7,808 results match your criteria Anthrax

Anthrax toxin translocation complex reveals insight into the lethal factor unfolding and refolding mechanism.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 22;11(1):13038. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS, 66160, USA.

Translocation is essential to the anthrax toxin mechanism. Protective antigen (PA), the binding component of this AB toxin, forms an oligomeric pore that translocates lethal factor (LF) or edema factor, the active components of the toxin, into the cell. Structural details of the translocation process have remained elusive despite their biological importance. Read More

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Public Discussion of Anthrax on Twitter: Using Machine Learning to Identify Relevant Topics and Events.

JMIR Public Health Surveill 2021 Jun 18;7(6):e27976. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, Wright State University, Dayton, OH, United States.

Background: Social media allows researchers to study opinions and reactions to events in real time. One area needing more study is anthrax-related events. A computational framework that utilizes machine learning techniques was created to collect tweets discussing anthrax, further categorize them as relevant by the month of data collection, and detect discussions on anthrax-related events. Read More

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Principles of evidence-based medicine: from Robert Kochs postulates to a current EBM concept.

Vladimír Bencko

Cas Lek Cesk 2021 ;160(2-3):93-96

The aim of the article is to describe the development of the principles of medicine based on the evidence (EBM) based on postulates of Robert Koch, Nobel prize winner, protagonist of the "Golden Age" medical bacteriology, founder of a concept of modern microbiology and infectology. Kochs work led to the discovery of a causal relationship between exposure to a specific pathogen and disease on the example of identifying the cause of anthrax - Bacillus anthracis, a disease whose symptoms vary depending on the mode of transmission (gastrointestinal ingestion, cutaneous form on contact and pulmonary manifestations when inhaled). Tuberculosis caused by Kochs bacillus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, yet still affecting 1. Read More

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Spore-Associated Proteins Involved in c-di-GMP Synthesis and Degradation of .

J Bacteriol 2021 Jun 7:JB0013521. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Veterinary Pathobiology.

Bis-(3'-5')-cyclic-dimeric guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) is an important bacterial regulatory signaling molecule affecting biofilm formation, toxin production, motility and virulence. The genome of , the causative agent of anthrax, is predicted to encode ten putative GGDEF/EAL/HD-GYP-domain containing proteins. Heterologous expression in hosts indicated that there are five active GGDEF domain-containing proteins and four active EAL or HD-GYP domain-containing proteins. Read More

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Single-dose combination nanovaccine induces both rapid and durable humoral immunity and toxin neutralizing antibody responses against Bacillus anthracis.

Vaccine 2021 Jun 2;39(29):3862-3870. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, United States; Nanovaccine Institute, Ames, IA, United States. Electronic address:

Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, continues to be a prominent biological warfare and bioterrorism threat. Vaccination is likely to remain the most effective and user-friendly public health measure to counter this threat in the foreseeable future. The commercially available AVA BioThrax vaccine has a number of shortcomings where improvement would lead to a more practical and effective vaccine for use in the case of an exposure event. Read More

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Anthrax Surveillance and the Limited Overlap Between Obligate Scavengers and Endemic Anthrax Zones in the United States.

Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2021 Jun 1. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Spatial Epidemiology and Ecology Research Laboratory, Department of Geography, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA.

Anthrax is a zoonosis caused by the spore-forming bacterium , with potential for high fatality rate, especially in herbivores. Upon host death, spores can enter the soil surrounding the carcass and be ingested by other animals feeding in the same location. Accordingly, surveillance to quickly identify and decontaminate anthrax carcasses is crucial to outbreak prevention. Read More

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Disease or drought: environmental fluctuations release zebra from a potential pathogen-triggered ecological trap.

Proc Biol Sci 2021 06 2;288(1952):20210582. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

US Geological Survey, Wisconsin Cooperative Wildlife Research Unit, Department of Forest and Wildlife Ecology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706, USA.

When a transmission hotspot for an environmentally persistent pathogen establishes in otherwise high-quality habitat, the disease may exert a strong impact on a host population. However, fluctuating environmental conditions lead to heterogeneity in habitat quality and animal habitat preference, which may interrupt the overlap between selected and risky habitats. We evaluated spatio-temporal patterns in anthrax mortalities in a plains zebra () population in Etosha National Park, Namibia, incorporating remote-sensing and host telemetry data. Read More

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Human Anthrax in Dolj County, Romania-A Series of Three Cases.

Pathogens 2021 May 23;10(6). Epub 2021 May 23.

Department of General Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Craiova, 200349 Craiova, Romania.

is the causative agent of anthrax, primarily a disease of herbivorous animals, which can be accidentally transmitted to humans. Three cases of cutaneous human anthrax were recorded in August 2020 in Dolj county, Romania. These cases included livestock farmers (husband and wife, as well as a man from their entourage). Read More

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HDAC8 Activates AKT through Upregulating PLCB1 and Suppressing DESC1 Expression in MEK1/2 Inhibition-Resistant Cells.

Cells 2021 May 4;10(5). Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Microbiology & Immunology, Schulich School of Medicine & Dentistry, University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6G 2V4, Canada.

Inhibition of the RAF-MEK1/2-ERK signaling pathway is an ideal strategy for treating cancers with NRAS or BRAF mutations. However, the development of resistance due to incomplete inhibition of the pathway and activation of compensatory cell proliferation pathways is a major impediment of the targeted therapy. The anthrax lethal toxin (LT), which cleaves and inactivates MEKs, is a modifiable biomolecule that can be delivered selectively to tumor cells and potently kills various tumor cells. Read More

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One Health approach for elimination of human anthrax in a tribal district of Odisha: Study protocol.

PLoS One 2021 27;16(5):e0251041. Epub 2021 May 27.

ICMR - Regional Medical Research Centre, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India.

Background: Anthrax is a major but neglected zoonotic disease of public health concern in India with Odisha contributing a major share to the disease burden. Bacillus anthracis spores can be found naturally in soil and commonly affect both animals and humans around the world. Domestic and wild animals such as cattle, sheep, goats, and deer can become infected when they inhale or ingest spores from contaminated soil, plants, or water. Read More

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Conventional knowledge, general attitudes and risk perceptions towards zoonotic diseases among Maasai in northern Tanzania.

Heliyon 2021 May 20;7(5):e07041. Epub 2021 May 20.

Center for Wildlife Management Studies, The School for Field Studies, PO Box 304, Karatu, Tanzania.

Understanding factors influencing conventional medical knowledge (CMK), general attitudes and risk perceptions of zoonotic diseases among rural residents who face risk of exposure to such diseases is important for human, livestock, and wildlife health. Focusing on Maasai from Makame, Kiteto District (Tanzania) who largely maintained a semi-nomadic lifestyle, we evaluated respondents' CMK of causes, symptoms, treatments, and prevention methods of rabies, brucellosis, and anthrax. In addition, we identified socio-demographic correlates of CMK with respect to the target zoonoses. Read More

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Prioritization of zoonotic diseases of public health significance in Nigeria using the one-health approach.

One Health 2021 Dec 28;13:100257. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

University of Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria.

Nigeria, with a population of over 190 million people, is rated among the 10 countries with the highest burden of infectious and zoonotic diseases globally. In Nigeria, there exist a sub-optimal surveillance system to monitor and track priority zoonoses. We therefore conducted a prioritization of zoonotic diseases for the first time in Nigeria to guide prevention and control efforts. Read More

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December 2021

Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activity of Solvent Fractions of (Ait.) Benth. (Fabaceae).

J Exp Pharmacol 2021 17;13:499-509. Epub 2021 May 17.

Veterinary Para-Clinical Studies, University of Gondar, College of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences, Gondar, Amhara, Ethiopia.

Background: (Ait.) Benth. leaves are used to treat different diseases like ectoparasite infestation, diarrhea, sores, anthrax, fevers, pain, and snake venom. Read More

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Hydrophobic Gating and 1/ Noise of the Anthrax Toxin Channel.

J Phys Chem B 2021 06 20;125(21):5466-5478. Epub 2021 May 20.

Department of Biology, The Catholic University of America, 620 Michigan Avenue, Washington D.C., 20064, United States.

"Pink" or 1/ noise is a natural phenomenon omnipresent in physics, economics, astrophysics, biology, and even music and languages. In electrophysiology, the stochastic activity of a number of biological ion channels and artificial nanopores could be characterized by current noise with a 1/ power spectral density. In the anthrax toxin channel (PA), it appears as fast voltage-independent current interruptions between conducting and nonconducting states. Read More

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Multisectoral cost analysis of a human and livestock anthrax outbreak in Songwe Region, Tanzania (December 2018-January 2019), using a novel Outbreak Costing Tool.

One Health 2021 Dec 30;13:100259. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Emergency Centre for Transboundary Animal Diseases (ECTAD), Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Dar es Salaam, United Republic of Tanzania.

Objectives: We applied a novel Outbreak Costing Tool (OCT), developed by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), to estimate the costs of investigating and responding to an anthrax outbreak in Tanzania. We also evaluated the OCT's overall utility in its application to a multisectoral outbreak response.

Methods: We collected data on direct costs associated with a human and animal anthrax outbreak in Songwe Region (December 2018 to January 2019) using structured questionnaires from key-informants. Read More

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December 2021

Anthrax meningoencephalitis complicated with brain abscess - A case report.

Int J Infect Dis 2021 May 12;108:217-219. Epub 2021 May 12.

Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Bucharest, Romania; Dr Victor Babes Clinical Hospital of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, Bucharest, Romania.

Bacillus anthracis is a sporulating gram-positive rod whose main route of entry into the human body is cutaneous. Anthrax meningitis is usually fulminant and fatal. We present here a successfully treated case of anthrax meningoencephalitis complicated with brain abscess. Read More

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Development of a PCR Lateral Flow Assay for Rapid Detection of Bacillus anthracis, the Causative Agent of Anthrax.

Mol Biotechnol 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Bioprocess Technology Division, Defence Research and Development Establishment, Jhansi Road, Gwalior, 474002, India.

Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax is one of the most potent listed biological warfare agents. The conventional microbiological methods of its detection are labor intensive and time consuming, whereas molecular assays are fast, sensitive and specific. PCR is one of the most reliable diagnostic tools in molecular biology. Read More

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Extrapolation and dosing recommendations for raxibacumab in children from birth to < 18 years of age.

Br J Clin Pharmacol 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics Group, University College London, UK.

Aim: The US Food and Drug Administration's Animal Rule allows for the approval of drugs when human efficacy studies are not ethical. While the therapeutic doses of raxibacumab, a monoclonal antibody for the prophylaxis and treatment of inhalational anthrax, have been based on pharmacokinetic data from adult subjects, its disposition in children has not been evaluated in clinical trials. Here we evaluate the effect of demographic covariates on the pharmacokinetic disposition of raxibacumab and explore opportunities for the optimization of the paediatric doses. Read More

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Population pharmacokinetics of raxibacumab in healthy adult subjects.

Br J Clin Pharmacol 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics Group, University College London, London, UK.

Aim: Raxibacumab is a fully humanized monoclonal antibody that blocks the interaction of Bacillus anthracis toxins, thereby protecting target cells from its effects. Raxibacumab is approved in the USA for the treatment of adults and children with inhalational anthrax in combination with antibiotics, and for prophylaxis of inhalational anthrax. The aim of this investigation was to characterise the population pharmacokinetics and assess the effect of baseline demographic covariates on the disposition of raxibacumab. Read More

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Phylogenetics of Bacillus anthracis isolates from Russia and bordering countries.

Infect Genet Evol 2021 Aug 5;92:104890. Epub 2021 May 5.

Federal Government Health Institution «Stavropol Plague Control Research Institute» of the Federal Service for Surveillance in the Sphere of Consumers Rights Protection and Human Welfare, 13-15 Sovetskaya Str, 355035 Stavropol, Russian Federation.

Anthrax is a concern for public health and veterinary medicine in Russia. The available phylogenetic data on isolates from Russia and neighboring CIS countries are clearly not enough to gain a better understanding of their position in the global phylogenetic population structure of this pathogen. In this study, we analyzed the genomes of 66 Bacillus anthracis strains, which were isolated between 1935 and 2019 from different sources in Russia, as well as in Ukraine, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Armenia and Moldova. Read More

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Severe bullous cutaneous anthrax with malignant edema.

Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 2021 28;54:e0164 2021. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Firat University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Dermatology, Elazığ, Turkey.

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Ratiometric fluorescence detection of anthrax biomarker based on terbium (III) functionalized graphitic carbon nitride nanosheets.

Talanta 2021 Aug 16;230:122311. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Department of Chemistry, Fudan University, 2005 Songhu Road, Shanghai, 200438, China. Electronic address:

Detection of anthrax biomarker dipicolinic acid (DPA) is of great importance upon the crisis of bioterrorism. Development of fluorescent materials for DPA detection, particularly one that fully depends on single luminescent response, faces the challenge of being susceptible to interferences. The accompanying accuracy problems offer great opportunities for the establishment of more reliable ratiometric analysis method. Read More

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N-Linked Glycosylation on Anthrax Toxin Receptor 1 Is Essential for Seneca Valley Virus Infection.

Viruses 2021 Apr 28;13(5). Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Otago, Dunedin 9016, New Zealand.

Seneca Valley virus (SVV) is a picornavirus with potency in selectively infecting and lysing cancerous cells. The cellular receptor for SVV mediating the selective tropism for tumors is anthrax toxin receptor 1 (ANTXR1), a type I transmembrane protein expressed in tumors. Similar to other mammalian receptors, ANTXR1 has been shown to harbor N-linked glycosylation sites in its extracellular vWA domain. Read More

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Investigation on Anthrax in Bangladesh during the Outbreaks of 2011 and Definition of the Epidemiological Correlations.

Pathogens 2021 Apr 15;10(4). Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale of Puglia and Basilicata, Anthrax Reference Institute of Italy, 71121 Foggia, Italy.

In 2011, in Bangladesh, 11 anthrax outbreaks occurred in six districts of the country. Different types of samples were collected from May to September in the six districts where anthrax had occurred in order to detect and type strains. Anthrax was detected in 46. Read More

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Modeling the Potential Future Distribution of Anthrax Outbreaks under Multiple Climate Change Scenarios for Kenya.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 04 15;18(8). Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Spatial Epidemiology and Ecology Research Laboratory, Department of Geography, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA.

The climate is changing, and such changes are projected to cause global increase in the prevalence and geographic ranges of infectious diseases such as anthrax. There is limited knowledge in the tropics with regards to expected impacts of climate change on anthrax outbreaks. We determined the future distribution of anthrax in Kenya with representative concentration pathways (RCP) 4. Read More

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Assessment of knowledge, attitudes and practices towards anthrax in Narok County, Southern Kenya.

Pan Afr Med J 2021 3;38:120. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program, Ministry of Health, Nairobi, Kenya.

Introduction: anthrax is endemic in some parts of Kenya causing mortalities in livestock and morbidity in humans. On January 20, 2018, news media reported suspected anthrax in a remote southern Kenyan village after villagers became ill following consumption of meat from a dead cow that was confirmed, by microscopy, to have died of anthrax. We assessed community knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) to identify intervention gaps for anthrax prevention. Read More

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Cutaneous anthrax outbreak associated with handling dead animals, Rhino Camp sub-county: Arua District, Uganda, January-May 2018.

One Health Outlook 2021 Apr 28;3(1). Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Uganda Public Health Fellowship Program, Ministry of Health, Kampala, Uganda.

Background: On 18 January 2018 a 40 year old man presented with skin lesions at Rhino Camp Health Centre. A skin lesion swab was collected on 20 January 2018 and was confirmed by PCR at Uganda Virus Research Institute on 21 January 2018. Subsequently, about 9 persons were reported to have fallen ill after reporting contact with livestock that died suddenly. Read More

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A qualitative exploratory study using One Health approach for developing an intervention package for elimination of human anthrax in an endemic district of Odisha, India.

Indian J Med Res 2021 Mar;153(3):394-400

Department of Microbiology and One Health, ICMR-Regional Medical Research Centre, Bhubaneswar, India.

Background & Objectives: Anthrax is a zoonotic disease of public health concern in India. One of the key predisposing factors is linked to the behaviour of the community. This study was nested within a baseline survey to understand the risk perception, attitude, socio-cultural and behavioural practices among different communities in an anthrax endemic tribal district of Odisha, India. Read More

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Latest therapeutic target for gastric cancer: Anthrax toxin receptor 1.

World J Gastrointest Oncol 2021 Apr;13(4):216-222

Department of Oncology, The Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450000, Henan Province, China.

Anthrax toxin receptor 1 (ANTXR1), also known as tumor endothelial marker 8, is a highly conserved cell surface protein overexpressed in tumor-infiltrating vessels. It was first found in vascular endothelial cells of human colorectal cancer. Although our understanding of its physiological function is limited, it has been found that ANTXR1 binds collagen and promotes migration of endothelial cells . Read More

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