217,993 results match your criteria Anthropology & Medicine[Journal]


A case of dwarfism in 6th century Italy: Bioarchaeological assessment of a hereditary disorder.

Int J Paleopathol 2020 Jun 30;30:110-117. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Laboratories of Physical Anthropology and Ancient DNA, Department of Cultural Heritage, University of Bologna, via Degli Ariani 1, 48121, Ravenna, Italy; Department of Human Evolution, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Deutscher Platz 6, 04103, Leipzig, Germany.

Objective: The skeletal remains of a short-statured individual (T17) are described and a differential diagnosis performed to determine the etiology of the condition.

Materials: An individual considered pathologically short in stature was discovered in the burial site of Piazza XX Settembre, Modena (northern Italy).

Methods: Morphological and morphometric analyses were performed, and T17 was compared to dwarfs from other localities and periods and to the adult female population from the same site. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpp.2020.03.003DOI Listing

Fire's impact on threat detection and risk perception among vervet monkeys: Implications for hominin evolution.

J Hum Evol 2020 Jun 30;145:102836. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Anthropology, University of Utah, 260 S. Central Campus Drive, Rm 4625 Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA.

The spatial behavior of primates is shaped by many factors including predation risk, the distribution of food sources, and access to water. In fire-prone settings, burning is a catalyst of change, altering the distribution of both plants and animals. Recent research has shown that primates alter their behavior in response to this change. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhevol.2020.102836DOI Listing

Baboon biogeography, divergence, and evolution: Morphological and paleoecological perspectives.

J Hum Evol 2020 Jun 26;145:102799. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Work conducted at the Hull York Medical School, University of Hull, Cottingham Road, Hull, HU6 7RZ, UK.

Papio originated in the early Pleistocene and diverged into multiple species, six of which are extant. Among parapatric Papio species, there are obvious phenotypic differences that arose during the radiation of the genus. We use data from modern baboon ecology and morphology, as well as fossils and paleoecology, to examine baboon biogeography, divergence, and evolution, focusing on skull form and body mass. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhevol.2020.102799DOI Listing

Phase II spatial patterning of vulture scavenged human remains.

Forensic Sci Int 2020 Jun 25;314:110392. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Department of Anthropology, Texas State University-San Marcos, TX, United States.

This project expands on a pilot study by Spradley, Hamilton, and Giordano (2012) that investigated the patterns and effect of vulture scavenging of human remains, with special focus on the effect of microenvironments. Five donated bodies from the Willed Body Donation Program at Texas State University were placed in various locations at the university's Forensic Anthropology Research Facility (FARF). The bodies were monitored by motion capture cameras and after each vulture scavenging event the dispersal and location of the bodies' skeletal elements were mapped with a high accuracy GPS unit. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2020.110392DOI Listing

Comparative genomic analysis of Leptospira borgpetersenii serogroup Javanica isolated from Rattus species in Southern Japan, Philippines, and Taiwan.

Infect Genet Evol 2020 Jun 30:104447. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Bacteriology I, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, 1-23-1 Toyama, Shinjuku, Tokyo 162-8640, Japan.

Leptospira spp. are the causative agents of leptospirosis, a zoonosis that occurs worldwide, and are maintained by various mammals. Recent molecular typing studies have indicated the existence of a specific Leptospira genotype-host association; however, few studies have shown the colonization of a single genotype in multiple animal genera. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2020.104447DOI Listing

An integrative approach to studying plasticity in growth disruption and outcomes: A bioarchaeological case study of Napoleonic soldiers.

Am J Hum Biol 2020 Jul 3:e23457. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Department of Anthropology, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida, USA.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate how much variation in adult stature and body mass can be explained by growth disruption among soldiers who served in Napoleon's Grand Army during the Russian Campaign of 1812.

Methods: Linear enamel hypoplasia (LEH) were recorded as representations of early life growth disruption, while the impact on future growth was assessed using maximum femur length (n = 73) as a proxy for stature and maximum femoral head diameter (n = 25) as a proxy for body mass. LEH frequency, severity, age at first formation, and age at last formation served as explanatory variables in a multiple regression analysis to test the effect of these variables on maximum femur length and maximum femoral head diameter. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajhb.23457DOI Listing

Intersecting vulnerabilities in human biology: Synergistic interactions between climate change and increasing obesity rates.

Am J Hum Biol 2020 Jul 3:e23460. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Department of Anthropology, Hunter College, New York, New York, USA.

Objectives: Increasing obesity rates and accelerating climate change represent two global health challenges shaped by lifestyle change and human environmental modifications. Yet, few studies have considered how these issues may interact to exacerbate disease risk.

Methods: In this theory article, we explore evidence that obesity-related disease and climatic changes share socio-ecological drivers and may interact to increase human morbidity and mortality risks. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajhb.23460DOI Listing

Communal Innovations: Inspiring Neighborhoods of Hope and Advocacy.

J Health Commun 2020 Jul 2:1-10. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Entomology, The Pennsylvania State University , University Park, PA, USA.

Innovations promise a better future, which may generate feelings of hope and inspire advocacy. Some innovations are more communal in nature: attempting to address a social problem, through community engagement and wide-spread adoption. For such innovations, the social processes that involve collective aspects of community life may play important roles in fostering hope and interpersonal advocacy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10810730.2020.1785059DOI Listing

Apolipoprotein B Levels Predict Future Development of Hypertension Independent of Visceral Adiposity and Insulin Sensitivity.

Endocrinol Metab (Seoul) 2020 Jun 24;35(2):351-358. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Department of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA, USA.

Background: High plasma apolipoprotein B (apoB) levels have been shown to be associated with hypertension, central obesity, and insulin resistance in cross-sectional research. However, it is unclear whether apoB levels predict future hypertension independent of body composition and insulin sensitivity. Therefore, we prospectively investigated whether plasma apoB concentrations independently predicted the risk of hypertension in a cohort of Japanese Americans. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2020.35.2.351DOI Listing

Outline analysis of sex and population variation in greater sciatic notch and obturator foramen morphology with implications for sex estimation.

Forensic Sci Int 2020 May 22;314:110346. Epub 2020 May 22.

Department of Anatomy, Des Moines University, Des Moines, IA, United States.

The pelvis is known to be the most sexually dimorphic part of the adult human skeleton. Many pelvic sex traits, however, are difficult to analyze quantitatively, with practitioners relying on subjective qualitative descriptions. This study uses elliptical Fourier analysis to explore sexual dimorphism and population variation in two pelvic traits, greater sciatic notch (GSN) and obturator foramen (OF), in a diverse set of 329 ossa coxae. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2020.110346DOI Listing

A new approach to recording nasal fracture in skeletonized individuals.

Int J Paleopathol 2020 Jun 29;30:105-109. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Department of Life Sciences, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal; CIAS - Research Centre for Anthropology and Health, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal.

Objective: This work describes a new method for recording nasal fracture in skeletonized individuals, suitable for use in biocultural studies of violence and fracture in past societies.

Methods: The method consists in recording the 'side of fracture', 'side of deviation', 'type of fracture', 'other facial fractures', and stage of 'bone remodeling'.

Results: A lateral impact force to the facial area is typical of interpersonal violence. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpp.2020.04.003DOI Listing

Higher early life mortality with lower infant body mass in a free-ranging primate.

J Anim Ecol 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Anthropology, New York University, USA.

1. Traits that reflect the amount of energy allocated to the offspring by mothers, such as infant body mass, are predicted to have long-lasting effects on offspring fitness. In very long-lived species, such as anthropoid primates, where long and obligate parental care is required for successful recruitment of offspring, there are few studies on the fitness implications of low body mass among infants. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1365-2656.13291DOI Listing

Scaling human sociopolitical complexity.

PLoS One 2020 2;15(7):e0234615. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

School of Human Evolution and Social Change, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, United States of America.

Human societies exhibit a diversity of social organizations that vary widely in size, structure, and complexity. Today, human sociopolitical complexity ranges from stateless small-scale societies of a few hundred individuals to complex states of millions, most of this diversity evolving only over the last few hundred years. Understanding how sociopolitical complexity evolved over time and space has always been a central focus of the social sciences. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0234615PLOS

gen. nov., sp. nov., a member of the family isolated from marine water of the Arabian Gulf.

Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Microbiology and Plant Biology, University of Oklahoma, OK 73019, USA.

Strain B66 was isolated from a marine water sample collected at Al Ruwais, located on the northern tip of Qatar. Cells were Gram-stain-negative, strictly aerobic and short- rod-shaped with a polar flagellum. The isolate was able to grow at 15-45 °C (optimum, 30 °C), at pH 5-11 (optimum, pH 6. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/ijsem.0.004256DOI Listing

Post-Admixture Selection on Chileans Targets Haplotype Involved in Pigmentation and Immune Defense Against Pathogens.

Genome Biol Evol 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Faculty of Engineering and Sciences, Universidad Adolfo Ibañez, Diagonal Las Torres 2700, Peñalolén, Santiago, Chile.

Detection of positive selection signatures in populations around the world is helping to uncover recent human evolutionary history as well as the genetic basis of diseases. Most human evolutionary genomic studies have been performed in European, African and Asian populations. However, populations with Native American ancestry have been largely underrepresented. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/gbe/evaa136DOI Listing

Where Do We Start? Building Consensus on Drivers of Health Sector Corruption in Nigeria and Ways to Address It.

Int J Health Policy Manag 2020 Jul 1;9(7):286-296. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK.

Background: Corruption is widespread in Nigeria's health sector but the reasons why it exists and persists are poorly understood and it is often seen as intractable. We describe a consensus building exercise in which we asked health workers and policy-makers to identify and prioritise feasible responses to corruption in the Nigerian health sector.

Methods: We employed three sequential activities. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.15171/ijhpm.2019.128DOI Listing

Life in a harsh environment: the effects of age, sex, reproductive condition, and season on hair cortisol concentration in a wild non-human primate.

PeerJ 2020 23;8:e9365. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

Department of Psychology, Trinity University, San Antonio, TX, USA.

Hair cortisol concentration (HCC) provides a long-term retrospective measure of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity, and is increasingly used to assess the life history, health and ecology of wild mammals. Given that sex, age, season and pregnancy influence HCC, and that it may indicate ongoing stress, we examined HCC in common marmosets () naturally inhabiting a hot and dry semi-desert like habitat, Caatinga, in northeastern Brazil. We trapped, measured, weighed, marked and collected shaved hair from the back of the neck of 61 wild marmosets during the wet and dry seasons. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.9365DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7319023PMC

Manual and automated preparation of single-stranded DNA libraries for the sequencing of DNA from ancient biological remains and other sources of highly degraded DNA.

Nat Protoc 2020 Jul 1. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Department of Evolutionary Genetics, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany.

It has been shown that highly fragmented DNA is most efficiently converted into DNA libraries for sequencing if both strands of the DNA fragments are processed independently. We present an updated protocol for library preparation from single-stranded DNA, which is based on the splinted ligation of an adapter oligonucleotide to the 3' ends of single DNA strands, the synthesis of a complementary strand using a DNA polymerase and the addition of a 5' adapter via blunt-end ligation. The efficiency of library preparation is determined individually for each sample using a spike-in oligonucleotide. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41596-020-0338-0DOI Listing

Late subadult ontogeny and adult aging of the human thorax reveals divergent growth trajectories between sexes.

Sci Rep 2020 Jul 1;10(1):10737. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

CNRS, MCC, PACEA, UMR5199, University of Bordeaux, Allée Geoffroy Saint Hilaire Bat. B8, CS 50023, 33615, Pessac Cedex, France.

Sexual dimorphism is an important feature of adult thorax morphology, but when and how sex-related differences in the ribcage arise during ontogeny is poorly known. Previous research proposed that sex-related size differences in the nasal region arise during puberty. Therefore, we explore whether ribcage sexual dimorphism also arises at that time and whether this sexual dimorphism is maintained until old age. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-67664-5DOI Listing

Five genetic polymorphisms of cytochrome P450 enzymes in the Czech non-Roma and Czech Roma population samples.

Drug Metab Pers Ther 2020 Jun 30. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Faculty of Health and Social Sciences, University of South Bohemia, České Budejovice, Czech Republic.

Objectives Cytochromes P450 play a role in human drugs metabolic pathways and their genes are among the most variable in humans. The aim of this study was to analyze genotype frequencies of five common polymorphisms of cytochromes P450 in Roma/Gypsy and Czech (non-Roma) population samples with Czech origin. Methods Roma/Gypsy (n=302) and Czech subjects (n=298) were genotyped for CYP1A2 (rs762551), CYP2A6 (rs4105144), CYP2B6 (rs3745274) and CYP2D6 (rs3892097; rs1065852) polymorphisms using PCR-RFLP or Taqman assay. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/dmdi-2020-0103DOI Listing

Coloniality and perspectivism in psychology: from damnation to ecosophical care relations.

Int Rev Psychiatry 2020 Jul 1:1-7. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Psychology, Federal University of Parnaíba's Delta - UFDPAR, Parnaíba, Brazil.

Inspired by Amerindian peoples' philosophy, this article aims to problematise the modern philosophical anthropology that underlies psychology as a social practice, and to use the Amerindian perspectivist philosophy proposed by Viveiros de Castro as a critique of Western values. Thus, we approach some of coloniality's epistemological implications in the institution of subject-object and nature-culture separations that grounds psychology. On the one hand, there is a totalising unification, which operates alongside a transcendental subject that subjugates its object. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09540261.2020.1765747DOI Listing

Daily lettuce supplements promote foraging behavior and modify the gut microbiota in captive frugivores.

Zoo Biol 2020 Jul 1. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Research Department, Duke Lemur Center, Durham, North Carolina.

For captive primates, greater provisioning of leafy greens or foliage can promote natural foraging behavior while boosting fiber intake. Recalcitrant fiber, although minimally available to endogenous metabolism, is readily fermented into nutrients by gut microbes. Whereas most primates in captivity consume fiber-limited diets and harbor imbalanced gut microbiota compared to their wild conspecifics, the importance of fiber provisioning to primate gut microbiota has predominately been studied in folivores. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/zoo.21555DOI Listing

Is testosterone responsible for athletic success in female athletes?

J Sports Med Phys Fitness 2020 Jun 29. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

The International Academy of Sports Science and Technology (AISTS), University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Background: The aim of this study was to determine the interrelationship between the resting serum testosterone (T) levels of female athletes from different types of sporting events and their athletic success.

Methods: The study involved 599 Russian international-level female athletes (95 highly elite, 190 elite, and 314 sub-elite; age: 16-35 years) and 298 age-matched female controls. The athlete cohort was stratified into four groups according to event duration, distance, and type of activity: 1) endurance athletes, 2) athletes with mixed activity, 3) speed/strength athletes, and 4) sprinters. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S0022-4707.20.10171-3DOI Listing

Ecological correlates of space use patterns in wild western lowland gorillas.

Am J Primatol 2020 Jun 30:e23168. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Primatology, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany.

The distribution of resources is a crucial determinant of animals' space use (e.g., daily travel distance, monthly home range size, and revisitation patterns). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajp.23168DOI Listing

Mitochondrial DNA diversity in the Khattak and Kheshgi of the Peshawar Valley, Pakistan.

Genetica 2020 Jun 30. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Genetics, Hazara University Mansehra, Mansehra, 21120, Pakistan.

The strategic location of Pakistan and its presence at the crossroads of Asia has resulted in it playing a central role in both prehistoric and historic human migratory events, thereby linking and facilitating contacts between the inhabitants of the Middle East, Central Asia, China and South Asia. Despite the importance of this region and its inhabitants for our understanding of modern human origins and population dispersals, the nature of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation among members of the myriad populations of this area has largely been unexplored. Here, we report mtDNA control region sequences in 58 individuals from the Khattak and the Kheshgi, two major Pakhtun tribes residing within the Peshawar Valley of northwestern Pakistan. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10709-020-00095-2DOI Listing

Contrasting the seasonal and elevational prevalence of generalist avian haemosporidia in co-occurring host species.

Ecol Evol 2020 Jun 27;10(12):6097-6111. Epub 2020 May 27.

Centre for Ecology and Conservation University of Exeter Penryn UK.

Understanding the ecology and evolution of parasites is contingent on identifying the selection pressures they face across their infection landscape. Such a task is made challenging by the fact that these pressures will likely vary across time and space, as a result of seasonal and geographical differences in host susceptibility or transmission opportunities. Avian haemosporidian blood parasites are capable of infecting multiple co-occurring hosts within their ranges, yet whether their distribution across time and space varies similarly in their different host species remains unclear. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ece3.6355DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7319113PMC

Body size, inbreeding, and lifespan in domestic dogs.

Conserv Genet 2020 Feb 5;21(1):137-148. Epub 2019 Dec 5.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA.

Inbreeding poses a real or potential threat to nearly every species of conservation concern. Inbreeding leads to loss of diversity at the individual level, which can cause inbreeding depression, and at the population level, which can hinder ability to respond to a changing environment. In closed populations such as endangered species and ex situ breeding programs, some degree of inbreeding is inevitable. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10592-019-01240-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7326369PMC
February 2020

Genome-wide mapping of brain phenotypes in extended pedigrees with strong genetic loading for bipolar disorder.

Mol Psychiatry 2020 Jun 30. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Science, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Bipolar disorder is a highly heritable illness, associated with alterations of brain structure. As such, identification of genes influencing inter-individual differences in brain morphology may help elucidate the underlying pathophysiology of bipolar disorder (BP). To identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) that contribute to phenotypic variance of brain structure, structural neuroimages were acquired from family members (n = 527) of extended pedigrees heavily loaded for bipolar disorder ascertained from genetically isolated populations in Latin America. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41380-020-0805-6DOI Listing

Costing Analysis of a Pilot Community Health Worker Program in Rural Nepal.

Glob Health Sci Pract 2020 Jun 30;8(2):239-255. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Possible, New York, NY, USA.

Community health workers (CHWs) are essential to primary health care systems and are a cost-effective strategy to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Nepal is strongly committed to universal health coverage and the SDGs. In 2017, the Nepal Ministry of Health and Population partnered with the nongovernmental organization Nyaya Health Nepal to pilot a program aligned with the 2018 World Health Organization guidelines for CHWs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.9745/GHSP-D-19-00393DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7326517PMC

'Look under the sheets!' Fighting with the senses in relation to defecation and bodily care in hospitals and care institutions.

Med Humanit 2020 Jun 30. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Brighton, UK.

This essay focuses on sensory aspects of care in situations surrounding defecation in hospitals and other care institutions. Sensory activity does not merely encompass pleasant experiences that enhance healing and well-being. Anthropologists-and other disciplines as well-have paid little attention to unpleasant and disgusting experiences that our senses meet and that may rather increase pain and suffering in the context of care. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/medhum-2019-011766DOI Listing

HHV-6 Infection and Chemokine RANTES Signaling Pathway Disturbance in Patients with Autoimmune Thyroiditis.

Viruses 2020 Jun 26;12(6). Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Institute of Microbiology and Virology, Riga Stradins University, LV-1067 Riga, Latvia.

The aim of this study was to investigate the role of human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) in autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT) development. We examined the possible involvement of HHV-6 gene expression encoding immunomodulating proteins U12 and U51 in AIT development and their role in the modulation of chemokine signaling. One hundred patients with autoimmune thyroiditis following thyroidectomy were enrolled in this study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v12060689DOI Listing

Kinematic Sub-Populations in Bull Spermatozoa: A Comparison of Classical and Bayesian Approaches.

Biology (Basel) 2020 Jun 26;9(6). Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Costa Rica Institute of Technology, School of Agronomy, San Carlos Campus, 223-21002 Alajuela, Costa Rica.

The ejaculate is heterogenous and sperm sub-populations with different kinematic patterns can be identified in various species. Nevertheless, although these sub-populations are statistically well defined, the statistical differences are not always relevant. The aim of the present study was to characterize kinematic sub-populations in sperm from two bovine species, and diluted with different commercial extenders, and to determine the statistical relevance of sub-populations through Bayesian analysis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biology9060138DOI Listing

HIV-exposed, uninfected infants in Uganda experience poorer growth and body composition trajectories than HIV-unexposed infants.

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2020 Jun 24. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Northwestern University, Department of Anthropology.

Background: HIV-uninfected infants of HIV-positive women may experience worse growth and health outcomes than infants of HIV-negative women, but this has not been thoroughly investigated under the WHO's most recent recommendations to reduce vertical transmission.

Objective: To determine if HIV-exposed and -uninfected (HEU) infants whose mothers received Option B+ have higher odds of experiencing suboptimal growth trajectories than HIV-unexposed, -uninfected infants and if this relationship is affected by food insecurity.

Design: Repeated anthropometric measures were taken on 238 infants (HEU=86) at 1 week and 1,3,6,9, and 12 months after delivery in Gulu, Uganda. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAI.0000000000002428DOI Listing

Atypically High Reproductive Skew in a Small Wild Chimpanzee Community in a Human-Dominated Landscape.

Folia Primatol (Basel) 2020 Jun 30:1-9. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Bulindi Chimpanzee and Community Project, Hoima, Uganda.

Social rank is positively correlated with reproductive success in numerous species, albeit demographic factors often influence those patterns. In multimale primate species, reproductive skew tends to decrease with increasing numbers of males and sexually receptive females. Alpha male chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) often sire a disproportionate, though somewhat variable, percentage of offspring compared to other males. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000508609DOI Listing

Overcoming Barriers to Health Care Access in Rural Latino Communities: An Innovative Model in the Eastern Coachella Valley.

J Rural Health 2020 Jun 30. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Social Medicine Population and Public Health, School of Medicine, University of California Riverside, Riverside, California.

Introduction: Latino farmworkers lack access to basic needs, including health care services. These farmworkers face barriers common to rural areas (eg, limited health services and public transportation), as well as language barriers, an unfamiliar medical system, no health insurance, and income-based financial challenges exacerbated by a lack of workers' rights.

Methods: This study involved focus group discussions to elicit community health priorities and barriers to health care service use among Latinos in rural farm working communities, as well as participants' ideal model for health care services delivery. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jrh.12483DOI Listing

Demographic population structure of black howler monkeys in fragmented and continuous forest in Chiapas, Mexico: Implications for conservation.

Am J Primatol 2020 Jun 30:e23163. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City, Mexico.

For wild primates, demography studies are increasingly recognized as necessary for assessing the viability of vulnerable populations experiencing rapid environmental change. In particular, anthropogenic changes such as habitat loss and fragmentation can cause ecological and behavioral changes in small, isolated populations, which may, over time, alter population density and demographic structure (age/sex classes and group composition) in fragment populations relative to continuous forest populations. We compared our study population of Endangered black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra) in 34 forest fragments around Palenque National Park (PNP), Mexico (62 groups, 407 individuals), to the adjacent population in PNP, protected primary forest (21 groups, 134 individuals), and to previous research on black howlers in fragments in our study area (18 groups, 115 individuals). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajp.23163DOI Listing

Symptoms at midlife among women in Nagaland, India.

Am J Hum Biol 2020 Jun 29:e23456. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

School of Public Health and Health Sciences, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, Massachusetts, USA.

Objectives: This article highlights the prevalence of symptom frequencies in Nagaland, India, with a focus on depressed mood and hot flashes. We also examine how symptoms cluster together among Naga women and identify factors associated with symptom experience. We hypothesized an elevated frequency of depressed mood because of the stresses associated with social responsibilities within a patriarchal culture, and a low frequency of hot flashes because of the thinness of the population. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajhb.23456DOI Listing

Estimation of adult age-at-death from entheseal robusticity: A test using an identified Italian skeletal collection.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2020 Jun 29:e24083. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Science and Technology in Archaeology and Culture Research Center, The Cyprus Institute, Nicosia, Cyprus.

Objectives: The present study tests the effectiveness of entheseal robusticity (ER) as a potential predictor of adult age-at-death by applying multiple regression models to a large contemporary identified skeletal sample.

Materials And Methods: ER was recorded for 23 bilateral postcranial entheses on 481 adult individuals (271 females and 210 males) from the Frassetto identified skeletal collection of Sassari (Italy), following the method of Mariotti et al. 2007. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.24083DOI Listing

Access to Social Determinants of Health and Determinant Inequity for the Black Population in US States in the Early Twenty-First Century.

Authors:
Robert A Hahn

J Racial Ethn Health Disparities 2020 Jun 29. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Department of Anthropology, Emory University , Atlanta, GA, USA.

This analysis develops indices of (1) modifiable social determinants of health and (2) social determinant inequity and applies the indices to the black population in US states. It uses state data available between 2013 and 2018 stratified by black and white race on six social determinants covering a range of topics (high school non-completion, incarceration, non-home ownership, poverty, unemployment, and voter non-registration). Determinants are ranked by state on (1) limited determinant access by blacks and (2) on black-white determinant differences, i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40615-020-00799-3DOI Listing

Three-Dimensional Microstructural Basis for Differential Occurrence of Subcapital versus Basicervical Hip Fractures in Men.

Calcif Tissue Int 2020 Jun 29. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Laboratory for Anthropology and Skeletal Biology, Institute of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Dr Subotica 4/2, Belgrade, 11000, Serbia.

We analyzed the bone microarchitecture of the subcapital and basicervical subregions of the femoral neck in men, to determine whether microarchitectural differences of cortical or trabecular bone can explain differential frequency of subcapital vs. basicervical fractures, especially in aged persons. The study sample encompassed twenty male proximal femora obtained during autopsy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00223-020-00717-zDOI Listing

Life on a Mesoarchean marine shelf - insights from the world's oldest known granular iron formation.

Sci Rep 2020 Jun 29;10(1):10519. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Department of Earth Sciences, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA, USA.

The Nconga Formation of the Mesoarchean (~2.96-2.84 Ga) Mozaan Group of the Pongola Supergroup of southern Africa contains the world's oldest known granular iron formation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-66805-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7324406PMC

One year of methadone maintenance treatment in a fentanyl endemic area: Safety, repeated exposure, retention, and remission.

J Subst Abuse Treat 2020 Aug 11;115:108031. Epub 2020 May 11.

The Warren Alpert School of Medicine of Brown University, Rhode Island Hospital, 55 Claverick Street, Providence, RI 02903, USA.

Introduction: Fentanyl is a potent synthetic opioid that has contributed to increasing overdose deaths in the United States in recent years. Concern over safety and efficacy of agonist treatment for fentanyl use may limit access to treatment. This study sought to address these potential concerns in a naturalistic setting. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsat.2020.108031DOI Listing

Effectiveness of diet and physical activity interventions among Chinese-origin populations living in high income countries: a systematic review.

BMC Public Health 2020 Jun 29;20(1):1019. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Department of Anthropology, Durham University, South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE, UK.

Background: This review examines the effectiveness of diet and physical activity interventions to reduce cardiometabolic risk among Chinese immigrants and their descendants living in high income countries. The objective of this review is to provide information to help build future interventions aimed at improving diet and increasing physical activity levels among Chinese immigrants.

Methods: Outcomes included BMI, weight, waist circumference (WC), waist-hip ratio (WHR), cholesterol (LDL, HDL), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP), hemoglobin A1c (HgbA1c), fasting blood glucose (FBG), and HOMA-IR. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-08805-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7322842PMC

Transnational determinants of health for Central American migrants to the U.S.: Results of a qualitative study.

Glob Public Health 2020 Jun 30:1-16. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Anthropology, George Washington University, Washington, DC, USA.

While some research on health determinants for immigrant/refugee populations has considered migration itself as a health determinant, much of this research employs constructs that focus on factors such as language, acculturation, norms, behaviours, beliefs, and social support, in a manner analogous to health risk factors for domestic U.S. populations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17441692.2020.1779329DOI Listing

Connectivity as a Mediating Mechanism in the Cybervictimization Process.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 Jun 24;17(12). Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Department Psychology and Anthropology, Faculty of Education, University of Extremadura, 06071 Badajoz, Spain.

This paper explores the relationship between social connectivity and cybervictimization as it is mediated by psychosocial variables such as social identity and self-esteem. Likewise, it analyses the moderating role in that relationship played by adolescents' perception of cyberbullying. The sample consisted of 2072 adolescents (48. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17124567DOI Listing

Cadmium Is Associated with Type 2 Diabetes in a Superfund Site Lead Smelter Community in Dallas, Texas.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 Jun 24;17(12). Epub 2020 Jun 24.

School of Public Health and Information Sciences, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40292, USA.

Objective: To test the hypothesis that cadmium (Cd) exposure is associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).

Materials And Methods: A two-phase health screening (physical examination and laboratory tests) was conducted in a lead smelter community following a Superfund Cleanup. Participants were African Americans aged >19 years to <89 years. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17124558DOI Listing

Sequence Composition Underlying Centromeric and Heterochromatic Genome Compartments of the Pacific Oyster .

Genes (Basel) 2020 Jun 24;11(6). Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Division of Molecular Biology, Ruđer Bošković Institute, Bijenička cesta 54, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia.

Segments of the genome enriched in repetitive sequences still present a challenge and are omitted in genome assemblies. For that reason, the exact composition of DNA sequences underlying the heterochromatic regions and the active centromeres are still unexplored for many organisms. The centromere is a crucial region of eukaryotic chromosomes responsible for the accurate segregation of genetic material. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/genes11060695DOI Listing

Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) Population Spans Multiple Protected Areas in the Albertine Rift.

Folia Primatol (Basel) 2020 Jun 29:1-15. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Department of Anthropology, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana, USA.

We used mitochondrial DNA to examine gene flow in a region of western Uganda that has received little attention regarding chimpanzee population dynamics. The area is critical to gene flow between isolated Democratic Republic of Congo populations and the rest of East Africa. None of the chimpanzees in each of the 4 protected areas under consideration (Toro-Semliki Wildlife Reserve, Semuliki National Park, Rwenzori Mountains National Park and Itwara Central Forest Reserve) are fully habituated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000508073DOI Listing

A Sectioning, Coring, and Image Processing Guide for High-Throughput Cortical Bone Sample Procurement and Analysis for Synchrotron Micro-CT.

J Vis Exp 2020 Jun 12(160). Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Department of Geosciences, The University of Akron.

Bone is a dynamic and mechanically active tissue that changes in structure over the human lifespan. The products of the bone remodeling process have been studied substantially using traditional two-dimensional techniques. Recent advancements in X-ray imaging technology via desktop micro-computed tomography (µCT) and synchrotron radiation micro-computed tomography (SRµCT) have allowed for the acquisition of high-resolution three-dimensional (3D) scans of a larger field of view (FOV) than other 3D imaging techniques (e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3791/61081DOI Listing