4,198 results match your criteria Anovulation


Gonadotrophins or clomiphene citrate in women with normogonadotropic anovulation and CC failure: does the endometrium matter?

Hum Reprod 2020 Jun;35(6):1319-1324

Center for Reproductive Medicine Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 9, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

Study Question: Is endometrial thickness (EMT) a biomarker to select between women who should switch to gonadotropins and those who could continue clomiphene citrate (CC) after six failed ovulatory cycles?

Summary Answer: Using a cut-off of 7 mm for EMT, we can distinguish between women who are better off switching to gonadotropins and those who could continue CC after six earlier failed ovulatory CC cycles.

What Is Already Known: For women with normogonadotropic anovulation, CC has been a long-standing first-line treatment in conjunction with intercourse or intrauterine insemination (IUI). We recently showed that a switch to gonadotropins increases the chance of live birth by 11% in these women over continued treatment with CC after six failed ovulatory cycles, at a cost of €15 258 per additional live birth. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/humrep/deaa052DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7316496PMC

ROLE OF ANDROGEN IN LIVER FAT CONTENT IN WOMEN: METABOLICALLY ADVANTAGEOUS OR DISADVANTAGEOUS?

Endocr Pract 2020 Jun 23. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

From: Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Renji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiaotong University, 160 Pujian road, Shanghai, 200127, China.

Androgen has a controversial effect on liver fat content (LFC) in androgen-excess females and androgen-deficient males. Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is often associated with hyperandrogenism and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. The aim of this study was to explore the association between hyperandrogenemia and increased liver fat content in women with PCOS, independent of other metabolic parameters. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4158/EP-2019-0407DOI Listing

Significance of pro-angiogenic estrogen metabolites in normal follicular development and follicular growth arrest in polycystic ovary syndrome.

Hum Reprod 2020 Jun 19. Epub 2020 Jun 19.

Institute for Maternal and Child Research (IDIMI), Faculty of Medicine, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile.

Study Question: Do alterations in pro- and anti-angiogenic estrogen metabolites in follicular fluid (FF) contribute to the follicular growth arrest and anovulation associated with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)?

Summary Answer: FF of PCOS women with anovulation have reduced levels of pro-angiogenic estrogen metabolites (EMs) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) compared to that of fertile women with regular menstrual cycles, but exogenous gonadotropins increase the pro-angiogenic EMs and VEGF levels in PCOS women.

What Is Known Already: PCOS is characterized by the arrest of follicular development that leads to chronic anovulation. Follicular arrest is generally associated with elevated plasma levels of luteinizing hormone (LH), androgens and anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/humrep/deaa098DOI Listing

Liraglutide administration improves hormonal/metabolic profile and reproductive features in women with HAIR-AN syndrome.

Endocrinol Diabetes Metab Case Rep 2020 Jun 4;2020. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Endocrine Unit, Alexandra Hospital, Athens, Greece.

Summary: HAIR-AN syndrome, the coexistence of Hirsutism, Insulin Resistance (IR) and Acanthosis Nigricans, constitutes a rare nosologic entity. It is characterized from clinical and biochemical hyperandrogenism accompanied with severe insulin resistance, chronic anovulation and metabolic abnormalities. Literally, HAIR-AN represents an extreme case of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/EDM-19-0150DOI Listing

Prevalence of Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome among Medical Students of a Tertiary Care Hospital.

JNMA J Nepal Med Assoc 2020 May 30;58(225):297-300. Epub 2020 May 30.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Kathmandu Medical College, Sinamangal, Kathmandu, Nepal.

Introduction: Polycystic ovarian syndrome is considered to be one of the most common endocrine disorders among women of reproductive age. Characterized by a triad of androgen excess, anovulation, infertility, and obesity the disease can lead to several complications like infertility, endometrial carcinoma. This study aims to find out its prevalence among female medical undergraduates. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.31729/jnma.4885DOI Listing

[ENDOMETRIOSIS AND PREGNANCY (REVIEW)].

Georgian Med News 2020 Apr(301):63-68

I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University (Seche-nov University), Russia.

The purpose of this review was to systematize the data on the effect of endometriosis on the fertility index, the course of pregnancy, and the modern diagnosis of changes the endometriotic implants during pregnancy. There are many factors that can potentially affect fertility in patients with endometriosis: anatomical changes in the pelvic floor, impaired transport function of the fallopian tubes due to the formation of adhesions, impaired steroid and folliculogenesis, anovulation and peritoneal changes that contribute to the formation of a harmful prooxidant microenvironment, which can affect the quality and quantity of oocytes and cause a violation of the susceptibility of the endometrium. If the patient with endometriosis still managed to get pregnant, then the problem of maintaining this pregnancy arises even more. Read More

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Characteristics of polycystic ovary syndrome throughout life.

Ther Adv Reprod Health 2020 Jan-Dec;14:2633494120911038. Epub 2020 Mar 18.

Division of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Erasmus University Medical Centre, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Polycystic ovary syndrome is the most common endocrine disorder in women of reproductive age. It is a complex disease in which genetic, endocrine, environmental, and behavioral factors are intertwined, giving rise to a heterogeneous phenotype with reproductive, metabolic, and psychological characteristics. Polycystic ovary syndrome affects women's health and their quality of life across the life course. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2633494120911038DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7254582PMC

Anomalous expression of miR-103 in polycystic ovary syndrome influenced by hormonal, and metabolic variables.

Authors:
Jiawei Mu Qiang Li

Exp Mol Pathol 2020 Jun 3;116:104482. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Department of Endocrinology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150001, China. Electronic address:

Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a common endocrine disorder in reproductive-aged women, is correlated with obesity and insulin resistance (IR), androgens excess, chronic anovulation, and infertility. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, single-stranded, noncoding RNA molecules that participate in inflammation, reproduction and metabolism, may contribute to PCOS. Current study aiming to manifest the correlation of body mass index (BMI) and testosterone (T) with miR-103 expression before and after fat loss. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yexmp.2020.104482DOI Listing

Special characteristics, reproductive, and clinical profile of women with unexplained infertility versus other causes of infertility: a comparative study.

J Assist Reprod Genet 2020 Jun 5. Epub 2020 Jun 5.

Department of Clinical Therapeutics, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, "Alexandra" Hospital, 80 Vas. Sofias Ave, 11528, Athens, Greece.

Purpose: To investigate whether women with unexplained infertility (UI) demonstrate different demographic and IVF characteristics compared to those with other causes of infertility.

Methods: Data on 245 couples that underwent a total of 413 IVF/ICSI cycles were analyzed (UI 114 cycles, 73 women; anovulation (PCO/PCOS) 83 cycles, 51 women; tubal factor 85 cycles, 47 women; male factor 131 cycles, 74 women). Features of UI were compared versus other infertility groups, after adjustment for multiple comparisons. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10815-020-01845-zDOI Listing

Polycystic ovary Syndrome in Adolescents: Pitfalls in Diagnosis and Management.

Curr Obes Rep 2020 Jun 6. Epub 2020 Jun 6.

Unit of Reproductive Endocrinology, 1st Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical School, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece.

Purpose Of Review: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the commonest endocrine disorder during a woman's reproductive lifespan, with well-documented diagnostic criteria and therapeutic strategies in adults; the same is not necessarily true for adolescents. The purpose of this review was to identify frequent pitfalls in PCOS diagnosis and management during adolescence.

Recent Findings: Although there is no global consensus on the definition, most experts converge to the presence of both oligo/amenorrhea and (clinical and/or biochemical) hyperandrogenism, as a prerequisite for diagnosis in adolescents. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13679-020-00388-9DOI Listing

Effects of vitamin D supplementation on serum lipid profile in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: A protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2020 Jun;99(23):e20621

Hospital of Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu, Sichuan Province, P.R. China.

Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the commonest endocrine disorder in reproductive-aged women. In addition to the reproductive consequences, PCOS is also characterized by a metabolic disorder, which may play a part in the etiology of anovulation and has important implications for long-term health as well. Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent in PCOS and there is a close relationship between metabolic dysfunction and vitamin D status in women with PCOS. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000020621DOI Listing

Trends in metabolic surgery in reproductive-age women in Australia.

Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 2020 Jun 1. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Australian National University Medical School, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia.

Obesity and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are common and have important reproductive consequences: 'metabolic surgery' - bariatric surgery and laparoscopic ovarian drilling (LOD) - have roles in their management. Using national data to determine age-stratified incidence rates of these procedures, we found that bariatric surgery is much more common than LOD. While the uptake of bariatric surgery is rapidly increasing, there has been a decline in the use of LOD in young women. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ajo.13168DOI Listing

C-reactive protein and ART outcomes: a systematic review.

Hum Reprod Update 2020 May 29. Epub 2020 May 29.

Univ Montpellier, Développement Embryonnaire Précoce Humain et Pluripotence, INSERM 1203, Montpellier, France.

Background: A dynamic balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory factors contributes to regulating human female reproduction. Chronic low-grade inflammation has been detected in several female reproductive conditions, from anovulation to embryo implantation failure. C-reactive protein (CRP) is a reliable marker of inflammation that is extensively used in clinical practice. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/humupd/dmaa012DOI Listing

What is new in the landscape of insulin-sensitizing agents for polycystic ovary syndrome treatment.

Ther Adv Reprod Health 2020 Jan-Dec;14:2633494120908709. Epub 2020 Feb 27.

Department of Woman, Child Health and Public Health, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario Agostino Gemelli IRCCS, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome, Italy.

Polycystic ovary syndrome, the most common gynecological endocrinopathy, is burdened with a state of hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance in 50-80% of affected women. Wherever the origin of these metabolic abnormalities lies, their pathogenetic role in determining, perpetuating, and worsening the clinical traits of the syndrome is ascertained. Many studies have already highlighted possible mechanisms: hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance may contribute to hyperandrogenemia, chronic anovulation, and other comorbidities of the syndrome by differentially affecting the endocrine glands (ovaries, adrenals, and pituitary) and peripheral tissues (fat mass and skeletal muscle). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2633494120908709DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7236839PMC
February 2020

Hyperandrogenic Milieu Dysregulates the Expression of Insulin Signaling Factors and Glucose Transporters in the Endometrium of Patients With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

Reprod Sci 2020 Aug;27(8):1637-1647

Fertility Center of CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University, Seongnam, Korea.

Purpose: Subfertility associated with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) mainly originates from oligoovulation/anovulation. Although insulin resistance and androgen excess are known to cause PCOS-associated implantation failure, the consequences of PCOS on endometrial homeostasis and pathophysiology have not been comprehensively understood. In this study, we examined whether the pathophysiologic milieu of PCOS intrinsically affects expression profiles of genes related to insulin signaling and facilitative glucose transporters (GLUTs) in the human endometrium and/or during in vitro decidualization. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s43032-020-00194-7DOI Listing

Pooled genetic analysis identifies variants that confer enhanced susceptibility to PCOS in Indian ethnicity.

Gene 2020 Aug 19;752:144760. Epub 2020 May 19.

Department of Clinical Genetics, Institute of Genetics and Hospital for Genetic Diseases, Osmania University, Begumpet, Hyderabad 500016, Telangana, India. Electronic address:

Background: PCOS is a common endocrine disorder that is characterized by hyperandrogenism and chronic anovulation and is the leading cause of female infertility. It is a heterogeneous disorder with the involvement of multiple gene and environmental interactions. This study identified variants that are known to confer susceptibility identified by Genome wide association studies (GWAS) in other ethnicities and replicated the same in individuals with PCOS of Indian ethnicity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2020.144760DOI Listing

Effect of and in the management of polycystic ovary syndrome in Wistar rats.

J Taibah Univ Med Sci 2020 Apr 19;15(2):122-128. Epub 2020 Mar 19.

Research Lab, GIET School of Pharmacy, Rajahmundry, India.

Objective: Research has shown that polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common cause of infertility in women. The drugs used to treat PCOS tend to manage the symptoms rather than cure the disease. Furthermore, these drugs have severe side-effects and influence the quality of life for the patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtumed.2020.02.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7184214PMC

Endocrine-Metabolic Dysfunction in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: an Evolutionary Perspective.

Curr Opin Endocr Metab Res 2020 Jun 9;12:41-48. Epub 2020 Mar 9.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, 10833 Le Conte Ave, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by hyperandrogenism, oligo-anovulation and polycystic ovarian morphology, with metabolic dysfunction from insulin resistance and abdominal fat accumulation worsened by obesity. As ancestral traits, these features could have favored abdominal fat deposition for energy use during starvation, but have evolved into different PCOS phenotypes with variable metabolic dysfunction. Adipose dysfunction in PCOS from hyperandrogenemia and hyperinsulinemia likely constrains subcutaneous (SC) fat storage, promoting lipotoxicity through ectopic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress, insulin resistance and inflammation in non-adipose tissue. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coemr.2020.02.013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7194185PMC

Neurotransmitter, neuropeptide and gut peptide profile in PCOS-pathways contributing to the pathophysiology, food intake and psychiatric manifestations of PCOS.

Authors:
Ioana R Ilie

Adv Clin Chem 2020 12;96:85-135. Epub 2019 Dec 12.

Department of Endocrinology, University of Medicine and Pharmacy 'Iuliu-Hatieganu', Cluj-Napoca, Romania. Electronic address:

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a major health problem with a heterogeneous hormone-imbalance and clinical presentation across the lifespan of women. Increased androgen production and abnormal gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) release and gonadotropin secretion, resulting in chronic anovulation are well-known features of the PCOS. The brain is both at the top of the neuroendocrine axis regulating ovarian function and a sensitive target of peripheral gonadal hormones and peptides. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.acc.2019.11.004DOI Listing
December 2019

Toward a Treatment Normalizing Ovulation Rate in Adolescent Girls With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

J Endocr Soc 2020 May 14;4(5):bvaa032. Epub 2020 Mar 14.

Department of Development & Regeneration, University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

Adolescent polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by androgen excess and oligomenorrhea, and commonly driven by hepato-visceral fat excess ("central obesity") ensuing from a mismatch between prenatal and postnatal nutrition, on a background of genetic susceptibility. There is no approved treatment for adolescent PCOS. We report the pooled results of 2 pilot studies in nonobese girls with PCOS (N = 62, age 15. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/jendso/bvaa032DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7182125PMC

Nuclear receptor Ftz-f1 promotes follicle maturation and ovulation partly via bHLH/PAS transcription factor Sim.

Elife 2020 Apr 27;9. Epub 2020 Apr 27.

Department of Physiology & Neurobiology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, United States.

The NR5A-family nuclear receptors are highly conserved and function within the somatic follicle cells of the ovary to regulate folliculogenesis and ovulation in mammals; however, their roles in ovaries are largely unknown. Here, we discover that Ftz-f1, one of the NR5A nuclear receptors in , is transiently induced in follicle cells in late stages of oogenesis via ecdysteroid signaling. Genetic disruption of Ftz-f1 expression prevents follicle cell differentiation into the final maturation stage, which leads to anovulation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.54568DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7239656PMC
April 2020
8.519 Impact Factor

Antidiabetic drug metformin affects the developmental competence of cleavage-stage embryos.

J Assist Reprod Genet 2020 May 25;37(5):1227-1238. Epub 2020 Apr 25.

Department of Clinical Embryology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, Karnataka, 576104, India.

Purpose: Metformin is the most commonly prescribed drug in the management of metabolic disorders such as polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) and gestational diabetes in women of reproductive age. Insulin-sensitizing effect of metformin helps in improving from PCOS features such as hyperandrogenism, anovulation, and infertility. However, its ability to cross placental barrier raises concern about safety of the drug on early embryonic development. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10815-020-01709-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7244706PMC

Correlation of anti-Müllerian hormone levels with metabolic syndrome events in polycystic ovary syndrome: A cross-sectional study.

Int J Reprod Biomed (Yazd) 2020 Mar 29;18(3):187-192. Epub 2020 Mar 29.

Division of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, 10430, Indonesia.

Background: Various endocrine disorders have been reported in women of reproductive age, 10% of which is affected by polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the correlation of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels with the metabolic syndrome in patients with PCOS.

Materials And Methods: This cross-sectional study employed a consecutive sampling method using medical records from January 2013 to December 2017 at Dr. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.18502/ijrm.v18i3.6716DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7142316PMC

Preimplantation loss of fertilized human ova: estimating the unobservable.

Hum Reprod 2020 Apr;35(4):743-750

Dept. Obstetrics and Gynecology, Brown University, Providence, RI, USA.

Study Question: What proportion of fertilized human ova are lost before implantation?

Summary Answer: An estimated 40 to 50% of fertilized ova fail to implant.

What Is Known Already: Preimplantation loss is not detectable with current technology. Published estimates of preimplantation loss range from 10 to 70%. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/humrep/deaa048DOI Listing

The effect of underweight on female and male reproduction.

Metabolism 2020 Jun 11;107:154229. Epub 2020 Apr 11.

Department of Medicine, Boston VA Healthcare System and Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA. Electronic address:

Chronic energy deficiency can impair the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis and lead to hypothalamic anovulation in underweight women. This review presents the syndromes related to underweight status that are associated with infertility, summarizes the underlying mechanisms, and reviews the available treatment options. Eating disorders, such as anorexia nervosa (AN), constitute the most common cause of infertility in underweight women, who, in addition, experience miscarriages, and sexual dysfunction. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.metabol.2020.154229DOI Listing

Clinical Implications of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in Adolescents.

Nurs Womens Health 2020 Apr;24(2):115-126

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrinopathy, affecting as many as 5% to 20% of women of reproductive age, depending on the diagnostic criteria applied. Features of PCOS include physiologic anovulation, hyperandrogenism, elevated luteinizing hormone, and increased gonadotropin-releasing hormone pulse frequency, which often manifest physically as acne and hirsutism. The clinical presentation of PCOS often mimics normal pubertal physiologic development, which may delay diagnosis and treatment of the condition in adolescent girls. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nwh.2020.01.011DOI Listing

Sleep and Reproductive Health.

J Circadian Rhythms 2020 Mar 23;18. Epub 2020 Mar 23.

Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, NG.

The reproductive function of humans is regulated by several sex hormones which are secreted in synergy with the circadian timing of the body. Sleep patterns produce generic signatures that physiologically drive the synthesis, secretion, and metabolism of hormones necessary for reproduction. Sleep deprivation among men and women is increasingly reported as one of the causes of infertility. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5334/jcr.190DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7101004PMC

Metabolic dysfunction in polycystic ovary syndrome: Pathogenic role of androgen excess and potential therapeutic strategies.

Mol Metab 2020 May 5;35:100937. Epub 2020 Feb 5.

Instituto Maimónides de Investigación Biomédica de Cordoba (IMIBIC), Spain; Department of Cell Biology, Physiology, and Immunology, University of Cordoba, Spain; Hospital Universitario Reina Sofia, Cordoba, Spain; CIBER Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición, Instituto de Salud Carlos III Cordoba, Spain; FiDiPro Program, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Turku, FIN-20520 Turku, Finland.

Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrinopathy among reproductive age women. Although its cardinal manifestations include hyperandrogenism, oligo/anovulation, and/or polycystic ovarian morphology, PCOS women often display also notable metabolic comorbidities. An array of pathogenic mechanisms have been implicated in the etiology of this heterogeneous endocrine disorder; hyperandrogenism at various developmental periods is proposed as a major driver of the metabolic and reproductive perturbations associated with PCOS. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molmet.2020.01.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7115104PMC

Non-classic cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase deficiency strongly linked with menstrual cycle disorders and female infertility as primary manifestations.

Hum Reprod 2020 Apr;35(4):939-949

Department of Reproductive Medicine, Université de Lille, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire (CHU) Lille, F-59000 Lille, France.

Study Question: Can cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase deficiency (PORD) be revealed in adult women with menstrual disorders and/or infertility?

Summary Answer: PORD was biologically and genetically confirmed in five adult women with chronically elevated serum progesterone (P) who were referred for oligo-/amenorrhea and/or infertility.

What Is Known Already: PORD is an autosomal recessive disease typically diagnosed in neonates and children with ambiguous genitalia and/or skeletal abnormalities. It is responsible for the decreased activity of several P450 enzymes, including CYP21A2, CYP17A1 and CYP19A1, that are involved in adrenal and/or gonadal steroidogenesis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/humrep/deaa020DOI Listing

Androgen signaling pathways driving reproductive and metabolic phenotypes in a PCOS mouse model.

J Endocrinol 2020 Jun;245(3):381-395

Fertility and Research Centre, School of Women's & Children's Health, University of New South Wales Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

As the mechanistic basis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) remains unknown, current management relies on symptomatic treatment. Hyperandrogenism is a major PCOS characteristic and evidence supports it playing a key role in PCOS pathogenesis. Classically, androgens can act directly through the androgen receptor (AR) or, indirectly, following aromatization, via the estrogen receptor (ER). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/JOE-19-0530DOI Listing

Twenty-one year experience with intrauterine inseminations after controlled ovarian stimulation with gonadotropins: maternal age is the only prognostic factor for success.

J Assist Reprod Genet 2020 May 25;37(5):1195-1201. Epub 2020 Mar 25.

Department of Gynecology- Division of Gynecology and Reproductive Medicine- Humanitas Fertility Center, Humanitas Clinical and Research Center IRCCS, Rozzano, Milan, Italy.

Purpose: To report our experience on homologous intrauterine insemination (IUI) with gonadotropin controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) cycles and to examine different variables which could predict IUI success.

Materials And Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of IUIs performed between January 1997 and December 2017. A total of 7359 COS IUI's procedures (2901 couples) were reviewed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10815-020-01752-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7244676PMC

Inhibition of autophagy in theca cells induces CYP17A1 and PAI-1 expression via ROS/p38 and JNK signalling during the development of polycystic ovary syndrome.

Mol Cell Endocrinol 2020 May 19;508:110792. Epub 2020 Mar 19.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Toyama, Toyama, 930-0194, Japan. Electronic address:

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a clinical syndrome characterized by hyperandrogenism, oligo/anovulation, and polycystic ovary. Autophagy is an intracellular system that degrades cytosolic proteins and organelles. The relationship between autophagy and PCOS has not been clarified. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mce.2020.110792DOI Listing

Physical Exercise following bariatric surgery in women with Morbid obesity: Study protocol clinical trial (SPIRIT compliant).

Medicine (Baltimore) 2020 Mar;99(12):e19427

Obstetrics and Gynecology Unit, Torrecárdenas University Hospital, Almería.

Background: Severe and morbid obesity are increasing globally, particularly in women. As BMI increases, the likelihood of anovulation is higher. The primary aim of the EMOVAR clinical trial is to examine, over the short (16 weeks) and medium (12 months) term, the effects of a supervised physical exercise program (focused primarily on aerobic and resistance training) on ovarian function in women with severe/morbid obesity who have undergone bariatric surgery. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000019427DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7220774PMC
March 2020
5.723 Impact Factor

Day of prostaglandin F administration after natural ovulation affects the interval to ovulation, the type of ovulated follicle, and the failure to induce ovulation in cows.

J Vet Med Sci 2020 May 16;82(5):590-597. Epub 2020 Mar 16.

Department of Veterinary Obstetrics and Gynecology, Azabu University, 1-17-71 Fuchinobe, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 229-8501, Japan.

The factors that affect the interval to ovulation, the type of ovulated dominant follicle (DF), and the cause of anovulation after prostaglandin (PG) treatment were investigated. Nine cows were assigned to six groups (54 cows in total) but the group size was later fixed at eight cows (48 in total). They received 25 mg tromethamine dinoprost as dinoprost on Day 6 (Group D6), Day 7 (Group D7), Day 8 (Group D8), Day 9 (Group D9), Day 10 (Group D10), or Day 11 (Group D11) after natural ovulation (Day 0). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1292/jvms.19-0674DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7273605PMC

Anti-Müllerian Hormone and Ovarian Morphology in Women With Hypothalamic Hypogonadism.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2020 May;105(5)

Division of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Erasmus University Medical Centre, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Context: Different phenotypical features of women with hypothalamic hypogonadism (HH), also known as World Health Organization-1 anovulation, including ovarian morphology, have been scarcely described in large cohorts. Some studies have reported increased levels of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) in women with HH.

Objective: To assess whether women with HH, compared with healthy controls, have increased serum levels of AMH and what proportion of these women erroneously meet the Rotterdam Criteria for Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/clinem/dgaa116DOI Listing

Association of obesity and anovulatory infertility.

Einstein (Sao Paulo) 2020 9;18:eAO5150. Epub 2020 Mar 9.

Fundação Oswaldo Cruz , Rio de Janeiro , RJ , Brazil .

Objective: To verify the association of obesity and infertility related to anovulatory issues.

Methods: This case-control study was carried out with 52 women, aged 20 to 38 years, divided into two groups (infertile - cases - and fertile - control), seen at outpatient clinics, in the period from April to December, 2017.

Results: We found significant evidence that obesity negatively affects women's fertility (p=0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.31744/einstein_journal/2020AO5150DOI Listing

The search for assisted reproduction: profile of patients seen in the fertility outpatient clinic of a public hospital.

JBRA Assist Reprod 2020 Mar 11. Epub 2020 Mar 11.

Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Juiz de Fora, MG, Brazil.

Objective: To analyze the epidemiological profile of patients treated at the Fertility Outpatient Clinic of a tertiary public hospital in Juiz de Fora.

Methods: This cross-sectional study analyzed the medical records of 448 patients who sought fertility treatment at a tertiary public hospital. The data collected from the medical records were used to assess the main causes of infertility, find the most frequently performed procedures, and the cases eligible to therapeutic or prophylactic intervention. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5935/1518-0557.20200008DOI Listing

EVALUATION OF THE RISK FACTORS OF CERVICAL INSUFFICIENCY IN WOMEN WITH INFERTILITY ASSOCIATED WITH ANOVULATION.

Georgian Med News 2020 Jan(298):27-33

Ivano-Frankivsk National Medical University, Ukraine.

Cervical insufficiency is a common problem in obstetrical care. There are not enough studies about its development in women with infertility. The aim of the article was to determine the risk factors of the development of cervical insufficiency in women with infertility associated with anovulation. Read More

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January 2020

Normosmic idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism due to a novel GNRH1 variant in two siblings.

Endocrinol Diabetes Metab Case Rep 2020 Mar 5;2020. Epub 2020 Mar 5.

Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Peterborough City Hospital, Peterborough, UK.

Summary: Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism is characterised by insufficient secretion of pituitary gonadotropins resulting in delayed puberty, anovulation and azoospermia. When hypogonadotropic hypogonadism occurs in the absence of structural or functional lesions of the hypothalamic or pituitary gland, the hypogonadism is defined as idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH). This is a rare genetic disorder caused by a defect in the secretion of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GNRH) by the hypothalamus or a defect in the action of GNRH on the pituitary gland. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/EDM-19-0145DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7077544PMC

Rate of Significant Endometrial Pathology in Women at Low Risk for Endometrial Hyperplasia or Cancer Presenting with Abnormal Uterine Bleeding.

Pragmat Obs Res 2020 11;11:13-18. Epub 2020 Feb 11.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand.

Background And Objectives: To determine the rate of significant endometrial abnormalities in premenopausal women at low risk for endometrial hyperplasia and cancer presenting with abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB).

Patients And Methods: This descriptive study was conducted from January 1, 2016 to March 31, 2019. The inclusion criteria were premenopausal women, 35-50 years, presenting with AUB, low risk for endometrial hyperplasia or endometrial cancer, and having undergone endometrial sampling or uterine curettage. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/POR.S240930DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7023899PMC
February 2020

Effects of a ketogenic diet in overweight women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

J Transl Med 2020 02 27;18(1):104. Epub 2020 Feb 27.

Laboratory of Cardiovascular Endocrinology, IRCCS San Raffaele Pisana, Rome, Italy.

Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in women during reproductive age. It is characterised clinically by oligo-ovulation or anovulation, hyper-androgenism, and the presence of polycystic ovaries. It is associated with an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12967-020-02277-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7045520PMC
February 2020

The casein kinase 2α promotes the occurrence polycystic ovary syndrome.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2020 Feb 17. Epub 2020 Feb 17.

International Peace Maternity and Child Health Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, PR China; Shanghai Key Laboratory of Embryo Original Diseases, Shanghai, PR China; Institute of Embryo-Fetal Original Adult Disease Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, PR China. Electronic address:

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complicated reproductive endocrine disease characterized by hyperandrogenism, polycystic ovaries, and anovulation. Previous studies have revealed that androgen receptors (ARs) are strongly associated with hyperandrogenism and abnormalities in folliculogenesis in patients with PCOS. However, the kinases responsible for androgen receptor activity, especially in granulosa cells, and the role of casein kinase 2α (CK2α) specifically in the pathogenesis of PCOS, remain unknown. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2020.02.065DOI Listing
February 2020

Vitamin D and Reproductive Hormones Across the Menstrual Cycle.

Hum Reprod 2020 02;35(2):413-423

Division of Intramural Population Health Research, National Institute of Child Health and Development, Rockville, MD 20847, USA.

Study Question: How do the calciotropic hormones (25-hydroxyvitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH)) vary across the menstrual cycle and do cyclic patterns of reproductive hormones (estradiol, progesterone, LH, FSH) differ by vitamin D status?

Summary Answer: Calciotropic hormones vary minimally across the menstrual cycle; however, women with 25-hydroxyvitamin D below 30 ng/ml have lower mean estradiol across the menstrual cycle.

What Is Known Already: Prior human studies suggest that vitamin D status is associated with fecundability, but the mechanism is unknown. Exogenous estrogens and prolonged changes in endogenous estradiol (pregnancy or menopause) influence concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/humrep/dez283DOI Listing
February 2020

Vitamin D3 affects mitochondrial biogenesis through mitogen-activated protein kinase in polycystic ovary syndrome mouse model.

J Cell Physiol 2020 Sep 11;235(9):6113-6126. Epub 2020 Feb 11.

Department of Anatomical Sciences, School of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a disorder characterized by oligomenorrhea, anovulation, and hyperandrogenism. Altered mitochondrial biogenesis can result in hyperandrogenism. The goal of this study was to examine the effect of vitamin D3 on mitochondrial biogenesis of the granulosa cells in the PCOS-induced mouse model. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcp.29540DOI Listing
September 2020

Laparoscopic ovarian drilling for ovulation induction in women with anovulatory polycystic ovary syndrome.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2020 02 11;2:CD001122. Epub 2020 Feb 11.

Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Center for Reproductive Medicine, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 1105 AZ.

Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common condition affecting 8% to 13% of reproductive-aged women. In the past clomiphene citrate (CC) used to be the first-line treatment in women with PCOS. Ovulation induction with letrozole should be the first-line treatment according to new guidelines, but the use of letrozole is off-label. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD001122.pub5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7013239PMC
February 2020

The effect of testosterone on ovulatory function in transmasculine individuals.

Am J Obstet Gynecol 2020 Feb 8. Epub 2020 Feb 8.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA.

Background: An estimated 1.4 million persons in the United States identify as transgender or nonbinary, signifying that their gender identity does not correspond with their assigned sex at birth. Individuals assigned female at birth may seek gender-affirming hormone therapy with testosterone. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2020.01.059DOI Listing
February 2020

Comparing endometrial hysteroscopic and histological findings of infertile women with polycystic ovary syndrome and unexplained infertility: A cross-sectional study.

Int J Reprod Biomed (Yazd) 2019 Apr 27;18(1):33-40. Epub 2020 Jan 27.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical School, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Background: Infertility is a critical condition in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), caused not only by anovulation but also by endometrial abnormality.

Objective: This study aimed to evaluate and compare the hysteroscopic and histological findings of endometrial biopsies in infertile women with PCOS and normal endometrial thickness and women with unexplained infertility (UI).

Materials And Methods: This cross-sectional study compared the initial hysteroscopy and endometrial histological findings of 70 infertile women with PCOS and normal endometrial thickness with those of 35 women with UI. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.18502/ijrm.v18i1.6195DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6996121PMC

Approach to Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in Adolescents

J Clin Res Pediatr Endocrinol 2020 Feb;12(Suppl 1):1-6

İstanbul University, İstanbul Faculty of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, İstanbul, Turkey

This article reviews the current understanding and management of abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) in adolescents. It is hoped that this review will provide readers with an approach to the evaluation and treatment of mild to severe uterine bleeding. AUB is a common problem which has significantly adverse effects on an affected adolescent’s quality of life. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4274/jcrpe.galenos.2019.2019.S0200DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7053441PMC
February 2020

Hyperactive LH Pulses and Elevated Kisspeptin and NKB Gene Expression in the Arcuate Nucleus of a PCOS Mouse Model.

Endocrinology 2020 Apr;161(4)

Department of OBGYN and Reproductive Sciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California.

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a common reproductive disorder in women, is characterized by hyperandrogenemia, chronic anovulation, cystic ovarian follicles, and luteinizing hormone (LH) hyper-pulsatility, but the pathophysiology isn't completely understood. We recently reported a novel mouse model of PCOS using chronic letrozole (LET; aromatase inhibitor). Letrozole-treated females demonstrate multiple PCOS-like phenotypes, including polycystic ovaries, anovulation, and elevated circulating testosterone and LH, assayed in "one-off" measures. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/endocr/bqaa018DOI Listing

Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in the Adolescent.

Obstet Gynecol 2020 Mar;135(3):615-621

Division of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology, Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas; and the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, UCSF Fresno, Fresno, California.

Abnormal uterine bleeding is a common problem in adolescents. The differential diagnosis varies from pregnancy and infection to anovulation and coagulopathy. Careful history and examination can help elucidate the best next steps for workup and management. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/AOG.0000000000003693DOI Listing