7,267 results match your criteria Anthrax


Evaluation of in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of strains isolated during anthrax outbreaks in Italy from 1984 to 2017.

J Vet Sci 2018 Dec 4. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Puglia e della Basilicata, Anthrax Reference Institute of Italy, Foggia 71121, Italy.

Anthrax, caused by , is a non-contagious infectious disease that affects a wide range of animal species (primarily ruminants), as well as humans. Due to the often fatal outcome in human cases, the quick administration of definitely effective antimicrobials is crucial either as prophylaxis or for the therapy of clinical cases. In this study, a total of 110 strains, temporally, geographically and genetically different, isolated during anthrax outbreaks in Italy from 1984 to 2017, were screened for their susceptibility towards 16 clinically relevant antimicrobial agents using the broth microdilution method. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Decoupling environmental effects and host population dynamics for anthrax, a classic reservoir-driven disease.

PLoS One 2018 12;13(12):e0208621. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Spatial Epidemiology and Ecology Research Laboratory, Department of Geography, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, United States of America.

Quantitative models describing environmentally-mediated disease transmission rarely focus on the independent contribution of recruitment and the environment on the force of infection driving outbreaks. In this study we attempt to investigate the interaction between external factors and host's population dynamics in determining the outbreaks of some indirectly transmitted diseases. We first built deterministic and stochastic compartmental models based on anthrax which were parameterized using information from literature and complemented with field observations. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Closed Genome Sequence Obtained Using Hybrid Nanopore/Illumina Assembly of a Bacillus anthracis Isolate from an Animal-Skin-Drum-Associated Anthrax Case in the United Kingdom.

Microbiol Resour Announc 2018 Oct 4;7(13). Epub 2018 Oct 4.

Public Health England, National Infection Service, Salisbury, Wiltshire, United Kingdom.

Hybrid assembly of Illumina/Nanopore reads produced a complete closed genome sequence of the chromosome and two virulence plasmids of a Bacillus anthracis isolate from a fatal anthrax case in the United Kingdom linked to imported animal skins/drums; this provides a high-quality representative sequence for this lineage. Read More

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October 2018

A niosome formulation modulates the Th1/Th2 bias immune response in mice and also provides protection against anthrax spore challenge.

Int J Nanomedicine 2018 14;13:7427-7440. Epub 2018 Nov 14.

Laboratory of Molecular Biology and Genetic Engineering, School of Biotechnology, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India,

Introduction: In this study, we have investigated the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a niosomal formulation encapsulating protective antigen (PA) and PA domain 4 (D4) of .

Methods: Nonionic surfactant-based vesicles (NISV) + PA and NISV + D4 were prepared from span-60 and cholesterol by reverse-phase evaporation method and were evaluated for in vitro characteristics and immunological studies.

Results: Particle characterization using transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy analysis showed that the niosomal formulation was spherical in shape. Read More

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November 2018

Human monoclonal anti-protective antigen antibody for the low-dose post-exposure prophylaxis and treatment of Anthrax.

BMC Infect Dis 2018 Dec 10;18(1):640. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Key Laboratory of Antibody Technique of National Health and Family Planning Commission, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, 210029, China.

Background: Disease caused by Bacillus anthracis is often accompanied by high mortality primarily due to toxin-mediated injury. In the early disease course, anthrax toxins are secreted; thus, antibiotic use is limited to the early stage. In this regard, antibodies against the toxin component, protective antigen (PA), play an important role in protecting against anthrax. Read More

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December 2018

Ecological niche modeling as a tool for prediction of the potential geographic distribution of Bacillus anthracis spores in Tanzania.

Int J Infect Dis 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Oslo, Norway.

Introduction: Anthrax is caused by the spore-forming, Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus anthracis. The aim of the study was to predict the potential distribution of B. anthracis in Tanzania and produce epidemiological evidence for management of anthrax outbreaks in the country. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads
2.330 Impact Factor

Seneca Valley virus attachment and uncoating mediated by its receptor anthrax toxin receptor 1.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2018 Dec 4. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Drug Discovery Center for Infectious Disease, College of Pharmacy, Nankai University, 300071 Tianjin, China.

Seneca Valley virus (SVV) is an oncolytic picornavirus with selective tropism for neuroendocrine cancers. SVV mediates cell entry by attachment to the receptor anthrax toxin receptor 1 (ANTXR1). Here we determine atomic structures of mature SVV particles alone and in complex with ANTXR1 in both neutral and acidic conditions, as well as empty "spent" particles in complex with ANTXR1 in acidic conditions by cryoelectron microscopy. Read More

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December 2018
7 Reads

Infection with a Nonencapsulated Strain in Rabbits-The Role of Bacterial Adhesion and the Potential for a Safe Live Attenuated Vaccine.

Toxins (Basel) 2018 Dec 1;10(12). Epub 2018 Dec 1.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Israel Institute for Biological Research, P.O. Box 19, Ness Ziona 74100, Israel.

Nonencapsulated (∆pXO2) strains are commonly used as vaccines and for anthrax research, mainly in the mouse model. Previously, we demonstrated that the infection of rabbits, intranasally or subcutaneously, with the spores of a fully virulent strain results in the systemic dissemination of the bacteria, meningitis, and death, whereas ∆pXO2 strains are fully attenuated in this animal model. We used the intravenous inoculation of rabbits to study the pathogenicity of the ∆pXO2 strain infection. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Spatio-temporal epidemiology of anthrax in Hippopotamus amphibious in Queen Elizabeth Protected Area, Uganda.

PLoS One 2018 28;13(11):e0206922. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Department of Veterinary Population Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, Minneapolis, United States of America.

Background: Anthrax is a zoonotic disease primarily of herbivores, caused by Bacillus anthracis, a bacterium with diverse geographical and global distribution. Globally, livestock outbreaks have declined but in Africa significant outbreaks continue to occur with most countries still categorized as enzootic, hyper endemic or sporadic. Uganda experiences sporadic human and livestock cases. Read More

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November 2018

Seneca Valley Virus Exploits TEM8, a Collagen Receptor Implicated in Tumor Growth.

Front Oncol 2018 6;8:506. Epub 2018 Nov 6.

Department of Chemistry, Wichita State University, Wichita, KS, United States.

Recent studies reveal that Seneca Valley Virus (SVV) exploits tumor endothelial marker 8 (TEM8) for cellular entry, the same surface receptor pirated by bacterial-derived anthrax toxin. This observation is particularly significant as SVV is a known oncolytic virus which selectively infects and kills tumor cells, particularly those of neuroendocrine origin. TEM8 is a transmembrane glycoprotein that is preferentially upregulated in some tumor cell and tumor-associated stromal cell populations. Read More

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November 2018
3 Reads

Sugar-based bactericides targeting phosphatidylethanolamine-enriched membranes.

Nat Commun 2018 11 19;9(1):4857. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Centro de Química e Bioquímica, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade de Lisboa, Ed. C8, Campo Grande, 1749-016, Lisboa, Portugal.

Anthrax is an infectious disease caused by Bacillus anthracis, a bioterrorism agent that develops resistance to clinically used antibiotics. Therefore, alternative mechanisms of action remain a challenge. Herein, we disclose deoxy glycosides responsible for specific carbohydrate-phospholipid interactions, causing phosphatidylethanolamine lamellar-to-inverted hexagonal phase transition and acting over B. Read More

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November 2018
5 Reads

Immunogenicity of anthrax recombinant peptides and killed spores in goats and protective efficacy of immune sera in A/J mouse model.

Sci Rep 2018 Nov 16;8(1):16937. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Department of Veterinary Tropical Diseases, University of Pretoria, Onderstepoort, South Africa.

Anthrax is primarily recognized as an affliction of herbivores with incubation period ranging from three to five days post-infection. Currently, the Sterne live-spore vaccine is the only vaccine approved for control of the disease in susceptible animals. While largely effective, the Sterne vaccine has several problems including adverse reactions in sensitive species, ineffectiveness in active outbreaks and incompatibility with antibiotics. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Phenotypic variations in transferred progeny due to genotype of surrogate mother: Surrogate mother modulates transferred progeny.

Mol Hum Reprod 2018 Nov 16. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Institute of Cytology and Genetics SB RAS, Department of Experimental Animal Genetic Resources, Laboratory of the Genetics of Experimental Animals, Novosibirsk, Russia.

Study Question: Does the genotype of the surrogate mother modulate the body composition and immunity of her offspring?

Summary Answer: C57BL/6J (B6) progenies carried by immunodeficient NOD SCID (NS) mothers had increased adaptive, but decreased innate, immune responsiveness in comparison with the same genotype offspring carried by immunocompetent mothers, B6 and BALB/c (C); the B6 progenies carried by the same genotype mothers also showed higher body fat than the others.

What Is Known Already: Differences in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes between mother and foetus is considered as an important factor in prenatal embryo development, whereas the impact of such dissimilarity on the phenotype of the mature progeny is unclear.

Study Design Size, Duration: Transplantation of two-cell mouse embryos into recipient females of the different MHC (H2) genotypes was used as an approach to simulate three variants of the immunogenic mother-foetus interaction: 1) bidirectional immunogenic dialogue between B6 (H2b haplotype) embryos and C (H2d haplotype) surrogate mother; 2) one-way immunogenic interaction between B6 embryos and immunodeficient NS (H2g7 haplotype) surrogate mother; and 3) reduced immunogenetic dialogue between embryos and surrogate mother of the same H2b haplotype resulting in only a maternal response to HY antigens of male foetuses. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Vaccination and risk of lone atrial fibrillation in the active component United States military.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2018 Nov 16. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

a Immunization Safety Office, Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion , National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Purpose: To evaluate the hypothesis that receipt of anthrax vaccine adsorbed (AVA) increases the risk of atrial fibrillation in the absence of identifiable underlying risk factors or structural heart disease (lone atrial fibrillation).

Methods: We conducted a retrospective population-based cohort study among U.S. Read More

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November 2018
3 Reads

Photorhabdus luminescens Tc toxin is inhibited by the protease inhibitor MG132 and activated by protease cleavage resulting in increased binding to target cells.

Cell Microbiol 2018 Nov 15:e12978. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

Institute for Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.

Photorhabdus luminescens Tc toxins consist of the cell-binding component TcA, the linker component TcB, and the enzyme component TcC. TccC3, a specific isoform of TcC, ADP-ribosylates actin and causes redistribution of the actin cytoskeleton. TccC5, another isoform of TcC, ADP-ribosylates and activates Rho proteins. Read More

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November 2018

Genetic characteristics of Bacillus anthracis isolated from northwestern China from 1990 to 2016.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 Nov 12;12(11):e0006908. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China.

Anthrax is a global re-emerging zoonotic disease and is an endemic disease in China, especially in rural regions. In this study, the general characteristics of human anthrax outbreaks that occurred in areas of northwestern China over the past decade have been described. Meanwhile, the genetic characteristics of Bacillus anthracis isolated from these areas from 1990 to 2016 were analyzed by means of canonical single-nucleotide polymorphism (canSNP) analysis and multilocus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) with 15 markers. Read More

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November 2018
7 Reads

Anthrax Exposure, Belief in Exposure, and Postanthrax Symptoms Among Survivors of a Bioterrorist Attack on Capitol Hill.

Disaster Med Public Health Prep 2018 Nov 12:1-6. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

5The Altshuler Center for Education & Research at Metrocare Services and the Department of Psychiatry,The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center,Dallas,Texas.

Background: Following chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear disasters, medically unexplained symptoms have been observed among unexposed persons.

Objectives: This study examined belief in exposure in relation to postdisaster symptoms in a volunteer sample of 137 congressional workers after the 2001 anthrax attacks on Capitol Hill.

Methods: Postdisaster symptoms, belief in exposure, and actual exposure status were obtained through structured diagnostic interviews and self-reported presence in offices officially designated as exposed through environmental sampling. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Medical Spending for the 2001 Anthrax Letter Attacks.

Disaster Med Public Health Prep 2018 Nov 12:1-8. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

2Concordia University, Montreal,Quebec.

ABSTRACTIntroductionThis paper assesses the total medical costs associated with the US anthrax letter attacks of 2001. This information can be used to inform policies, which may help mitigate the potential economic impacts of similar bioterrorist attacks.

Methods: Journal publications and news reports were reviewed to establish the number of people who were exposed, were potentially exposed, received prophylactics, and became ill. Read More

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November 2018

Loss of Bacitracin Resistance Due to a Large Genomic Deletion among Strains.

mSystems 2018 Sep-Oct;3(5). Epub 2018 Oct 30.

Division of Infection and Immunity, Research Center for Zoonosis Control, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan.

Bacillus anthracis is a Gram-positive endospore-forming bacterial species that causes anthrax in both humans and animals. In Zambia, anthrax cases are frequently reported in both livestock and wildlife, with occasional transmission to humans, causing serious public health problems in the country. To understand the genetic diversity of B. Read More

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October 2018
7 Reads

Design and use of a novel substrate for simple, rapid, and specific early detection of anthrax infection.

PLoS One 2018 9;13(11):e0207084. Epub 2018 Nov 9.

Research and Development, List Biological Laboratories, Inc., Campbell, California, United States of America.

Bacillus anthracis is a major biological warfare threat. The inhalation form of infection can kill quickly. While antibiotic treatment is effective, if diagnosis is delayed, the rapidly produced toxin may already be present in lethal amounts. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Effect of late endosomal DOBMP lipid and traditional model lipids of electrophysiology on the anthrax toxin channel activity.

Biochim Biophys Acta Biomembr 2018 Nov 23;1860(11):2192-2203. Epub 2018 Aug 23.

Department of Biology, The Catholic University of America, 620 Michigan Ave NE, Washington 20064, DC, USA. Electronic address:

Anthrax toxin action requires triggering of natural endocytic transport mechanisms whereby the binding component of the toxin forms channels (PA) within endosomal limiting and intraluminal vesicle membranes to deliver the toxin's enzymatic components into the cytosol. Membrane lipid composition varies at different stages of anthrax toxin internalization, with intraluminal vesicle membranes containing ~70% of anionic bis(monoacylglycero)phosphate lipid. Using model bilayer measurements, we show that membrane lipids can have a strong effect on the anthrax toxin channel properties, including the channel-forming activity, voltage-gating, conductance, selectivity, and enzymatic factor binding. Read More

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November 2018
4 Reads

Petrobactin Protects against Oxidative Stress and Enhances Sporulation Efficiency in Bacillus anthracis Sterne.

MBio 2018 Nov 6;9(6). Epub 2018 Nov 6.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA

is a Gram-positive bacillus that under conditions of environmental stress, such as low nutrients, can convert from a vegetative bacillus to a highly durable spore that enables long-term survival. The sporulation process is regulated by a sequential cascade of dedicated transcription factors but requires key nutrients to complete, one of which is iron. Iron acquisition by the iron-scavenging siderophore petrobactin is required for vegetative growth of under iron-depleted conditions and in the host. Read More

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November 2018
3 Reads

Twenty-first century emergency response efforts of the Commissioned Corps of the US Public Health Service.

J Emerg Manag 2018 Sep/Oct;16(5):311-319

Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, College of Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida.

The impact of the Commissioned Corps of the US Public Health Service (Commissioned Corps) on the health and safety of the nation spans more than two centuries. The public health efforts of the highly qualified health professionals of this often-underreported uniformed service include fighting threats like the great flu pandemic of 1918, the anthrax attacks, Ebola, and natural disasters such as Hurricanes Maria, Irma, and Katrina. As we near the first quarter of the twenty-first century, it is important to take a snapshot of the critical contributions and response efforts the Commissioned Corps has made in the first 18 years of the twenty-first century. Read More

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November 2018
3 Reads

Obiltoxaximab (Anthim) for inhalation anthrax.

Authors:

Med Lett Drugs Ther 2018 Sep;60(1555):150-151

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September 2018
3 Reads

Effect of over expressing protective antigen on global gene transcription in Bacillus anthracis BH500.

Sci Rep 2018 Oct 31;8(1):16108. Epub 2018 Oct 31.

Biotechnology Core Laboratory, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestives and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) NIH, Maryland, USA.

Protective antigen (PA) of Bacillus anthracis is being considered as a vaccine candidate against anthrax and its production has been explored in several heterologous host systems. Since the systems tested introduced adverse issues such as inclusion body formation and endotoxin contamination, the production from B. anthracis is considered as a preferred method. Read More

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October 2018
3 Reads
5.080 Impact Factor

Structural basis for anthrax toxin receptor 1 recognition by Seneca Valley Virus.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2018 11 31;115(46):E10934-E10940. Epub 2018 Oct 31.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Otago, 9054 Dunedin, New Zealand;

Recently, the use of oncolytic viruses in cancer therapy has become a realistic therapeutic option. Seneca Valley Virus (SVV) is a newly discovered picornavirus, which has earned a significant reputation as a potent oncolytic agent. Anthrax toxin receptor 1 (ANTXR1), one of the cellular receptors for the protective antigen secreted by , has been identified as the high-affinity cellular receptor for SVV. Read More

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November 2018
4 Reads

A case of Anthrax in two captive pumas (Puma concolor).

J Vet Med Sci 2018 Dec 29;80(12):1875-1880. Epub 2018 Oct 29.

Department of Microbiology, Veterinary Faculty, Kafkas University, 36100, Kars, Turkey.

In this study, we aimed to report anthrax cases in two pumas, brought to the Pathology Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Erciyes University for suspected poisoning upon their sudden death at the Kayseri Zoo, in Turkey. In the necropsy, enlargement and malacia were observed in the spleens. The cut surfaces of the spleens were in extreme red-blackish color. Read More

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December 2018

An Optimal Control Model to Reduce and Eradicate Anthrax Disease in Herbivorous Animals.

Authors:
Ana-Maria Croicu

Bull Math Biol 2018 Oct 24. Epub 2018 Oct 24.

Department of Mathematics, Kennesaw State University, 275 Kennesaw State University Rd., MD#1102, Kennesaw, GA, 30144, USA.

Anthrax is a fatal infectious disease which can affect animals and humans alike. Anthrax outbreaks occur periodically in animals, and they are of particular concern in herbivores, due to substantial economic consequences associated with animal death. The purpose of this study is to develop optimal control interventions that focus on vaccinating susceptible animals and/or removing infected carcasses. Read More

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October 2018

Temporal patterns of anthrax outbreaks among livestock in Lesotho, 2005-2016.

PLoS One 2018 24;13(10):e0204758. Epub 2018 Oct 24.

Section Veterinary Public Health, Department of Paraclinical Science, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa.

Background: Although anthrax is endemic in Lesotho, limited information is available on the patterns of the disease among livestock animals. This study investigated temporal patterns of anthrax outbreaks and cases among livestock animals in Lesotho.

Methods: Secondary data of anthrax outbreaks reported to the Department of Livestock Services between January 2005 and December 2016 was used for this study. Read More

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October 2018

Role of a Small Molecule in the Modulation of Cell Death Signal Transduction Pathways.

ACS Infect Dis 2018 Nov 5. Epub 2018 Nov 5.

School of Applied Life Sciences , Keck Graduate Institute , 535 Watson Drive , Claremont , California 91711 , United States.

Inflammasomes activate caspase-1 in response to molecular signals from pathogens and other dangerous stimuli as a part of the innate immune response. A previous study discovered a small-molecule, 4-fluoro- N'-[1-(2-pyridinyl)ethylidene]benzohydrazide, which we named DN1, that reduces the cytotoxicity of anthrax lethal toxin (LT). We determined that DN1 protected cells irrespectively of LT concentration and reduced the pathogenicity of an additional bacterial exotoxin and several viruses. Read More

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November 2018
5 Reads

The Case for Human Serum as a Highly Preferable Sample Matrix for Detection of Anthrax Toxins.

ACS Sens 2018 Nov 6;3(11):2303-2310. Epub 2018 Nov 6.

This paper describes preliminary results on the surprising impact of human serum as a sample matrix on the detectability of protective antigen (PA) and lethal factor (LF), two antigenic protein markers of Bacillus anthracis, in a heterogeneous immunometric assay. Two sample matrices were examined: human serum and physiological buffer. Human serum is used as a specimen in the diagnostic testing of potentially infected individuals. Read More

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November 2018
7 Reads

Probing Translocation in Mutants of the Anthrax Channel: Atomically Detailed Simulations with Milestoning.

J Phys Chem B 2018 Nov 5;122(45):10296-10305. Epub 2018 Nov 5.

Biological and Engineering Sciences , Sandia National Laboratories , Albuquerque , New Mexico 87185 , United States.

Anthrax toxin consists of a cation channel and two protein factors. Translocation of the anthrax protein factors from endosomal to the cytosolic compartment is a complex process which utilizes the cation channel. An atomically detailed understanding of the function of the anthrax translocation machinery is incomplete. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Development and application of a Bacillus anthracis protective antigen domain-1 in-house ELISA for the detection of anti-protective antigen antibodies in cattle in Zambia.

PLoS One 2018 18;13(10):e0205986. Epub 2018 Oct 18.

Division of Infection and Immunity, Research Center for Zoonosis Control, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan.

In Zambia, anthrax outbreaks among cattle are reported on nearly an annual basis. Presently, there is a lack of serological assays and information to develop an anthrax management and control strategy. In this study, an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on recombinant protective antigen domain 1 (rPA-D1) of Bacillus anthracis was developed and used to detect anti-PA antibodies in cattle in Zambia. Read More

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October 2018
3.230 Impact Factor

A Bacteriophage T4 Nanoparticle-Based Dual Vaccine against Anthrax and Plague.

MBio 2018 Oct 16;9(5). Epub 2018 Oct 16.

Department of Biology, The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC, USA

and , the causative agents of anthrax and plague, respectively, are two of the deadliest pathogenic bacteria that have been used as biological warfare agents. Although Biothrax is a licensed vaccine against anthrax, no Food and Drug Administration-approved vaccine exists for plague. Here, we report the development of a dual anthrax-plague nanoparticle vaccine employing bacteriophage (phage) T4 as a platform. Read More

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October 2018
1 Read

Human infectious diseases and the changing climate in the Arctic.

Environ Int 2018 Dec 11;121(Pt 1):703-713. Epub 2018 Oct 11.

Arctic Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oulu, Finland; Thule Institute, University of Arctic, University of Oulu, Finland.

Climatic factors, especially temperature, precipitation, and humidity play an important role in disease transmission. As the Arctic changes at an unprecedented rate due to climate change, understanding how climatic factors and climate change affect infectious disease rates is important for minimizing human and economic costs. The purpose of this systematic review was to compile recent studies in the field and compare the results to a previously published review. Read More

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December 2018
6 Reads

Exceptionally Selective Substrate Targeting by the Metalloprotease Anthrax Lethal Factor.

Authors:
Benjamin E Turk

Adv Exp Med Biol 2018 Sep 29. Epub 2018 Sep 29.

Department of Pharmacology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA.

The zinc-dependent metalloprotease anthrax lethal factor (LF) is the enzymatic component of a toxin thought to have a major role in Bacillus anthracis infections. Like many bacterial toxins, LF is a secreted protein that functions within host cells. LF is a highly selective protease that cleaves a limited number of substrates in a site-specific manner, thereby impacting host signal transduction pathways. Read More

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September 2018
7 Reads

GroEL Mediates Folding of Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase, PrkC.

Indian J Microbiol 2018 Dec 30;58(4):520-524. Epub 2018 May 30.

1Delhi Technological University, New Delhi, Delhi 110042 India.

causes anthrax in human and animals. Both, signaling system such as two component system and endogenous chaperone system such as GroEL-GroES help bacteria to cope with the environmental challenges. Such molecular chaperones are the stress induced proteins that help bacteria to override unfavorable conditions by their moonlighting functions. Read More

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December 2018

Anthrax biomarker: An ultrasensitive fluorescent ratiometry of dipicolinic acid by using terbium(III)-modified carbon dots.

Talanta 2019 Jan 31;191:443-448. Epub 2018 Aug 31.

Key Laboratory on Luminescence and Real-Time Analytical Chemistry (Southwest University), Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, China; College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, China. Electronic address:

The highly sensitive detection of dipicolinic acid (DPA), a biomarker of the biological threat-agent anthrax, is strongly associated with the sensing of Bacillus anthracis (B. anthracis) in environmental and food samples. In this study, we developed a novel, ultrasensitive method for the detection of DPA by using a ratiometric fluorescent terbium ions modified carbon dots (CDs-Tb). Read More

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January 2019
8 Reads
3.545 Impact Factor

Analysis of a newly discovered antigen of Bacillus cereus biovar anthracis for its suitability in specific serological antibody testing.

J Appl Microbiol 2018 Sep 25. Epub 2018 Sep 25.

Robert Koch-Institute, Centre for Biological Threats and Special Pathogens (ZBS2), Berlin, Germany.

Aims: The aim of this work was to identify a protein which can be used for specific detection of antibodies against Bacillus cereus biovar anthracis (Bcbva), an anthrax-causing pathogen that so far has been described in African rainforest areas.

Methods And Results: Culture supernatants of Bcbva and classic Bacillus anthracis (Ba) were analysed by gel electrophoresis, and a 35-kDa protein secreted only by Bcbva and not Ba was detected. The protein was identified as pXO2-60 by mass spectrometry. Read More

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September 2018

Constructing and transient expression of a gene cassette containing edible vaccine elements and shigellosis, anthrax and cholera recombinant antigens in tomato.

Mol Biol Rep 2018 Sep 22. Epub 2018 Sep 22.

Biotechnology Department, Faculty of Agricultural and Natural Sciences, Imam Khomeini International University (IKIU), Qazvin, Iran.

Shigella dysenteriae causing shigellosis is one of the diseases that threaten the health of human society in the developing countries. In Shigella, IpaD gene is one of the key pathogenic genes causing strong mucosal immune system reactions. Anthrax disease is caused by Bacillus anthracis. Read More

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September 2018
2 Reads

TEM8 functions as a receptor for uPA and mediates uPA-stimulated EGFR phosphorylation.

Cell Commun Signal 2018 Sep 21;16(1):62. Epub 2018 Sep 21.

Laboratory of Cell Engineering, Beijing Institute of Biotechnology (BIB), No. 20, Dongdajie Street, Fengtai District, Beijing, 100071, China.

Background: TEM8 is a cell membrane protein predominantly expressed in tumor endothelium, which serves as a receptor for the protective antigen (PA) of anthrax toxin. However, the physiological ligands for TEM8 remain unknown.

Results: Here we identified uPA as an interacting partner of TEM8. Read More

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September 2018
1 Read

Improving the stability of recombinant anthrax protective antigen vaccine.

Vaccine 2018 10 15;36(43):6379-6382. Epub 2018 Sep 15.

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, MD, USA.

Development of recombinant protective antigen (rPA)-based anthrax vaccines has been hindered by a lack of stability of the vaccines associated with spontaneous deamidation of asparagine (Asn) residues of the rPA antigen during storage. In this study, we explored the role that two deamidation-prone Asn residues located directly adjacent to the receptor binding site of PA, Asn and Asn, play in the stability of rPA-based anthrax vaccines. We modified these residues to glutamine (Gln) and generated rPA(N713Q/N719Q), since Gln would not be expected to deamidate on a time scale relevant to vaccine storage. Read More

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October 2018
3 Reads

Genomic characterization of three novel Basilisk-like phages infecting Bacillus anthracis.

BMC Genomics 2018 Sep 18;19(1):685. Epub 2018 Sep 18.

George Eliava Institute for Bacteriophages, Microbiology and Virology, Tbilisi, Georgia.

Background: In the present study, we sequenced the complete genomes of three novel bacteriophages v_B-Bak1, v_B-Bak6, v_B-Bak10 previously isolated from historical anthrax burial sites in the South Caucasus country of Georgia. We report here major trends in the molecular evolution of these phages, which we designate as "Basilisk-Like-Phages" (BLPs), and illustrate patterns in their evolution, genomic plasticity and core genome architecture.

Results: Comparative whole genome sequence analysis revealed a close evolutionary relationship between our phages and two unclassified Bacillus cereus group phages, phage Basilisk, a broad host range phage (Grose JH et al. Read More

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September 2018

Bacillus anthracis as a cause of bovine abortion - a necropsy case requiring special biosafety measures.

Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd 2018 09;160(9):547-552

Institute of Animal Pathology, Department for Infectious Diseases and Pathobiology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern.

Introduction: In spring 2017, the first case of bovine anthrax in 20 years in Switzerland occurred in the canton of Jura. Carcasses of anthrax-deceased animals should not be opened due to the formation of highly resistant spores bearing the risk of environmental contamination and aerosolization. Nevertheless, in the course of this local outbreak, one sick cow from the affected farm, whose blood repeatedly tested negative for Bacillus anthracis, was necropsied after euthanasia under special biosafety precautions at the Institute of Animal Pathology, Vetsuisse-Faculty Bern. Read More

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September 2018

Lay perceptions, beliefs and practices linked to the persistence of anthrax outbreaks in cattle in the Western Province of Zambia.

Onderstepoort J Vet Res 2018 Aug 29;85(1):e1-e8. Epub 2018 Aug 29.

Department of Disease Control, University of Zambia.

Anthrax, a neglected zoonotic disease that is transmitted by a spore-forming, rod-shaped bacterium, Bacillus anthracis, has reached endemic proportions in the Western Province of Zambia. Transmission of anthrax from the environment as well as between cattle has been observed to be partly because of entrenched beliefs, perceptions and traditional practices among cattle farmers in the known outbreak areas. This study was aimed at exploring lay perceptions, beliefs and practices that influence anthrax transmission in cattle of the Western Province. Read More

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August 2018
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Establishing research priorities to improve the One Health efficacy of Australian general practitioners and veterinarians with regard to zoonoses: A modified Delphi survey.

One Health 2018 Dec 30;6:7-15. Epub 2018 Aug 30.

Faculty of Science, School of Veterinary Science, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia.

While general medical practitioners (GPs) and veterinarians are often the first line responders in the face of a disease outbreak, pathways to improving the One Health efficacy of these clinicians remain unclear. A two-phase modified Delphi survey of professionals with known expertise in One Health ('expert panel') was used to 1) identify key knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAPs) of GPs and veterinarians that would be consistent with a One Health approach to zoonoses; and 2) determine priorities for future surveys with Australian GPs and veterinarians to identify important gaps that impede effective diagnosis and management of zoonoses. A list of 13 topics/sub-topics, as well as a list of 25 specific zoonotic diseases/agents emerged from the first phase of the survey. Read More

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December 2018
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Genotyping and phylogenetic placement of Bacillus anthracis isolates from Finland, a country with rare anthrax cases.

BMC Microbiol 2018 Sep 3;18(1):102. Epub 2018 Sep 3.

Bundeswehr Institute of Microbiology, Munich, Germany.

Background: Anthrax, the zoonotic disease caused by the gram-positive bacterium Bacillus anthracis, is nowadays rare in northern parts of Europe including Finland and Scandinavia. Only two minor outbreaks of anthrax in 1988 and in 2004 and one sporadic infection in 2008 have been detected in animals in Finland since the 1970's. Here, we report on two Finnish B. Read More

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September 2018
6 Reads

Hyaline fibromatosis syndrome: Clinical update and phenotype-genotype correlations.

Hum Mutat 2018 Dec 17;39(12):1752-1763. Epub 2018 Sep 17.

Department of Genetic and Molecular Medicine, Hospital Sant Joan de Déu, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

Hyaline fibromatosis syndrome (HFS) is the unifying term for infantile systemic hyalinosis and juvenile hyaline fibromatosis. HFS is a rare autosomal recessive disorder of the connective tissue caused by mutations in the gene for anthrax toxin receptor-2 (ANTXR2). It is characterized by abnormal growth of hyalinized fibrous tissue with cutaneous, mucosal, osteoarticular, and systemic involvement. Read More

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December 2018
10 Reads

Modeling the macrophage-anthrax spore interaction: Implications for early host-pathogen interactions.

Math Biosci 2018 Nov 27;305:18-28. Epub 2018 Aug 27.

Department of Mathematics, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, USA.

Inhalational anthrax, caused by the gram positive bacteria Bacillus anthracis, is a potentially fatal form of anthrax infection. It is initiated after inhaled spores are deposited in the lung, phagocytosed by immune cells, and subsequently transported to nearby lymph nodes. Intracellular spores that successfully germinate and become vegetative bacteria can lyse their host cell and contribute to bacterial outgrowth and toxin production. Read More

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November 2018