217,037 results match your criteria Anthropology & Education Quarterly[Journal]


Oral Processing Behavior of Diana Monkeys (Cercopithecus diana) in Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire.

Folia Primatol (Basel) 2020 Jun 3:1-17. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Department of Anthropology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA.

Primates are hypothesized to "fall back" on challenging-to-process foods when preferred foods are less available. Such dietary shifts may be accompanied by changes in oral processing behavior argued to be selectively important. Here, we examine the oral processing behavior of Diana monkeys (Cercopithecus diana) in the Taï Forest across their dietary breadth, testing relationships among food intake, fruit availability, preference, and oral processing behaviors including those involved in food ingestion and breakdown. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000508072DOI Listing

Dominance rank but not body size influences female reproductive success in mountain gorillas.

PLoS One 2020 3;15(6):e0233235. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany.

According to life history theory, natural selection has shaped trade-offs for allocating energy among growth, reproduction and maintenance to maximize individual fitness. In social mammals body size and dominance rank are two key variables believed to influence female reproductive success. However, few studies have examined these variables together, particularly in long-lived species. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0233235PLOS

Machine Learning to Detect Self-Reporting of Symptoms, Testing Access and Recovery Associated with COVID-19 on Twitter: A Retrospective Big-Data Infoveillance Study.

JMIR Public Health Surveill 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

UC San Diego - School of Medicine, Department of Anesthesiology and Division of Global Public Health and Infectious Diseases, 8950 Villa La Jolla DriveA124, La Jolla, US.

Background: The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic is a global health emergency with over 6 million cases worldwide as of the beginning of June 2020. Importantly, the pandemic is historic in scope and precedent given its emergence in an increasing digital era. Importantly, there have been concerns about the accuracy of COVID-19 case counts due to issues such as lack of access to testing and difficulty in measuring recoveries. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/19509DOI Listing

The impact of scavenging: perspective from casework in forensic anthropology.

Forensic Sci Res 2020 9;5(1):32-37. Epub 2020 Feb 9.

Department of Anthropology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, USA.

Forensic anthropology casework frequently encounters evidence of animal scavenging associated with fragmentation and loss of skeletal material. Published research demonstrates that patterns of destruction in bone can suggest the size and type of animal involved. This study analyzes 107 cases reported on by the first author at the Smithsonian Institution to investigate patterns of scavenging in forensic anthropology casework. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/20961790.2019.1704473DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7241500PMC
February 2020

The barriers to the full implementation of strategic purchasing and the role of health policy and decision-makers: past, current status, ethical aspects and future challenges.

J Prev Med Hyg 2020 Mar 2;61(1):E119-E124. Epub 2020 Apr 2.

UNESCO Chair, "Health Anthropology Biosphere and Healing Systems," University of Genoa, Italy.

Healthcare systems are complex, multi-level, highly integrated organizations, comprising of different professional figures, institutions, and resources. Such breadth and complexity reflect the multi-dimensionality of the concept of health, which implies the adoption of a holistic approach. Health, rather than merely being the absence of disorders or infirmity, is a highly dynamic state, which represents the abilities of an individual to cope with adverse social, physical and emotional/psychological events and conditions, continuously adapting to them. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.15167/2421-4248/jpmh2020.61.1.1439DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7225644PMC

The hepatitis C virus in Iran: health policy, historical, ethical issues and future challenges.

J Prev Med Hyg 2020 Mar 2;61(1):E109-E118. Epub 2020 Apr 2.

Department of Health Sciences (DISSAL), University of Genoa, Italy.

Background: Hepatitis C infection (HCV) can have a harmful effect on the health of people and can impose relevant healthcare costs. The World Health Organization has identified the elimination of Hepatitis C by 2030 as an important goal for all countries. This study aimed to identify the HCV-related policies in Iran. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.15167/2421-4248/jpmh2020.61.1.1438DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7225642PMC

Social norm coordination and readiness to change female genital cutting: Evidence from Senegambia.

SSM Popul Health 2020 Aug 12;11:100593. Epub 2020 May 12.

Department of Anthropology, Center for Studies in Demography and Ecology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, 98195, USA.

Background: Female genital cutting (FGC), which poses risks to the health of girls, has proved remarkably persistent in many communities in Africa, despite decades of efforts to discourage it. The social coordination norm model of FGC attributes this persistence to high social costs for uncut women, such as exclusion from marriage markets or social support networks.

Objective/methods: To test the social coordination model of FGC decision-making in Senegambia, we examined variation in FGC across communities, attitudes toward FGC, and how attitudes affected readiness to change (abandon) FGC. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ssmph.2020.100593DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7256638PMC

Circulating metabolites from the choline pathway and acute coronary syndromes in a Chinese case-control study.

Nutr Metab (Lond) 2020 24;17:39. Epub 2020 May 24.

Department of Cardiology, Shanghai Institute of Cardiovascular Disease, ZhongShan Hospital, Fudan University, 1609 Xietu Road, Shanghai, 200032 China.

Background: Accumulating evidence shows that circulating levels of trimethylamine N-oxide, which is generated from the metabolism of dietary choline, may predict cardiovascular disease among Caucasians. Acute coronary syndrome (ACS), one common presentation of cardiovascular disease, is a spectrum of signs and symptoms due to acute decreased blood flow in the coronary arteries. The relationship between the metabolites from choline pathway and ACS remains unclear. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12986-020-00460-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7245747PMC

Ernst Haeckel, Nikolai Miklucho-Maclay and the racial controversy over the Papuans.

Front Zool 2020 25;17:16. Epub 2020 May 25.

Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, AG Biologiedidaktik, Am Steiger 3 (Bienenhaus), 07743 Jena, Germany.

Background: The "German Darwin" Ernst Haeckel (1834-1919) was a key figure during the first "Darwinian revolution", a time when the foundations of the modern evolutionary theory were laid. It was Haeckel, who crucially contributed to the visualization of the Darwinian theory by designing "genealogical-trees" illustrating the evolution of various species, including humans. Although the idea of explaining human evolution by natural selection belongs to Darwin, Haeckel was the first who attempted to create a new exact anthropology based on the Darwinian method. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12983-020-00358-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7247218PMC

Invariant Synapse Density and Neuronal Connectivity Scaling in Primate Neocortical Evolution.

Cereb Cortex 2020 Jun 2. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Department of Anthropology, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794, USA.

Synapses are involved in the communication of information from one neuron to another. However, a systematic analysis of synapse density in the neocortex from a diversity of species is lacking, limiting what can be understood about the evolution of this fundamental aspect of brain structure. To address this, we quantified synapse density in supragranular layers II-III and infragranular layers V-VI from primary visual cortex and inferior temporal cortex in a sample of 25 species of primates, including humans. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhaa149DOI Listing

Rapid range shifts and megafaunal extinctions associated with late Pleistocene climate change.

Nat Commun 2020 Jun 2;11(1):2770. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Trace and Environmental DNA (TrEnD) Laboratory, School of Molecular and Life Sciences, Curtin University, Bentley, WA, 6102, Australia.

Large-scale changes in global climate at the end of the Pleistocene significantly impacted ecosystems across North America. However, the pace and scale of biotic turnover in response to both the Younger Dryas cold period and subsequent Holocene rapid warming have been challenging to assess because of the scarcity of well dated fossil and pollen records that covers this period. Here we present an ancient DNA record from Hall's Cave, Texas, that documents 100 vertebrate and 45 plant taxa from bulk fossils and sediment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-16502-3DOI Listing

Learning to See Racism: Perspective Transformation Among Stakeholders in a Regional Health and Equity Initiative.

J Public Health Manag Pract 2020 Jun 1. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

School of Health Sciences, Cleveland State University, Cleveland, Ohio (Dr Walsh); Department of Anthropology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut (Dr Willen); and Trinity College, Hartford, Connecticut (Dr Williamson).

Context: Achieving a meaningful reduction in health inequities will require not only policy and programmatic changes but also an increased understanding of structural racism and its deleterious impact on health and well-being. One way to enhance understanding is to actively promote "perspective transformation" (PT) around race among health equity stakeholders. Experiences of PT are defined as moments or events that bring about a deepened understanding of racism and that may result in new ways of thinking and acting. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PHH.0000000000001171DOI Listing

When is an abscess more than an abscess? Syringe services programs and the harm reduction safety-net: a case report.

Harm Reduct J 2020 Jun 1;17(1):34. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA.

Background: Syringe services programs (SSPs) are able to offer wrap-around services for people who inject drugs (PWID) and improve health outcomes.

Case Presentation: A 47-year-old man screened positive for a skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI) at an SSP and was referred to a weekly on-site student-run wound care clinic. He was evaluated by first- and third-year medical students, and volunteer attending physicians determined that the infection was too severe to be managed on site. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12954-020-00381-4DOI Listing

Mind the gaps: age and cause specific mortality and life expectancy in the older population of South Korea and Japan.

BMC Public Health 2020 Jun 1;20(1):819. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Department of Public Health Science, Graduate School of Public Health, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea.

Background: Recent life expectancy gains in high-income Asia-pacific countries have been largely the result of postponement of death from non-communicable diseases in old age, causing rapid demographic ageing. This study compared and quantified age- and cause-specific contributions to changes in old-age life expectancy in two high-income Asia-pacific countries with ageing populations, South Korea and Japan.

Methods: This study used Pollard's actuarial method of decomposing life expectancy to compare age- and cause-specific contributions to changes in old-age life expectancy between South Korea and Japan during 1997 and 2017. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-08978-xDOI Listing

A mitochondrial genetic divergence proxy predicts the reproductive compatibility of mammalian hybrids.

Proc Biol Sci 2020 Jun 3;287(1928):20200690. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Palaeogenomics and Bio-Archaeology Research Network, Research Laboratory for Archaeology and the History of Art, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3QY, UK.

Numerous pairs of evolutionarily divergent mammalian species have been shown to produce hybrid offspring. In some cases, F hybrids are able to produce Fs through matings with Fs. In other instances, the hybrids are only able to produce offspring themselves through backcrosses with a parent species owing to unisexual sterility (Haldane's Rule). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2020.0690DOI Listing

In the shadow of HIV & TB: A commentary on the COVID epidemic in South Africa.

Glob Public Health 2020 Jun 2:1-13. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Department of Anthropology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, USA.

While COVID-19 has become a global pandemic that has spread to all regions of the globe, local historic, health, and socio-environmental factors shape the epidemiological contours, response, and social challenges present within each affected nation. Thus, while countries like China, Italy, Iran, Brazil, and the United States have all been hard hit by the pandemic, there are critical differences across these nations in a number of variables (e.g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17441692.2020.1775275DOI Listing

Sex Differences in Body Composition Changes after Preseason Training in Elite Handball Players.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 May 30;17(11). Epub 2020 May 30.

Department of Kinesiology and Health Education, University of Texas, Main Building (MAI), 110 Inner Campus Drive, Austin, TX 78705, USA.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate changes in the estimated body composition of elite female and male Polish handball players during a five-week preseason training camp. Height and weight were measured, while body composition was estimated with bioelectrical impedance in 18 male and 17 female handball players before and after the five-week training protocol. Components of body composition included total body water (TBW), fat-free mass (FFM), muscle mass (MM), and absolute and relative fat mass (FM). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17113880DOI Listing

Oral pathological conditions of an Early Epipaleolithic human from Southwest Asia: Ohalo II H2 as a probable case of intentional dental ablation.

Int J Paleopathol 2020 May 30;30:68-76. Epub 2020 May 30.

Department of Anthropology, California State University-Dominguez Hills, SBS G323, 1000 E Victoria St, Carson, CA, 90747, USA.

Objective: To describe the oral pathological conditions of Ohalo II H2, an Early Epipaleolithic human from southwest Asia.

Materials: The dentognathic skeleton of Ohalo II H2 and relevant comparative data from similar chronological and/or geographic contexts.

Methods: Gross and x-ray observations of oral pathological conditions and occlusal wear were made following published protocols. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpp.2020.04.001DOI Listing

Radiographic digit ratios (2D:4D) of Afro-Caribbean children: Comparisons with published data from white children.

Early Hum Dev 2020 May 13;146:105072. Epub 2020 May 13.

Applied Sports, Technology, Exercise, and Medicine (A-STEM), Swansea University, Swansea, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Background: Digit ratio (2D:4D) from soft-tissue measurements of fingers from children and adults from Black and White ethnic groups show sex differences (males
Aim: To consider sex and ethnic differences in radiographic 2D:4D of children of Afro-Caribbean descent and to compare these means with "standards" from White children. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2020.105072DOI Listing

Fossil Cercopithecidae from the Early Pliocene Sagantole Formation at Gona, Ethiopia.

J Hum Evol 2020 May 30;144:102789. Epub 2020 May 30.

Centro Nacional de Investigación Sobre La Evolución Humana, Paseo de Atapuerca 3, 09002, Burgos, Spain; Stone Age Institute & CRAFT Research Center, Gosport, IN, 47408, USA.

The Early Pliocene Sagantole Fm. in the Gona Project area, Afar State, Ethiopia, is noted for discoveries of the early hominin Ardipithecus ramidus. A large series of fossil cercopithecid primates dated to between 4. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhevol.2020.102789DOI Listing

Knowledge vs. know-how? Dissecting the foundations of stone knapping skill.

J Hum Evol 2020 May 30;145:102807. Epub 2020 May 30.

Department of Anthropology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Stone tools provide some of the best remaining evidence of behavioral change over long periods, but their cognitive and evolutionary implications remain poorly understood. Here, we contribute to a growing body of experimental research on the cognitive and perceptual-motor foundations of stone toolmaking skills by using a flake prediction paradigm to assess the relative importance of technological understanding vs. accurate action execution in Late Acheulean-style handaxe production. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhevol.2020.102807DOI Listing

Local Resident Perceptions of Water Reuse in Northern Utah.

Water Environ Res 2020 Jun 2. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

0730 Old Main Hill, Department of Sociology, Social Work & Anthropology, Utah State University, Logan, Utah, 84321, United States.

The reuse of municipal wastewater is increasingly implemented in cities to mitigate intensifying water supply problems. Public acceptance of water reuse is integral to successful implementation. This study uses survey research to explore local perspectives and uses of secondary (non-potable) water for irrigation in two northern Utah cities - one that has implemented water reuse and one that has not. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/wer.1367DOI Listing

Biological relationships and frontal sinus similarity in skeletal remains with known genealogical data.

J Anat 2020 Jun 2. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Department of Anthropology, National Museum, Prague, Czech Republic.

Frontal sinus analysis has potential utility for detecting biologically related individuals. However, the methodological approach to its evaluation, as well as its informative value, have been questioned. The aim of this work is to introduce a new approach to evaluating the frontal sinus using the 'external supraorbital line' (ESOL) and to determine whether there are sex differences within families in frontal sinus measurements and whether frontal sinus similarity reflects known genetic relationships in both measurements and morphology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/joa.13246DOI Listing

Transgender men's fertility preservation: experiences, social support, and the quest for genetic parenthood.

Cult Health Sex 2020 Jun 2:1-16. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Fertility Center, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA.

Transgender people assigned female at birth may undergo fertility preservation by egg or embryo freezing, usually prior to gender affirming treatment. In this binational ethnographic study, four transgender men were included as part of a larger comparative project on fertility preservation. In-depth ethnographic interviews allowed informants to talk freely about their fertility preservation experiences, and the circumstances that had enabled them to pursue this option. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13691058.2020.1743881DOI Listing

Papuan mitochondrial genomes and the settlement of Sahul.

J Hum Genet 2020 Jun 1. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Laboratoire Évolution and Diversité Biologique (EDB UMR 5174), Université de Toulouse Midi-Pyrénées, CNRS, IRD, UPS, 118 route de Narbonne, Bat 4R1, 31062, Toulouse, France.

New Guineans represent one of the oldest locally continuous populations outside Africa, harboring among the greatest linguistic and genetic diversity on the planet. Archeological and genetic evidence suggest that their ancestors reached Sahul (present day New Guinea and Australia) by at least 55,000 years ago (kya). However, little is known about this early settlement phase or subsequent dispersal and population structuring over the subsequent period of time. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s10038-020-0781-3DOI Listing

Clarifying relationships between cranial form and function in tapirs, with implications for the dietary ecology of early hominins.

Sci Rep 2020 Jun 1;10(1):8809. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Department of Anthropology, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York, 11794, USA.

Paleontologists and paleoanthropologists have long debated relationships between cranial morphology and diet in a broad diversity of organisms. While the presence of larger temporalis muscle attachment area (via the presence of sagittal crests) in carnivorans is correlated with durophagy (i.e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-65586-wDOI Listing

Ancient genomes from northern China suggest links between subsistence changes and human migration.

Nat Commun 2020 Jun 1;11(1):2700. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

School of Life Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun, 130012, China.

Northern China harbored the world's earliest complex societies based on millet farming, in two major centers in the Yellow (YR) and West Liao (WLR) River basins. Until now, their genetic histories have remained largely unknown. Here we present 55 ancient genomes dating to 7500-1700 BP from the YR, WLR, and Amur River (AR) regions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-16557-2DOI Listing

The syndemic effects of food insecurity, water insecurity, and HIV on depressive symptomatology among Kenyan women.

Soc Sci Med 2020 May 15:113043. Epub 2020 May 15.

Department of Anthropology & Global Health, Faculty Fellow, Institute for Policy Research, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, 60208, USA. Electronic address:

Depression is a leading cause of disability worldwide and a major contributor to the overall global burden of disease, especially for women of childbearing age. Social science scholarship has demonstrated significant relationships between mental health, food insecurity (FI), water insecurity (WI), and HIV. Little is known, however, about the temporal relationships between food and water insecurity or the mechanisms through which these multiple stressors may operate or interact to impact depression. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2020.113043DOI Listing

Regional variation in states' naloxone accessibility laws in association with opioid overdose death rates-Observational study (STROBE compliant).

Medicine (Baltimore) 2020 May;99(22):e20033

Department of Family Medicine, Chungbuk National University Hospital, Cheongju, Chungbuk.

Though overall death from opioid overdose are increasing in the United States, the death rate in some states and population groups is stabilizing or even decreasing. Several states have enacted a Naloxone Accessibility Laws to increase naloxone availability as an opioid antidote. The extent to which these laws permit layperson distribution and possession varies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000020033DOI Listing

Medico-legal encounters of 2015 Nepal earthquake - Path traversed and the road ahead.

Forensic Sci Int 2020 May 14;313:110339. Epub 2020 May 14.

Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Jodhpur, India.

The Gorkha Earthquake hit the region on 25th of April 2015, at 12:58, with the epicentre approximately 80 km N-NW of Kathmandu, recording 7.8 M on the Richter Scale. The disaster left almost 9000 individuals dead. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2020.110339DOI Listing

Polygonogram and isobolographic analysis of interactions between various novel antiepileptic drugs in the 6-Hz corneal stimulation-induced seizure model in mice.

PLoS One 2020 1;15(6):e0234070. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Department of Medical Anthropology, Institute of Rural Health, Lublin, Poland.

Pharmacotherapy with two antiepileptic drugs in combination is usually prescribed to epilepsy patients with refractory seizures. The choice of antiepileptic drugs in combination should be based on synergistic cooperation of the drugs with respect to suppression of seizures. The selection of synergistic interactions between antiepileptic drugs is challenging issue for physicians, especially, if 25 antiepileptic drugs are currently available and approved to treat epilepsy patients. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0234070PLOS

Locating oneself in the past to influence the present: Impacts of Neolithic landscapes on mental health well-being.

Health Place 2020 Mar 20;62:102273. Epub 2019 Dec 20.

Avon and Wiltshire Mental Health Partnership NHS Trust, Green Lane Hospital, Marshall Road, Devizes, Wiltshire, SN10 5DS, UK. Electronic address:

There are well-established links between mental health and the environment. Mental illness is a global issue, and international policies increasingly focus on promoting mental health well-being through community-based approaches, including non-clinical initiatives such as therapeutic landscapes and the use of heritage assets. However, the empirical evidence-base for the impact of such initiatives is limited. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.healthplace.2019.102273DOI Listing

Automatically Identifying Comparator Groups on Twitter for Digital Epidemiology of Pregnancy Outcomes.

AMIA Jt Summits Transl Sci Proc 2020 30;2020:317-325. Epub 2020 May 30.

Department of Biostatistics, Epidemiology, and Informatics, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Despite the prevalence of adverse pregnancy outcomes such as miscarriage, stillbirth, birth defects, and preterm birth, their causes are largely unknown. We seek to advance the use of social media for observational studies of pregnancy outcomes by developing a natural language processing pipeline for automatically identifying users from which to select comparator groups on Twitter. We annotated 2361 tweets by users who have announced their pregnancy on Twitter, which were used to train and evaluate supervised machine learning algorithms as a basis for automatically detecting women who have reported that their pregnancy had reached term and their baby was born at a normal weight. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7233041PMC

Extracting and Standardizing Medical Examiner Data to Improve Health.

AMIA Jt Summits Transl Sci Proc 2020 30;2020:63-70. Epub 2020 May 30.

Department of Anthropology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, USA.

Data from medical examiner offices are not commonly used in informatics but may contain information not in medical records. However, the vast majority of data is not standardized and is available only in large free text fields. We sought to extract information from the medical examiner database using Canary, a natural language processing tool. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7233086PMC

Deliberations About Genomic Research and Biobanks With Citizens of the Chickasaw Nation.

Front Genet 2020 14;11:466. Epub 2020 May 14.

Department of Bioethics & Humanities, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, United States.

Amid the rapid growth of precision medicine and biobanking initiatives, there have been few efforts at cataloging the implications of these initiatives for Indigenous communities. A consortium involving a university and three American Indian/Alaska Native (AIAN) community partners is working to promote deliberation and dialog in AIAN communities about the potential benefits and risks of genomic research for those communities. The first of the consortium's three planned deliberations was held in September 2018 with citizens of the Chickasaw Nation, a federally recognized tribe in south-central Oklahoma with a full-service medical center and growing research capacity and oversight. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2020.00466DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7240027PMC

Gendered factors for heated tobacco product use: Focus group interviews with Korean adults.

Tob Induc Dis 2020 14;18:43. Epub 2020 May 14.

Department of Family Medicine, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Introduction: Since June 2017, heated tobacco products (HTPs) have been on sale in Korea, comprising approximately 11.8% of total tobacco sales in April 2019. This research illuminates hitherto unexplored gendered factors influencing the use of HTPs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.18332/tid/120103DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7252430PMC

"I Felt Invisible Most of the Time": Communication and satisfaction among patients treated in emergency department hallway beds.

Am J Emerg Med 2020 May 4. Epub 2020 May 4.

Emergency Department, Tampa General Hospital, Tampa, FL, USA; Department of Internal Medicine, Morsani College of Medicine at the University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajem.2020.04.059DOI Listing

Behavioural variation and learning across the lifespan in wild white-faced capuchin monkeys.

Authors:
Susan Perry

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2020 Jul 1;375(1803):20190494. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Department of Anthropology, University of California-Los Angeles, 341 Haines Hall, 375 Portola Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1553.

Natural selection has evidently mediated many species characteristics relevant to the evolution of learning, including longevity, length of the juvenile period, social organization, timing of cognitive and motor development, and age-related shifts in behavioural propensities such as activity level, flexibility in problem-solving and motivation to seek new information. Longitudinal studies of wild populations can document such changes in behavioural propensities, providing critical information about the contexts in which learning strategies develop, in environments similar to those in which learning strategies evolved. The Lomas Barbudal Monkey Project provides developmental data for the white-faced capuchin, , a species that has converged with humans regarding many life-history and behavioural characteristics. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2019.0494DOI Listing

The importance of life history and population regulation for the evolution of social learning.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2020 Jul 1;375(1803):20190492. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Department of Human Behavior, Ecology and Culture, Leipzig, Germany.

Social learning and life history interact in human adaptation, but nearly all models of the evolution of social learning omit age structure and population regulation. Further progress is hindered by a poor appreciation of how life history affects selection on learning. We discuss why life history and age structure are important for social learning and present an exemplary model of the evolution of social learning in which demographic properties of the population arise endogenously from assumptions about vital rates and different forms of population regulation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2019.0492DOI Listing

The adaptive origins of uniquely human sociality.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2020 Jul 1;375(1803):20190493. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA.

Humans possess some unique social-cognitive skills and motivations, involving such things as joint attention, cooperative communication, dual-level collaboration and cultural learning. These are almost certainly adaptations for humans' especially complex sociocultural lives. The common assumption has been that these unique skills and motivations emerge in human infancy and early childhood as preparations for the challenges of adult life, for example, in collaborative foraging. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2019.0493DOI Listing

The emergence of emotionally modern humans: implications for language and learning.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2020 Jul 1;375(1803):20190499. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Department of Anthropology, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, 8051 Zurich, Switzerland.

According to the Cooperative Breeding Hypothesis, apes with the life-history attributes of those in the line leading to the genus could not have evolved unless male and female allomothers had begun to help mothers care for and provision offspring. As proposed elsewhere, the unusual way hominins reared their young generated novel phenotypes subsequently subjected to Darwinian social selection favouring those young apes best at monitoring the intentions, mental states and preferences of others and most motivated to attract and appeal to caretakers. Not only were youngsters acquiring information in social contexts different from those of other apes, but they would also have been emotionally and neurophysiologically different from them in ways that are relevant to how humans learn. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2019.0499DOI Listing

The optimal timing of teaching and learning across the life course.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2020 Jul 1;375(1803):20190500. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Integrative Anthropological Sciences Unit, Department of Anthropology, University of California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA, USA.

The evolutionary biologist W. D. Hamilton (Hamilton 1966 , 12-45. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2019.0500DOI Listing

Introduction to special issue: 'Life history and learning: how childhood, caregiving and old age shape cognition and culture in humans and other animals'.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2020 Jul 1;375(1803):20190489. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Duke University, Durham, NC 27708-0187, USA.

This special issue focuses on the relationship between life history and learning, especially during human evolution. 'Life history' refers to the developmental programme of an organism, including its period of immaturity, reproductive rate and timing, caregiving investment and longevity. Across many species an extended childhood and high caregiving investment appear to be correlated with particular kinds of plasticity and learning. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2019.0489DOI Listing

Cognitive consequences of our grandmothering life history: cultural learning begins in infancy.

Authors:
Kristen Hawkes

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2020 Jul 1;375(1803):20190501. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Department of Anthropology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA.

Postmenopausal longevity distinguishes humans from our closest living evolutionary cousins, the great apes, and may have evolved in our lineage when the economic productivity of grandmothers allowed mothers to wean earlier and overlap dependents. Since increased longevity retards development and expands brain size across the mammals, this hypothesis links our slower developing, bigger brains to ancestral grandmothering. If foraging interdependence favoured postmenopausal longevity because grandmothers' subsidies reduced weaning ages, then ancestral infants lost full maternal engagement while their slower developing brains were notably immature. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2019.0501DOI Listing

Regarding the Dead: A Model for Anatomical Gifting Outside the Traditional Medical School Setting.

Anat Sci Educ 2020 May 31. Epub 2020 May 31.

Anatomical Gift Program, School of Health Sciences, Elon University, Elon, North Carolina, USA.

In 2017, Elon University became one of very few universities in the United Stated without a medical school to have an in-house Anatomical Gift Program (AGP). The program accepts first-person consenting individuals only and within 2.5 years has become self-sufficient, supporting anatomy curricular needs of its physical therapy, physician assistant, and undergraduate biology and anthropology programs (n = 21 donors annually). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ase.1985DOI Listing

Binding affinities of 438 HLA proteins to complete proteomes of seven pandemic viruses and distributions of strongest and weakest HLA peptide binders in populations worldwide.

HLA 2020 May 31. Epub 2020 May 31.

Anthropology Unit, Department of Genetics and Evolution, University of Geneva, Switzerland.

We report detailed peptide binding affinities between 438 HLA Class I and Class II proteins and complete proteomes of seven pandemic human viruses, including coronaviruses, influenza viruses and HIV-1. We contrast these affinities with HLA allele frequencies across hundreds of human populations worldwide. Statistical modelling shows that peptide binding affinities classified into four distinct categories depend on the HLA locus but that the type of virus is only a weak predictor, except in the case of HIV-1. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tan.13956DOI Listing

Sexual dimorphism and growth in Alouatta palliata based on 20+ years of field data.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2020 May 31. Epub 2020 May 31.

Evolutionary Anthropology Department, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, USA.

Objectives: Alouatta palliata patterns of growth and sexual dimorphism are evaluated using 20 plus years of field data. Comparisons are made to other species of Alouatta and other New World primates.

Materials And Methods: Records of 92 A. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.24055DOI Listing

'Makin' it' in the Heartland: Exploring perceptions of success among second-generation immigrant youth in St. Louis.

J Adolesc 2020 May 28;82:11-18. Epub 2020 May 28.

Saint Louis University, Department of Sociology and Anthropology, Morissey Hall, 3700 Lindell Boulevard, 247, St. Louis, MO, 63108, USA.

Introduction: Debates in the literature on youth transitions and on immigrant adaptation acknowledge that recent societal shifts have altered the conditions for young people growing up today. As a result, traditional notions of success may limit our understanding of the mechanisms that lead to differential transitional and adaptation pathways among today's children of immigrants. This study explores the definitions of success among a sample of Bosnian-origin youth in St. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2020.05.005DOI Listing