4,014 results match your criteria Anovulation


Unexplained infertility: Is it over-diagnosed and over-treated?

Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol 2018 Nov 6;53:20-29. Epub 2018 Oct 6.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Unexplained infertility is defined as the absence of conception despite 12 months of unprotected intercourse, not explained by anovulation, poor sperm quality, tubal pathology or any known cause of infertility. The two most applied treatments for unexplained infertility are intra-uterine insemination and in vitro fertilisation. As these treatments do not target a specific mechanism but rather increase the probability of conception as compared to natural conception chances, they should be weighed against the prognosis of natural conception. Read More

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November 2018

Managing polycystic ovary syndrome in primary care.

Singapore Med J 2018 Nov;59(11):567-571

Department of Endocrinology, Changi General Hospital, Singapore.

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) presents with a spectrum of conditions resulting from androgen excess, anovulation and metabolic syndrome. Patients with PCOS may see their primary care physicians for various presentations, including hirsutism, acne, menstrual irregularities, infertility, obesity, and psychiatric disorders such as anxiety and depression. Management of these patients should include screening for Type 2 diabetes mellitus, dyslipidaemia and hypertension. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Fertility and Ovarian Reserve among Women with Rheumatoid Arthritis.

J Rheumatol 2018 Nov 15. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

From the Division of Rheumatology and Immunology, Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center; Division of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, USA. Pfizer Inc. provided the funding for this project through its ASPIRE award program for investigator-initiated studies. It had no say on the design or conduct of the research, and did not alter the manuscript. M.E. Clowse is a consultant for UCB regarding issues surrounding the use of certolizumab for RA in pregnancy. This work does not involve issues of infertility or AMH. A.M. Eudy, PhD, Postdoctoral Associate, Division of Rheumatology and Immunology, Duke University Medical Center; G. McDaniel, PA-C, Clinical Research Coordinator, Division of Rheumatology and Immunology, Duke University Medical Center; W.W. Hurd, MD, MSc, MPH, Professor and Director, Division of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Duke University Medical Center; M.E. Clowse, MD, MPH, Associate Professor of Medicine, Division of Rheumatology and Immunology, Duke University Medical Center. Address correspondence to A.M. Eudy, Duke University Medical Center, Division of Rheumatology and Immunology, DUMC 3490, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA. E-mail: Accepted for publication August 10, 2018.

Objective: We sought to identify causes for infertility in women with and without rheumatoid arthritis (RA).

Methods: Women with RA were matched to healthy controls. Differences in anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) and anovulation were analyzed. Read More

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November 2018
5 Reads

Is IUI with ovarian stimulation effective in couples with unexplained subfertility?

Hum Reprod 2018 Nov 5. Epub 2018 Nov 5.

Department of Biostatistics and Research Support, Julius Centre, University Medical Centre Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, CX Utrecht, the Netherlands.

Study Question: Does starting IUI with ovarian stimulation (IUI-OS) within 1.5 years after completion of the fertility workup increase ongoing pregnancy rates compared to expectant management in couples with unexplained subfertility?

Summary Answer: IUI-OS is associated with higher chances of ongoing pregnancy compared to expectant management in unexplained subfertile couples, specifically those with poor prognoses of natural conception, i.e. Read More

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November 2018
3 Reads

ERK1/2-dependent gene expression in the bovine ovulating follicle.

Sci Rep 2018 Nov 1;8(1):16170. Epub 2018 Nov 1.

Department of Animal Science, McGill University, Sainte-Anne-de-Bellevue, QC, H9X 3V9, Canada.

Ovulation is triggered by gonadotropin surge-induced signaling cascades. To study the role of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) in bovine ovulation, we administered the pharmacological inhibitor, PD0325901, into the preovulatory dominant follicle by intrafollicular injection. Four of five cows treated with 50 µM PD0325901 failed to ovulate. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Assessing C reactive protein/albumin ratio as a new biomarker for polycystic ovary syndrome: a case-control study of women from Bahraini medical clinics.

BMJ Open 2018 Oct 27;8(10):e021860. Epub 2018 Oct 27.

Faculty of Sciences, El-Manar University, Tunis, Tunisia.

Objective: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine disorder affecting approximately one in seven women who experience androgen excess, menstrual cycle irregularities, frequent anovulation and a tendency for central obesity and insulin resistance. Chronic subclinical inflammation is now recognised as being common in the context of PCOS, which led to the postulation that PCOS may fundamentally be an inflammatory process. This study aimed to: (1) evaluate serum C reactive protein (CRP)/albumin ratio as a potential predictive biomarker for PCOS; (2) compare the relationship between CRP/albumin and PCOS to variables classically associated with the syndrome. Read More

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October 2018
8 Reads
2.063 Impact Factor

External validation of a dynamic prediction model for repeated predictions of natural conception over time.

Hum Reprod 2018 Dec;33(12):2268-2275

Medical Statistics, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Leiden University Medical Centre, Einthovenweg 20, Leiden, the Netherlands.

Study Question: How well does a previously developed dynamic prediction model perform in an external, geographical validation in terms of predicting the chances of natural conception at various points in time?

Summary Answer: The dynamic prediction model performs well in an external validation on a Scottish cohort.

What Is Known Already: Prediction models provide information that can aid evidence-based management of unexplained subfertile couples. We developed a dynamic prediction model for natural conception (van Eekelen model) that is able to update predictions of natural conception when couples return to their clinician after a period of unsuccessful expectant management. Read More

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December 2018
13 Reads

Oligo-anovulation is not a rarer feature in women with documented endometriosis.

Fertil Steril 2018 Oct;110(5):941-948

Department of Gynaecology Obstetrics II and Reproductive Medicine, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP), Hôpital Universitaire Paris Centre, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire (CHU) Cochin, Université Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris, France. Electronic address:

Objective: To study the prevalence of oligo-anovulation in women suffering from endometriosis compared to that of women without endometriosis.

Design: A single-center, cross-sectional study.

Setting: University hospital-based research center. Read More

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October 2018
2 Reads

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Implication for Drug Metabolism on Assisted Reproductive Techniques-A Literature Review.

Adv Ther 2018 Nov 11;35(11):1805-1815. Epub 2018 Oct 11.

Department of General Surgery and Medical Surgical Specialties, University of Catania, Catania, Italy.

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects 6-10% of women and could be considered one of the most common endocrine alterations in women of reproductive age. The syndrome is characterized by several hormonal and metabolic alterations, including insulin resistance and hyperandrogenism, which play a severe detrimental role in the patient's fertility. We aimed to offer an overview about drug metabolism in the PCOS population. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads
2.440 Impact Factor

Anti-müllerian hormone in the pathophysiology and diagnosis of polycystic ovarian syndrome.

Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes 2018 Dec;25(6):377-384

Service de Gynécologie Endocrinienne et de Médecine de la Reproduction, Hôpital Jeanne de Flandre, CHRU, Lille, France.

Purpose Of Review: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is the most common cause of chronic anovulation and hyperandrogenism in young women and represents a true public health concern and an economic burden.

Recent Findings: The pathophysiology of PCOS is still not fully understood, but progresses have been made and the relationships between anti mullerian hormone (AMH), follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, E2 and androgens have been explored. The follicle excess plays a central role in the syndrome and AMH is definitively a major component of this phenomena. Read More

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December 2018
3 Reads

Erythropoietin-producing hepatocellular A7 triggering ovulation indicates a potential beneficial role for polycystic ovary syndrome.

EBioMedicine 2018 Oct 3;36:539-552. Epub 2018 Oct 3.

Center for Reproductive Medicine, Ren Ji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200135, China; Shanghai Key Laboratory for Assisted Reproduction and Reproductive Genetics, Shanghai 200135, China. Electronic address:

Background: The ovulatory dysfunction mechanisms underlying polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are not completely understood. And the roles of EPHA7 and EPHA7-regulated pathway factors in the pathogenesis of anovulation remain to be elucidated.

Methods: We used human granulosa cells (hGCs) of PCOS and non-PCOS patients to measure EPHA7 and other target gene expressions. Read More

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October 2018
6 Reads

Lysyl oxidase blockade ameliorates anovulation in polycystic ovary syndrome.

Hum Reprod 2018 Nov;33(11):2096-2106

Center for Reproductive Medicine, Ren Ji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, P.R.China.

Study Question: Is overexpression of lysyl oxidase (LOX), an enzyme responsible for the cross-linking of collagens, a cause of anovulation in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)?

Summary Answer: LOX overexpression was present in PCOS ovaries, due at least in part to interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and inhibition of LOX activity with β-aminopropionitrile (BAPN) ameliorated polycystic ovary morphology and anovulation.

What Is Known Already: Aberrant ovarian extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling and inflammation may contribute to the development of PCOS. It remains unknown whether proinflammatory IL-1β is a contributing factor for LOX overexpression in PCOS ovaries and whether inhibition of LOX can improve PCOS conditions. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Highly Purified Human Menopausal Gonadotropin (Menopur): A Profile of Its Use in Infertility.

Authors:
Emma D Deeks

Clin Drug Investig 2018 Nov;38(11):1077-1084

Springer, Private Bag 65901, Mairangi Bay, Auckland, 0754, New Zealand.

Menopur is a highly purified, urine-derived, human menopausal gonadotropin containing both follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) activity. It is an effective option for controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) in assisted reproductive technology protocols and for ovulation induction (OI) in anovulatory infertility, and is associated with a different endocrine profile from that of recombinant (r) FSH in these settings (in terms of serum levels of FSH, androgens and/or estradiol). When used for COS in women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF)/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), Menopur was as good as rFSH in terms of pregnancy rates (despite being associated with a lower oocyte yield) and was found to improve some aspects of embryo quality in the IVF (but not ICSI) setting; using Menopur in combination with highly purified urinary FSH resulted in similar reproductive outcomes as Menopur alone. Read More

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November 2018
9 Reads

A young woman with sudden visual field shimmering: A case report.

Authors:
Zahra Farzinvash

Indian J Ophthalmol 2018 Oct;66(10):1504-1505

Department of Ophthalmology, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences and Health Services, Shahid Sadoughi Hospital, Yazd, Yazd Province, Iran.

Clomiphene citrate is a common drug used for the treatment of chronic anovulation, especially in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients. The drug potentially has systemic and ocular side effects. Here, we present ocular side effects in a PCOS patient and emphasize the need to pay attention to visual complaints during treatment course with clomiphene citrate. Read More

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October 2018
1 Read

The relationship between anti-Müllerian hormone serum level and body mass index in a large cohort of infertile patients.

Endocrine 2018 Sep 20. Epub 2018 Sep 20.

"Carol Davila" University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Bucharest, Romania.

Purpose: To evaluate the relationship between serum Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) level and body mass index (BMI) in infertile patients.

Methods: Medical records of patients with infertility evaluated between January 2013 and February 2018 in the Reproductive Medicine Department of a private hospital were reviewed. Patients with the following criteria were excluded from the study: polycystic ovary syndrome, primary ovarian insufficiency, AMH values > 10 ng/mL, current oral contraceptive users and previous ovarian surgery or endometriosis, and anovulation of other causes, except decreased ovarian reserve. Read More

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September 2018
6 Reads

Prolonged Amenorrhea and Resumption of Menses in Women with HIV.

J Womens Health (Larchmt) 2018 Sep 14. Epub 2018 Sep 14.

9 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Washington University School of Medicine , St. Louis, Missouri.

Objective: To compare etiologies of prolonged amenorrhea in a cohort of HIV-infected women with a cohort of similar uninfected at-risk women.

Materials And Methods: Women from the Women's Interagency HIV Study were seen every 6 months, and completed surveys including questions about their menstruation. Those who reported no vaginal bleeding for at least 1 year ("prolonged amenorrhea") with subsequent resumption of bleeding were compared with women in whom bleeding had stopped permanently ("menopause"). Read More

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September 2018
1 Read

The Association between Oligomenorrhea, Onset of Menopause and Metabolic Syndrome in Thai Postmenopausal Women.

J Menopausal Med 2018 Aug 31;24(2):100-107. Epub 2018 Aug 31.

Division of Reproductive Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand.

Objectives: This study explored the association between a history of oligomenorrhea and onset of menopause and metabolic parameters.

Methods: The study population was 605 postmenopausal women who were patients at the Menopause Clinic, Maharaj Nakorn Chiang Mai Hospital, Chiang Mai, Thailand between February 2015 and December 2015. A questionnaire was used to ask all women about their history of oligomenorrhea. Read More

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August 2018
1 Read

Pharmacological sympathetic denervation prevents the development of polycystic ovarian syndrome in rats injected with estradiol valerate.

Reprod Biol Endocrinol 2018 Sep 7;16(1):86. Epub 2018 Sep 7.

Biology of Reproduction Research Unit, Physiology of Reproduction Laboratory, Facultad de Estudios Superiores Zaragoza, UNAM AP 9-020, CP 15000, México, DF, Mexico.

Background: The injection of estradiol valerate in female rats induces polycystic ovary syndrome, which is characterized by polycystic ovaries, anovulation, and hyperandrogenism. These characteristics have been associated with an increase in the ovarian concentration of norepinephrine, which occurs before establishing the polycystic ovary syndrome. The bilateral section of the superior ovarian nerve restores ovarian functions in animals with polycystic ovary syndrome. Read More

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September 2018
5 Reads

Effects of letrozole and clomiphene citrate on Wnt signaling pathway in endometrium of polycystic ovarian syndrome and healthy women.

Biol Reprod 2018 Sep 3. Epub 2018 Sep 3.

Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine disorder in women of reproductive age. In addition to anovulation, endometrial dysfunction can reduce fertility in PCOS. The cyclical changes of endometrium are controlled by estrogen and progesterone via modulating Wnt/B-catenin pathway. Read More

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September 2018
10 Reads

Accuracy of anti-Müllerian hormone and total follicles count to diagnose polycystic ovary syndrome in reproductive women.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2018 Aug;57(4):499-506

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Thailand.

Objective: Recently, there was a new recommendation of ultrasonographic criteria to diagnosis polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). In addition, serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) was proposed as a surrogate marker for diagnosis of PCOS, but AMH cut-off level for diagnosis of PCOS is unclear. This study aimed to investigate the accuracy of serum AMH and evaluate new ultrasonographic criteria, follicle number per ovary (FNPO) threshold ≥ 25 follicles and ovarian volume (OV) > 10 mL, for diagnosis of PCOS. Read More

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August 2018
6 Reads

Maintenance of bone mass despite estrogen depletion in female common marmoset monkeys (Callithrix jacchus).

Am J Primatol 2018 Aug 14:e22905. Epub 2018 Aug 14.

University of Wisconsin, Wisconsin National Primate Research Center, Madison, Wisconsin.

Estrogen depletion leads to bone loss in almost all mammals with frequent regular ovarian cycles. However, subordinate adult female common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) undergo socially induced anovulation and hypoestrogenism without clinically apparent adverse skeletal consequences. Thus, we speculated that this non human primate might have evolved a mechanism to avoid estrogen-depletion bone loss. Read More

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August 2018
5 Reads

Effect of rumen-protected B vitamins and choline supplementation on health, production, and reproduction in transition dairy cows.

J Dairy Sci 2018 Oct 9;101(10):9016-9027. Epub 2018 Aug 9.

Department of Population Medicine, University of Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1 Canada. Electronic address:

The objectives were to determine the effects of a rumen-protected blend of B vitamins and choline (RPBC) on the incidence of health disorders, milk yield, and reproduction in early lactation and the effects on gene expression and liver fat infiltration. A randomized controlled trial in 3 commercial dairy herds (n = 1,346 cows with group as the experimental unit; experiment 1) and a university research herd (n = 50 cows with cow as the experimental unit; experiment 2) evaluated the use of 100 g/cow per d of commercially available proprietary RPBC supplement (Transition VB, Jefo, St. Hyacinthe, Quebec, Canada), or a placebo, fed 3 wk before to 3 wk after calving. Read More

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October 2018
2 Reads

Short communication: Associations of udder edema with health, milk yield, and reproduction in dairy cows in early lactation.

J Dairy Sci 2018 Oct 9;101(10):9521-9526. Epub 2018 Aug 9.

Department of Population Medicine, Ontario, N1G 2W1 Canada. Electronic address:

Udder edema (UE) is a common condition of cows around calving, but its effects are not well characterized. The objectives of this study were to determine the associations of UE with the incidence of health disorders and with milk yield and reproduction in dairy cows in early lactation. On 3 commercial farms, UE was scored weekly on 1,346 cows, on a scale of 0 to 3, from 1 wk before calving to 3 wk after calving. Read More

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October 2018
11 Reads

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

Authors:
Renate K Meier

Nurs Clin North Am 2018 Sep 11;53(3):407-420. Epub 2018 Jul 11.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, 1161 21st Avenue South, Nashville, TN 37232, USA. Electronic address:

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a commonly occurring endocrine disorder characterized by hirsutism, anovulation, and polycystic ovaries. Often comorbid with insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and obesity, it also carries significant risk for the development of cardiovascular and metabolic sequelae, including diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Traditionally, the treatment of patients with PCOS has focused on relief of symptoms. Read More

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September 2018
4 Reads

Skewed X-chromosome inactivation and shorter telomeres associate with idiopathic premature ovarian insufficiency.

Fertil Steril 2018 Aug;110(3):476-485.e1

Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Ribeirão Preto Medical School, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:

Objective: To analyze whether telomere length, X-chromosome inactivation (XCI), and androgen receptor (AR) GAG polymorphism are related to idiopathic premature ovarian insufficiency (POI).

Design: Case-control study.

Setting: University hospital. Read More

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August 2018
12 Reads

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and the accompanying disorders of glucose homeostasis among girls at the time of puberty.

Pediatr Endocrinol Diabetes Metab 2018 ;24(1):40-44

Medical University of Silesia in Katowice, Poland.

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) usually arises during puberty and is marked by insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, and hyperandrogenism. The principle is that the diagnosis of PCOS must be based on the presence of at least two of the following three criteria: chronic anovulation, hyperandrogenism (clinical or biological), and polycystic ovaries. The diagnosis of PCOS in adolescents is particularly difficult due to developmental problems in this group. Read More

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January 2018
10 Reads

Ovulation Induction for the General Gynecologist.

J Obstet Gynaecol India 2018 Aug 12;68(4):242-252. Epub 2018 May 12.

3Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of California San Diego, San Diego, CA USA.

The practice of ovulation induction often falls to the reproductive endocrinology and infertility specialist. However, attitudes toward the evaluation and treatment of infertility has shifted among general obstetrician-gynecologists (OB-GYN). This review discusses the underlying scientific basis of anovulation and clinical guidelines regarding the use of different medications for the purpose of promoting follicular recruitment and ovulation for the general OB-GYN. Read More

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August 2018
2 Reads

Understanding variation in prevalence estimates of polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Hum Reprod Update 2018 Nov;24(6):694-709

Women's Health Research Program, School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, 553 St Kilda Road, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) prevalence estimates vary when different diagnostic criteria are applied. Lack of standardization of individual elements within these criteria may contribute to prevalence differences.

Objective And Rationale: A systematic review of studies reporting prevalence of PCOS, using at least one of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), Rotterdam or Androgen Excess Society (AE-PCOS) criteria, was conducted. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

The role of anti-Müllerian hormone in predicting clomiphene citrate resistance in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome.

Gynecol Endocrinol 2018 Jul 25:1-4. Epub 2018 Jul 25.

a Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology , Health Sciences University Ümraniye Medical and Research Hospital , İstanbul , Turkey.

Clomiphene citrate (CC) is the agent of first choice in polycystic ovarian syndrome; however, anovulation problem does not resolve in a quarter of them. Thus, we investigated the value of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) in the prediction of ovarian response to CC in women with the polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). This prospective cohort study included 90 anovulatory women with PCOS who were given 50 mg/d CC. Read More

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July 2018
2 Reads

Measurement of selected androgens using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in reproductive-age women with Type 1 diabetes.

Hum Reprod 2018 Sep;33(9):1727-1734

Department of Endocrinology, Adelaide and Meath Hospital, Tallaght, Dublin 24, Republic of Ireland.

Study Question: What information does androgen profiling using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) provide in reproductive-age women with Type 1 diabetes (T1D)?

Summary Answer: In T1D women, androstenedione proved most useful of the measured androgens in differentiating subgroups based on clinical phenotypes of hyperandrogenism (HA) and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

What Is Known Already: The prevalence of HA and PCOS are increased in women with T1D. These observations are based on measurement of serum androgens using immunoassays, to-date no studies using LC-MS/MS have been reported in reproductive-age women with T1D. Read More

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September 2018
11 Reads

Assessment of PGC1α-FNDC5 Axis in Granulosa Cells of PCOS Mouse Model.

J Reprod Infertil 2018 Apr-Jun;19(2):89-94

Department of Cellular Biotechnology, Cell Science Research Center, Royan Institute for Biotechnology, ACECR, Isfahan, Iran.

Background: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a metabolic and endocrine disorder which is characterized by hyperandrogenism, anovulation or oligomenorrhea and polycystic ovarian morphology. It is believed that modulation in metabolism of granulosa cells of PCOS patients may lead to infertility. One of the metabolic modulators is FNDC5 and its cleaved form, irisin. Read More

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July 2018
9 Reads

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

Authors:
Ricardo Azziz

Obstet Gynecol 2018 Aug;132(2):321-336

Department of Health Policy, Management & Behavior, School of Public Health, University at Albany, State University of New York, and the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Albany Medical College, Albany, New York; the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, the Medical College of Georgia, Augusta University, Augusta, Georgia; and the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California at Los Angeles, and the Pullias Center for Higher Education, Rossier School of Education, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California.

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a highly prevalent disorder, representing the single most common endocrine-metabolic disorder in reproductive-aged women. Currently there are four recognized phenotypes of PCOS: 1) hyperandrogenism+oligo-anovulation+polycystic ovarian morphology; 2) hyperandrogenism+oligo-anovulation; 3) hyperandrogenism+polycystic ovarian morphology; and 4) oligo-anovulation+polycystic ovarian morphology, each with different long-term health and metabolic implications. Clinicians should clearly denote a patient's phenotype when making the diagnosis of PCOS. Read More

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August 2018
17 Reads

Progesterone for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis in women.

Authors:
J C Prior

Climacteric 2018 Aug 2;21(4):366-374. Epub 2018 Jul 2.

a Centre for Menstrual Cycle and Ovulation Research, Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology , University of British Columbia , Vancouver , BC , Canada.

Estradiol (E2) is women's dominant 'bone hormone' since it is essential for development of adolescent peak bone mineral density (BMD) and physiological levels prevent the rapid (3-week) bone resorption that causes most adult BMD loss. However, deceasing E2 levels trigger bone resorption/loss. Progesterone (P4) is E2's physiological partner, collaborating with E2 in every cell/tissue; its bone 'job' is to increase P4-receptor-mediated, slow (3-4 months) osteoblastic new bone formation. Read More

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August 2018
4 Reads

Impact of body mass index on female fertility and ART outcomes.

Panminerva Med 2018 Jun 28. Epub 2018 Jun 28.

Fertility and IVF Unit, Soroka University Medical Center, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, Israel.

As the global mean body mass index (BMI) is on the rise, the importance of understanding exactly how female fertility is impacted by once outlier BMI values, becomes ever more important. Studies have implicated abnormal BMI impacts the female reproductive system by contributing to anovulation, irregular menses, adverse oocyte quality, endometrial alterations, and hormonal imbalances that ultimately result in female infertility, which could complicate natural conception efforts and request considering assisted reproductive technology (ART) in such couples. With an increase in the demand for ART, it is crucial to understand what factors can be altered by the female BMI, in order to maximize the opportunity for successful pregnancy. Read More

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June 2018
16 Reads
2.280 Impact Factor

The DNA methylation profile of oocytes in mice with hyperinsulinaemia and hyperandrogenism as detected by single-cell level whole genome bisulphite sequencing (SC-WGBS) technology.

Reprod Fertil Dev 2018 Jun 22. Epub 2018 Jun 22.

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a familial aggregation disease that causes anovulation in women, has well-recognised characteristics, two of which are hyperinsulinaemia and hyperandrogenaemia. To determine whether the DNA methylation status is altered in oocytes by high insulin and androgen levels, we generated a mouse model with hyperinsulinaemia and hyperandrogenaemia by injection of insulin and human chorionic gonadotrophin and investigated DNA methylation changes through single-cell level whole genome bisulphite sequencing. Our results showed that hyperinsulinaemia and hyperandrogenaemia had no significant effects on the global DNA methylation profile and different functional regions of genes, but did alter methylation status of some genes, which were significantly enriched in 17 gene ontology (GO) terms (P<0. Read More

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June 2018
2 Reads

Comparison of the pregnancy outcomes and the incidence of fetal congenital abnormalities in infertile women treated with letrozole and clomiphene citrate.

J Obstet Gynaecol Res 2018 Jun;44(6):1036-1041

Shahid Akbar Abadi Clinical Research Unit, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Objectives: The aim of the study was to evaluate the incidence of congenital fetal anomalies reported among infertile Iranian women treated with letrozole compared to those treated with Clomiphene Citrate (CC).

Methods: This retrospective case-control study was performed based on information available from infertile patients referred to the Akbar-Abadi Hospital IVF Center, Tehran, Iran, undergoing ovulation induction (OI) or intrauterine insemination (IUI) cycles from 2007 to 2014.We compared sonographic findings, fertility results, pregnancy complications and congenital anomalies in two groups of women treated with letrozole and CC. Read More

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June 2018
11 Reads

Tamoxifen versus clomiphene citrate for ovulation induction in infertile women.

Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2018 Sep 12;228:57-64. Epub 2018 Jun 12.

The Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region Family Planning Research Center, 530021, China. Electronic address:

This systematic review aimed to compare the clinical efficacy of tamoxifen with that of clomiphene citrate (CC) in anovulatory patients. The PubMed, EMBASE, and CNKI databases were searched up to October 2016 for literature comparing tamoxifen with CC in anovulatory women. The pooled risk ratios (RR) or standardized mean differences (SMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were subjected to statistical analysis. Read More

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September 2018
2 Reads
1.630 Impact Factor

Low-glycosylated forms of both FSH and LH play major roles in the natural ovarian stimulation.

Ups J Med Sci 2018 Jun 12;123(2):100-108. Epub 2018 Jun 12.

a Department of Medical Sciences , Uppsala University, Clinical Chemistry, University Hospital , Sweden.

Background: The natural ovarian stimulation is mediated by four gonadotrophin glycoforms: FSHtri with three, FSHtetra with four, LHdi with two, and LHtri with three N-glycans. The aim of the study was to determine the serum concentrations of the four glycoforms and their contents of anionic monosaccharides (AMS), i.e. Read More

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June 2018
1 Read

Functional hypothalamic amenorrhea: case presentations and overview of literature.

Authors:
Shahla Nader

Hormones (Athens) 2018 Apr 17. Epub 2018 Apr 17.

Department of Internal Medicine-Endocrine Division, McGovern Medical School, 6431 Fannin Street, Suite 5.104, Houston, TX, 77030, USA.

Functional hypothalamic amenorrhea is a form of chronic anovulation not due to identifiable organic causes with adverse health consequences. A thorough history is paramount in the identification of women with this disorder as it is usually associated with lifestyle factors such as stress, weight loss, and excessive exercise. In this paper, recently published clinical guidelines are reviewed and a series of cases is presented that highlights diagnostic and therapeutic challenges encountered. Read More

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April 2018
5 Reads

Involvement of lipopolysaccharide in ovarian cystic follicles in dairy cow: Expressions of LPS receptors and steroidogenesis-related genes in follicular cells of cystic follicles.

Anim Reprod Sci 2018 May 22. Epub 2018 May 22.

Graduate School of Animal and Food Hygiene, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Obihiro, 0808555, Japan.

In ovarian cystic follicles, molecular changes in the growing follicle may have a local action and contribute to anovulation and cystic formation. One of the candidate molecules that affect the steroid and gonadotropin signaling systems of cystic follicles is lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a cell wall component of gram-negative bacteria. To examine the molecular characteristics of bovine cystic follicles, we analyzed LPS concentration in follicular fluid of cystic follicles, and the expression of LPS receptors and steroidogenesis-related genes in granulosa and theca cells. Read More

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May 2018
3 Reads

Oxidative stress and metabolic markers in pre- and postnatal polycystic ovary syndrome rat protocols.

J Inflamm Res 2018 15;11:193-202. Epub 2018 May 15.

Laboratory of Biotechnology and Animal Reproduction, BioRep, Federal University of Santa Maria, Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul.

Background: Several studies have described an enhanced inflammatory status and oxidative stress balance disruption in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). However, there is scarce information about redox markers in the blood of androgenized animal models. Here, we evaluated the serum/plasma oxidative stress marker and metabolic parameter characteristics of prenatal (PreN) and postnatal (PostN) androgenized rat models of PCOS. Read More

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May 2018
2 Reads

Thyroid hormones and female reproduction.

Biol Reprod 2018 May 14. Epub 2018 May 14.

Departamento de Clínica e Cirurgia Veterinárias, Escola de Veterinária, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

Thyroid hormones are vital for the proper functioning of the female reproductive system, since they modulate the metabolism and development of ovarian, uterine and placental tissues. Therefore, hypo- and hyperthyroidism may result in subfertility or infertility in both women and animals. Other well-documented sequelae of maternal thyroid dysfunctions include menstrual/estral irregularity, anovulation, abortion, preterm delivery, preeclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction, postpartum thyroiditis, and mental retardation in children. Read More

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May 2018
3 Reads

Tetragonia tetragonioides (Pall.) Kuntze Regulates Androgen Production in a Letrozole-Induced Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Model.

Molecules 2018 May 14;23(5). Epub 2018 May 14.

Herbal Medicine Research Division, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine (KIOM), Daejeon 34054, Korea.

(Pall.) Kuntze (TTK) is a medicinal plant traditionally used to treat various diseases such as diabetic, inflammatory, and female-related disorders. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrinological disorder in women of reproductive age, and hyperandrogenism is a prominent feature of PCOS resulting in anovulation and infertility. Read More

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May 2018
6 Reads

Effects of myo-inositol plus alpha-lactalbumin in myo-inositol-resistant PCOS women.

J Ovarian Res 2018 May 10;11(1):38. Epub 2018 May 10.

Faculty of Medicine and Psychology, Department of Developmental and Social Psychology, Sapienza University, 00185, Rome, Italy.

Background: Myo-inositol (MI), successfully used in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), was administered with α-LA to exploit its action of favouring the passage of other molecules through biological barriers, and also considering its anti-inflammatory effect.

Methods: PCOS patients, according to the Rotterdam ESHRE-ASRM criteria, with anovulation and infertility > 1 year, were included in this open and prospective study. The preliminary phase was aimed at determining a set of MI-resistant PCOS patients. Read More

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May 2018
10 Reads
2.430 Impact Factor

C-type natriuretic peptide: a link between hyperandrogenism and anovulation in a mouse model of polycystic ovary syndrome.

Clin Sci (Lond) 2018 May 8;132(9):905-908. Epub 2018 May 8.

Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri, Diamantina, Brazil.

The polycystic ovary (PCO) syndrome (PCOS) is the most common cause of anovulatory infertility in women and is associated with several clinical disorders. Despite the great amount of research in the area, mechanisms involved in the genesis of this syndrome remain poorly understood. In a recent issue of (vol. Read More

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May 2018
3 Reads

Hypothyroidism affects lipid and glycogen content and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? expression in the ovary of the rabbit.

Reprod Fertil Dev 2018 May 3. Epub 2018 May 3.

Dyslipidaemia and hyperglycaemia are associated with ovarian failure and both have been related to hypothyroidism. Hypothyroidism promotes anovulation and ovarian cysts in women and reduces the size of follicles and the expression of aromatase in the ovary of rabbits. Considering that ovarian steroidogenesis and ovulation depend on lipid metabolism and signalling, the aim of the present study was to analyse the effect of hypothyroidism on the lipid content and expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) δ in the ovary. Read More

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May 2018
5 Reads

Prostaglandin E2 involvement in mammalian female fertility: ovulation, fertilization, embryo development and early implantation.

Reprod Biol Endocrinol 2018 May 1;16(1):43. Epub 2018 May 1.

Family Planning Research Institute/Center of Reproductive Medicine, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430030, Hubei, China.

Background: Infertility in mammalian females has been a challenge in reproductive medicine. The causes of female infertility include anovulation, ovulated oocyte defects, abnormal fertilization, and insufficient luteal support for embryo development, as well as early implantation. Ovulation induction, in vitro fertilization and luteal support regimens have been performed for decades to increase fertility rates. Read More

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May 2018
6 Reads

Treatment strategies and cumulative live birth rates in WHO-II ovulation disorders.

Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2018 Jun 10;225:84-89. Epub 2018 Apr 10.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Jeroen Bosch Hospital, 's Hertogenbosch, The Netherlands.

Objective: To assess the live birth rate in women with WHO II anovulation and the proportion of women that need second or third line treatments if the initial therapy fails.

Study Design: In this multicenter cohort study we included couples with unfulfilled child wish who were referred to three fertility clinics in the Netherlands and selected women with a WHO II ovulation disorder as the only final infertility diagnosis (n = 468).

Results: The cumulative live birth rate of the total group was 82% (383/468). Read More

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June 2018
5 Reads

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), an inflammatory, systemic, lifestyle endocrinopathy.

Authors:
Seema Patel

J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2018 Sep 17;182:27-36. Epub 2018 Apr 17.

Bioinformatics and Medical Informatics Research Center, San Diego State University, Campanile Dr, San Diego, CA, 92182, USA. Electronic address:

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine disorder, afflicting females of reproductive age. This syndrome leads to infertility, insulin resistance, obesity, and cardiovascular problems, including a litany of other health issues. PCOS is a polygenic, polyfactorial, systemic, inflammatory, dysregulated steroid state, autoimmune disease, manifesting largely due to lifestyle errors. Read More

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September 2018
5 Reads

Dietary minerals, reproductive hormone levels and sporadic anovulation: associations in healthy women with regular menstrual cycles.

Br J Nutr 2018 Jul 20;120(1):81-89. Epub 2018 Apr 20.

1Division of Intramural Population Health Research,Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health,Bethesda,MD 20817,USA.

Although minerals are linked to several reproductive outcomes, it is unknown whether dietary minerals are associated with ovulatory function. We hypothesised that low intakes of minerals would be associated with an increased risk of anovulation. We investigated associations between dietary mineral intake and both reproductive hormones and anovulation in healthy women in the BioCycle Study, which prospectively followed up 259 regularly menstruating women aged 18-44 years who were not taking mineral supplements for two menstrual cycles. Read More

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July 2018
1 Read