8,203 results match your criteria Anthrax

Amorphous amEu-NHBDC and amTb-NHBDC as ratio fluorescence probes for smartphone-integrated naked eye detection of bacillus anthracis biomarker.

Talanta 2023 Sep 14;267:125164. Epub 2023 Sep 14.

School of Chemical Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19A YuQuan Road, Beijing, 100049, PR China; Binzhou Institute of Technology, Weiqiao-UCAS Science and Technology Park, Binzhou, 256606, Shandong Province, PR China. Electronic address:

The abnormal concentration of anthrax spore biomarker 2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic acid (2,6-DPA) will seriously affect public health. Therefore, a sensitive and rapid assay for 2,6-DPA monitoring is of vital importance. In this work, novel nano-sized amorphous Eu-NHBDC (amEu-NHBDC) and amorphous Tb-NHBDC (amTb-NHBDC) metal organic frameworks are prepared by adjusting the ratio of metal and ligand, respectively. Read More

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September 2023

Anthrax toxins-producing Bacillus spp. isolated from handwashing stations during COVID-19 pandemic in Lagos, Nigeria.

J Infect Dev Ctries 2023 Aug 31;17(8):1076-1080. Epub 2023 Aug 31.

Nigerian Institute of Medical Research, Yaba-Lagos, Nigeria.

Introduction: The virulence binding factor, protective antigen (pag) and poly-D-γ-glutamate capsular (cap) genes, peculiar to Bacillus anthracis are located in the pXO1 and pXO2 plasmids which are transferable horizontally to related species called "cereus group". The cereus group are usually isolated from the environmental/food samples and have been implicated in debilitating human and animal anthrax-like diseases. This study was designed to investigate the presence of the anthrax virulence genes in different Bacillus spp. Read More

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Chemical decontamination of methamphetamine and ephedrine using an activated peroxide-containing cleaning solution.

Forensic Sci Int 2023 Oct 8;351:111816. Epub 2023 Sep 8.

School of Chemical Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand. Electronic address:

Manufacture and recreational use of methamphetamine can result in widespread chemical contamination throughout a property. Hydrogen peroxide (HO)-based cleaning products have shown success against a number of chemical contaminants including agents of chemical warfare, and biological contaminants such as anthrax. They are considered to be environmentally friendly and economically viable and, as such, are used by many companies within the methamphetamine decontamination industry. Read More

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October 2023

Spatial and phylogenetic patterns reveal hidden infection sources of Bacillus anthracis in an anthrax outbreak in Son La province, Vietnam.

Infect Genet Evol 2023 Sep 7;114:105496. Epub 2023 Sep 7.

Spatial Epidemiology and Ecology Research Laboratory, Department of Geography, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA; Emerging Pathogens Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA. Electronic address:

Bacillus anthracis, the bacterial cause of anthrax, is a zoonosis affecting livestock and wildlife often spilling over into humans. In Vietnam, anthrax has been nationally reportable since 2015 with cases occurring annually, mostly in the northern provinces. In April 2022, an outbreak was reported in Son La province following the butchering of a water buffalo, Bubalus bubalis. Read More

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September 2023

Design of Cytotoxic T Cell Epitopes by Machine Learning of Human Degrons.

bioRxiv 2023 Aug 23. Epub 2023 Aug 23.

Antigen processing is critical for producing epitope peptides that are presented by HLA molecules for T cell recognition. Therapeutic vaccines aim to harness these epitopes for priming cytotoxic T cell responses against cancer and pathogens, but insufficient processing often reduces vaccine efficacy through limiting the quantity of epitopes released. Here, we set out to improve antigen processing by harnessing protein degradation signals called degrons from the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Read More

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Membrane binding and pore formation is Ca -dependent for the binary toxin.

bioRxiv 2023 Sep 21. Epub 2023 Sep 21.

The binary toxin (CDT) enters host cells via endosomal delivery like many other 'AB'-type binary toxins. In this study, the cell-binding component of CDT, termed CDTb, was found to bind and form pores in lipid bilayers upon depleting free Ca ion concentrations, and not by lowering pH, as found for other binary toxins (i.e. Read More

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September 2023

Cutaneous anthrax causing periorbital cellulitis - A rare entity in current era.

IDCases 2023 15;33:e01871. Epub 2023 Aug 15.

Infectious Disease Consultant, Department of Infectious Diseases, Christian Medical College, Vellore, India.

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Genomic and Phylogenetic Analysis of Biovar Isolated from Archival Bone Samples Reveals Earlier Natural History of the Pathogen.

Pathogens 2023 Aug 20;12(8). Epub 2023 Aug 20.

Spatial Epidemiology & Ecology Research Laboratory, Department of Geography, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA.

(1) Background: biovar (Bcbva) was the causative agent of an anthrax-like fatal disease among wild chimpanzees in 2001 in Côte d'Ivoire. Before this, there had not been any description of an anthrax-like disease caused by typically avirulent Genetic analysis found that had acquired two anthrax-like plasmids, one a pXO1-like toxin producing plasmid and the other a pXO2-like plasmid encoding capsule. Bcbva caused animal fatalities in Cameroon, Democratic Republic of Congo, and the Central African Republic between 2004 and 2012. Read More

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United States' regulatory approved pharmacotherapies for nuclear reactor explosions and anthrax-associated bioterrorism.

Expert Opin Drug Saf 2023 18;22(9):783-788. Epub 2023 Aug 18.

The SmartState Center for Medication Safety and Efficacy and the Department of Family Medicine, the University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina, (CLB, PG, KK, CN, WJH), the City of Hope National Cancer Institute Designated Comprehensive Cancer Center, Duarte, California (CLB, SJR), Imperial College London (RPG), the University of Nebraska College of Medicine/Omaha Omaha, Nebraska (JOA), Duarte, California (CLB).

Introduction: Nuclear reactor incidents and bioterrorism outbreaks are concerning public health disasters. Little is known about US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved agents that can mitigate consequences of these events. We review FDA data supporting regulatory approvals of these agents. Read More

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Bacillus anthracis spores are internalized in human lung epithelial cells by Rab GTPase-supported macropinocytosis.

Microb Pathog 2023 Oct 14;183:106305. Epub 2023 Aug 14.

Pulmonary, Critical Care & Sleep Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK, 73104, USA; Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK, 73104, USA; Pulmonary Section, Medicine Service, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Oklahoma City, OK, 73104, USA. Electronic address:

Inhalation anthrax, the deadliest form of the disease, requires inhaled B. anthracis spores to escape from the alveolar space and travel to the mediastinal lymph nodes, from where the vegetative form of the pathogen disseminates, resulting in a rapidly fatal outcome. The role of epithelia in alveolar escape is unclear, but previous work suggests these epithelial cells are involved in this process. Read More

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October 2023

Methods to Activate the NLRP1 Inflammasome.

Methods Mol Biol 2023 ;2696:211-222

State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China.

In addition to being the first NLR protein proposed to form inflammasome, NLRP1s have attracted much attention in their activation mechanism by post-translational auto-proteolysis to generate C-terminal CARD containing fragment to form inflammasome. Among NLRP1, mouse NLRP1B but not human NLRP1 is well studied for its activation by lethal toxin. As dissecting the cellular components involved in NLRP1-associated diseases is highly dependent on NLRP1 inflammasome activation, experiments that can lead to NLRP1 activation is of pivotal importance to elucidate the biological role and the activation mechanism of NLRP1 especially in human. Read More

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Surveillance of bacterial disease in wartime Ukraine.

BMJ Mil Health 2023 Aug 11. Epub 2023 Aug 11.

School of Population Health, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

This analysis considers circulation of bacterial disease in wartime Ukraine. Anthrax, brucellosis, botulism and tularaemia are all naturally occurring in the country. The causative agents of these diseases also formed components of the biological weapons programme the Russian Federation inherited from the Soviet Union at the end of the Cold War. Read More

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The global burden of neglected zoonotic diseases: Current state of evidence.

One Health 2023 Dec 29;17:100595. Epub 2023 Jun 29.

GBADs programme, University of Liverpool, United Kingdom.

The majority of emerging infectious diseases are zoonoses, most of which are classified as "neglected". By affecting both humans and animals, zoonoses pose a dual burden. The disability-adjusted life year (DALY) metric quantifies human health burden since it combines mortality and morbidity. Read More

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December 2023

Variation in herbivore space use: comparing two savanna ecosystems with different anthrax outbreak patterns in southern Africa.

Mov Ecol 2023 Jul 31;11(1):46. Epub 2023 Jul 31.

Wisconsin Cooperative Wildlife Research Unit, U.S. Geological Survey, Department of Forest and Wildlife Ecology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, 53706, USA.

Background: The distribution of resources can affect animal range sizes, which in turn may alter infectious disease dynamics in heterogenous environments. The risk of pathogen exposure or the spatial extent of outbreaks may vary with host range size. This study examined the range sizes of herbivorous anthrax host species in two ecosystems and relationships between spatial movement behavior and patterns of disease outbreaks for a multi-host environmentally transmitted pathogen. Read More

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Whole genome sequencing of Bacillus anthracis isolated from animal in the 1960s, Brazil, belonging to the South America subclade.

Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis 2023 Sep 25;100:102027. Epub 2023 Jul 25.

Laboratório Estratégico, Instituto Adolfo Lutz, São Paulo, Brazil.

Bacillus anthracis causes anthrax disease and can affect humans and other animals. This zoonotic disease has an impact on the economic and health aspects. B. Read More

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September 2023

Cancer Drug Delivery Systems Using Bacterial Toxin Translocation Mechanisms.

Bioengineering (Basel) 2023 Jul 7;10(7). Epub 2023 Jul 7.

Department of Urology, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

Recent advances in targeted cancer therapy hold great promise for both research and clinical applications and push the boundaries in finding new treatments for various currently incurable cancers. However, these therapies require specific cell-targeting mechanisms for the efficient delivery of drug cargo across the cell membrane to reach intracellular targets and avoid diffusion to unwanted tissues. Traditional drug delivery systems suffer from a limited ability to travel across the barriers posed by cell membranes and, therefore, there is a need for high doses, which are associated with adverse reactions and safety concerns. Read More

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Self-calibrated HAp:Tb-EDTA paper-based probe with dual emission ratio fluorescence for binary visual and fluorescent detection of anthrax biomarker.

Talanta 2024 Jan 23;266(Pt 1):124979. Epub 2023 Jul 23.

Analytical & Testing Center, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610064, Sichuan, China; College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610064, Sichuan, China.

Development of the portable device is significant for sensitive and rapid detection of an anthrax biomarker dipicolinic acid (DPA), existing in the B. anthracis. In this work, a novel HAp:Tb-EDTA paper-based ratiometric fluorescent sensor was obtained by a simple one-pot method for rapid and sensitive DPA detection. Read More

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January 2024

The Utilization and Development of Viral Vectors in Vaccines as a Prophylactic Treatment Against Ebola Virus as an Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Disease.

Mini Rev Med Chem 2023 Jul 25. Epub 2023 Jul 25.

University of Florida Department of Medicinal Chemistry Gainesville United States.

Alongside the prescription of commonly used antivirals, such as acyclovir, remdesivir, oseltamivir, and ciprofloxacin, the most efficient way to prevent or treat communicable diseases is by vaccination. Vaccines have been the most efficient way to prevent or treat highly transmissible infectious agents, such as Ebola, Anthrax, and Dengue Fever. Most epidemics of these highly transmissible infectious agents occur in places, such as South America, Central America, Tropical Asia, and Africa, where the availability of resources and access to adequate healthcare are limited. Read More

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Determination of 2, 6-dipicolinic acid as an Anthrax biomarker based on the enhancement of copper nanocluster fluorescence by reversible aggregation-induced emission.

Mikrochim Acta 2023 Jul 17;190(8):291. Epub 2023 Jul 17.

National Engineering Research Center of Personalized Diagnostic and Therapeutic Technology, Central South University, Changsha, 410083, China.

The weak fluorescence efficiency of copper nanoclusters (Cu NCs) limits their wide applications in biosensing and bioimaging areas, while the aggregation-induced emission (AIE) effect is anticipated to increase their luminescence intensity. Herein, the weak red emission of Cu NCs is increased considerably by the addition of lanthanide Tb, ascribed to the AIE effect. Monitoring of spores contamination can be carried out by determining the level of 2, 6-dipicolinic acid (DPA), which is a marker of spores. Read More

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A highly stable chain-based Eu metal-organic framework as a turn-on and blue-shift luminescent sensor for dipicolinic acid.

Dalton Trans 2023 Aug 1;52(30):10567-10573. Epub 2023 Aug 1.

School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangxi Provincial Key Laboratory of Functional Molecular Materials Chemistry, Jiangxi University of Science and Technology, Ganzhou 341000, Jiangxi Province, P.R. China.

The development of a rapid and selective method for the identification of dipicolinic acid (DPA), a specific biomarker in spores, is of great importance for the avoidance of anthrax infection. Herein, a chain-based Eu metal-organic framework with the formula {[Eu(BTDB)(μ-OH)(HO)]·solvents} (JXUST-38, HBTDB = (benzo[][1,2,5]thiadiazole-4,7-diyl)dibenzoic acid) was obtained using 2-fluorobenzoic acid as the pH regulator. JXUST-38 exhibits good chemical and thermal stability and can specifically recognize DPA in ,-dimethylformamide solution through luminescence enhancement and blue-shift effects with a detection limit of 0. Read More

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Research on Detection of Ultra-Low Concentration Anthrax Protective Antigen Using Graphene Field-Effect Transistor Biosensor.

Sensors (Basel) 2023 Jun 22;23(13). Epub 2023 Jun 22.

The Institute of NBC Defense PLA Army, Beijing 102205, China.

Background: Protective antigen (PA) is an important biomarker for the early diagnosis of anthrax, and the accurate detection of protective antigen under extremely low concentration conditions has always been a hot topic in the biomedical field. To complete the diagnosis of anthrax in a timely manner, it is necessary to detect PA at extremely low concentrations, as the amount of PA produced in the early stage of anthrax invasion is relatively small. Graphene field-effect transistor (Gr-FET) biosensors are a new type of material for preparing biosensors, with the advantages of a short detection time and ultra-low detection limit. Read More

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AB Toxins as High-Affinity Ligands for Cell Targeting in Cancer Therapy.

Int J Mol Sci 2023 Jul 7;24(13). Epub 2023 Jul 7.

The Nanomedicine Group, Institute Valdecilla-IDIVAL, 39011 Santander, Spain.

Conventional targeted therapies for the treatment of cancer have limitations, including the development of acquired resistance. However, novel alternatives have emerged in the form of targeted therapies based on AB toxins. These biotoxins are a diverse group of highly poisonous molecules that show a nanomolar affinity for their target cell receptors, making them an invaluable source of ligands for biomedical applications. Read More

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Protective antigen of Bacillus anthracis in combination with TLR4 or TLR5 agonist confers superior protection against lethal challenge in mouse model.

Microbes Infect 2023 Jul 10:105183. Epub 2023 Jul 10.

Microbiology Division, Defence Research & Developmental Establishment, Jhansi Road, Gwalior-474002. Electronic address:

The immunogenicity and protective ability of recombinant PA (rPA) with two innate immune system modulators, i.e., monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA), a TLR4 agonist, and recombinant flagellin C (FliC), a TLR5 agonist, were studied in the mouse model. Read More

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Crystal structure and induced stability of trimeric BxpB: implications for the assembly of BxpB-BclA complexes in the exosporium of .

mBio 2023 Aug 29;14(4):e0117223. Epub 2023 Jun 29.

Department of Microbiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham , Birmingham, Alabama, USA.

The outermost exosporium layer of spores, the causative agents of anthrax, is comprised of a basal layer and an external hair-like nap. The nap includes filaments composed of trimers of the collagen-like glycoprotein BclA. Essentially all BclA trimers are attached to the spore in a process in which part of the 38-residue amino-terminal domain (NTD) of BclA forms an extremely stable interaction with the basal layer protein BxpB. Read More

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The C2 Toxin Subunit C2IIa Delivers Enzymes with Positively Charged N-Termini into the Cytosol of Target Cells.

Toxins (Basel) 2023 Jun 9;15(6). Epub 2023 Jun 9.

Institute of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmacology of Natural Products, Ulm University Medical Center, 89081 Ulm, Germany.

The binary () C2 toxin consists of two non-linked proteins. The proteolytically activated binding/transport subunit C2IIa forms barrel-shaped homoheptamers, which bind to cell surface receptors, mediate endocytosis, and translocate the enzyme subunit C2I into the cytosol of target cells. Here, we investigate whether C2IIa can be harnessed as a transporter for proteins/enzymes fused to polycationic tags, as earlier demonstrated for the related anthrax toxin transport subunit PA. Read More

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Red-emissive carbon nanostructure-anchored molecularly imprinted Er-BTC MOF: a biosensor for visual anthrax monitoring.

Analyst 2023 Jul 10;148(14):3379-3391. Epub 2023 Jul 10.

Research Laboratory of Spectrometry & Micro and Nano Extraction, Department of Chemistry, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran 16846-13114, Iran.

Investigating effective fluorescence strategies for real-time monitoring of dipicolinic acid (DPA) is of paramount importance in safeguarding human health. Herein, we present the design of a desirable red-emissive carbon nanostructure anchoring a molecularly imprinted Er-BTC MOF as a fluorescence biosensor for the visual determination of DPA. DPA is a biomarker of , a subcategory of serious infectious diseases and bioweapons. Read More

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Human anthrax in India in recent times: A systematic review & risk mapping.

One Health 2023 Jun 13;16:100564. Epub 2023 May 13.

Indian Council of Medical Research, New Delhi, India.

The disease anthrax occurs generally in herbivores and the causative organism () infects humans who come in contact with infected animals or their products The persistence of anthrax spores for decades and its lethality contribute to its biowarfare potential. We conducted this systematic review along with risk mapping to investigate the spatio-temporal distribution, clinico-epidemiological, socio-behavioural and programmatic issues pertaining to anthrax in India over the last two decades. Peer reviewed quantitative and qualitative studies and grey literature comprising weekly reports of the 'Integrated Disease Surveillance Program' (IDSP), were accessed for extracting data. Read More

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