205,296 results match your criteria Anthropology & Education Quarterly[Journal]


Psychosocial distress among unpaid community health workers in rural Ethiopia: Comparing leaders in Ethiopia's Women's Development Army to their peers.

Soc Sci Med 2019 Apr 10;230:138-146. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Independent Researcher, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia.

There is a growing critical social science literature on volunteering in health programs in non-western, low-income countries, yet few have mixed quantitative and qualitative methods to examine the psychological and social wellbeing of unpaid community health workers in such contexts. We address this issue with data from unpaid community health workers (CHWs) and other women who comprise Ethiopia's state-organized Women's Development Army. We draw on qualitative and cross-sectional survey data collected between 2013 and 2016 to test links between various aspects of psychosocial and economic wellbeing and volunteer status in a rural context. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2019.04.005DOI Listing

A2ML1 and otitis media: novel variants, differential expression and relevant pathways.

Hum Mutat 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Department of Otolaryngology, University of Colorado School of Medicine (CUSOM), Aurora, Colorado, USA.

A genetic basis for otitis media is established, however the role of rare variants in disease etiology is largely unknown. Previously a duplication variant within A2ML1 was identified as a significant risk factor for otitis media in an indigenous Filipino population and in US children. In this report exome and Sanger sequencing was performed using DNA samples from the indigenous Filipino population, Filipino cochlear implantees, US probands, and Finnish and Pakistani families with otitis media. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/humu.23769
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/humu.23769DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

The consequences of foster care versus institutional care in early childhood on adolescent cardiometabolic and immune markers: Results from a randomized controlled trial.

Psychosom Med 2019 Apr 18. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Department of Human Development and Quantitative Methodology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA.

Objective: Children exposed to institutional rearing often exhibit problems across a broad array of developmental domains. We compared the consequences of long-term high-quality foster care versus standard institution-based care which began in early childhood on cardiometabolic and immune markers assessed at the time of adolescence.

Methods: The Bucharest Early Intervention Project is a longitudinal investigation of children institutionalized during early childhood (ages 6 to 30 months at baseline) who were subsequently randomized to either high-quality foster care or continued institutional care. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PSY.0000000000000696DOI Listing

Explaining differential vulnerability to climate change: A social science review.

Wiley Interdiscip Rev Clim Change 2019 Mar-Apr;10(2):e565. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Anthropology University of Maryland College Park Maryland.

The varied effects of recent extreme weather events around the world exemplify the uneven impacts of climate change on populations, even within relatively small geographic regions. Differential human vulnerability to environmental hazards results from a range of social, economic, historical, and political factors, all of which operate at multiple scales. While adaptation to climate change has been the dominant focus of policy and research agendas, it is essential to ask as well why some communities and peoples are disproportionately exposed to and affected by climate threats. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/wcc.565DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6472565PMC
December 2018

Network analysis of a stakeholder community combatting illegal wildlife trade.

Conserv Biol 2019 Apr 21. Epub 2019 Apr 21.

Durrell Institute of Conservation and Ecology, School of Anthropology and Conservation, Marlowe Building, University of Kent, Canterbury, Kent, CT2 9NF, United Kingdom.

The illegal wildlife trade has emerged as a growing and urgent environmental issue. Stakeholders involved in the efforts to curb wildlife trafficking include non-governmental organizations (NGOs), academia, and state government/enforcement bodies. The extent to which these stakeholders work and communicate amongst each other is fundamental to effectively combatting illicit trade. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cobi.13336DOI Listing

A Transient Pulse of Genetic Admixture from the Crusaders in the Near East Identified from Ancient Genome Sequences.

Am J Hum Genet 2019 Apr 8. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Wellcome Sanger Institute, Wellcome Genome Campus, Hinxton CB10 1SA, UK. Electronic address:

During the medieval period, hundreds of thousands of Europeans migrated to the Near East to take part in the Crusades, and many of them settled in the newly established Christian states along the Eastern Mediterranean coast. Here, we present a genetic snapshot of these events and their aftermath by sequencing the whole genomes of 13 individuals who lived in what is today known as Lebanon between the 3 and 13 centuries CE. These include nine individuals from the "Crusaders' pit" in Sidon, a mass burial in South Lebanon identified from the archaeology as the grave of Crusaders killed during a battle in the 13 century CE. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2019.03.015DOI Listing

The culture, mental health and psychosocial wellbeing of Rohingya refugees: a systematic review.

Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci 2019 Apr 22:1-6. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Public Health Section, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees,Geneva,Switzerland.

AimsDespite the magnitude and protracted nature of the Rohingya refugee situation, there is limited information on the culture, mental health and psychosocial wellbeing of this group. This paper, drawing on a report commissioned by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), aims to provide a comprehensive synthesis of the literature on mental health and psychosocial wellbeing of Rohingya refugees, including an examination of associated cultural factors. The ultimate objective is to assist humanitarian actors and agencies in providing culturally relevant Mental Health and Psychosocial Support (MHPSS) for Rohingya refugees displaced to Bangladesh and other neighbouring countries. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S2045796019000192DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Fluctuating body asymmetry in young Polish women in relation to childhood socioeconomic status.

J Biosoc Sci 2019 Apr 22:1-9. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

1Department of Anthropology,Institute of Zoology and Biomedical Research,Jagiellonian University,Cracow,Poland.

The aim of this study was to analyse the relationship between childhood socioeconomic conditions and body asymmetry in young Polish women. The study measured fluctuating asymmetry (FA), which refers to small random deviations from perfect symmetry in bilaterally paired body structures. Data were obtained from 620 female students aged from 19 to 25 years recruited from Jagiellonian University in Cracow, Poland. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://www.cambridge.org/core/product/identifier/S002193201
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0021932019000099DOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads

A coupled reaction-diffusion-strain model predicts cranial vault formation in development and disease.

Biomech Model Mechanobiol 2019 Apr 20. Epub 2019 Apr 20.

Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, 320 Leonhard Building, University Park, PA, 16802, USA.

How cells utilize instructions provided by genes and integrate mechanical forces generated by tissue growth to produce morphology is a fundamental question of biology. Dermal bones of the vertebrate cranial vault are formed through the direct differentiation of mesenchymal cells on the neural surface into osteoblasts through intramembranous ossification. Here we join a self-organizing Turing mechanism, computational biomechanics, and experimental data to produce a 3D representative model of the growing cerebral surface, cranial vault bones, and sutures. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s10237-019-01139-z
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10237-019-01139-zDOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Infant carrying by a wild chimpanzee father at Bulindi, Uganda.

Primates 2019 Apr 20. Epub 2019 Apr 20.

Department of Social Sciences, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Oxford Brookes University, Oxford, UK.

Although infanticide by wild adult male chimpanzees has been reported from multiple sites, affiliative infant carrying by males is rare. We observed infant carrying by an alpha male chimpanzee at Bulindi (Uganda) on two consecutive mornings and collected faecal samples from the newborn infant female, her mother and all candidate fathers to determine whether the alpha male was the infant's father using a likelihood-based method of paternity assignment. In contrast to previous observations of male care of orphans, in this case the mother was present during observations. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10329-019-00726-zDOI Listing
April 2019
4 Reads

Genetic components of human pain sensitivity: a protocol for a genome-wide association study of experimental pain in healthy volunteers.

BMJ Open 2019 Apr 20;9(4):e025530. Epub 2019 Apr 20.

Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Oxford University, Oxford, UK.

Introduction: Pain constitutes a major component of the global burden of diseases. Recent studies suggest a strong genetic contribution to pain susceptibility and severity. Whereas most of the available evidence relies on candidate gene association or linkage studies, research on the genetic basis of pain sensitivity using genome-wide association studies (GWAS) is still in its infancy. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2018-025530DOI Listing

Frailty index is associated with increased risk of elevated BNP in an elderly population: the Rugao Longevity and Ageing Study.

Aging Clin Exp Res 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering and MOE Key Laboratory of Contemporary Anthropology, School of Life Science and Institutes of Biomedical Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Background And Aims: To explore whether frailty, defined by frailty index (FI), is associated with the risk of elevated B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), a surrogate endpoint of cardiovascular events.

Methods: Data of 1382 community-dwelling elders who had no documented cardiovascular diseases aged 70-84 years from the ageing arm of the Rugao Longevity and Ageing Study was used. Traditional risk factor index (TI) was constructed using eight established cardiovascular-related risk factors. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s40520-019-01189-4
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40520-019-01189-4DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Muscle-strengthening physical activity is associated with cancer mortality: results from the 1998-2011 National Health Interview Surveys, National Death Index record linkage.

Cancer Causes Control 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Department of Health Promotion, College of Public Health, University of Nebraska Medical Center, 984340 Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, 68198-4340, USA.

Purpose: To examine the association of muscle-strengthening activities (MSA) and cancer mortality.

Methods: We pooled data from the 1998 to 2009 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), which were linked to records in the National Death Index. Mortality follow-up was through 31 December 2011. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10552-019-01169-zDOI Listing

A landscape-scale assessment of tropical mammals reveals the effects of habitat and anthropogenic disturbance on community occupancy.

PLoS One 2019 19;14(4):e0215682. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Tropical Biodiversity Section, MUSE-Museo delle Scienze, Trento, Italy.

With biodiversity facing unparalleled threats from anthropogenic disturbance, knowledge on the occurrences of species and communities provides for an effective and fast approach to assess their status and vulnerability. Disturbance is most prominent at the landscape-level, for example through habitat loss from large-scale resource extraction or agriculture. However, addressing species responses to habitat changes at the landscape-scale can be difficult and cost-ineffective, hence studies are mostly conducted at single areas or habitat patches. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0215682PLOS

Variations in epiphyseal fusion and persistence of the epiphyseal line in the appendicular skeleton of two identified modern (19th-20th c.) adult Portuguese and Italian samples.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Department of Biological, Geological and Environmental Sciences, Alma Mater Studiorum, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.

Objectives: The aim of this work is to study age, sex, and population variations in epiphyseal fusion and persistence of the epiphyseal line in the appendicular skeleton of two identified modern (19th-20th c.) adult skeletal samples, using a specifically designed macroscopic scoring method. The use of epiphyseal closure and persistence of the epiphyseal line as an adult-age marker is also discussed. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.23839DOI Listing

Urine salts elucidate Early Neolithic animal management at Aşıklı Höyük, Turkey.

Sci Adv 2019 Apr 17;5(4):eaaw0038. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Prehistory, Istanbul University, Istanbul 34134, Turkey.

The process of sheep and goat (caprine) domestication began by 9000 to 8000 BCE in Southwest Asia. The early Neolithic site at Aşıklı Höyük in central Turkey preserves early archaeological evidence of this transformation, such as culling by age and sex and use of enclosures inside the settlement. People's strategies for managing caprines evolved at this site over a period of 1000 years, but changes in the scale of the practices are difficult to measure. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://advances.sciencemag.org/lookup/doi/10.1126/sciadv.aaw
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aaw0038DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6469938PMC
April 2019
5 Reads

Language Origins Viewed in Spontaneous and Interactive Vocal Rates of Human and Bonobo Infants.

Front Psychol 2019 2;10:729. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

School of Psychology and Neuroscience, University of St. Andrews, St. Andrews, United Kingdom.

From the first months of life, human infants produce "protophones," speech-like, non-cry sounds, presumed absent, or only minimally present in other apes. But there have been no direct quantitative comparisons to support this presumption. In addition, by 2 months, human infants show sustained face-to-face interaction using protophones, a pattern thought also absent or very limited in other apes, but again, without quantitative comparison. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.00729
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.00729DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6455048PMC
April 2019
1 Read

The Minimalist Program and the Origin of Language: A View From Paleoanthropology.

Authors:
Ian Tattersall

Front Psychol 2019 2;10:677. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Division of Anthropology, American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY, United States.

In arguing that articulate language is underpinned by an algorithmically simple neural operation, the Minimalist Program (MP) retrodicts that language emerged in a short-term event. Because spoken language leaves no physical traces, its ancient use must be inferred from archeological proxies. These strongly suggest that modern symbolic human behavior patterns - and, by extension, cognition - emerged both abruptly and late in time (subsequent to the appearance of as an anatomical entity some 200 thousand years kyr ago). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.00677
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.00677DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6454856PMC
April 2019
1 Read

Criteria for CITES species protection.

Science 2019 Apr 18;364(6437):247-248. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Scientific Services, CITES Secretariat, Maison International de l'Environnement, CH-1219 Geneva, Switzerland.

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.aax1266DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

The Major Storage Protein in Potato Tuber Is Mobilized by a Mechanism Dependent on Its Phosphorylation Status.

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Apr 17;20(8). Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Zoology, Genetics and Physical Anthropology, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela, Spain.

The role of the protein phosphorylation mechanism in the mobilization of vegetative storage proteins (VSPs) is totally unknown. Patatin is the major VSP of the potato ( L.) tuber that encompasses multiple differentially phosphorylated isoforms. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/20/8/1889
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20081889DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Three- and 5-year-old children's understanding of how to dissolve a joint commitment.

J Exp Child Psychol 2019 Apr 15;184:34-47. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department of Developmental and Comparative Psychology, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, 04103 Leipzig, Germany; Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708, USA.

When young children form a joint commitment with a partner, they understand that this agreement generates obligations. In this study, we investigated whether young children understand that joint commitments, and their associated obligations, may likewise be dissolved by agreement. The participants (3- and 5-year-olds; N = 144) formed a joint commitment with a puppet to play a collaborative game. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jecp.2019.03.008DOI Listing

Evidence for sea spray effect on oxygen stable isotopes in bone phosphate - Approximation and correction using Gaussian Mixture Model clustering.

Sci Total Environ 2019 Apr 10;673:668-684. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Ludwig Maximilian University Munich, Faculty of Biology, Department of Biology I, Anthropology and Human Genomics, Großhaderner Straße 2, 82152 Planegg-Martinsried, Germany.

Palaeobiodiversity research based on stable isotope analysis in coastal environments can be severely hampered by the so-called "sea spray" effect. This effect shifts the isotopic signal of terrestrial individuals towards too marine values. It is commonly agreed upon that sea spray influences sulphur stable isotopes. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00489697193159
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.04.072DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Is the timing of menarche correlated with mortality and fertility rates?

PLoS One 2019 18;14(4):e0215462. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Department of Anthropology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, United States of America.

Timing of menarche has largely been studied in the context of a secular trend. However, since mortality and fertility rates are fundamental demographic factors linked to a population's developmental and reproductive characteristics, we expect that the timing of menarche, a precondition to reproduction, is also associated with these vital rates. We conduct an analysis of 89 countries and 21 demographic, socioeconomic, nutritional, and educational variables selected for their known influence on menarche. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0215462PLOS

Cranial Trepanation: An Ancient Neurosurgical Therapy? Thoughts of a Follower of Positivist Medicine and Anthropology.

J Craniofac Surg 2019 Apr 12. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

Centre of Research in Osteoarchaeology and Paleopathology, Department of Biotechnology and Life Sciences, University of Insubria, Varese, Italy.

The authors' aim is to define a framework around the history of studies and analyses on cranial trepanation. In addition, based on the analytical approach of Abele de Blasio, the authors would like to reach an understanding of the various different interpretations of the origin and aetiology of the art of cranial trepanation, starting in the prehistoric era. In this brief study, historical discussions are intertwined with ethnoiatric and anthropometric techniques of the author, leading the reader into a fascinating discussion on the practice of trepanation in ancient populations. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SCS.0000000000005545DOI Listing

Bacterial community structure and function distinguish gut sites in captive red-shanked doucs (Pygathrix nemaeus).

Am J Primatol 2019 Apr 18:e22977. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

The mammalian order primates contains wide species diversity. Members of the subfamily Colobinae are unique amongst extant primates in that their gastrointestinal systems more closely resemble those of ruminants than other members of the primate order. In the growing literature surrounding nonhuman primate microbiomes, analysis of microbial communities has been limited to the hindgut, since few studies have captured data on other gut sites, including the foregut of colobine primates. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajp.22977DOI Listing

Where's the fruit? Multidimensional Inequalities in Food Retail Environments around Public Elementary Schools.

Child Care Health Dev 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Sociology and Anthropology, Marshall University, Huntington, WV, USA.

Background: The increasing number of convenience and small food stores may be contributing to the rising childhood obesity rate in the United States, however, the literature assessing food environments surrounding elementary schools in this country is relatively limited. This study determines: (1) whether the food environments around public elementary schools is of significantly lower quality than those of other areas in the U.S. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cch.12671DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Differences in Tsimane children's growth outcomes and associated determinants as estimated by WHO standards vs. within-population references.

PLoS One 2019 17;14(4):e0214965. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Anthropology, University of California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA, United States of America.

Anthropometric measures are commonly converted to age stratified z-scores to examine variation in growth outcomes in mixed-age and sex samples. For many study populations, z-scores will differ if calculated from World Health Organization (WHO) growth standards or within-population references. The specific growth reference used may influence statistical estimates of growth outcomes and their determinants, with implications for biological inference. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0214965PLOS

Patterns of funerary variability, diet, and developmental stress in a Celtic population from NE Italy (3rd-1st c BC).

PLoS One 2019 17;14(4):e0214372. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Anthropology and Anthropological Museum, Universität Zürich-Irchel, Zürich, Switzerland.

Little is known about the types of social organization characterizing the pre-Roman Celtic populations of Italy. Here, we explore the funerary variability characterizing the late Iron Age site of Seminario Vescovile (SV: Verona, Italy, 3rd-1st c. BC), and test its possible correlation to diet and relative exposure to developmental stressors. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0214372PLOS

Spondylosis deformans as an indicator of transport activities in archaeological dogs: A systematic evaluation of current methods for assessing archaeological specimens.

PLoS One 2019 17;14(4):e0214575. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Anthropology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.

Over the past several decades archaeologists have used the spinal pathology spondylosis deformans as an indicator that archaeological dogs were used to pull or carry loads. This interpretive approach is largely based upon observations of prehistoric dog remains and archaeologist's interpretations of veterinary literature on recent sled dogs and other draft animals. However, no comparative large-scale studies of the occurrence of spondylosis deformans in wild canids, transport dogs, and dogs never involved in pulling or carrying loads have been published. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0214575PLOS
April 2019
1 Read

The network effects on conscripts' height in the central provinces of Russian empire in the middle of XIX century - at the beginning of XX century.

Anthropol Anz 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Moscow State University, Institute and Museum of Anthropology, Moscow, Russia.

We investigated average body height in the central provinces of the Russian empire in the middle of XIX century in view of the concept of "community effects on height". We analyzed body height correlations between neighboring districts at this time. We added information about secular changes in body height during the 19 century of this territory. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1127/anthranz/2019/0984DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Comprehensive analysis of isolated der(1;7)(q10;p10) in a large international homogenous cohort of patients with myelodysplastic syndromes.

Genes Chromosomes Cancer 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Clinics of Hematology and Medical Oncology, University Medical Center Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany.

The karyotype is a strong independent prognostic factor in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Since the implementation of the new comprehensive cytogenetic scoring system for MDS, chromosome 7 anomalies are no longer generally assigned to poor risk features but are thoroughly separated. However, der(1;7)(q10;p10), hereinafter der(1;7), is merged into the group labelled "any other single" and belongs to the intermediate risk group, just by definition due to lack of adequate clinical data. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/gcc.22760DOI Listing

Hygiene and Public Health courses in Biology curricula: the Italian scenario and the best examples from all over the world.

Authors:
A Agodi

Ann Ig 2019 Mar-Apr;31(2 Supple 1):90-95

Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences and Advanced Technologies "GF Ingrassia", University of Catania, Catania, Italy.

Different longstanding and emerging challenges for public health have been identified including population ageing, migration, infectious and non-communicable diseases, the environment and climatic changes, increasing risks of misinformation and chronic underinvestment. The multi- and inter-disciplinary public health approach - including biology, epidemiology, biostatistics, anthropology and public policy - raises the need to train experienced professionals in different fields. The education on these matters is fundamental to ensure the human well-being. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.7416/ai.2019.2281DOI Listing

Breastfeeding with HIV: An Evidence-Based Case for New Policy.

J Law Med Ethics 2019 Mar;47(1):152-160

Marielle S. Gross, M.D., M.B.E., is a Hecht-Levi postdoctoral research fellow in the Berman Institute of Bioethics at Johns Hopkins University where she recently completed residency training in Gynecology & Obstetrics. She attended medical school at the University of Florida, and previously completed degrees in Philosophy, Jewish Ethics and Bioethics at Columbia University, the Jewish Theological Seminary, and New York University, respectively. Holly A. Taylor, Ph.D., M.P.H., is a Core Faculty member of the Johns Hopkins Berman Institute of Bioethics and Associate Professor in the Department of Health Policy and Management (HPM), Bloomberg School of Public Health. Dr. Taylor received her B.A. from Stanford University, her M.P.H. from the School of Public Health at the University of Michigan and her Ph.D. in health policy with a concentration in bioethics from the Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University. Cecilia Tomori, Ph.D., studied biology and education at Swarthmore College and obtained her Ph.D. in Anthropology from the University of Michigan in 2011. She completed a postdoctoral fellowship at Johns Hopkins School of Public Health and served as faculty there between 2013-2017. Jenell S. Coleman, M.D., M.P.H., is associate professor in the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics with a joint appointment in the Department of Medicine and is the medical director of the John's Hopkins Women's Health Center. Dr. Coleman earned her M.D. from the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine and completed Ob/Gyn residency at the University of California, Los Angeles. She completed a fellowship in reproductive infectious diseases at the University of California, San Francisco and received an M.P.H. from the University of California, Berkeley.

To help eliminate perinatal HIV transmission, the US Department of Health and Human Services recommends against breastfeeding for women living with HIV, regardless of viral load or combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) status. However, cART radically improves HIV prognosis and virtually eliminates perinatal transmission, and breastfeeding's health benefits are well-established. In this setting, pregnancy is increasing among American women with HIV, and a harm reduction approach to those who breastfeed despite extensive counseling is suggested. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1073110519840495DOI Listing

The Role of Participants in a Medical Information Commons.

J Law Med Ethics 2019 Mar;47(1):51-61

Mary A. Majumder, J.D., Ph.D., is an Associate Professor of Medicine at the Center for Medical Ethics and Health Policy, Baylor College of Medicine. Juli M. Bollinger, M.S., is a Research Associate in the Center for Medical Ethics and Health Policy at the Baylor College of Medicine and a Research Associate and Associate Faculty at the Berman Institute of Bioethics at Johns Hopkins University. Angela G. Villanueva, M.P.H., is a Research Associate at the Center for Medical Ethics and Health Policy at Baylor College of Medicine. Patricia A. Deverka, M.D., M.S., M.B.E., is Director, Value Evidence and Outcomes at Geisinger National Precision Health, where she focuses on demonstrating the value of genomic sequencing for health systems and policymakers. Barbara A. Koenig, Ph.D., is Professor of Bioethics and Medical Anthropology, based at the Institute for Health & Aging, University of California, San Francisco. She serves as Director of the UCSF Program in Bioethics. Previously, Prof. Koenig was the founding executive director of the Center for Biomedical Ethics at Stanford University; she created and led the Bioethics Research Program at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minn.

Meaningful participant engagement has been identified as a key contributor to the success of efforts to share data via a "Medical Information Commons" (MIC). We present findings from expert stakeholder interviews aimed at understanding barriers to engagement and the appropriate role of MIC participants. Although most interviewees supported engagement, they distinguished between individual versus collective forms. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1073110519840484DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Hopeful and Concerned: Public Input on Building a Trustworthy Medical Information Commons.

J Law Med Ethics 2019 Mar;47(1):70-87

Patricia A. Deverka, M.D., M.S., M.B.E., is Director, Value Evidence and Outcomes at Geisinger National Precision Health, where she focuses on demonstrating the value of genomic sequencing for health systems and policymakers. Dierdre Gilmore, M.A., is a Senior Researcher at the American Institutes for Research. Gilmore earned a MA in Medical Anthropology at the University of London. Jennifer Richmond, M.S.P.H., is a Research Associate at the American Institutes for Research and a doctoral student in the Department of Health Behavior at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC-CH) Gillings School of Global Public Health. Zachary Smith is a Research Assistant at the American Institutes for Research. Rikki Mangrum, M.L.S., is a Senior Research Scientist at the American Institutes for Research. Barbara A. Koenig, Ph.D., is Professor of Bioethics and Medical Anthropology, based at the Institute for Health & Aging, University of California, San Francisco. She serves as Director of the UCSF Program in Bioethics. Robert Cook-Deegan, M.D., is a Professor in the School for the Future of Innovation in Society at Arizona State University. He is a physician and molecular biologist who turned to policy and then entered academe through Georgetown, Stanford, and Duke Universities before joining ASU. Angela G. Villanueva, M.P.H., is a Research Associate at the Center for Medical Ethics and Health Policy at Baylor College of Medicine. Mary A. Majumder, J.D., Ph.D., is an Associate Professor of Medicine at the Center for Medical Ethics and Health Policy, Baylor College of Medicine. Amy L. McGuire, J.D., Ph.D., is the Leon Jaworski Professor of Biomedical Ethics and Director of the Center for Medical Ethics and Health Policy at Baylor College of Medicine. Dr. McGuire serves on the program committee for the Greenwall Foundation Faculty Scholars Program in Bioethics and is immediate past president of the Association of Bioethics Program Directors.

A medical information commons (MIC) is a networked data environment utilized for research and clinical applications. At three deliberations across the U.S. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1073110519840486DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Characterizing the Biomedical Data-Sharing Landscape.

J Law Med Ethics 2019 Mar;47(1):21-30

Angela G. Villanueva, M.P.H., is a Research Associate at the Center for Medical Ethics and Health Policy at Baylor College of Medicine. Robert Cook-Deegan, M.D., is a Professor in the School for the Future of Innovation in Society at Arizona State University. Barbara A. Koenig, Ph.D., is Professor of Bioethics and Medical Anthropology, based at the Institute for Health & Aging, University of California, San Francisco. Patricia A. Deverka, M.D., M.S., M.B.E., is Director, Value Evidence and Outcomes at Geisinger National Precision Health, where she focuses on demonstrating the value of genomic sequencing for health systems and policy-makers.Erika Versalovic is a Ph.D. student in the philosophy department at the University of Washington and a neuroethics fellow with the Center for Neurotechnology in Seattle, WA. Amy L. McGuire, J.D., Ph.D., is the Leon Jaworski Professor of Biomedical Ethics and Director of the Center for Medical Ethics and Health Policy at Baylor College of Medicine. Mary A. Majumder, J.D., Ph.D., is an Associate Professor of Medicine at the Center for Medical Ethics and Health Policy, Baylor College of Medicine.

Advances in technologies and biomedical informatics have expanded capacity to generate and share biomedical data. With a lens on genomic data, we present a typology characterizing the data-sharing landscape in biomedical research to advance understanding of the key stakeholders and existing data-sharing practices. The typology highlights the diversity of data-sharing efforts and facilitators and reveals how novel data-sharing efforts are challenging existing norms regarding the role of individuals whom the data describe. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1073110519840481DOI Listing

Importance of Participant-Centricity and Trust for a Sustainable Medical Information Commons.

J Law Med Ethics 2019 Mar;47(1):12-20

Amy L. McGuire, J.D., Ph.D., is the Leon Jaworski Professor of Biomedical Ethics and Director of the Center for Medical Ethics and Health Policy at Baylor College of Medicine. Dr. McGuire serves on the program committee for the Greenwall Foundation Faculty Scholars Program in Bioethics and is immediate past president of the Association of Bioethics Program Directors. Mary A. Majumder, J.D., Ph.D., is an Associate Professor of Medicine at the Center for Medical Ethics and Health Policy, Baylor College of Medicine. Angela G. Villanueva, M.P.H., is a Research Associate at the Center for Medical Ethics and Health Policy at Baylor College of Medicine. Jessica Bardill, Ph.D., is an Assistant Professor of Indigenous Canadian Literatures and Cultures at Concordia University in Montreal, Quebec. Juli M. Bollinger, M.S., is a Research Associate in the Center for Medical Ethics and Health Policy at the Baylor College of Medicine and a Research Associate and Associate Faculty at the Berman Institute of Bioethics at Johns Hopkins University. Eric Boerwinkle, Ph.D., is the Dean of the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, School of Public Health and the Associate Director, Human Genome Sequencing Center at Baylor College of Medicine. Tania Bubela, Ph.D., J.D., is the Dean of the Faculty of Health Sciences at Simon Fraser University and a Fellow of the Canadian Academy of Health Sciences. Patricia Deverka, M.D., M.S., M.B.E., is Director, Value Evidence and Outcomes at Geisinger National Precision Health, where she focuses Outcomes at Geisinger National Precision Health, where she focuses systems and policymakers. Barbara Evans, MS, Ph.D., J.D., LL.M., is the Mary Ann and Lawrence E. Faust Professor of Law and Director of the Center for Biotechnology & Law at the University of Houston Law Center and holds a joint appointment as Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the UH Cullen College of Engineering. Nanibaa' A. Garrison, Ph.D. (Navajo), is an Assistant Professor at the Treuman Katz Center for Pediatric Bioethics at Seattle Children's Hospital and Research Institute and at the Department of Pediatrics at the University of Washington School of Medicine. David Glazer is an engineering director at Verily Life Sciences, where he helps life science organizations use cloud computing to accelerate and scale their work with big data. Melissa M. Goldstein, J.D., is an Associate Professor in the Department of Health Policy and Management at the Milken Institute School of Public Health at the George Washington University. Henry T. Greely, J.D., is the Deane F. and Kate Edelman Johnson Professor of Law and a professor (by courtesy) of Genetics at Stanford University, where he directs the Center for Law and the Biosciences. He is President of the International Neuroethics Society, co-chair of the Neuroethics Work Group of the NIH BRAIN Initiative, and a member of the National Academies' Committee on Science, Technology, and Law. Scott D. Kahn, Ph.D., is the Chief Information Officer at LunaDNA where he is responsible for all informatics and data science strategy. Bartha M. Knoppers, Ph.D., (Comparative Medical Law), is a Full Professor, Canada Research Chair in Law and Medicine and Director of the Centre of Genomics and Policy of the Faculty of Medicine at McGill University. Barbara A. Koenig, Ph.D., is Professor of Bioethics and Medical Anthropology, based at the Institute for Health & Aging, University of California, San Francisco. She also serve as Director of the UCSF Program in Bioethics. J. Mark Lambright, M.B.A., is the Chairman, Trident Advisors, LLC - CEO (Interim), Private Access, Inc. Mark Lambright has been a senior executive of a number of healthcare and technology companies ranging in size from startup to multi-billion in revenue. John Mattison, M.D., is Assistant Medical Director, KP, SCAL, Chief Health Information Officer. Founder of CDA/CCD (XML standard for healthcare interoperability). Co-Editor of Healthcare Information Technology (2017 McGraw Hill). Christopher J. O'Donnell, M.D., M.P.H., is Chief, Cardiology Section and Director, Center for Population Genomics, of the Boston VA Healthcare System and co-Principal Investigator (Chief Scientist) of the national VA Million Veteran Program; and is VA Contact Principal Investigator of the NIH All of Us Research Program. He is also a faculty member of the Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Associate Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School. Arti K. Rai, J.D., is the Elvin R. Latty Professor of Law and co-Director of the Center for Innovation Policy at Duke Law. Laura L. Rodriguez, Ph.D., is the Director of the Division of Policy, Communications, and Education at the National Human Genome Research Institute. Tania Simoncelli, M.S., is the Director of Science Policy at the Chan Zuckerberg Initiative. Formerly Executive Director, Count Me In at the Broad Institute, Assistant Director of Forensic Science and Biomedical Innovation, White House Office of Science & Technology Policy, and Science Advisor to the American Civil Liberties Union. Sharon F. Terry, M.A., is the president and CEO of Genetic Alliance. Adrian Thorogood, B.C.L./LL.B., is a lawyer and Academic Associate at the Centre of Genomics and Policy at McGill University in Montreal, Canada. He manages the Regulatory and Ethics Work Stream of the Global Alliance for Genomics and Health. Michael S. Watson, M.S., Ph.D., is the Executive Director, American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics and ACMG Foundation for Genetic and Genomic Medicine and an Adjunct Professor of Pediatrics at Washington University School of Medicine. John T. Wilbanks is the Chief Commons Officer at Sage Bionetworks, and co-PI on awards for AllofUs Research Program, ELSI Issues in Unregulated Mobile Research, CTSA Center for Data To Health. Robert Cook-Deegan, M.D., is a Professor in the School for the Future of Innovation in Society at Arizona State University.

Drawing on a landscape analysis of existing data-sharing initiatives, in-depth interviews with expert stakeholders, and public deliberations with community advisory panels across the U.S., we describe features of the evolving medical information commons (MIC). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1073110519840480DOI Listing

Response to spousal death according to faith in traditional Chinese culture among older Chinese: Moderation by occupation.

Authors:
Haimin Pan

Health Soc Care Community 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

School of Sociology and Anthropology, Xiamen University, Xiamen, China.

This study aims to enrich the knowledge of the effects of traditional Chinese culture on bereavement outcomes among older Chinese, and to examine the moderating role of occupation in the relationship between traditional culture and bereavement outcomes. A sample of 352 older Chinese in widowhood was interviewed by quota sampling. A scale of faith in traditional Chinese culture was developed and confirmed by factor analysis. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/hsc.12763DOI Listing

Climatic adaptation in human inferior nasal turbinate morphology: Evidence from Arctic and equatorial populations.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Anthropology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa.

Objectives: The nasal turbinates directly influence the overall size, shape, and surface area of the nasal passages, and thus contribute to intranasal heat and moisture exchange. However, unlike the encapsulating walls of the nasal cavity, ecogeographic variation in nasal turbinate morphology among humans has not yet been established. Here we investigate variation in inferior nasal turbinate morphology in two populations from climatically extreme environments. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/ajpa.23840
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.23840DOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads

Sex ratio and maternal age in a natural fertility, subsistence population: Daughters, sons, daughters.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Maternal and Child Health Laboratory, Faculty of Health Sciences, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada.

Objective: To evaluate putative links between birth sex ratios (BSR = male:female births) and maternal age in a traditional, agricultural, natural fertility population. Metabolic energy, social support, and the costs and benefits associated with producing sons versus daughters can affect BSR. These variables fluctuate with maternal age. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/ajpa.23838
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.23838DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

[Effects of CSN4 knockdown on proliferation and apoptosis of breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells].

Yi Chuan 2019 Apr;41(4):318-326

School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200438, China.

Breast cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors endangering women. It has been found that the subunits of the COP9 complex are closely related to the occurrence and development of malignant tumors, and the CSN4 subunit plays an important role in regulating the whole complex. In the breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231, we successfully established a lentivirus-mediated CSN4-knockdown cell line. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.16288/j.yczz.18-278DOI Listing

Illness representations and coping practices for self-managing hypertension among sub-Saharan Africans: A comparative study among Ghanaian migrants and non-migrant Ghanaians.

Patient Educ Couns 2019 Apr 5. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

Department of Public Health, Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam University Medical Centres, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Objective: Hypertension (HTN) control is a major obstacle among sub-Saharan African populations partly due to poor self-management. We explored and compared how persons' social and physical context shapes their illness representations regarding HTN and the coping strategies they develop and adapt to mitigate challenges in self-managing HTN.

Methods: A cross sectional multisite qualitative study using semi-structured interviews among 55 Ghanaians with HTN living in The Netherlands and urban and rural Ghana. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S07383991193013
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pec.2019.04.008DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Pituitary-testicular Axis Dysfunction in Methimazole-induced Hypothyroidism in Rats.

J Vet Res 2019 Mar 22;63(1):161-166. Epub 2019 Mar 22.

Department of Comparative Anatomy and Anthropology, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, 20-033 Lublin, Poland.

Introduction: Thyroid hormones play a major role in the regulation of testicular maturation and growth and in the control of Sertoli and Leydig cell functions in adulthood. When naturally occurring, hypothyroidism causes male hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and Sertoli cell function disorders, but when iatrogenic and methimazole-induced its influence on the pituitary-testicular axis function with respect to Sertoli cells is poorly known.

Material And Methods: Male adult Wistar rats (n = 14) were divided into two groups: E - taking methimazole orally for 60 days, and C - control animals. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/jvetres-2019-0008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6458557PMC
March 2019
1 Read

Regimes of Expectations: An Active Inference Model of Social Conformity and Human Decision Making.

Front Psychol 2019 29;10:679. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Neuroimaging, University College London, London, United Kingdom.

How do humans come to acquire shared expectations about how they ought to behave in distinct normalized social settings? This paper offers a normative framework to answer this question. We introduce the computational construct of 'deontic value' - based on active inference and Markov decision processes - to formalize conceptions of social conformity and human decision-making. Deontic value is an attribute of choices, behaviors, or action sequences that inherit directly from deontic cues in our econiche (e. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.00679DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6452780PMC

Kynurenic acid as the neglected ingredient of commercial baby formulas.

Sci Rep 2019 Apr 15;9(1):6108. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology, Medical University of Lublin, Jaczewskiego 8b, PL-20090, Lublin, Poland.

The global increase in resorting to artificial nutritional formulas replacing breastfeeding has been identified among the complex causes of the obesity epidemic in infants and children. One of the factors recently recognized to influence metabolism and weight gain is kynurenic acid (KYNA), an agonist of G protein-coupled receptor (GPR35). Therefore the aim of the study was to determine the concentration of KYNA in artificial nutritional formulas in comparison with its level in human breast milk and to evaluate developmental changes in rats exposed to KYNA enriched diet during the time of breastfeeding. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-019-42646-4
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-42646-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6465401PMC
April 2019
1 Read

MeshMonk: Open-source large-scale intensive 3D phenotyping.

Sci Rep 2019 Apr 15;9(1):6085. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department of Electrical Engineering, ESAT/PSI, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

Dense surface registration, commonly used in computer science, could aid the biological sciences in accurate and comprehensive quantification of biological phenotypes. However, few toolboxes exist that are openly available, non-expert friendly, and validated in a way relevant to biologists. Here, we report a customizable toolbox for reproducible high-throughput dense phenotyping of 3D images, specifically geared towards biological use. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-019-42533-y
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-42533-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6465282PMC
April 2019
1 Read