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    The role of estrogen receptor subtypes for induction of delayed effects on the estrous cycle and female reproductive organs in rats.
    Reprod Biol 2017 Feb 16. Epub 2017 Feb 16.
    Food Safety Commission, Akasaka Park Bld. 22nd F. Akasaka 5-2-20, Minato-ku, Tokyo 107-6122, Japan. Electronic address:
    It has been reported that neonatal exposure to estrogens at relatively low doses can induce early onset anovulation as a delayed effect in female rats. Dysfunction of kisspeptin neurons in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV) was proposed to be a trigger for this effect. To determine the roles of estrogen receptor (ER) subtypes in the induction of delayed effects, we conducted a series of experiments using Donryu rats to examine whether neonatal injection of an ERα agonist (PPT), an ERβ agonist (DPN) or an ERα antagonist (ICI) could induce delayed effects. Read More

    Animal models of hyperandrogenism and ovarian morphology changes as features of polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review.
    Reprod Biol Endocrinol 2017 Feb 10;15(1):12. Epub 2017 Feb 10.
    Gynecological Endocrinology Unit, Division of Endocrinology, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Rua Ramiro Barcelos, 2350, 90035 003, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.
    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder, affecting 9-18% of women in reproductive age that causes hyperandrogenism and infertility due to dysfunctional follicular maturation and anovulation. The etiology of PCOS is still poorly known, and information from experimental animal models may help improve current understanding of the mechanisms of PCOS initiation and development. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review of currently available methods for simulation of PCOS in experimental models, focusing on two main endocrine traits: ovarian morphology changes and circulating levels of sex hormones and gonadotropins. Read More

    A dairy herd-level study of postpartum diseases and their association with reproductive performance and culling.
    J Dairy Sci 2017 Feb 1. Epub 2017 Feb 1.
    Faculté de Médecine Vétérinaire, Université de Montréal, C.P. 5000, Saint-Hyacinthe, Québec, J2S 7C6, Canada.
    The objectives of this study were to quantify the herd-level prevalence of postpartum diseases in a large number of dairy farms, and to identify prevalence alarm levels of these diseases based on association with a low prevalence of success at first service, with a high prevalence of pregnancy loss following pregnancy diagnosis at first service, and with a high prevalence of postpartum culling. A total of 126 commercial dairy herds were enrolled in this cohort study, and the herd was the unit of interest. Twenty cows from every herd were enrolled during the study period (a total of 2,520 lactating cows in the study). Read More

    Treatment strategies for women with WHO group II anovulation: systematic review and network meta-analysis.
    BMJ 2017 Jan 31;356:j138. Epub 2017 Jan 31.
    Robinson Research Institute, Discipline of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, School of Medicine, University of Adelaide, North Adelaide, Australia.
    Objective:  To compare the effectiveness of alternative first line treatment options for women with WHO group II anovulation wishing to conceive.

    Design:  Systematic review and network meta-analysis.

    Data Sources:  Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Medline, and Embase, up to 11 April 2016. Read More

    The Rotterdam criteria for polycystic ovary syndrome: evidence-based criteria?
    Hum Reprod 2017 Feb 9;32(2):261-264. Epub 2016 Nov 9.
    Discipline of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, School of Medicine, Robinson Research Institute, The University of Adelaide, 55 King William Road, North Adelaide, SA 5006, Australia.
    The Rotterdam criteria for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are used by a wide range of medical professionals and researchers. However, the development of these criteria was based on expert meetings and not on evidence-based treatment guidance. Over the last decade, the Rotterdam criteria have been useful in guiding research, and a number of clinical studies on PCOS have been published consequently. Read More

    Metformin during ovulation induction with gonadotrophins followed by timed intercourse or intrauterine insemination for subfertility associated with polycystic ovary syndrome.
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2017 Jan 24;1:CD009090. Epub 2017 Jan 24.
    Center for Reproductive Medicine, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 9, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 1105 AZ.
    Background: Clomiphene citrate (CC) is generally considered first-line treatment in women with anovulation due to polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Ovulation induction with follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH; gonadotrophins) is second-line treatment for women who do not ovulate or conceive while taking CC. Metformin may increase the effectiveness of ovulation induction with gonadotrophins and may promote safety by preventing multiple pregnancy. Read More

    Transcriptomic signatures for ovulation in vertebrates.
    Gen Comp Endocrinol 2017 Jan 19. Epub 2017 Jan 19.
    State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science, College of Ocean and Earth Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian Province 361102, People's Republic of China; Department of Biology, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC 27858, United States. Electronic address:
    The central roles of luteinizing hormone (LH), progestin and their receptors for initiating ovulation have been well established. However, signaling pathways and downstream targets such as proteases that are essential for the rupture of follicular cells are still unclear. Recently, we found anovulation in nuclear progestin receptor (Pgr) knockout (Pgr-KO) zebrafish, which offers a new model for examining genes and pathways that are important for ovulation and fertility. Read More

    Gnrh mRNA expression in the brain of cooperatively breeding female Damaraland mole-rats.
    Reproduction 2017 Apr 19;153(4):453-460. Epub 2017 Jan 19.
    Department of Zoology and EntomologyUniversity of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa.
    The Damaraland mole-rat (Fukomys damarensis) is a eusocial, subterranean rodent, in which breeding is limited to a single reproductive pair within each colony. Non-reproductive females, while in the confines of the colony, exhibit socially induced infertility. Anovulation is thought to be caused by a disruption in the normal gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GNRH) secretion from the hypothalamus. Read More

    Obesity and anovulatory infertility: A review.
    JBRA Assist Reprod 2016 Dec 1;20(4):240-245. Epub 2016 Dec 1.
    Universidade Federal de Goiás. Faculdade de Medicina. Hospital das Clínicas. Departamento de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia. Laboratório de Reprodução Humana - Goiânia/GO - Brazil.
    This global overweight and obesity epidemics has become one of the largest public health problem worldwide and is increasingly more common among women in reproductive age. Along with the prevalence of overweight women, there is an increase in women with anovulatory infertility. Thus, we carried out a bibliographic research in the PubMed, Lilacs and SciELO databases, using the combinations in Portuguese, Spanish and English of the following descriptors: "Body Mass Index", "obesity", "overweight", "female infertility" and "anovulation". Read More

    Alterations in Gut Microbiome Composition and Barrier Function Are Associated with Reproductive and Metabolic Defects in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS): A Pilot Study.
    PLoS One 2017 3;12(1):e0168390. Epub 2017 Jan 3.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology and Diabetology, Medical University Graz, Graz, Austria.
    Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common female endocrinopathy of unclear origin characterized by hyperandrogenism, oligo-/anovulation, and ovarian cysts. Women with PCOS frequently display overweight, insulin resistance, and systemic low-grade inflammation. We hypothesized that endotoxemia resulting from a leaky gut is associated with inflammation, insulin resistance, fat accumulation, and hyperandrogenemia in PCOS. Read More

    Ovarian aging in women with diabetes: An overview.
    Maturitas 2017 Feb 2;96:109-113. Epub 2016 Dec 2.
    University of Michigan, Department of Medicine, 2800 Plymouth Road, Building 16, Room 430W, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA.
    Type 2 diabetes is a global epidemic, and the prevalence and incidence of type 1 diabetes are increasing. The negative effects of diabetes on kidneys, nerves, and vessels are well established. The effect of diabetes on reproductive function is less well understood, but important to characterize, given the increasing numbers of young women with diabetes. Read More

    High salivary testosterone-to-androstenedione ratio and adverse metabolic phenotypes in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.
    Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2016 Dec 31. Epub 2016 Dec 31.
    Division of Endocrinology and Diabetology, Department of Internal Medicine, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria.
    Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by a combination of hormonal and metabolic disturbances, such as insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, anovulation and hyperandrogenism. Clinical phenotypes of PCOS show different patterns of steroid hormones that have been investigated to some extent. This study aimed to establish a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the quantification of salivary testosterone and androstenedione and to describe the salivary testosterone-to-androstenedione (T/A4) ratio as a new tool for the assessment of hyperandrogenism and metabolic health. Read More

    Effect of Exercise on Ovulation: A Systematic Review.
    Sports Med 2016 Dec 29. Epub 2016 Dec 29.
    Laboratory of Protein Biochemistry, Federal University of State of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Background: Infertility has been described as a devastating life crisis for couples, and has a particularly severe effect on women, in terms of anxiety and depression. Anovulation accounts for around 30% of female infertility, and while lifestyle factors such as physical activity are known to be important, the relationship between exercise and ovulation is multi-factorial and complex, and to date there are no clear recommendations concerning exercise regimes.

    Objectives: The objective of this review was to systematically assess the effect of physical activity on ovulation and to discuss the possible mechanisms by which exercise acts to modulate ovulation in reproductive-age women. Read More

    Myeloperoxidase in blood neutrophils during normal and abnormal menstrual cycles in women of reproductive age.
    Int J Lab Hematol 2016 Dec 25. Epub 2016 Dec 25.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kanazawa Medical University, Uchinada, Ishikawa, Japan.
    Introduction: We previously reported that granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) plays a critical role in ovulation, suggesting that neutrophils may maintain ovulation. We assessed myeloperoxidase (MPO), a major and specific enzyme of neutrophils, in women with abnormal and normal menstrual cycles to clarify the relationship between MPO and ovulation.

    Methods: We analyzed MPO activity in blood neutrophils of women with abnormal menstrual cycles (indicative of anovulation, n = 12) and age- and body mass index-matched normal menstrual cycles (indicative of ovulation, n = 24) using two parameters as a marker of MPO, Neut X and mean peroxidase index (MPXI). Read More

    Association of VDBP and CYP2R1 gene polymorphisms with vitamin D status in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome: a north Indian study.
    Eur J Nutr 2016 Dec 23. Epub 2016 Dec 23.
    Department of Biochemistry, Room No. 302, Third Floor, Casualty Building, Vardhman Mahavir Medical College and Safdarjang Hospital, New Delhi, India.
    Purpose: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine abnormality among women of reproductive age and is usually associated with oligo-ovulation/anovulation, obesity, and insulin resistance. Hypovitaminosis D may also be a primary factor in the initiation and development of PCOS. However, little is known about the role of genetic variation in vitamin D metabolism in PCOS aetiology. Read More

    Ghrelin is independently associated with anti-mullerian hormone levels in obese but not non-obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome.
    Endocrine 2017 Mar 21;55(3):907-913. Epub 2016 Dec 21.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
    Ghrelin is an endogenous appetite stimulant that may have a role in ovarian function. Women with polycystic ovary syndrome have anovulation and frequently weight management issues; however the associations between ghrelin and hormonal markers in polycystic ovary syndrome have not been well studied. In order to characterize the association between total ghrelin levels and ovarian function and the possible modification of this relationship by obesity, we examined total ghrelin levels and anti-mullerian hormone, total testosterone, and insulin in obese and non-obese women with and without polycystic ovary syndrome. Read More

    Current aspects of polycystic ovary syndrome: A literature review.
    Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) 2016 Dec;62(9):867-871
    Postgraduate Program in Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universidade Federal do Piauí (UFPI), Teresina, PI, Brazil.
    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous endocrine disorder with variable prevalence, affecting about one in every 15 women worldwide. The diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome requires at least two of the following criteria: oligoovulation and/or anovulation, clinical and/or biochemical evidence of hyperandrogenism and morphology of polycystic ovaries. Women with PCOS appear to have a higher risk of developing metabolic disorders, hypertension and cardiovascular disorders. Read More

    Neuroprotection via Reduction in Stress: Altered Menstrual Patterns as a Marker for Stress and Implications for Long-Term Neurologic Health in Women.
    Int J Mol Sci 2016 Dec 20;17(12). Epub 2016 Dec 20.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC 27157, USA.
    Individuals under chronic psychological stress can be difficult to identify clinically. There is often no outwardly visible phenotype. Chronic stress of sufficient magnitude not only impacts reproductive function, but also concomitantly elicits a constellation of neuroendocrine changes that may accelerate aging in general and brain aging in particular. Read More

    Progesterone receptors and proliferation of the endometrium in obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome - a lifestyle intervention study.
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2016 Dec 20:jc20163155. Epub 2016 Dec 20.
    1 Division of Obstetrics and Gynecology, and.
    Context: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with increased risk of endometrial cancer. This is usually explained by chronic anovulation and deficient progesterone activity. However, the role of progesterone receptors (PRs) in endometrial proliferation is unclear. Read More

    Natural conception: repeated predictions over time.
    Hum Reprod 2017 Feb 18;32(2):346-353. Epub 2016 Dec 18.
    Department of Medical Statistics and Bioinformatics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.
    Study Question: How can we predict chances of natural conception at various time points in couples diagnosed with unexplained subfertility?

    Summary Answer: We developed a dynamic prediction model that can make repeated predictions over time for couples with unexplained subfertility that underwent a fertility workup at a fertility clinic.

    What Is Known Already: The most frequently used prediction model for natural conception (the 'Hunault model') estimates the probability of natural conception only once per couple, that is, after completion of the fertility workup. This model cannot be used for a second or third time for couples who wish to know their renewed chances after a certain period of expectant management. Read More

    The impact of postnatal leuprolide acetate treatment on reproductive characteristics in a rodent model of polycystic ovary syndrome.
    Mol Cell Endocrinol 2017 Feb 14;442:125-133. Epub 2016 Dec 14.
    Laboratory of Biotechnology and Animal Reproduction - BioRep, Federal University of Santa Maria (UFSM), Santa Maria, RS, Brazil; Department of Clinical Medicine, Federal University of Santa Maria (UFSM), Santa Maria, RS, Brazil. Electronic address:
    In this study, a GnRH agonist, leuprolide acetate (LA), was given as a single depot injection before 48 h of life to Wistar female rats allotted to prenatal (E16-18) and postnatal androgenization (day 5 of life) by the use of testosterone propionate, looking for reproductive endpoints. Remarkably, a single injection of LA increased the estrus cycles in the postnatal group (PostN) from 0% to 25% of the estrus cycles in the postnatal LA treated group (PostN L). LA also reduced the serum testosterone levels and cysts and atretic follicles in PostN L in contrast with rats (>100 days) from the PostN group (p = 0. Read More

    Clomiphene and other antioestrogens for ovulation induction in polycystic ovarian syndrome.
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2016 12 15;12:CD002249. Epub 2016 Dec 15.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Auckland, Park Rd, Grafton, Auckland, New Zealand, 1142.
    Background: Subfertility due to anovulation is a common problem in women. First-line oral treatment is with antioestrogens such as clomiphene citrate, but resistance may be apparent with clomiphene. Alternative and adjunctive treatments have been used including tamoxifen, dexamethasone, and bromocriptine. Read More

    Impaired receptivity and decidualization in DHEA-induced PCOS mice.
    Sci Rep 2016 Dec 7;6:38134. Epub 2016 Dec 7.
    College of Veterinary Medicine, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, China.
    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a complex endocrine disorder, is a leading cause of female infertility. An obvious reason for infertility in PCOS women is anovulation. However, success rate with high quality embryos selected by assisted reproduction techniques in PCOS patients still remain low with a high rate of early clinical pregnancy loss, suggesting a problem in uterine receptivity. Read More

    Hysterectomy due to Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in a 15-year Old Girl with Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome.
    J Lifestyle Med 2016 Sep 30;6(2):76-78. Epub 2016 Sep 30.
    Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Yonsei University Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju, Korea.
    Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome is characterized by mental retardation, atypical facial features, broad thumbs and toes, and scoliosis. Polycystic ovaries are associated with chronic anovulation and abnormal uterine bleeding. A 15-year old female patient was diagnosed with Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome, and had prolonged abnormal uterine bleeding for 2 years, accompanied by a polycystic ovary. Read More

    Polycystic ovary syndrome in adolescent girls.
    Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes 2017 Feb;24(1):56-66
    Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.
    Purpose Of Review: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common heterogeneous disorder that appears to have its origins during the peripubertal years. The diagnostic conundrum is that the typical clinical features, irregular menses and acne, occur during normal female puberty. Understanding the physiologic origins and molecular basis of the dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in PCOS is fundamental to interrupting the distinctive vicious cycle of hyperandrogenism and chronic anovulation. Read More

    Dairy Food Intake Is Associated with Reproductive Hormones and Sporadic Anovulation among Healthy Premenopausal Women.
    J Nutr 2017 Feb 23;147(2):218-226. Epub 2016 Nov 23.
    Division of Intramural Population Health Research and
    Background: Dairy food intake has been associated with infertility; however, little is known with regard to associations with reproductive hormones or anovulation.

    Objective: We investigated whether intakes of dairy foods and specific nutrients were associated with reproductive hormone concentrations across the cycle and the risk of sporadic anovulation among healthy women.

    Methods: We prospectively measured serum reproductive hormones ≤8 times/menstrual cycle for 2 cycles from 259 regularly menstruating women (mean age: 27. Read More

    Comparison clinical and metabolic effects of metformin and pioglitazone in polycystic ovary syndrome.
    Indian J Endocrinol Metab 2016 Nov-Dec;20(6):805-809
    Department of Biostatistics, Faculty of Medicine, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.
    Introduction: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine disorders in women. PCOS comprises a broad spectrum of anomalies, including hyperandrogenism, chronic anovulation, obesity, and infertility. Insulin resistance and its compensatory hyperinsulinemia play a key role in the pathogenicity of PCOS. Read More

    Elevated circulating micro-ribonucleic acid (miRNA)-200b and miRNA-429 levels in anovulatory women.
    Fertil Steril 2017 Jan 2;107(1):269-275. Epub 2016 Nov 2.
    The Magda and Richard Hoffman Center for Human Placenta Research, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel; IVF Unit, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel. Electronic address:
    Objective: To study the role of micro-RNA (miRNA)-200b and miRNA-429 in human ovulation and to measure their expression levels in ovulatory and anovulatory patients.

    Design: Micro-RNA-200b and miRNA-429 expression analysis in human serum and granulosa cells at different phases of the ovulation cycle in normal cycling women and women undergoing assisted reproductive technology cycles.

    Setting: University-affiliated hospital and academic research laboratory. Read More

    Neurotransmitter alteration in a testosterone propionate-induced polycystic ovarian syndrome rat model.
    Horm Mol Biol Clin Investig 2016 Oct 29. Epub 2016 Oct 29.
    Background: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), one of the leading causes of infertility seen in women, is characterized by anovulation and hyperandrogenism, resulting in ovarian dysfunction. In addition, associations of several metabolic complications like insulin resistance, obesity, dyslipidemia and psychological co-morbidities are well known in PCOS. One of the major factors influencing mood and the emotional state of mind is neurotransmitters. Read More

    Impact of hypocaloric dietary intervention on ovulation in obese women with PCOS.
    Reproduction 2016 Oct 31. Epub 2016 Oct 31.
    M Lujan, Human Metabolic Research Unit, Division of Nutritional Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, United States
    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common cause of ovulatory dysfunction impacting women of reproductive age. Obesity and insulin resistance are thought to potentiate disruptions in antral follicle development that result in chronic anovulation, and as such, have become important therapeutic targets of dietary interventions aimed at weight loss. Caloric restriction has been shown to promote sporadic ovulation in obese women with PCOS, but improvements have occurred across a wide range of patients and little has been garnered about the factors that distinguish responders from non-responders. Read More

    Effectiveness of lifestyle intervention in subgroups of obese infertile women: a subgroup analysis of a RCT.
    Hum Reprod 2016 Dec 19;31(12):2704-2713. Epub 2016 Oct 19.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, 9700RB Groningen, The Netherlands.
    Study Question: Do age, ovulatory status, severity of obesity and body fat distribution affect the effectiveness of lifestyle intervention in obese infertile women?

    Summary Answer: We did not identify a subgroup in which lifestyle intervention increased the healthy live birth rate however it did increase the natural conception rate in anovulatory obese infertile women.

    What Is Known Already: Obese women are at increased risk of infertility and are less likely to conceive after infertility treatment. We previously demonstrated that a 6-month lifestyle intervention preceding infertility treatment did not increase the rate of healthy live births (vaginal live birth of a healthy singleton at term) within 24 months of follow-up as compared to prompt infertility treatment in obese infertile women. Read More

    Dysfunctional uterine bleeding as an early sign of polycystic ovary syndrome during adolescence: an update.
    Minerva Ginecol 2017 Feb 27;69(1):68-74. Epub 2016 Oct 27.
    Division of Pediatric-Adolescent Gynecology and Reconstructive Surgery, Second Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Medical School, Aretaieion Hospital, Athens, Greece.
    Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is a frequent reason for concern between adolescents. The most common cause of AUB in these girls, when other pathologies have been excluded, is dysfunctional uterine bleeding (DUB). The aim of this review is to assess the role of DUB as an early symptom of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) diagnosis later in life. Read More

    Thermosensitive bioadhesive gels for the vaginal delivery of sildenafil citrate: in vitro characterization and clinical evaluation in women using clomiphene citrate for induction of ovulation.
    Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2017 Mar 14;43(3):399-408. Epub 2016 Nov 14.
    c Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine , Assiut University , Assiut , Egypt.
    Objective: The objective of this study is to develop and characterize in situ thermosensitive gels for the vaginal administration of sildenafil as a potential treatment of endometrial thinning occurring as a result of using clomiphene citrate for ovulation induction in women with type II eugonadotrophic anovulation. While sildenafil has shown promising results in the treatment of infertility in women, the lack of vaginal pharmaceutical preparation and the side effects associated with oral sildenafil limit its clinical effectiveness.

    Methods: Sildenafil citrate in situ forming gels were prepared using different grades of Pluronic(®) (PF-68 and PF-127). Read More

    Low-dose aspirin and sporadic anovulation in the EAGeR randomized trial.
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2016 Oct 18:jc20162095. Epub 2016 Oct 18.
    Epidemiology Branch, Division of Intramural Population Health Research, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD.
    Context: Among women with a single, recent pregnancy loss, daily preconception low-dose aspirin (LDA) increased the live birth rate with no effect on pregnancy loss. The mechanism underlying this effect is unclear, but it may work through ovulation.

    Objective: We estimated the effect of LDA on the per-cycle risk of anovulation among eumenorrheic women. Read More

    Puberty, ovarian cycle, pregnancy, and postpartum ovulation in captive Sichuan golden monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana) based on changes in urinary and fecal gonadal steroid metabolites.
    Theriogenology 2017 Jan 8;87:179-186. Epub 2016 Sep 8.
    Nagoya Higashiyama Zoo, Nagoya, Aichi, Japan.
    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reproductive status and clarify the reproductive physiology of captive Sichuan golden monkeys. The concentrations of urinary estradiol-3-glucuronide (E2G) and pregnanediol-glucuronide (PdG) or fecal estradiol-17β (E2) and PdG in two females, and fecal testosterone concentrations in a male, were measured continuously using enzyme immunoassays. On the basis of these hormone profiles, the follicular phase, luteal phase, and ovarian cycle were calculated to be 14. Read More

    Gender and Sexual Health: Infertility.
    FP Essent 2016 Oct;449:11-17
    Department of Family Medicine & Community Health University of Wisconsin School of Medicine & Public Health, 1100 Delaplaine Court, Madison, WI 53715.
    Infertility is common in the United States, with up to 15% of heterosexual couples experiencing difficulty in achieving conception. Family physicians often are the first physicians to evaluate couples attempting to conceive. Evaluation begins with assessment of ovulation, evaluation of anatomic abnormalities, and semen analysis. Read More

    Subfertility in rheumatoid arthritis is often unexplained or caused by anovulation.
    Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) 2016 Oct 9. Epub 2016 Oct 9.
    Division of Reproductive Medicine - Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.
    Objective - Subfertility is frequently encountered amongst female rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and has been associated with disease activity and anti-rheumatic drugs. However, little is known about the results of the fertility work-up in these women. Our aim was to study the outcome of fertility assessments in subfertile women with RA. Read More

    Inositol as putative integrative treatment for PCOS.
    Reprod Biomed Online 2016 Dec 16;33(6):770-780. Epub 2016 Sep 16.
    Gynecological Endocrinology Center, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy. Electronic address:
    Studies over the last decade have demonstrated that some polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients have abnormal insulin sensitivity (insulin resistance), independently from being overweight or obese. This induces the risk of developing type 2 diabetes in such PCOS patients. The use of insulin sensitizers (i. Read More

    Evaluation of Ovarian Reserve with AMH Level in Patients with Well-Differentiated Thyroid Cancer Receiving Radioactive Iodine Ablation Treatment.
    Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 2016 Nov 6;124(10):593-596. Epub 2016 Oct 6.
    Department of Endocrinology, Medipol University Medical School, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Introduction: Radioactive iodine (RAI) ablation treatment is used for patients diagnosed with well-differentiated thyroid cancer in order to reduce the risk of recurrence. RAI ablation treatment can adversely affect gonads in males and females. In this study, we aimed to determine ovary damage and infertility risk due to RAI, using serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) level, in females who received RAI ablation treatment. Read More

    Both the Suprachiasmatic Nucleus and the Superior Ovarian Nerve Contribute to the Processes of Ovulation and Steroid Hormone Secretion on Proestrus.
    Reprod Sci 2016 Sep 29. Epub 2016 Sep 29.
    Biology of Reproduction Research Unit, Physiology of Reproduction Laboratory, Facultad de Estudios Superiores Zaragoza, México DF, Mexico
    The aims of the present study were to analyze if the superior ovarian nerve (SON) plays a role in the neural signals from suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) that lead to ovulation and ovarian steroids secretion on proestrus day. Rats on proestrus day were treated at 11.00 to 11. Read More

    The prevalence and phenotypic features of polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
    Hum Reprod 2016 Dec 22;31(12):2841-2855. Epub 2016 Sep 22.
    Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Hacettepe University, 06100, Sihhiye, Ankara, Turkey
    Study Question: What is the reported overall prevalence of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) according to the criteria of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), Rotterdam or the Androgen Excess and PCOS Society (AE-PCOS Society)?

    Summary Answer: The reported overall prevalence of PCOS (95% CI) according to diagnostic criteria of the NIH, Rotterdam and the AE-PCOS Society is 6% (5-8%, n = 18 trials), 10% (8-13%, n = 15 trials) and 10% (7-13%, n = 10 trials), respectively.

    What Is Already Known: PCOS is the most common endocrine disorder among women of reproductive age. Although many studies have investigated the prevalence of PCOS, there are discrepancies in their results, in part due to the use of various definitions of the syndrome and its subphenotypes, differences between study cohorts, ethnicities, and types of recruitment and sampling. Read More

    Sexual Dysfunction in Patients with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in Malaysia.
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2016 ;17(8):3747-51
    Department of Community Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University Putra Malaysia E-mail :
    Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a combination of chronic anovulation, obesity, and hyperandrogenism and can affect sexual function in women of reproductive age. It is also associated with endometrial cancer. Our aim was to evaluate the frequency and predisposing factors of sexual dysfunction in PCOS patients. Read More

    Comparison of uterine, endometrial and ovarian blood flow by transvaginal color Doppler ultrasound in ovulatory and anovulatory cycles.
    Ginekol Pol 2016 ;87(8):581-4
    Objectives: Blood flow to uterus and ovaries is demonstrated to be altered during mensturation. Studies has been published stating that blood flow differs also in ovulatory and anovulatory cycles. In this study, using color Doppler ultrasound, we aim to compare uterine, endometrial and ovarian blood flow during ovulatory and anovulatory cycles. Read More

    Serum irisin and its regulation by hyperinsulinemia in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.
    Endocr J 2016 Dec 8;63(12):1107-1112. Epub 2016 Sep 8.
    Department of the Endocrinology, Diabetology and Internal Medicine, Medical University of Bialystok, Bialystok 15-089, Poland.
    Irisin is an adipokine/myokine which could be connected with insulin sensitivity. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by oligo- or anovulation, polycystic ovary, hyperandrogenism and insulin resistance. The aim of the present study was to determine the relationship between serum irisin concentration and insulin sensitivity (Mffm) as well as the effect of insulin infusion on circulating irisin levels in PCOS women as compared with healthy controls. Read More

    In vivo and in vitro maturation of oocytes collected from superstimulated wood bison (Bison bison athabascae) during the anovulatory and ovulatory seasons.
    Anim Reprod Sci 2016 Oct 1;173:87-96. Epub 2016 Sep 1.
    Department of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada. Electronic address:
    Experiments were done to compare the in vivo and in vitro maturational characteristics of cumulus-oocyte complexes (COC) collected from live wood bison. In Experiment 1 (anovulatory season), follicular ablation was done to synchronize follicle wave emergence among bison on Day -1, and FSH was given on Days 0 and 2. Bison were then assigned to 5 groups (n=5/group) in which COC were collected by transvaginal follicle aspiration on Day 4 and either fixed immediately with no maturation (control), matured in vitro for 24 or 30h, or collected on Day 5 after in vivo maturation for 24 or 30h (i. Read More

    Gonadal dysfunction in chronic kidney disease.
    Rev Endocr Metab Disord 2016 Sep 1. Epub 2016 Sep 1.
    Biomedical Research Department, Diabetes and Obesity Research Division, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, California, LA, USA.
    Sexual dysfunction is a common finding in both men and women with chronic kidney failure. Common disturbances include erectile dysfunction in men, menstrual abnormalities in women, and decreased libido and fertility in both sexes. These abnormalities are primarily organic in nature and are related to uremia as well as the other comorbid conditions that frequently occur in the chronic kidney failure patient. Read More

    Metabolism and Ovarian Function in PCOS Women: A Therapeutic Approach with Inositols.
    Int J Endocrinol 2016 4;2016:6306410. Epub 2016 Aug 4.
    Unit of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Human Pathology in Adulthood and Childhood "G. Barresi", University of Messina, 98125 Messina, Italy.
    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by chronical anovulation and hyperandrogenism which may be present in a different degree of severity. Insulin-resistance and hyperinsulinemia are the main physiopathological basis of this syndrome and the failure of inositol-mediated signaling may concur to them. Myo (MI) and D-chiro-inositol (DCI), the most studied inositol isoforms, are classified as insulin sensitizers. Read More

    Obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease risk: an uptodate in the management of polycystic ovary syndrome.
    Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2016 Dec 12;207:214-219. Epub 2016 Aug 12.
    Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey.
    Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in reproductive aged women and is characterized by two of the following three features: oligoovulation or anovulation, clinical and/or biochemical signs of hyperandrogenism, or polycystic ovaries.

    Summary: It has been demonstrated that PCOS includes a complex number of systemic symptoms in addition to symptoms related to the reproductive apparatus. It has been associated with obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Read More

    Pathophysiology, risk factors, and screening methods for prediabetes in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.
    Int J Womens Health 2016 10;8:381-7. Epub 2016 Aug 10.
    Department of Endocrinology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.
    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a syndrome associated with insulin resistance (IR), obesity, infertility, and increased cardiometabolic risk. This is a descriptive review of several mechanisms that can explain the IR among women with PCOS, other risk factors for the development of diabetes, and the screening methods used for the detection of glucose intolerance in women with PCOS. Few mechanisms can explain IR in women with PCOS such as obesity, insulin receptor signaling defects, and inhibition of insulin-mediated glucose uptake in adipocytes. Read More

    Interactions between androgens, FSH, anti-Müllerian hormone and estradiol during folliculogenesis in the human normal and polycystic ovary.
    Hum Reprod Update 2016 Nov 27;22(6):709-724. Epub 2016 Aug 27.
    CHU Lille, Service de Gynécologie Endocrinienne et Médecine de la Reproduction, Hôpital Jeanne de Flandre, F-59037, Lille, France.
    Background: Androgens, FSH, anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) and estradiol (E2) are essential in human ovarian folliculogenesis. However, the interactions between these four players is not fully understood.

    Objectives And Rationale: The purpose of this review is to highlight the chronological sequence of the appearance and function of androgens, FSH, AMH and E2 and to discuss controversies in the relationship between FSH and AMH. Read More

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