7,592 results match your criteria Anthrax


Wnt-controlled sphingolipids modulate Anthrax Toxin Receptor palmitoylation to regulate oriented mitosis in zebrafish.

Nat Commun 2020 Jul 3;11(1):3317. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Department of Biochemistry and NCCR Chemical Biology, 30 Quai Ernest-Ansermet, 1211, Geneva 4, Switzerland.

Oriented cell division is a fundamental mechanism to control asymmetric stem cell division, neural tube elongation and body axis extension, among other processes. During zebrafish gastrulation, when the body axis extends, dorsal epiblast cells display divisions that are robustly oriented along the animal-vegetal embryonic axis. Here, we use a combination of lipidomics, metabolic tracer analysis and quantitative image analysis to show that sphingolipids mediate spindle positioning during oriented division of epiblast cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-17196-3DOI Listing

Development of a receptor-based inhibitory penta-unit-conjugated peptide to enhance anthrax toxin neutralization.

Int J Biol Macromol 2020 Jun 30. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Chemistry and Research Institute for Natural Sciences, Hanyang University, Seoul 04763, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Anthrax toxin is a key virulence factor for Bacillus anthracis. The cell-binding component of anthrax toxin, protective antigen (PA), mediates the entry of the toxin into cells by first binding to the extracellular von Willebrand factor A (VWA) domain of the cellular anthrax toxin receptor (ATR). Herein, we targeted the VWA domain of the cellular receptor to develop a more effective antitoxin agent for neutralization of anthrax toxin. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.06.264DOI Listing

Two approaches for the stabilization of recombinant protective antigen.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2020 Jul 2:1-6. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Virology, Faculty of Biology, Lomonosov Moscow State University , Moscow, Russian Federation.

Anthrax is a zoonotic disease caused by the gram-positive spore-forming bacteria . There is a need for safe, highly effective, long-term storage vaccine formulations for mass vaccination. However, the development of new subunit vaccines based on recombinant protective antigen (rPA) faces the problem of vaccine antigen instability. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21645515.2020.1772632DOI Listing

Architecture and Self-Assembly of Clostridium sporogenes and Clostridium botulinum Spore Surfaces Illustrate a General Protective Strategy across Spore Formers.

mSphere 2020 Jul 1;5(4). Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Krebs Institute, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, United Kingdom

Spores, the infectious agents of many , are remarkably resilient cell forms. Even distant relatives can have similar spore architectures although some display unique features; they all incorporate protective proteinaceous envelopes. We previously found that spores can achieve these protective properties through extensive disulfide cross-linking of self-assembled arrays of cysteine-rich proteins. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mSphere.00424-20DOI Listing

Structural Integrity of the Alveolar-Capillary Barrier in Cynomolgus Monkeys Challenged with Fully Virulent and Toxin-Deficient Strains of Bacillus Anthracis.

Am J Pathol 2020 Jun 26. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Laboratory of Biochemistry and Vascular Biology, Office of Blood Research and Review, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER), U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Silver Spring, Maryland, USA, 20993.

Inhalational anthrax, a disease caused by inhaling Bacillus anthracis spores, leads to respiratory distress, vascular leakage, high-level bacteremia, and often death within days. Anthrax lethal toxin (LT) and edema toxin (ET), which are composed of protective antigen (PA) plus either lethal factor (LF) or edema factor (EF), respectively, play an important yet incompletely defined role in the pulmonary pathophysiology. To better understand their contribution, we examined the structural integrity of the alveolar capillary barrier in archival formalin-fixed lungs of cynomolgus monkeys challenged with the fully virulent B. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajpath.2020.06.007DOI Listing

Review: The risk of contracting anthrax from spore-contaminated soil - A military medical perspective.

Eur J Microbiol Immunol (Bp) 2020 Jun 5. Epub 2020 Jun 5.

4Department of Microbiology and Hospital Hygiene, Bundeswehr Hospital Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany.

Anthrax is an infectious disease of relevance for military forces. Although spores of Bacillus anthracis obiquitously occur in soil, reports on soil-borne transmission to humans are scarce. In this narrative review, the potential of soil-borne transmission of anthrax to humans is discussed based on pathogen-specific characteristics and reports on anthrax in the course of several centuries of warfare. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1556/1886.2020.00008DOI Listing

Comparison of surface sampling methods for an extended duration outdoor biological contamination study.

Environ Monit Assess 2020 Jun 24;192(7):455. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Office of Research and Development, Center for Environmental Solutions and Emergency Response, US EPA, Cincinnati, OH, USA.

Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent for anthrax, is a dangerous pathogen to humans and has a history as a bioterrorism agent. While sampling methods have been developed and evaluated for characterizing and clearing contaminated indoor sites, the performance of these sampling methods is unknown for use in outdoor environments. This paper presents surface sampling data for Bacillus atrophaeus spores, a surrogate for B. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-020-08434-8DOI Listing

Novel synthesis of thiolated gold nanoclusters induced by lanthanides for ultrasensitive and luminescent detection of the potential anthrax spores biomarker.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2020 Jun 24. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

In this study, we reported facile, one-pot and "green" synthesis of glutathione-protected gold nanoclusters (GSH@AuNCs) initiated by samarium (Sm3+) lanthanides for the first time. Sm3+ lanthanides can more efficiently induced the formation of GSH@AuNCs with significantly enhanced luminescence than other lanthanides or heavy metal ions (Cd2+, Pb2+) did. Using this strategy, a detection for Sm3+ was made with the linearity range of (10. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.0c10069DOI Listing

Rapid Microscopic Detection of by Fluorescent Receptor Binding Proteins of Bacteriophages.

Microorganisms 2020 Jun 21;8(6). Epub 2020 Jun 21.

Dept. Bacteriology and Toxinology, Bundeswehr Institute of Microbiology (IMB), 80937 Munich, Germany.

, the etiological agent of anthrax disease, is typically diagnosed by immunological and molecular methods such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Alternatively, mass spectrometry techniques may aid in confirming the presence of the pathogen or its toxins. However, because of the close genetic relationship between and other members of the group (such or ) mis- or questionable identification occurs frequently. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8060934DOI Listing

A Unique Isolation of a Lytic Bacteriophage Infected Isolate from Pafuri, South Africa.

Microorganisms 2020 Jun 20;8(6). Epub 2020 Jun 20.

Department of Veterinary Tropical diseases, University of Pretoria, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Pretoria 0110, South Africa.

is a soil-borne, Gram-positive endospore-forming bacterium and the causative agent of anthrax. It is enzootic in Pafuri, Kruger National Park in South Africa. The bacterium is amplified in a wild ungulate host, which then becomes a source of infection to the next host upon its death. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8060932DOI Listing

Lytic potential of Lysobacter capsici VKM B-2533: bacteriolytic enzymes and outer membrane vesicles.

Sci Rep 2020 Jun 19;10(1):9944. Epub 2020 Jun 19.

Laboratory of Microbial Cell Surface Biochemistry, G.K. Skryabin Institute of Biochemistry and Physiology of Microorganisms, Russian Academy of Sciences, PSCBR RAS, 5 Prosp. Nauki, Pushchino, Moscow Region, 142290, Russia.

Recent recurrent outbreaks of bacterial resistance to antibiotics have shown the critical need to identify new lytic agents to combat them. The species Lysobacter capsici VKM B-2533 possesses a potent antimicrobial action against a number of bacteria, fungi and yeasts. Its activity can be due to the impact of bacteriolytic enzymes, antibiotics and peptides. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-67122-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7305183PMC

The NLRP1 and CARD8 inflammasomes.

Immunol Rev 2020 Jun 19. Epub 2020 Jun 19.

Chemical Biology Program, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA.

Inflammasomes are multiprotein complexes that activate inflammatory cytokines and induce pyroptosis in response to intracellular danger-associated signals. NLRP1 and CARD8 are related germline-encoded pattern recognition receptors that form inflammasomes, but their activation mechanisms and biological purposes have not yet been fully established. Both NLRP1 and CARD8 undergo post-translational autoproteolysis to generate two non-covalently associated polypeptide chains. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/imr.12884DOI Listing

Genetic Diversity of Australian Isolates Revealed by Multiple-Locus Variable-Number Tandem Repeat Analysis.

Microorganisms 2020 Jun 11;8(6). Epub 2020 Jun 11.

Agriculture Victoria, Department of Jobs Precincts and Regions, Agribio, La Trobe University, 5 Ring Road, Bundoora, Victoria 3083, Australia.

Outbreaks of anthrax occur sporadically in Australia and most commonly in the "anthrax belt", a region which extends from southern Queensland through the centre of New South Wales and into northern Victoria. Little is known about the epidemiological links between isolates taken from different outbreaks and the diversity of strains within Australia. We used multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis employing 25 markers (MLVA25) to genotype 99 isolates from an archival collection of Australian isolates. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8060886DOI Listing

Physiological Responses to a Single Low-Dose of Spores in the Rabbit Model of Inhalational Anthrax.

Pathogens 2020 Jun 11;9(6). Epub 2020 Jun 11.

Institutional Office of Regulated Nonclinical Studies, University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston, Galveston, TX 77555, USA.

Credible dose-response relationships are needed to more accurately assess the risk posed by exposure to low-level contamination during or following a release. To begin to fill this knowledge gap, New Zealand White rabbits were implanted with D70-PCT telemetry transmitters and subsequently aerosol challenged with average inhaled doses of 2.86 x 10 to 2. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9060461DOI Listing

Construction of lanthanide-containing ratiometric probe for facile anthrax biomarker detection.

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2020 May 28;240:118541. Epub 2020 May 28.

Department of Hepatobiliary Cancer, Liver Cancer Center, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute & Hospital, National Clinical Research Center for Cancer, Key Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and Therapy, Tianjin's Clinical Research Center for Cancer, Tianjin 300060, PR China. Electronic address:

Since the outbreak of anthrax attack in the United States in 2001, much effort has been done to detect anthrax spores. In this paper, a simple and facile lanthanide-containing ratiometric luminescence "turn on" probe is constructed to achieve sensitive and selective detection of anthrax spores biomarker - pyridine-2,6-carboxylic acid (DPA) by simply mixing Tb, sodium polyacrylate as well as red internal reference which could exclude some disturbance from the luminescence of biological tissue. Our probe shows remarkable luminescence enhancement upon addition of DPA. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2020.118541DOI Listing

Latex Content in the Anthrax Vaccine Absorbed.

J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2020 Jun 7. Epub 2020 Jun 7.

Allergy-Immunology Clinic Wilford Hall Ambulatory Surgical Center.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaip.2020.05.042DOI Listing

BPTES inhibits anthrax lethal toxin-induced inflammatory response.

Int Immunopharmacol 2020 Jun 7;85:106664. Epub 2020 Jun 7.

School of Medicine, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004, China. Electronic address:

Bacillus anthracis is a lethal agent of anthrax disease and the toxins are required in anthrax pathogenesis. The anthrax lethal toxin can trigger NLRP1b inflammasome activation and pyroptosis. Although the underlying mechanism is well understood, the medications targeting the NLRP1b inflammasome are not available in the clinic. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2020.106664DOI Listing

Atomic Structures of Anthrax Prechannel Bound with Full-Length Lethal and Edema Factors.

Structure 2020 Jun 8. Epub 2020 Jun 8.

California NanoSystems Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA; Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Molecular Genetics, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA. Electronic address:

Pathogenesis of anthrax disease involves two cytotoxic enzymes-edema factor (EF) and lethal factor (LF)-which are individually recruited by the protective antigen heptamer (PA) or octamer (PA) prechannel and subsequently translocated across channels formed on the endosomal membrane upon exposure to low pH. Here, we report the atomic structures of PA prechannel-bound full-length EF and LF. In this pretranslocation state, the N-terminal segment of both factors refolds into an α helix engaged in the α clamp of the prechannel. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.str.2020.05.009DOI Listing

Opsono-Adherence Assay to Evaluate Functional Antibodies in Vaccine Development Against Bacillus anthracis and Other Encapsulated Pathogens.

J Vis Exp 2020 May 19(159). Epub 2020 May 19.

Headquarters Division, United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases;

The opsono-adherence assay is a functional assay that enumerates the attachment of bacterial pathogens to professional phagocytes. Because adherence is requisite to phagocytosis and killing, the assay is an alternative method to opsono-phagocytic killing assays. An advantage of the opsono-adherence assay is the option of using inactivated pathogens and mammalian cell lines, which allows standardization across multiple experiments. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3791/60873DOI Listing

Systematic Review and Evaluation of Mathematical Attack Models of Human Inhalational Anthrax for Supporting Public Health Decision Making and Response.

Prehosp Disaster Med 2020 Jun 4:1-8. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Biosecurity Program, The Kirby Institute, UNSW Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Background: Anthrax is a potential biological weapon and can be used in an air-borne or mail attack, such as in the attack in the United States in 2001. Planning for such an event requires the best available science. Since large-scale experiments are not feasible, mathematical modelling is a crucial tool to inform planning. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1049023X20000734DOI Listing

A Review of Arguments for the Existence of Latent Infections of , and Research Needed to Understand their Role in the Outbreaks of Anthrax.

Microorganisms 2020 May 26;8(6). Epub 2020 May 26.

Department of Environmental Sciences, College of the Coast and Environment, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803-5705, USA.

Hugh-Jones and Blackburn and Turnbull's collective World Health Organization (WHO) report did literature reviews of the theories and the bases for causes of anthrax outbreaks. Both comment on an often-mentioned suspicion that, even though unproven, latent infections are likely involved. Hugh-Jones suggested Gainer do an updated review of our present-day knowledge of latent infections, which was the basis for Gainer's talk at the Biology of Anthrax Conference in Bari, Italy 2019. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8060800DOI Listing

Predictive and fluorescent nanosensing experimental methods for evaluating anthrax protective antigen and lethal factor interactions for therapeutic applications.

Int J Biol Macromol 2020 May 25. Epub 2020 May 25.

Department of Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 2824809, Karaj, Iran.

Recently, specific interaction of anthrax protective antigen domain 4 (PAD4) and lethal factor domain 1 (LFD1) have been considered for the design of novel diagnostic and therapeutic systems in medicine. In this study, theoretical and experimental approaches were used to monitor the interactions of PAD4 and LFD1. CLusPro server and Dimplot software were used to predict the interaction of these domains. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.05.190DOI Listing

Distinct pathways carry out α and β galactosylation of secondary cell wall polysaccharide in .

J Bacteriol 2020 May 26. Epub 2020 May 26.

Howard Taylor Ricketts Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois, USA

, the causative agent of anthrax disease, elaborates a secondary cell wall polysaccharide (SCWP) that is required for the retention of Surface (S)-layer and S-layer homology (SLH) domain proteins. Genetic disruption of the SCWP biosynthetic pathway impairs growth and cell division. SCWP is comprised of trisaccharide repeats composed of one ManNAc and two GlcNAc residues with O3-α-Gal and O4-β-Gal substitutions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JB.00191-20DOI Listing

Potential Therapeutic Targeting of Coronavirus Spike Glycoprotein Priming.

Molecules 2020 05 22;25(10). Epub 2020 May 22.

Division of Biomedical Sciences, School of Medicine, University of California Riverside, Riverside, CA 92521, USA.

Processing of certain viral proteins and bacterial toxins by host serine proteases is a frequent and critical step in virulence. The coronavirus spike glycoprotein contains three (S1, S2, and S2') cleavage sites that are processed by human host proteases. The exact nature of these cleavage sites, and their respective processing proteases, can determine whether the virus can cross species and the level of pathogenicity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules25102424DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7287953PMC

The Implications of EU Regulation 2016/429 on Neglected Diseases of Small Ruminants including Contagious Agalactia with Particular Reference to Italy.

Animals (Basel) 2020 May 22;10(5). Epub 2020 May 22.

Direzione Generale della Sanità Animale e dei Farmaci Veterinari-Ministero della Salute Viale Giorgio Ribotta, 5-00144 Rome, Italy.

After almost 40 years, the 27 member states (MS) of the European Union (EU) will comply with the European Law 429/2016 in 2021 by completing a process of unification and harmonization of all regulations related to animal health between MS. These new provisions are based on modern scientific principles on animal health, on long-term epidemiological data, and, above all, on the most current risk assessment and analysis. The paper describes all changes and updates, which will impact the Italian current National regulation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani10050900DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7278377PMC

EVA technology and proteomics: a two-pronged attack on Cultural Heritage.

J Proteome Res 2020 May 22. Epub 2020 May 22.

A novel way for exploring the world Cultural Heritage in the absence of damage or contamination of the items under investigation is here reported, called the EVA technique. It is based on films of ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) impregnated with strong anion and cation exchangers, admixed with hydrophobic resins, C8 and C18. When in contact with any surface these films can harvest nano-moles of macromolecules (proteins and DNA) as well as metabolites, which can then be identified by standard instrumentation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jproteome.0c00080DOI Listing

An informational reference on anthrax for first responders.

Authors:
Daniel Rector

J Emerg Manag 2020 May/Jun;18(3):267-273

Emergency Management, Windsor Locks, Connecticut.

Anthrax was widely discussed in the media several years ago during the American Anthrax attacks. Despite a lessened interest in the subject today, anthrax still poses a threat to the United States government and its people. This article looks at publically available data and resources in an effort to combine current information into one easy to ready document. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5055/jem.2020.0472DOI Listing

Dual-Readout Sandwich Immunoassay for Device-Free and Highly Sensitive Anthrax Biomarker Detection.

Anal Chem 2020 Jun 21;92(11):7845-7851. Epub 2020 May 21.

International Institute for Nanotechnology, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, Illinois 60608, United States.

We report a dual-readout, AuNP-based sandwich immunoassay for the device-free colorimetric and sensitive scanometric detection of disease biomarkers. An AuNP-antibody conjugate serves as a signal transduction and amplification agent by promoting the reduction and deposition of either platinum or gold onto its surface, generating corresponding colorimetric or light scattering (scanometric) signals, respectively. We apply the Pt-based colorimetric readout of this assay to the discovery of a novel monoclonal antibody (mAb) sandwich pair for the detection of an anthrax protective antigen (PA). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.0c01090DOI Listing

A classification framework for defined by global genomic structure.

Evol Appl 2020 May 23;13(5):935-944. Epub 2020 Jan 23.

Department of Biological Sciences University at Albany - State University of New York Albany NY USA.

, the causative agent of anthrax, is a considerable global health threat affecting wildlife, livestock, and the general public. In this study, whole-genome sequence analysis of over 350 isolates was used to establish a new high-resolution global genotyping framework that is both biogeographically informative and compatible with multiple genomic assays. The data presented in this study shed new light on the diverse global dissemination of this species and indicate that many lineages may be uniquely suited to the geographic regions in which they are found. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/eva.12911DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7232756PMC

Ligand Binding to the Collagen VI Receptor Triggers a Talin-to-RhoA Switch that Regulates Receptor Endocytosis.

Dev Cell 2020 May;53(4):418-430.e4

Faculty of Life Sciences, Global Health Institute, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Capillary morphogenesis gene 2 (CMG2/ANTXR2) is a cell surface receptor for both collagen VI and anthrax toxin. Biallelic loss-of-function mutations in CMG2 lead to a severe condition, hyaline fibromatosis syndrome (HFS). We have here dissected a network of dynamic interactions between CMG2 and various actin interactors and regulators, describing a different behavior from other extracellular matrix receptors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.devcel.2020.04.015DOI Listing

Frontline Science: Anthrax lethal toxin-induced, NLRP1-mediated IL-1β release is a neutrophil and PAD4-dependent event.

J Leukoc Biol 2020 May 18. Epub 2020 May 18.

Microbial Pathogenesis Section, Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

Anthrax lethal toxin (LT) is a protease that activates the NLRP1b inflammasome sensor in certain rodent strains. Unlike better-studied sensors, relatively little is known about the priming requirements for NLRP1b. In this study, we investigate the rapid and striking priming-independent LT-induced release of IL-1β in mice within hours of toxin challenge. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/JLB.4HI0320-028RDOI Listing

Current Status and Trends in Prophylaxis and Management of Anthrax Disease.

Pathogens 2020 May 12;9(5). Epub 2020 May 12.

Emergent BioSolutions Inc., 300 Professional Drive, Gaithersburg, MD 20879, USA.

has been identified as a potential military and bioterror agent as it is relatively simple to produce, with spores that are highly resilient to degradation in the environment and easily dispersed. These characteristics are important in describing how anthrax could be used as a weapon, but they are also important in understanding and determining appropriate prevention and treatment of anthrax disease. Today, anthrax disease is primarily enzootic and found mostly in the developing world, where it is still associated with considerable mortality and morbidity in humans and livestock. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9050370DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7281134PMC

Serological evidence for human exposure to Bacillus cereus biovar anthracis in the villages around Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2020 May 14;14(5):e0008292. Epub 2020 May 14.

Robert Koch Institute, Centre for Biological Threats and Special Pathogens, ZBS 2: Highly Pathogenic Microorganisms, Berlin, Germany.

Bacillus cereus biovar anthracis (Bcbva) is an untypical anthrax-causing pathogen responsible for high wildlife mortality in Taï National Park (TNP), Côte d'Ivoire. However, nothing is known about its effect on the rural population living in the region bordering TNP. Contact to bushmeat is a known risk factor for exposure to a variety of zoonotic pathogens, but no human infections with Bcbva were noted so far. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0008292DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7224451PMC

Animal industry and veterinary science in eastern New Guinea: World War II to Independence, 1975.

Aust Vet J 2020 May 12. Epub 2020 May 12.

Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, Canberra, Australia.

We have described the efforts of the Australian administration of the Territory of Papua and New Guinea (TPNG) to establish a veterinary service and viable animal industries. These efforts began with planning before the end of World War II in 1945 and continued until independence in 1975. Whereas pre-war cattle had mostly been used to control grass on plantations, post-war, the objective was to use the country's extensive, unoccupied grasslands for cattle production. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/avj.12945DOI Listing

Plasma proteomic profiling of young and old mice reveals cadherin-13 prevents age-related bone loss.

Aging (Albany NY) 2020 May 12;12(9):8652-8668. Epub 2020 May 12.

Aging Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Daejeon, Republic of Korea.

The blood exhibits a dynamic flux of proteins that are secreted by the tissues and cells of the body. To identify novel aging-related circulating proteins, we compared the plasma proteomic profiles of young and old mice using tandem mass spectrometry. The expression of 134 proteins differed between young and old mice. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/aging.103184DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7244053PMC

Progress Towards the Development of a NEAT Vaccine for Anthrax II: Immunogen Specificity and Alum Effectiveness in an Inhalational Model.

Infect Immun 2020 May 11. Epub 2020 May 11.

Department of Molecular Virology and Microbiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA

is the causative agent of anthrax disease, presents with high mortality, and has been at the center of bioweapon efforts. The only currently U.S. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/IAI.00082-20DOI Listing

Tuberculosis, Cholera, Anthrax: Dreadful Culprits.

IEEE Pulse 2020 Mar-Apr;11(2):25-28

Dreadful culprits from the minuscule world, indeed, but … what about poverty, war, and terrorism in the macroscopic nowadays world? Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/MPULS.2020.2984303DOI Listing

PA Delivers the Tumor Metastasis Suppressor Protein NDPK-A/NME1 into Breast Cancer Cells.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 May 6;21(9). Epub 2020 May 6.

Experimental Pharmacology, European Center for Angioscience, Mannheim Medical Faculty, Heidelberg University, 68167 Mannheim, Germany.

Some highly metastatic types of breast cancer show decreased intracellular levels of the tumor suppressor protein NME1, also known as nm23-H1 or nucleoside diphosphate kinase A (NDPK-A), which decreases cancer cell motility and metastasis. Since its activity is directly correlated with the overall outcome in patients, increasing the cytosolic levels of NDPK-A/NME1 in such cancer cells should represent an attractive starting point for novel therapeutic approaches to reduce tumor cell motility and decrease metastasis. Here, we established the protein toxins' transport component PA as transporter for the delivery of His-tagged human NDPK-A into the cytosol of cultured cells including human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21093295DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7246847PMC

Reevaluating the Risk of Smallpox Reemergence.

Mil Med 2020 May 6. Epub 2020 May 6.

Biosecurity Program, The Kirby Institute, UNSW Medicine, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052, Australia.

Introduction: Smallpox, caused by variola virus, was eradicated in 1980, but remains a category A bioterrorism agent. A decade ago, smallpox ranked second after anthrax in a multifactorial risk priority scoring analysis of category A bioterrorism agents. However, advances in genetic engineering and synthetic biology, including published methods for synthesizing an Orthopoxvirus, require the assumptions of this scoring for smallpox and other category A agents to be reviewed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/milmed/usaa084DOI Listing

Anthrax Protective Antigen Retargeted with Single-Chain Variable Fragments Delivers Enzymes to Pancreatic Cancer Cells.

Chembiochem 2020 May 5. Epub 2020 May 5.

Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.

The nontoxic, anthrax protective antigen/lethal factor N-terminal domain (PA/LF ) complex is an effective platform for translocating proteins into the cytosol of cells. Mutant PA (mPA) was recently fused to epidermal growth factor (EGF) to retarget delivery of LF to cells bearing EGF receptors (EGFR), but the requirement for a known cognate ligand limits the applicability of this approach. Here, we render practical protective antigen retargeting to a variety of receptors with mPA single-chain variable fragment (scFv) fusion constructs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cbic.202000201DOI Listing

Current State of Anthrax Vaccines and Key R&D Gaps Moving Forward.

Microorganisms 2020 Apr 29;8(5). Epub 2020 Apr 29.

Department of Health and Human Services, Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority, Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response, Washington, DC, USA.

A licensed anthrax vaccine has been available for pre-exposure prophylaxis in the United States since 1970, and it was approved for use as a post-exposure prophylaxis, in combination with antibiotic treatment, in 2015. A variety of other vaccines are available in other nations, approved under various regulatory frameworks. However, investments in anthrax vaccines continue due to the severity of the threat posed by this bacterium, as both a naturally occurring pathogen and the potential for use as a bioweapon. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8050651DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7285291PMC

The Landscape of Anthrax Prevention and Control: Stakeholders' Perceptive in Odisha, India.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 Apr 29;17(9). Epub 2020 Apr 29.

Regional Medical Research Centre, Indian Council of Medical Research, Bhubaneswar, Odisha 751023, India.

The prevalence and outbreaks of anthrax are interlinked with the animal-environment-human context, which signifies the need for collaborative, trans-disciplinary and multi-sectoral approaches for the prevention and control of anthrax. In India, there are hardly any shreds of evidence on the role of various stakeholders' on anthrax prevention and control. Therefore, this study addressed the experiences of various stakeholders on anthrax prevention and control strategies in Odisha, India. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17093094DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7246808PMC
April 2020
2.063 Impact Factor

Targeting Cancer Gene Dependencies with Anthrax-Mediated Delivery of Peptide Nucleic Acids.

ACS Chem Biol 2020 Jun 11;15(6):1358-1369. Epub 2020 May 11.

Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, United States.

Antisense oligonucleotide therapies are important cancer treatments, which can suppress genes in cancer cells that are critical for cell survival. has recently emerged as a promising gene target that encodes a key splicing factor in the SF3B protein complex. Over 10% of cancers have lost one or more copies of the gene, rendering these cancers vulnerable after further suppression. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acschembio.9b01027DOI Listing

Effect of raxibacumab on immunogenicity of Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed: a phase 4, open-label, parallel-group, randomised non-inferiority study.

Lancet Infect Dis 2020 Apr 22. Epub 2020 Apr 22.

GlaxoSmithKline, Uxbridge, UK. Electronic address:

Background: Raxibacumab is a monoclonal antibody against protective antigen, which is the cell-binding part of Bacillus anthracis toxin, and is approved for treatment and postexposure prophylaxis of inhalational anthrax. Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed (AVA), for anthrax prophylaxis, consists primarily of adsorbed protective antigen. We did a postapproval study to assess the effect of raxibacumab on immunogenicity of AVA. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30069-4DOI Listing
April 2020
22.433 Impact Factor

Raxibacumab: a panacea for anthrax disease?

Lancet Infect Dis 2020 Apr 22. Epub 2020 Apr 22.

Spatial Epidemiology and Ecology Research Lab, Department of Geography, and Emerging Pathogens Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30164-XDOI Listing

In Situ Incorporation of Fluorophores in Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework-8 (ZIF-8) for Ratio-Dependent Detecting a Biomarker of Anthrax Spores.

Anal Chem 2020 May 1;92(10):7114-7122. Epub 2020 May 1.

Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Micro & Nano Materials Interface Science, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083, China.

Monitoring and early warning of spores germination is of great significance in avoiding their potential pathogenicity. Thus, effective monitoring of markers during spore germination is of great value. A ratio-dependent fluorescent probe based on in situ incorporation of fluorophores in a metal-organic framework (MOF) was designed to monitor a main component of bacterial spores, 2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic acid (DPA), with high sensitivity and specificity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.0c00499DOI Listing

A luminous off-on probe for the determination of 2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic acid as an anthrax biomarker based on water-soluble cadmium sulfide quantum dots.

Mikrochim Acta 2020 04 23;187(5):287. Epub 2020 Apr 23.

Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Micro & Nano Materials Interface Science, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, 410083, China.

A fluorescence off-on sensing platform was developed based on thioglycolic acid-stabilized cadmium sulfide quantum dots (CdS QDs) as fluorescence probe for the sensitive and selective detection of 2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic acid (DPA) in spores. The fluorescence emission intensity of the quantum dots at 650 nm when excited at 460 nm was first quenched by mixing with europium ions (Eu) and then recovered after the addition of DPA. The interaction of DPA with Eu relieved the quenching effect of Eu toward CdS QDs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00604-020-04272-0DOI Listing

Successes and challenges of the One Health approach in Kenya over the last decade.

BMC Public Health 2019 May 10;19(Suppl 3):465. Epub 2019 May 10.

Division of Global Health Protection, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya.

More than 75% of emerging infectious diseases are zoonotic in origin and a transdisciplinary, multi-sectoral One Health approach is a key strategy for their effective prevention and control. In 2004, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention office in Kenya (CDC Kenya) established the Global Disease Detection Division of which one core component was to support, with other partners, the One Health approach to public health science. After catalytic events such as the global expansion of highly pathogenic H5N1 and the 2006 East African multi-country outbreaks of Rift Valley Fever, CDC Kenya supported key Kenya government institutions including the Ministry of Health and the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock, and Fisheries to establish a framework for multi-sectoral collaboration at national and county level and a coordination office referred to as the Zoonotic Disease Unit (ZDU). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-019-6772-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6696663PMC

A cutaneous Anthrax outbreak in Koraput District of Odisha-India 2015.

BMC Public Health 2019 May 10;19(Suppl 3):470. Epub 2019 May 10.

Directorate of Health Services, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India.

Background: Cutaneous anthrax in humans is associated with exposure to infected animals or animal products and has a case fatality rate of up to 20% if untreated. During May to June 2015, an outbreak of cutaneous anthrax was reported in Koraput district of Odisha, India, an area endemic for anthrax. We investigated the outbreak to identify risk factors and recommend control measures. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-019-6787-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6696704PMC

Biological agents of bioterrorism - preparedness is vital.

Epidemiol Mikrobiol Imunol 2020 ;69(1):42-47

Bioterrorist threats and attacks are still an issue of concern in the world. Biological agents are divided into three categories. The highest priority agents classified in category A pose a massive risk to public health and national security. Read More

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