6,365 results match your criteria Anthropological Notebooks[Journal]


"Systematic Semiotic Organisation and Anthropologisation of the Science of Soul - Towards Cultural Psychology".

Integr Psychol Behav Sci 2020 May 26. Epub 2020 May 26.

Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University, 11a, Ilia Chavchavadze Avenue, Building 3, 0179, Tbilisi, Georgia.

Zagaria et al. identified fundamental issues and inconsistencies in the understanding of the fundamentals of psychological science. This paper attempts to trace the roots of the inconsistency and incompleteness of definitions of basic psychological concepts in the historical development of psychological science that led to the fragmentation of psychology into the various reductionistic and monological "schools of thoughts". Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12124-020-09541-4DOI Listing

['Beauty' - a Topic for Psychiatry? Reflections on the Relation Between Psychopathology and the Body].

Authors:
Paul Hoff

Praxis (Bern 1994) 2020 ;109(7):504-508

Psychiatrische Universitätsklinik, Klinik für Psychiatrie, Psychotherapie und Psychosomatik, Zürich.

'Beauty' - a Topic for Psychiatry? Reflections on the Relation Between Psychopathology and the Body Establishing a relation with one's own physicality is an essential element of our anthropological framework (conditio humana). This relation can be disturbed by critical life events as well as by mental disorders, which is here illustrated by clinical examples. Furthermore we discuss the prerequisites for a stable therapeutical relationship with this particular group of patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1024/1661-8157/a003492DOI Listing
January 2020

How do geneticists and prospective parents interpret and negotiate an uncertain prenatal genetic result? An analysis of clinical interactions.

J Genet Couns 2020 May 26. Epub 2020 May 26.

Center for Fetal Diagnostics, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark.

Variants of unknown significance (VUS) and susceptibility loci (SL) are a challenge in prenatal genetic counseling. The aim of this study was to explore how such uncertain genetic results are communicated, negotiated, and made meaningful by genetics healthcare providers and couples in the actual clinical setting where results are delivered. The study was based on an anthropological approach and the material consisted of observations and audio-recordings from 16 purposively sampled genetic counseling sessions where prenatal testing had identified an inherited or de novo VUS or SL result. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jgc4.1290DOI Listing

Questionnaire data analysis using information geometry.

Sci Rep 2020 May 25;10(1):8633. Epub 2020 May 25.

Computational Science Lab, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, 1098 XH, The Netherlands.

The analysis of questionnaires often involves representing the high-dimensional responses in a low-dimensional space (e.g., PCA, MCA, or t-SNE). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-63760-8DOI Listing

Trading zones in a colony: Transcultural techniques at missionary stations in the Dutch East Indies, 1860 - 1940.

Soc Stud Sci 2020 May 24:306312720925913. Epub 2020 May 24.

Department of History, Technical University of Darmstadt, Germany.

Global histories of technology tend to tell one-sided stories of transfer and exploitation, and they usually analyze the activities of large corporations, nation states or the military. By focusing on missionary societies in the colonial era, this article tells a different story. On the basis of primary sources from German missionaries in the Dutch East Indies, it shows how the application of various techniques at missionary stations was the outcome of transcultural interaction. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0306312720925913DOI Listing

How do guideline developers identify, incorporate and report patient preferences? An international cross-sectional survey.

BMC Health Serv Res 2020 May 24;20(1):458. Epub 2020 May 24.

Toronto General Hospital Research Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, Canada.

Background: Guidelines based on patient preferences differ from those developed solely by clinicians and may promote patient adherence to guideline recommendations. There is scant evidence on how to develop patient-informed guidelines. This study aimed to describe how guideline developers identify, incorporate and report patient preferences. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12913-020-05343-xDOI Listing

Cemetery hoodoo: Culture, ritual crime and forensic archaeology.

Authors:
Sharon K Moses

Forensic Sci Int 2020 14;2:17-23. Epub 2019 Oct 14.

Department of Anthropology, Northern Arizona University, P.O. Box 15200, Flagstaff, AZ, 86011-5200, United States.

In 2012 and 2014 the author was a consultant to law enforcement regarding crime scenes of a ritualistic nature in the American Southeast. These ritual activities were expressions of folk magic spells linked to certain West African traditions. These spells were used for magico-religious, curative, and 'justice' (i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fsisyn.2019.10.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7219123PMC
October 2019

Human milk sIgA antibody in relation to maternal nutrition and infant vulnerability in northern Kenya.

Evol Med Public Health 2019 11;2019(1):201-211. Epub 2019 Nov 11.

Center for Studies in Demography and Ecology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

Background: The maternal buffering hypothesis posits that human lactation biology can buffer milk against the mild-to-moderate malnutrition that occurred routinely in evolutionary history through the mobilization of maternal body reserves. This perspective may provide insights for understanding human milk immune content variation, such as milk sIgA, which protects infants' intestines from microbial colonization and prevents diarrheal disease.

Objective: To investigate how maternal delivery of sIgA to milk may vary in a way that can buffer milk against maternal malnutrition, while taking into consideration infants' varying needs for immune protection across age or by sex. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/emph/eoz030DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7216193PMC
November 2019

Avatar Creation in Videogaming: Between Compensation and Constraint.

Games Health J 2020 May 12. Epub 2020 May 12.

Department of Anthropology and Geography, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado.

We examine the extent that videogame avatars provide players with opportunities for identity exploration, aiming to test the findings of self-discrepancy theory research on the user/avatar relationship with novel cognitive anthropological methods. Specifically, we examine if avatar traits are (more representative of players' ideal rather than actual self) or (more representative of players' actual self) as a function of players' self-esteem. Utilizing cognitive anthropological methods, we examine the relationship between and . Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/g4h.2019.0118DOI Listing

Anatomical and biochemical evidence for Treponema pallidum in a 19th to early twentieth century skeletal cadaver.

Forensic Sci Med Pathol 2020 May 11. Epub 2020 May 11.

Anthropology Department, Wisconsin Lutheran College, Generac Hall, 8800 W Bluemound Rd, Milwaukee, WI, 53226, USA.

This report summarizes findings relating to the biochemical and skeletal evidence for Treponema pallidum in an unusually old case of congenital syphilis. In 1951, the Milwaukee Public Museum acquired skeletal remains from the Surgical School of Marquette University. The male was identified as a 60-65-year-old, that was suffering from congenital syphilis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12024-020-00243-2DOI Listing

Methodology for assessment of public health emergency preparedness and response synergies between institutional authorities and communities.

BMC Health Serv Res 2020 May 11;20(1):411. Epub 2020 May 11.

European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, Gustav III:s Boulevard 40, 169 73, Solna, Sweden.

Background: This paper describes a participatory methodology that supports investigation of the synergistic collaboration between communities affected by infectious disease outbreak events and relevant official institutions. The core principle underlying the methodology is the recognition that synergistic relationships, characterised by mutual trust and respect, between affected communities and official institutions provide the most effective means of addressing outbreak situations.

Methods: The methodological approach and lessons learned were derived from four qualitative case studies including (i) two tick-borne disease events (Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever in Spain, 2016, and tick-borne encephalitis in the Netherlands, 2016); and (ii) two outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis (norovirus in Iceland, 2017, and verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli [VTEC] in Ireland, 2018). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12913-020-05298-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7212582PMC

Migration-related emotional distress among Vietnamese psychiatric patients in Germany: An interdisciplinary, mixed methods study.

Transcult Psychiatry 2020 May 11:1363461520920329. Epub 2020 May 11.

Department of Psychiatry, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Campus Benjamin Franklin.

Culture and socialization influence how individuals perceive and express emotional distress. Research therefore, must consider the context to capture individual experiences. However, the majority of studies on factors associated with emotional distress among migrants use quantitative approaches, limiting an in-depth understanding. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1363461520920329DOI Listing

The Middle Pleistocene hominin mandible from Payre (Ardèche, France).

J Hum Evol 2020 May 4;144:102775. Epub 2020 May 4.

UMR 7194 CNRS/MNHN-Département Homme Environnement, Musée de l'Homme, 17 Place du Trocadéro, Paris, 75016, France.

Although Neandertals are the best-known fossil hominins, the tempo and evolutionary processes in their lineage are strongly debated. This is in part due to the scarcity of the fossil record, in particular before the marine isotopic stage (MIS) 5. In 2010, a partial hominin mandible was discovered at the Middle Paleolithic site of Payre (France) in a layer that is dated to the end of MIS 8/beginning of MIS 7, a time period for which very few fossils are known in Europe. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhevol.2020.102775DOI Listing

[Correlation between sarcopenia and albuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes].

Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao 2020 Mar;40(3):407-412

Department of Nephrology, Chongqing General Hospital, Chongqing 400013, China.

Objective: To investigate the correlation between sarcopenia and albuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).

Methods: A total of 360 T2DM patients (including 206 male and 154 female patients) hospitalized in our hospital between January, 2015 and December, 2018 were enrolled. According to their medical history and laboratory test results, the patients were divided into albuminuria group (=122) and non-albuminuria group (=238). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12122/j.issn.1673-4254.2020.03.20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7167324PMC

[“If you don’t push, you’ll kill your child!” Midwives and mothers faced with perinatal death (Togo)].

Authors:
Pack Douti

Sante Publique 2020 ;HS1(S1):93-104

Introduction: The latest global reports show that in 2016, 2.6 million children died worldwide during their first month of birth. Also, the proportion of neonatal deaths among the deaths of children under 5 increased between 1990 and 2015: from 26% in 1990 to 35% in 2015 [1]. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3917/spub.200.0093DOI Listing
January 2020

[“Forgetting” the newborn: An anthropological analysis in Mauritania].

Authors:
Hélène Kane

Sante Publique 2020 ;HS1(S1):81-91

Introduction: In Mauritania, as in other West African countries, a series of actions has been taken to combat neonatal mortality. Considering the mixed success of these programs, we wondered how health workers are investing in neonatal care.

Method: An anthropological study was carried out in a locality in the Senegal River Valley. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3917/spub.200.0081DOI Listing
January 2020

[The newborn in Western and Central Africa: Understanding prior to acting].

Authors:
Alain Prual

Sante Publique 2020 ;HS1(S1):7-15

The newborn was forgotten by public health programs aiming at reducing Under 5 Mortality in Western and Central Africa until the launch of the "Every Newborn Action Plan" in 2014. If neonatal mortality has significantly decreased in the region since 1990 (-35%), the actual number of newborn deaths has increased due to the slow reduction rate combined with high fertility rates. Stillbirths display the same patterns with rates and numbers as high, doubling the number of viable pregnancies ending with the loss of the fetus and/or newborns. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3917/spub.200.0007DOI Listing
January 2020

[Using anthropology to improve newborn health care in Cameroon].

Sante Publique 2020 ;HS1(S1):45-52

Introduction: Policy directions in the health sector are based on research which provides insight into implemented actions and helps to formulate improvement recommendations for health. In Cameroon, an innovative experience of anthropological research on newborn health was followed by a process of appropriating findings by the Ministry of Public Health aiming at improving the quality of care. We suggest reporting this Cameroonian experience of interdisciplinary collaboration and involved research. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3917/spub.200.0045DOI Listing
January 2020

[What sociotechnical arrangement is responsible for newborn deaths in West Africa?]

Authors:
Yannick Jaffré

Sante Publique 2020 ;HS1(S1):29-43

Introduction: In Sub-Saharan Africa, despite the establishment of many health care programs, neonatal mortality rates remain extremely high. From a medical point of view, the main causes are obstetric, along with diarrhea and pneumonia. Understanding how these risks and pathogenic situations are constructed cannot be achieved without observing, analyzing, and understanding the underlying gestures and meaning systems. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3917/spub.200.0029DOI Listing
January 2020

[Newborn care: International recommendations confronted with the social challenges surrounding birth].

Authors:
Hélène Kane

Sante Publique 2020 ;HS1(S1):17-27

Introduction: Driven by international programs specifically targeting neonatal survival, a set of recommended care practices is being promoted in West Africa. Using data from a multi-centered anthropological study, we enquire as to how local practices integrate the recommendations disseminated by these programs.

Method: The surveys were conducted in rural localities in five countries : Benin, Burkina Faso, Mali, Mauritania, and Togo. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3917/spub.200.0017DOI Listing
January 2020

[Lay knowledge and newborn care in Benin - home-made remedies for umbilical cord care going against recommendations].

Sante Publique 2020 ;HS1(S1):105-111

Introduction: Driven by international programs specifically targeting neonatal survival, a set of recommended care practices is being promoted in West Africa. Using data from a multi-centered anthropological study, we enquire as to how local practices integrate the recommendations disseminated by these programs.

Method: The surveys were conducted in rural localities in five countries: Benin, Burkina Faso, Mali, Mauritania, and Togo. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3917/spub.200.0105DOI Listing
January 2020

The expression of ribonuclear protein IMP3 in laryngeal carcinogenesis.

Pathol Res Pract 2020 Apr 19:152974. Epub 2020 Apr 19.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Rijeka, Rijeka, Croatia; Clinic for Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Clinical Hospital Centre Rijeka, Rijeka, Croatia. Electronic address:

Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate the expression of ribonuclear protein IMP3 in laryngeal carcinogenesis, together with other biomarkers of carcinogenesis (Ki-67, p53 and cyclin D1), and to evaluate their predictive values.

Methods: The study included 153 patients divided into three groups: 68 operated for primary invasive laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC); 41 with precancerous lesions of atypical and abnormal hyperplasia; 44 with hyperplastic laryngeal nodule without atypia. Tissue microarray technique was used for immunohistochemical analysis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prp.2020.152974DOI Listing

Human platelet antigen 1-6, 9 and 15 in the Iranian population: An anthropological genetic analysis.

Sci Rep 2020 May 4;10(1):7442. Epub 2020 May 4.

Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Human platelet antigens (HPAs) are membranous glycoproteins considered as alloantigens due to their polymorphisms. HPA-incompatibility in multiple pregnancies or blood transfusion can induce the development of alloantibodies leading to thrombocytopenia. The frequency of HPAs varies among populations, so that deep knowledge of HPA frequencies will help us to reduce those incompatibilities. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-64469-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7198494PMC

Predictors of household food insecurity and relationship with obesity in First Nations communities in British Columbia, Manitoba, Alberta and Ontario.

Public Health Nutr 2020 May 5:1-13. Epub 2020 May 5.

Département de Nutrition, Faculté de Médecine, Université de Montréal, Montréal, QCH3T 1A8, Canada.

Objective: To further understandings of household food insecurity in First Nations communities in Canada and its relationship with obesity.

Design: Analysis of a cross-sectional dataset from the First Nations Food, Nutrition and Environment Study representative of First Nations communities south of the 60th parallel. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess associations between food insecurity and sociodemographic factors, as well as the odds of obesity among food-insecure households adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1368980019004889DOI Listing

Costly teeth? Gestation length in primates suggests that neonate dentition is not expensive to produce.

Anat Rec (Hoboken) 2020 May 4. Epub 2020 May 4.

Interdepartmental Doctoral Program in Anthropological Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York, USA.

Variation in the relationship between gestation length and body mass can arise because different types of tissue require varying amounts of energy to build, and not all species build such tissues in the same proportions. Given that a pregnant female has a finite amount of energy, trade-offs between investment in different tissues may occur. Here we examine if dental precocity accounts for variation in primate gestation length. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ar.24411DOI Listing

Contested legitimacy for anthropologists involved in medical humanitarian action: experiences from the 2014-2016 West Africa Ebola epidemic.

Anthropol Med 2020 Jun 4;27(2):125-143. Epub 2020 May 4.

Department of Global Health and Development, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, England.

The growing involvement of anthropologists in medical humanitarian response efforts has laid bare the moral and ethical consequences that emerge from humanitarian action. Anthropologists are well placed to examine the social, political, cultural and economic dimensions that influence the spread of diseases, and the ways in which to respond to epidemics. Anthropologists are also, with care, able to turn a critical lens on medical humanitarian response. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13648470.2020.1742576DOI Listing

Sickle cell anemia in the state of Maranhão: a haplotype study.

Ann Hematol 2020 Jun 4;99(6):1225-1230. Epub 2020 May 4.

Laboratory of Hematology, Department of Pharmacy, Federal University of Maranhão, Av. dos Portugueses, 1966, São Luís, MA, 65.080-805, Brazil.

Sickle cell anemia (SCA) is the most severe form of sickle cell disease caused by homozygosity of the β-gene (S/S or ββ) and has worldwide distribution. Six polymorphic sites in the β-globin gene cluster were analyzed from a sample of 56 chromosomes of patients with SCA from the state of Maranhão, northeastern Brazil. PCR-RFLP showed that the CAR haplotype was predominant with a frequency of 64. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00277-020-04048-9DOI Listing

A case of 46,XX/46,XX chimerism in a phenotypically normal woman.

Int J Legal Med 2020 May 2. Epub 2020 May 2.

Institute of Forensic and Anthropological Science, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.

Chimerism is the presence of two genetically different cell lines within a single organism, which is rarely observed in humans. Usually, chimerism in the human body is revealed by the finding of an abnormal phenotype during a medical examination or is unexpectedly detected in routine genetic analysis. However, the incidence or underlying mechanism of chimerism remains unclear due to the lack of information on this infrequent biological event. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00414-020-02296-yDOI Listing

Spatial patterns in Sr/Sr ratios in modern human dental enamel and tap water from the Netherlands: Implications for forensic provenancing.

Sci Total Environ 2020 Apr 26;729:138992. Epub 2020 Apr 26.

Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Faculty of Science, Geology & Geochemistry cluster, de Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam, the Netherlands; Co van Ledden Hulsebosch Center (CLHC), Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

The analysis of strontium isotope ratios in human dental enamel has become important in the fields of archaeological and forensic science for determining provenance and hence mobility. The prerequisite for the approach relies on a correlation between dietary Sr intake and the underlying local geology. This premise is brought into question for anthropological forensic investigations by the increasing globalisation of food supply, the establishment of nation-wide or international supermarket chains, and increasing urbanisation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.138992DOI Listing

"Blessed by the algorithm": Theistic conceptions of artificial intelligence in online discourse.

Authors:
Beth Singler

AI Soc 2020 Apr 30:1-11. Epub 2020 Apr 30.

Junior Research Fellow in Artificial Intelligence, Homerton College, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, England.

"My first long haul flight that didn't fill up and an empty row for me. I have been blessed by the algorithm ". The phrase 'blessed by the algorithm' expresses the feeling of having been fortunate in what appears on your feed on various social media platforms, or in the success or virality of your content as a creator, or in what gig economy jobs you are offered. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00146-020-00968-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7191134PMC

Walkability and its association with walking/cycling and body mass index among adults in different regions of Germany: a cross-sectional analysis of pooled data from five German cohorts.

BMJ Open 2020 Apr 28;10(4):e033941. Epub 2020 Apr 28.

Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK.

Objectives: To examine three walkability measures (points of interest (POI), transit stations and impedance (restrictions to walking) within 640 m of participant's addresses) in different regions in Germany and assess the relationships between walkability, walking/cycling and body mass index (BMI) using generalised additive models.

Setting: Five different regions and cities of Germany using data from five cohort studies.

Participants: For analysing walking/cycling behaviour, there were 6269 participants of a pooled sample from three cohorts with a mean age of 59. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2019-033941DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7213856PMC

Coalescing traditions-Coalescing people: Community formation in Pannonia after the decline of the Roman Empire.

PLoS One 2020 29;15(4):e0231760. Epub 2020 Apr 29.

Institute of Archaeological Sciences, ELTE-Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest, Hungary.

The decline of the Roman rule caused significant political instability and led to the emergence of various 'Barbarian' powers. While the names of the involved groups appeared in written sources, it is largely unknown how these changes affected the daily lives of the people during the 5th century AD. Did late Roman traditions persist, did new customs emerge, and did both amalgamate into new cultural expressions? A prime area to investigate these population and settlement historical changes is the Carpathian Basin (Hungary). Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0231760PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7190109PMC

Moral dilemmas involving anthropological and ethical dimension in healthcare curriculum.

Nurs Ethics 2020 Apr 29:969733020914382. Epub 2020 Apr 29.

Catholic University of Murcia (UCAM), Spain.

Background: Currently a variety of novel scenarios have appeared within nursing practice such as confidentiality of a patient victim of abuse, justice in insolvent patients, poorly informed consent delivery, non-satisfactory medicine outputs, or the possibility to reject a recommended treatment. These scenarios presuppose skills that are not usually acquired during the degree. Thus, the implementation of teaching approaches that promote the acquisition of these skills in the nursing curriculum is increasingly relevant. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0969733020914382DOI Listing

Sexual Dimorphism in Osteometric Indices of Kuri Cattle Skulls.

Niger J Physiol Sci 2019 Dec 31;34(2):159-165. Epub 2019 Dec 31.

Department of Veterinary Anatomy, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria..

This work investigated 30 skulls of the Kuri cattle comprising 15 males and 15 females, of three age groups, 10 young (9 months to less than 3 years), 10 middle aged (3 to 5 years) and 10 aged (greater than 5 years). The skulls were prepared using hot water maceration technique. Using Ruler, thread and divider; 59 Osteometric parameters were taken to determine sexual dimorphism, only 6 indices showed statistically significant differences between the sexes. Read More

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December 2019

Tempo and Pattern of Avian Brain Size Evolution.

Curr Biol 2020 Apr 18. Epub 2020 Apr 18.

Department of Anthropology, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794, USA; Division of Anthropology, American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY 10024, USA.

Relative brain sizes in birds can rival those of primates, but large-scale patterns and drivers of avian brain evolution remain elusive. Here, we explore the evolution of the fundamental brain-body scaling relationship across the origin and evolution of birds. Using a comprehensive dataset sampling> 2,000 modern birds, fossil birds, and theropod dinosaurs, we infer patterns of brain-body co-variation in deep time. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2020.03.060DOI Listing

Anthropological perspectives on the trajectory from institutionalisation to community care in Irish psychiatry.

Authors:
B D Kelly

Ir J Psychol Med 2020 Apr 24:1-10. Epub 2020 Apr 24.

Department of Psychiatry, Trinity College Dublin, Trinity Centre for Health Sciences, Tallaght University Hospital, Dublin, D24 NR0A, Ireland.

The trajectory of the anthropology of Irish psychiatry, like the trajectory of Irish psychiatry itself, is indelibly shaped by the history of Ireland's mental hospitals. This paper focuses on three works concerning the anthropology of psychiatry in Ireland: Nancy Scheper-Hughes's book, Saints Scholars and Schizophrenics: Mental Illness in Rural Ireland, an anthropological study (1977/2001); Eileen Kane's paper, 'Stereotypes and Irish identity: mental illness as a cultural frame', from Studies: An Irish Quarterly Review (1986) and Michael D'Arcy's conference paper, 'The hospital and the Holy Spirit: psychotic subjectivity and institutional returns in Dublin, Ireland' (2015), based on his PhD dissertation. All three publications explore the relationship between institutional and community psychiatric care in Ireland, concluding with the work of D'Arcy which, like much good anthropology, is rooted in the lived experience of mental illness and combines deep awareness of the past with tolerance of multiple, ostensibly contradictory narratives in the present. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/ipm.2020.21DOI Listing

Comic book-based educational program on epilepsy for high-school students: Results from a pilot study in the Gran Chaco region, Bolivia.

Epilepsy Behav 2020 Jun 18;107:107076. Epub 2020 Apr 18.

Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences and Advanced Technologies "G.F. Ingrassia", Section of Neurosciences, University of Catania, Catania, Italy. Electronic address:

Introduction: In low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), epilepsy still represents a significant health challenge. In the Bolivian Chaco, we have previously found high levels of stigma towards people with epilepsy (PWE) especially expressed by high school students. In order to increase the knowledge about epilepsy, we have tested a comic book-based intervention on a sample of high school students. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yebeh.2020.107076DOI Listing

Mitochondrial DNA haplogrouping to assist with the identification of unknown service members from the World War II Battle of Tarawa.

Forensic Sci Int Genet 2020 Apr 2;47:102291. Epub 2020 Apr 2.

Armed Forces Medical Examiner System, Dover Air Force Base, DE, USA.

The World War II Battle of Tarawa, 1943, was a devastating conflict that resulted in losses of more than 1100 American and 4690 Japanese troops. The United States government aims to identify and repatriate the remains of all missing American service members through the Defense Prisoner of War/Missing in Action (POW/MIA) Accounting Agency (DPAA) and its partners such as the Armed Forces Medical Examiner System's Armed Forces DNA Identification Laboratory (AFMES-AFDIL). Remains associated with the Battle of Tarawa have been recovered from field excavations conducted by History Flight, a DPAA strategic partner, as well as from the National Memorial Cemetery of the Pacific (NMCP) in Hawaii where unknowns have been disinterred for identification. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fsigen.2020.102291DOI Listing

The Power of Shared Embodiment: Renegotiating Non/belonging and In/exclusion in an Ephemeral Community of Care.

Cult Med Psychiatry 2020 Apr 19. Epub 2020 Apr 19.

Collaborative Research Center 1171 Affective Societies: Dynamics of Social Coexistence in Mobile Worlds, Freie Universität Berlin, Habelschwerdter Allee 45, 14195, Berlin, Germany.

In this article, we explore the power of shared embodiment for the constitution of an affective community. More specifically, we examine how people afflicted by long-term, arduous experiences of war, migration, and discrimination sensually articulate and, at least temporarily, renegotiate feelings of non/belonging, care, and in/exclusion. Methodologically, we draw on emplaced ethnography and systematic phenomenological go-alongs with a group of elderly migrants, born and raised in different parts of Vietnam, who had arrived in Germany within different legal-political frameworks and who, during the time of our psychological-anthropological research, frequented the same psychotherapeutic clinic. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11013-020-09675-5DOI Listing

Life and Death in Italian Prehistory: The Case of the Sailor from Spina.

World Neurosurg 2020 Apr 13;139:106-110. Epub 2020 Apr 13.

Department of Biomedical Sciences and Surgical Specialties, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy. Electronic address:

Background: There are few reported cases in the literature of spinal injuries from the past, and all of them resulted in the death of the individual or led to severe health consequences. From the historical record, it is well known there were no cures or treatments for spinal lesions in the past. Given the paucity of historical documents focused on this topic, anthropological research on spinal injuries can contribute with important information regarding the medical history of this kind of trauma. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2020.03.153DOI Listing

Mitochondrial genomes from Bronze Age Poland reveal genetic continuity from the Late Neolithic and additional genetic affinities with the steppe populations.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2020 Jun 15;172(2):176-188. Epub 2020 Apr 15.

Molecular Biology Techniques Laboratory, Faculty of Biology, Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, Poznań, Poland.

Objective: In this work we aim to investigate the origins and genetic affinities of Bronze Age populations (2,400-1,100 BC) from the region of southern Poland and to trace maternal kinship patterns present in the burials of those populations by the use of complete mitochondrial genomes.

Materials And Methods: We performed ancient DNA analyses for Bronze Age individuals from present-day Poland associated with the Strzyżow culture, the Mierzanowice culture, and the Trzciniec Cultural circle. To obtain complete mitochondrial genomes, we sequenced genomic libraries using Illumina platform. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.24057DOI Listing
June 2020
2.379 Impact Factor

Anthropological significance of sexual dimorphism and the unique structural anatomy of the frontal sinuses: Review of the available literature.

J Pak Med Assoc 2020 Apr;70(4):713-718

Department of Anatomy, Bahria University Medical and Dental College, Karachi.

Frontal sinuses have unique anatomical features that are distinct to every individual. Radiographic measurement of the frontal sinus is becoming popular in identifying deceased persons in cases where soft tissue remains are not found such as in cases of mass explosions and natural disasters. The aim of this review article is to highlight the significance of employing the method of radiography of frontal sinuses in the process of identification of human bodies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5455/JPMA.32528DOI Listing

Relationships between osteoarthritic changes (osteophytes, porosity, eburnation) based on historical skeletal material.

Ann Hum Biol 2020 Apr 16:1-10. Epub 2020 Apr 16.

Department of the Prevention of Environmental Hazards and Allergology, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland.

Three main diagnostic types of osteoarthritic changes are distinguished in clinical and anthropological literature: osteophytes, porosity, and eburnation. The nature of the relationship between these changes and how lesions progress over time is still unclear. The aim of the present study is the analysis of the relationships between osteophytes, porosity, and eburnation based on skeletal material. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03014460.2020.1741682DOI Listing

Evolutionary history of modern Samoans.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2020 Apr 14;117(17):9458-9465. Epub 2020 Apr 14.

Institute for Genome Sciences, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201;

Archaeological studies estimate the initial settlement of Samoa at 2,750 to 2,880 y ago and identify only limited settlement and human modification to the landscape until about 1,000 to 1,500 y ago. At this point, a complex history of migration is thought to have begun with the arrival of people sharing ancestry with Near Oceanic groups (i.e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1913157117DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7196816PMC

Foretelling the Phenotype of a Genomic Sequence.

IEEE/ACM Trans Comput Biol Bioinform 2020 Apr 6. Epub 2020 Apr 6.

Estimating phenotypic features (physical and biochemical traits) in a biological organism from their genomic sequence alone and/or environmental conditions has major applications in anthropological paleontology and criminal forensics, for example. To what extent do genomic sequences generally and causally determine phenotypic features of organisms, environmental conditions aside? We present results of two studies, one in blackfly (Insecta:Diptera:Simuliidae) larvae in two species (Simulium ignescens and S. tunja) with four phenotypic features, including the area and spot pattern of the cephalic apotome (in the form of a latin cross on the dorsal side of the head), the postgenal cleft (area under the head on the ventral side) and general body color in larva specimens; the second in strains of Arabidopsis thaliana. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TCBB.2020.2985349DOI Listing

Evaluation of Morphological Characteristics of the Human Ear in Young Adults.

J Craniofac Surg 2020 Apr 10. Epub 2020 Apr 10.

Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Jodhpur, India.

Introduction And Objectives: Human external ear is a morphologically complex structure and plays a vital role in the collection of sound. The present study would provide the information regarding the shape and size of the various morphological structures of the ear in normal individuals which may help the plastic surgeons to reconstruct the anatomy of the deformed ear and the physical and forensic anthropologists to study variations and establishing its use as a biometrics. The aim of the study was the morphological examination of the ear and its features to investigate the biological variations, sex differences, bilateral variations and further attempt to provide a database of external ears of a normal north Indian population. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SCS.0000000000006394DOI Listing

CT examination and 3D analysis of Egyptian animal mummies.

Radiol Med 2020 Apr 11. Epub 2020 Apr 11.

Reparto di Radiologia, Ospedale Fatebenefratelli, ASST Fatebenefratelli Sacco, Milano, Piazza Principessa Clotilde 3, 20121, Milan, Italy.

Aim: To report our experience on CT investigation of animal mummies, focusing on the practical and radiological aspects of the study, the acquisition parameters and the different reconstruction techniques.

Materials And Methods: Thirteen mummies underwent CT examination on the same CT scanner (Siemens sensation) with the following acquisition parameters: 120 kV; 140 mAs; slice thickness: 1 mm; reconstruction interval: 0.7 mm; and rotation time: 0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11547-020-01192-0DOI Listing

Large-scale identification of human bone remains via SNP microarray analysis with reference SNP database.

Forensic Sci Int Genet 2020 Apr 2;47:102293. Epub 2020 Apr 2.

Institute of Forensic and Anthropological Science, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea; Department of Forensic Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea. Electronic address:

Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are valuable markers complementary to conventional forensic short tandem repeat (STR) markers in genetic typing, with potential advantages in challenging forensic casework. With the advent of high-throughput technologies, such as microarrays and massively parallel sequencing, the use of SNP typing has now expanded to large-scale forensic applications. Herein, a forensic case is presented to demonstrate the usefulness of SNP typing in identifying large-scale human bone remains with reference database construction. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fsigen.2020.102293DOI Listing