Opin Pharmacother 2002 Feb;3(2):131-45

Hôpital Louis Pradel, BP Lyon Montchat, 69394 Lyon Cedex 03, France.

The paper presents the most recent recommendations for the treatment and prevention of infective endocarditis (IE). The treatment of IE is complex and requires close collaboration among specialists in infectious diseases, cardiology, cardiac surgery and microbiology. The mainstay of medical treatment is antibiotic therapy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1517/14656566.3.2.131 DOI Listing
February 2002
5 Reads

Prophylactic antibiotic therapy prior to dental treatment for patients with end-stage renal disease.

Authors:
C W Werner T F Saad

Spec Care Dentist 1999 May-Jun;19(3):106-11

Geriatrics Research, Education, and Clinical Center (GRECC) , Audie L. Murphy Memorial VA Hospital, San Antonio, TX 78284, USA.

In the United States, there is a large and growing population of patients undergoing dialysis because of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). These patients present special management considerations for dentists, including antibiotic prophylaxis for the prevention of bacterial endocarditis (BE). ESRD patients, particularly those with an arteriovenous shunt for hemodialysis access, are predisposed to valvular endocarditis. Read More

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Emergence of antibiotic resistant Streptococcus sanguis in dental plaque of children after frequent antibiotic therapy.

Pediatr Dent 1999 May-Jun;21(3):181-5

Division of Pediatric Dentistry, University of Minnesota, USA.

Purpose: In the pediatric population, several different antibiotic regimens are currently recommended for the treatment of otitis media. This study investigated whether therapy for otitis media was associated with the emergence of antibiotic-resistant oral bacteria.

Methods: Streptococcus sanguis (S. Read More

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Bacteraemia during tonsillectomy: a study of the factors involved and clinical implications.

Clin Otolaryngol Allied Sci 1998 Feb;23(1):63-6

Department of Otolaryngology, Hospital Universitario Virgen de Valme, Seville, Spain.

Post-tonsillectomy bacteremia is a well-recognized aetiological factor in streptococcal endocarditis, and prophylactic penicillin has been recommended to reduce its incidence in susceptible patients undergoing tonsillectomy. Recent studies have shown a change in the microflora and an increase in the number of penicillin-resistant organisms in the tonsils of patients undergoing tonsillectomy. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of post-tonsillectomy bacteraemia, to identify the micro-organisms associated with it and to review the suitability of penicillin in prophylactic regimens. Read More

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February 1998

Prevention of bacterial endocarditis: recommendations by the American Heart Association.

Clin Infect Dis 1997 Dec;25(6):1448-58

American Heart Association, Dallas, Texas 75231, USA.

Objective: To update recommendations issued by the American Heart Association last published in 1990 for the prevention of bacterial endocarditis in individuals at risk for this disease.

Participants: An ad hoc writing group appointed by the American Heart Association for their expertise in endocarditis and treatment with liaison members representing the American Dental Association, the Infectious Diseases Society of America, the American Academy of Pediatrics, and the American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy.

Evidence: The recommendations in this article reflect analyses of relevant literature regarding procedure-related endocarditis, in vitro susceptibility data of pathogens causing endocarditis, results of prophylactic studies in animal models of endocarditis, and retrospective analyses of human endocarditis cases in terms of antibiotic prophylaxis usage patterns and apparent prophylaxis failures. Read More

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December 1997
2 Reads

[The clinical importance of bacteremia during tonsillectomy].

Acta Otorrinolaringol Esp 1997 Aug-Sep;48(6):479-82

Servicio de ORL, Universitario Virgen de Valme, Sevilla.

Introduction: Post-tonsillectomy bacteraemia is a well recognized aetiological factor in streptococcal endocarditis. Prophylactic penicillin has been recommended to reduce its incidence in susceptible patients undergoing tonsillectomy. Recent studies have shown a change in the microflora and an increase in the number of penicillin-resistant organisms in the tonsils of patients undergoing tonsillectomy. Read More

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February 1998
3 Reads

Prevention of bacterial endocarditis: recommendations by the American Heart Association.

J Am Dent Assoc 1997 Aug;128(8):1142-51

Objective: To update recommendations issued by the American Heart Association last published in 1990 for the prevention of bacterial endocarditis in individuals at risk for this disease.

Participants: An ad hoc writing group appointed by the American Heart Association for their expertise in endocarditis and treatment with liaison members representing the American Dental Association, the infectious Diseases Society of America, the American Academy of Pediatrics and the American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy.

Evidence: The recommendations in this article reflect analyses of relevant literature regarding procedure-related endocarditis, in vitro susceptibility data of pathogens causing endocarditis, results of prophylactic studies in animal models of endocarditis and retrospective analyses of human endocarditis cases in terms of antibiotic prophylaxis usage patterns and apparent prophylaxis failures. Read More

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August 1997
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Prevention of bacterial endocarditis. Recommendations by the American Heart Association.

Circulation 1997 Jul;96(1):358-66

Objective: To update recommendations issued by the American Heart Association last published in 1990 for the prevention of bacterial endocarditis in individuals at risk for this disease.

Participants: An ad hoc writing group appointed by the American Heart Association for their expertise in endocarditis and treatment with liaison members representing the American Dental Association, the Infectious Diseases Society of America, the American Academy of Pediatrics, and the American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy.

Evidence: The recommendations in this article reflect analyses of relevant literature regarding procedure-related endocarditis, in vitro susceptibility data of pathogens causing endocarditis, results of prophylactic studies in animal models of endocarditis, and retrospective analyses of human endocarditis cases in terms of antibiotic prophylaxis usage patterns and apparent prophylaxis failures. Read More

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July 1997
3 Reads

Prevention of bacterial endocarditis. Recommendations by the American Heart Association.

JAMA 1997 Jun;277(22):1794-801

American Heart Association, Dallas, Tex 75231, USA.

Objective: To update recommendations issued by the American Heart Association last published in 1990 for the prevention of bacterial endocarditis in individuals at risk for this disease.

Participants: An ad hoc writing group appointed by the American Heart Association for their expertise in endocarditis and treatment with liaison members representing the American Dental Association, the Infectious Diseases Society of America, the American Academy of Pediatrics, and the American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy.

Evidence: The recommendations in this article reflect analyses of relevant literature regarding procedure-related endocarditis, in vitro susceptibility data of pathogens causing endocarditis, results of prophylactic studies in animal models of endocarditis, and retrospective analyses of human endocarditis cases in terms of antibiotic prophylaxis usage patterns and apparent prophylaxis failures. Read More

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Is antibiotic prophylaxis required for endodontic treatment?

Authors:
C L Lavelle

Endod Dent Traumatol 1996 Oct;12(5):209-14

Faculty of Dentistry, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada.

The stable prevalence of infective endocarditis since the advent of antibiotic prophylaxis for patients at-risk reflects the increasing polymicrobial etiology of such infections not associated with dental procedures. In addition to concerns for the growing crisis for antibiotic-resistant bacteria, the need for controlled clinical trials to determine the continued efficacy of prophylactic regimens for endodontic and other dental procedures cannot be overstated. Read More

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October 1996
2 Reads

Antibiotic Prophylaxis for Endocarditis Prevention During Transesophageal Echocardiography: Controversy, Consideration, and What Really Happens.

Echocardiography 1996 Sep;13(5):459-462

Strong Memorial Hospital, 601 Elmwood Avenue, P.O. Box 679, Rochester, NY 14642.

A survey was conducted in order to gain a better understanding of actual practice policies followed by academically affiliated institutions regarding the use of prophylactic antibiotics during transesophageal echocardiography. Results revealed that 10 of the 20 centers routinely used intravenous antibiotic prophylaxis for high risk transesophageal echocardiography. However, 5 of the 20 centers did not use any prophylactic antibiotics routinely, and the remaining 5 centers used primarily oral prophylactic regimens. Read More

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September 1996
2 Reads

Ampicillin-sulbactam is effective in prevention and therapy of experimental endocarditis caused by beta-lactamase-producing coagulase-negative staphylococci.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1996 Jan;40(1):97-101

Division of Infectious Diseases, Harbor-University of California, Los Angeles, Medical Center, Torrance 90509, USA.

Optimal strategies for the prophylaxis and therapy of endocarditis caused by oxacillin-resistant, coagulase-negative staphylococci in patients with native or prosthetic valvular heart disease are not well defined. We compared the in vivo efficacies of ampicillin-sulbactam-based regimens with those of vancomycin-based oxacillin-resistant, beta-lactamase-producing coagulase-negative staphylococcal isolate (Staphylococcus haemolyticus SE220). Ampicillin-sulbactam (100 and 20 mg/kg of body weight, respectively, given intramuscularly in a two-dose regimen) was equivalent to vancomycin (30 mg/kg given intravenously in a two-dose regimen) in its prophylactic efficacy against the coagulase-negative staphylococcal strain (93 and 80%, respectively). Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC163064PMC
January 1996
2 Reads

RP 59500 prophylaxis of experimental endocarditis due to erythromycin-susceptible and -resistant isogenic pairs of viridans group streptococci.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1995 Jul;39(7):1425-9

Service des Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales, Hôpital Bichat-Claude Bernard, Paris, France.

RP 59500 is a new injectable streptogramin composed of two synergistic components (quinupristin and dalfopristin) which are active against a number of erythromycin-susceptible and -resistant gram-positive bacteria. The following experiments investigate the ability of RP 59500 to prevent experimental endocarditis due to either of two erythromycin-susceptible streptococcal isolates or their constitutively erythromycin-resistant Tn916 delta E transconjugants. RP 59500 had low MICs (0. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC162756PMC
July 1995
1 Read

Early infective endocarditis on prosthetic valves.

Eur Heart J 1995 Apr;16 Suppl B:32-8

Service de Reanimation Medicale, Hôpital Bichat--Claude Bernard, Paris, France.

Despite major advances in cardiovascular surgical techniques and routine use of prophylactic antimicrobial agents, prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE) continues to complicate the course of a small percentage of patients after cardiac valve replacement. Using actuarial methods to describe the risk of PVE after valve implementation, several studies have shown that its incidence peaked at around 5 weeks and levelled off to a stable rate by 12 months, for a cumulative risk of 3% at that time. The microbial aetiology of early PVE is dominated by staphylococcal species, S. Read More

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https://eurheartj.oxfordjournals.org/content/ehj/16/suppl_B/
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April 1995
8 Reads

Role of tolerance in treatment and prophylaxis of experimental Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis with vancomycin, teicoplanin, and daptomycin.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1994 Mar;38(3):487-93

Department of Infectious Diseases, University Hospital, Leiden, The Netherlands.

The role of Staphylococcus aureus tolerance in the treatment and prophylaxis of endocarditis in rats was investigated. The efficacies of vancomycin, teicoplanin, and daptomycin, alone and in combination with rifampin, were compared in rats with endocarditis infected with a tolerant strain of S. aureus and in rats with endocarditis infected with its nontolerant variant. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC284485PMC

[Prevention of infectious endocarditis].

Authors:
J Etienne

Ann Fr Anesth Reanim 1994 ;13(5 Suppl):S67-72

Laboratoire de Bactériologie, Hôpital Cardiovasculaire Louis-Pradel, BP Lyon-Montchat.

An antibiotic prophylaxis of infective endocarditis is recommended in patients at high risk for infective endocarditis (patients with valvular prosthesis, or cyanogen congenital or obstructive cardiac defect) or those with aortic, mitral or tricuspid valvulopathy, a non-cyanogen congenital or obstructive cardiac defect. Dental procedures (except treatment for superficial decay and preparation for the fitting of prostheses to teeth with intact pulp) are to be carried out under local antisepsis and a prophylactic antibiotics, such as 3 g of oral amoxicillin or in case of allergy to penicillin, 600 mg of clindamycin or 1g of pristinamycin, administered one hour prior to the procedure. A similar prophylaxis is recommended for the procedures on the upper respiratory tract. Read More

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July 1995
3 Reads

Antibiotic prophylaxis: update on common clinical uses.

Am Fam Physician 1993 Sep;48(4):597-604

Division of General Internal Medicine, Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, Hershey.

Cefazolin remains the drug of choice for prophylaxis during surgery. Cefoxitin or cefotetan may be used when both aerobic and anaerobic infections are a concern. Antibiotics are not necessary in most patients with prosthetic joints who are undergoing dental procedures. Read More

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September 1993

Changing methods of preventing infective endocarditis following dental procedures: 1943 to 1993.

Authors:
J R Hupp

J Oral Maxillofac Surg 1993 Jun;51(6):616-23

Department of Oral/Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Newark 07103.

The report by Northrop and Crowley in the inaugural issue of the Journal of Oral Surgery heralded the appearance of studies designed to confirm both the relationship between dental procedure-induced bacteremia and infective endocarditis and the best methods to interrupt this chain of causation. Their discovery that antibiotics can modulate bacteremias produced by dental procedures eventually led to the universal adoption of the prophylactic regimens to prevent cases of infective endocarditis following dental procedures. Advances since their work have involved a greater understanding of the role of adherence in the mechanism of action of prophylactic antibiotics, an appreciation of the ability to limit antibiotic administration to only the immediate preoperative period, the need to keep prophylactic regimens as uncomplicated as is safe, and greater knowledge about the interaction between dental procedures and bacteremias. Read More

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Post-tonsillectomy bacteraemia.

Clin Otolaryngol Allied Sci 1992 Jun;17(3):208-10

Department of Otolaryngology, St James's Hospital, Dublin, Ireland.

Post-tonsillectomy bacteraemia is a well recognized aetiological factor in streptococcal endocarditis. Prophylactic penicillin has been recommended to reduce its incidence in susceptible patients undergoing tonsillectomy. Recent studies have shown a change in the microflora and an increase in the number of penicillin resistant organisms in the tonsils of patients undergoing tonsillectomy. Read More

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June 1992
4 Reads

Prophylactic antibiotics revisited.

Authors:
S L Bahn

Compendium 1991 Jul;12(7):492, 494, 496 passim

New York University, College of Dentistry.

This article discusses the more practical and safer oral prophylactic antibiotic regimens recently approved by the American Heart Association and the American Dental Association. The new guidelines are strongly supported by the scientific data combined with an appreciation of the substantial logistic and financial barriers to parenteral prophylactic antibiotic administration to dental outpatients. Read More

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Mitral valve prolapse: a review of the syndrome with emphasis on current antibiotic prophylaxis.

J Can Dent Assoc 1991 Apr;57(4):321-5

Department of Surgery, University of Toronto.

Mitral valve prolapse syndrome (MVPS) is the name given to the heart valve abnormality described by Barlow over two decades ago. This condition is of particular importance to the dentist as these patients are thought to be at risk of developing infective endocarditis with routine dental procedures which may cause gingival bleeding. This paper is an updated version of an article that originally appeared in the University of Toronto Dental Journal in 1990. Read More

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[Prophylaxis of the bacterial endocarditis in dental surgery].

Dtsch Stomatol 1991 ;41(11):427-8

Klinikum der George-August-Universität Göttingen.

Bacterial endocarditis is a disease with high morbidity and lethality. Bacteremia following diagnostic or therapeutic procedures in oral surgery may cause bacterial endocarditis. Patients with certain kinds of heart diseases are at higher risk to develop bacterial endocarditis. Read More

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Dental procedures and endocarditis prophylaxis: experiences from 108 dental practices.

Scand J Dent Res 1990 Apr;98(2):144-8

Department of Clinical Microbiology, Bispebjerg Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.

In a previous survey, we analyzed a questionnaire to 220 patients, who underwent cardiac surgery with insertion of prosthetic heart valves in the period 1978-1982. Of the 147 patients with their own natural teeth, 136 gave us permission to contact their regular or casual dentists. Of the 108 dentists (79%), who responded to a questionnaire, two thirds were well aware that their patients had prosthetic heart valve and the vast majority of dentists believed that antibiotic prophylaxis is justified in connection with (certain) dental procedures. Read More

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April 1990
1 Read

Chemoprophylaxis of bacterial endocarditis--a survey of current practice in Zimbabwe.

Authors:
E Murenha C M Stein

J Antimicrob Chemother 1990 Feb;25(2):291-6

Department of Clinical Pharmacology, University of Zimbabwe, Avondale, Harare.

There is no information about the use of antibiotics in the prevention of bacterial endocarditis in a developing country. A questionnaire was posted to 73 dentists, 233 general practitioners and 43 physicians. Completed questionnaires were received from 31 (42%) dentists, 59 (25%) general practitioners and 15 (35%) physicians. Read More

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February 1990
2 Reads

New concepts in the pathogenesis and modalities of the chemoprophylaxis of native valve endocarditis.

Authors:
A S Bayer

Chest 1989 Oct;96(4):893-9

Department of Medicine, Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Torrance.

Recommendations for the prophylaxis of BE have changed over the last 10-15 years toward fewer-dose and oral regimens. An advisory committee of the AHA is currently formulating new guidelines for the prevention of BE that will likely be promulgated in 1990 or 1991. It is anticipated that such recommendations will feature the new information on MVP and focus on oral prophylactic regimens. Read More

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October 1989

Physician and dentist compliance with American Heart Association guidelines for prevention of bacterial endocarditis.

J Am Dent Assoc 1989 Feb;118(2):169-73

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Indiana University, Indianapolis 46202.

To determine the rate of physician and dentist compliance with the American Heart Association's (AHA) recommendations for prophylaxis against bacterial endocarditis--considered the standard of care--questionnaires were mailed to 1,131 dental and medical practitioners. They were asked to identify various cardiac conditions requiring prophylaxis and dental procedures that would cause a bacteremia, and to write prescriptions for prophylactic antibiotics for five different scenarios. Both groups had low compliance with AHA recommendations (32. Read More

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February 1989

Prevention of bacterial endocarditis in localised juvenile periodontitis and Papillon-Lefevre syndrome patients.

Authors:
Z A Yusof

Dent J Malays 1988 Nov;10(2):31-5

The bacterium Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans is found in large numbers in subgingival plaque and gingival tissues of patients with LJP and PLS. This bacterium too has been found to cause infective bacterial endocarditis in patients at risk. Antibiotic prophylaxis is necessary for at risk patients with LJP and PLS because significant bacteraemia is produced during extensive periodontal instrumentation, extractions and surgery which are required in managing these cases. Read More

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November 1988

One and two doses of cephradine in the prophylaxis of experimental streptococcal endocarditis.

J Antimicrob Chemother 1987 Oct;20(4):557-62

School of Dental Surgery, University of Liverpool, U.K.

The efficacy of cephradine in the prophylaxis of rabbit Streptococcus sanguis endocarditis was investigated. Three days after cardiac catheterization and prior to challenge with S. sanguis, rabbits received either 1000 mg/kg (ten animals) or 500 mg/kg cephradine intramuscularly. Read More

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October 1987

Infective endocarditis. Current recommendations for prophylaxis.

Authors:
S Lang A Morris

Drugs 1987 Aug;34(2):279-88

Antibiotic prophylaxis is indicated for any patient with a predisposing cardiac lesion who undergoes a procedure likely to produce bacteraemia with an organism having the propensity to cause bacterial endocarditis. Cardiac abnormalities have been ranked according to their approximate risk and it is known that the organisms most likely to cause endocarditis are viridans streptococci, Group D streptococci and staphylococci. The procedures likely to induce bacteraemia with each of these are, respectively, dental and upper respiratory with bleeding, urinary and gastrointestinal, and cardiac valve surgery. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2165/00003495-198734020-00005DOI Listing
August 1987
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Comparison of single and multiple doses of prophylactic antibiotics in experimental streptococcal endocarditis.

Circulation 1987 Aug;76(2):376-82

Single-doses or short-term administration of beta-lactam antibiotics alone or combined with aminoglucoside antibiotics have failed to consistently prevent experimental streptococcal endocarditis induced by high inocula of bacteria poorly susceptible to killing by these antibiotics. The optimal duration of administration of antibiotics for successful prophylaxis under these circumstances has not been established. We therefore tested, in rats with catheter-induced sterile aortic vegetations, the duration of administration of antibiotic necessary to prevent endocarditis induced by bacterial inocula 100 to 10,000 times the 90% infective dose of two tolerant viridans-group streptococci and two Streptococcus faecalis strains. Read More

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http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/76/2/376.full.pdf
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August 1987
2 Reads

Prophylaxis for infective endocarditis.

Authors:
J D Gray

Can Fam Physician 1987 Apr;33:1011-4

Although antibiotic prophylaxis for patients at risk for bacterial endocarditis has never been scientifcally tested, it is now an accepted practice in medicine. Patients at risk include all individuals with prosthetic valves, congenital or rheumatic heart disease, previous endocarditis, idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis (IHSS), and mitral valve prolapse with a holosytolic murmur. Dental, upper respiratory tract, genitourinary and gastrointestinal procedures associated with bacteremia are reviewed. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2218443PMC
April 1987
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Antimicrobial prophylaxis of infective endocarditis: effect of BSAC recommendations on compliance in general practice.

J Antimicrob Chemother 1987 Apr;19(4):521-6

General dental practitioners in the South West Region of the U.K. were surveyed to assess compliance with the recently published recommendations of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy on the antimicrobial prophylaxis of infective endocarditis. Read More

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[Preventive antibiotics in cardiac surgery: cefazolin versus cefamandole].

Cah Anesthesiol 1986 Nov;34(7):565-70

A prospective, randomized study was carried out to evaluate two antibiotic prophylactic regimens for patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. Each patient of the first group (cefazolin) received four intravenous injections of 1 g cefazolin during 12 hours, patients of second (cefamandole), four doses of 750 mg. 155 patients scheduled for cardiac operation were included in the study. Read More

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November 1986

Prevention and management of enterococcal infection: cost implications.

Authors:
S L Barriere

Drug Intell Clin Pharm 1986 Jul-Aug;20(7-8):573-5

Enterococcal infections are becoming increasingly prevalent, in part because of the widespread use of cephalosporins and a greater number of immunosuppressed patients. Most infections where enterococci are isolated are pelvic or intraabdominal. The actual pathogenic role of the enterococcus remains controversial, since many types of organisms are usually cultured as well. Read More

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October 1986

Comparison of single doses of amoxicillin or of amoxicillin-gentamicin for the prevention of endocarditis caused by Streptococcus faecalis and by viridans streptococci.

J Infect Dis 1985 Jul;152(1):83-9

Recent recommendations for the prophylaxis of endocarditis in humans have advocated single doses or short courses of antibiotic combinations (beta-lactam plus aminoglycoside) for susceptible patients in whom enterococcal bacteremia might develop or for patients at especially high risk of developing endocarditis (e.g., patients with prosthetic cardiac valves). Read More

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http://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/30104642.pdf
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http://jid.oxfordjournals.org/content/152/1/83.full.pdf
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July 1985
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