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    Treatment strategies and cumulative live birth rates in WHO-II ovulation disorders.
    Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2018 Apr 10;225:84-89. Epub 2018 Apr 10.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Jeroen Bosch Hospital, 's Hertogenbosch, The Netherlands.
    Objective: To assess the live birth rate in women with WHO II anovulation and the proportion of women that need second or third line treatments if the initial therapy fails.

    Study Design: In this multicenter cohort study we included couples with unfulfilled child wish who were referred to three fertility clinics in the Netherlands and selected women with a WHO II ovulation disorder as the only final infertility diagnosis (n = 468).

    Results: The cumulative live birth rate of the total group was 82% (383/468). Read More

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), an inflammatory, systemic, lifestyle endocrinopathy.
    J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2018 Apr 17. Epub 2018 Apr 17.
    Bioinformatics and Medical Informatics Research Center, San Diego State University, Campanile Dr, San Diego, CA, 92182, USA. Electronic address:
    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine disorder, afflicting females of reproductive age. This syndrome leads to infertility, insulin resistance, obesity, and cardiovascular problems, including a litany of other health issues. PCOS is a polygenic, polyfactorial, systemic, inflammatory, dysregulated steroid state, autoimmune disease, manifesting largely due to lifestyle errors. Read More

    Dietary minerals, reproductive hormone levels and sporadic anovulation: associations in healthy women with regular menstrual cycles.
    Br J Nutr 2018 Apr 20:1-9. Epub 2018 Apr 20.
    1Division of Intramural Population Health Research,Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health,Bethesda,MD 20817,USA.
    Although minerals are linked to several reproductive outcomes, it is unknown whether dietary minerals are associated with ovulatory function. We hypothesised that low intakes of minerals would be associated with an increased risk of anovulation. We investigated associations between dietary mineral intake and both reproductive hormones and anovulation in healthy women in the BioCycle Study, which prospectively followed up 259 regularly menstruating women aged 18-44 years who were not taking mineral supplements for two menstrual cycles. Read More

    Role of RAB5A in FSHR-mediated signal transduction in human granulosa cells.
    Reproduction 2018 Apr 6. Epub 2018 Apr 6.
    Y Du, Center for Reproductive Medicine, Ren Ji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200135, China, Shanghai, China
    Polycystic ovary syndrome, a common condition characterized by endocrine dysfunction, menstrual irregularity, anovulation, and polycystic ovaries, affects 5%-7% of reproductive-age women. RAB5B, which is identified by a genome-wide association study as a risk locus for this syndrome, encodes a small GTPase involved in control of receptor internalization and early endosome fusion. We found that RAB5A mRNA levels in luteinized granulosa cells of obese patients with polycystic ovary syndrome were lower than in those of obese women without the syndrome. Read More

    Management of the female athlete triad.
    J Obstet Gynaecol Res 2018 Apr 2. Epub 2018 Apr 2.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    The female athlete triad (FAT) is defined by the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) as low energy availability (low EA), functional hypothalamic amenorrhoea and osteoporosis. In low EA, lutein dysfunction first develops, followed by anovulation and, subsequently, oligomenorrhea, leading to amenorrhea. Moreover, low estradiol concentrations due to amenorrhea decrease bone mineral density (BMD). Read More

    Follicular fluid levels of anti-Müllerian hormone, insulin-like growth factor 1 and leptin in women with fertility disorders.
    Syst Biol Reprod Med 2018 Mar 29:1-4. Epub 2018 Mar 29.
    a Department of Immunochemistry , University Hospital and Faculty of Medicine in Pilsen , Czech Republic.
    Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) and leptin are produced in the granulosa cells of follicles and play an important role in the growth and maturation of follicles. The aim of our study was to monitor AMH, IGF1 and leptin levels in a group of healthy women and compare them to a group of women with fertility disorders. The second aim was the evaluation of biomarker levels in relation to the identified cause of infertility. Read More

    Genetic association study from North India to analyze association of CYP19A1 and CYP17A1 with polycystic ovary syndrome.
    J Assist Reprod Genet 2018 Mar 22. Epub 2018 Mar 22.
    Department of Human Genetics, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, Punjab, 143005, India.
    Purpose: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex multifactorial endocrine disorder affecting approximately 5-10% of women of reproductive age. Affected women have menstrual disturbances due to anovulation, infertility, and hyperandrogenism. Ovarian androgen overproduction is the key physiopathologic feature of PCOS. Read More

    Metabolic risk assessment of Indian women with polycystic ovarian syndrome in relation to four Rotterdam criteria based phenotypes.
    Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2018 Mar 1;224:60-65. Epub 2018 Mar 1.
    Department of Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Public Health, University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary.
    Objectives: Though polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is associated with multiple metabolic abnormalities, the metabolic risk profile of various PCOS phenotypes is still debated. Here we sought to compare the clinical, biochemical and metabolic parameters among the different PCOS phenotypes and controls.

    Study Design: A total of 394 newly diagnosed PCOS women and 108 controls were enrolled consecutively. Read More

    Hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis perturbation in the basis of bisphenol A (BPA) reproductive toxicity in female zebrafish (Danio rerio).
    Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2018 Jul 14;156:116-124. Epub 2018 Mar 14.
    Departamento de Farmacología, Toxicología y Medicina Legal y Forense, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad de Córdoba, Campus de Rabanales, Edificio Darwin, 14071 Córdoba, Spain.
    Thousands of safety-related studies have been published on bisphenol A (BPA), an ubiquitous environmental pollutant with estrogenic activity and many other potential biological effects. In recent years, BPA exposure has been shown to cause anovulation and infertility through irreversible alteration of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in several organisms, including fish and mammals. Recently, the European Chemical Agency classified BPA as a "substance of very high concern" because of its endocrine-disrupting properties, which have serious effects on human health. Read More

    High level of C-type natriuretic peptide induced by hyperandrogen-mediated anovulation in polycystic ovary syndrome mice.
    Clin Sci (Lond) 2018 Apr 6;132(7):759-776. Epub 2018 Apr 6.
    State Key Laboratory of Agrobiotechnology, College of Biological Sciences, China Agricultural University, No. 2 Yuanmingyuan West Road, Beijing 100193, China
    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), which is characterized by hyperandrogenism, is a complex endocrinopathy that affects the fertility of 9-18% of reproductive-aged women. However, the exact mechanism of PCOS, especially hyperandrogen-induced anovulation, is largely unknown to date. Physiologically, the natriuretic peptide type C/natriuretic peptide receptor 2 (CNP/NPR2) system is essential for sustaining oocyte meiotic arrest until the preovulatory luteinizing hormone (LH) surge. Read More

    Obesity as disruptor of the female fertility.
    Reprod Biol Endocrinol 2018 Mar 9;16(1):22. Epub 2018 Mar 9.
    Interdisciplinary Department of Medicine, Section of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Bari Aldo Moro, P.za G.Cesare, 11-70124, Bari, Italy.
    Both obesity and overweight are increasing worldwide and have detrimental influences on several human body functions including the reproductive health. In particular, obese women undergo perturbations of the 'hypothalamic pituitary ovarian axis', and frequently suffer of menstrual dysfunction leading to anovulation and infertility. Besides the hormone disorders and subfertility that are common in the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), in obesity the adipocytes act as endocrine organ. Read More

    Functional hypothalamic amenorrhea and its psychological correlates: a controlled comparison.
    J Reprod Infant Psychol 2017 Apr 16;35(2):137-149. Epub 2017 Jan 16.
    b Department of Psychology , Catholic University of Croatia , Zagreb , Croatia.
    Objective: The goal of the study was to examine differences between adolescents and young women with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea (FHA) and control groups in personality traits, eating attitudes and behaviours, and perception of parental behaviour.

    Background: The FHA is stress-induced anovulation, both related to metabolic challenges, such as excessive exercise and malnutrition, and psychogenic challenges, such as perfectionism and poor coping strategies.

    Methods: Three groups of adolescents and young women participated in the study: the FHA group (N = 25), the organic anovulation group (N = 21) and the eumenorrheic group with regular menstrual cycle (N = 20). Read More

    The effects of letrozole and clomiphene citrate on ligands expression of Wnt3, Wnt7a, and Wnt8b in proliferative endometrium of women with Polycystic ovarian syndrome.
    Gynecol Endocrinol 2018 Mar 6:1-6. Epub 2018 Mar 6.
    a Department of Anatomy , School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences , Tehran , Iran.
    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrinologic disorder in women of reproductive age characterized by polycystic ovaries, oligo/anovulation, and hyperandrogenism. Not only anovulation but also endometrial dysfunction can reduce fertility in PCOS patients. Wnt pathway is responsible for endometrial proliferation which be strongly regulated by estradiol. Read More

    Antiandrogen Treatment Ameliorates Reproductive and Metabolic Phenotypes in the Letrozole-Induced Mouse Model of PCOS.
    Endocrinology 2018 Apr;159(4):1734-1747
    Department of Reproductive Medicine, Center for Reproductive Science and Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California.
    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), the most common endocrinopathy in women of reproductive age, is characterized by hyperandrogenism, anovulation, and polycystic ovaries. Although its etiology is unknown, excess androgens are thought to be a critical factor driving the pathology of PCOS. We previously demonstrated that continuous exposure to the aromatase inhibitor letrozole (LET) in mice produces many hallmarks of PCOS, including elevated testosterone (T) and luteinizing hormone, anovulation, and obesity. Read More

    Adverse effects of doping with anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) in competitive athletics, recreational sports and bodybuilding.
    Minerva Endocrinol 2018 Feb 19. Epub 2018 Feb 19.
    Centre of Reproductive Medicine and Andrology, University Hospital Münster, Muenster, Germany -
    Despite the fact that sports organizations and legislators have introduced various mechanisms to discourage athletes from using performance and appearance enhancing substances a high percentage of athletes admits to their unabated application. In competitive athletics, bodybuilding and in recreational sports anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) continue to be the substances most abused. This review summarizes the side effects of AAS abuse on organs and system functions in both sexes. Read More

    The Diagnostic Value of Anti-Mullerian Hormone in Early Post Menarche Adolescent Girls with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome.
    J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol 2018 Feb 17. Epub 2018 Feb 17.
    Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Ankara University School of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey.
    Study Objective: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder characterized by hyperandrogenism and chronic anovulation, which affects 5-10% of reproductive age females. Diagnosis of adult patients with PCOS is made easily with clinical and laboratory methods and the antimullerian hormone (AMH) level are accepted as a good indicator. However, there is still no complete consensus on the diagnosis of PCOS in adolescents. Read More

    The Root Aqueous Extract of Guill. et Perr. (Mimosaceae) Inhibits Implant Growth, Alleviates Dysmenorrhea, and Restores Ovarian Dynamic in a Rat Model of Endometriosis.
    Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2017 31;2017:8563909. Epub 2017 Dec 31.
    Laboratory of Animal Physiology, Department of Animal Biology and Physiology, Faculty of Science, University of Yaounde I, P.O. Box 812, Yaounde, Cameroon.
    (Mimosaceae) was reported to have analgesic and antioxidant properties. The present study is aimed at investigating the effects of the root aqueous extract of (EA) on an experimental model of endometriosis. The study was performed in rats orally treated with EA at doses of 127. Read More

    Lipidomics reveals altered biosynthetic pathways of glycerophospholipids and cell signaling as biomarkers of the polycystic ovary syndrome.
    Oncotarget 2018 Jan 17;9(4):4522-4536. Epub 2017 Dec 17.
    Department of Experimental Medicine, Lleida University-Institute for Research in Biomedicine of Lleida (UdL-IRBLleida), 25198 Lleida, Spain.
    Purpose: In this work, a non-targeted approach was used to unravel changes in the plasma lipidome of PCOS patients. The aim is to offer new insights in PCOS patients strictly selected in order to avoid confounding factors such as dyslipemia, obesity, altered glucose/insulin metabolism, cardiovascular disease, or cancer.

    Results: Multivariate statistics revealed a specific lipidomic signature for PCOS patients without associated pathologies. Read More

    Metformin and pioglitazone combination therapy ameliorate polycystic ovary syndrome through AMPK/PI3K/JNK pathway.
    Exp Ther Med 2018 Feb 15;15(2):2120-2127. Epub 2017 Dec 15.
    Reproductive Medicine Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan 450052, P.R. China.
    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common gynecological endocrine disorder, which results in health problems such as menstrual disorders, hyperandrogenism and persistent anovulation. Hyperandrogenism and insulin resistance are the basic characteristics of PCOS. To investigate the combined effect of metformin and pioglitazone on POCS and the potential mechanisms, a rat model of PCOS was established by intramuscular injection of estradiol valerate (EV). Read More

    Association of testosterone and antimüllerian hormone with time to pregnancy and pregnancy loss in fecund women attempting pregnancy.
    Fertil Steril 2018 Mar 7;109(3):540-548.e1. Epub 2018 Feb 7.
    Division of Intramural Population Health Research, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland.
    Objective: To examine whether higher T and/or antimüllerian hormone (AMH) was associated with anovulation, time to pregnancy (TTP), or pregnancy loss risk among healthy, fecund women without diagnosed polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Design: Prospective cohort study conducted as a secondary analysis from the Effects of Aspirin in Gestation and Reproduction randomized trial.

    Setting: University medical centers. Read More

    The correlation between serum AMH and HOMA-IR among PCOS phenotypes.
    BMC Res Notes 2018 Feb 9;11(1):114. Epub 2018 Feb 9.
    Division of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility, Department of Obstetric and Gynecology Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia; Dr, Cipto Mangunkusumo General Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia.
    Background: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is known to be one of the most prevalent endocrine disorders affecting reproductive age women. One of the endocrine disorder is hyperinsulinemia, which corresponds with the severity of PCOS. However, the pathogenesis of PCOS is not fully understood, but one theory of anti-mullerian hormone (AMH) has been proposed as one of the factor related to the degree of severity of PCOS. Read More

    Hormonal contraception in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: choices, challenges, and noncontraceptive benefits.
    Open Access J Contracept 2017 2;8:13-23. Epub 2017 Feb 2.
    Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Ribeirão Preto School of Medicine, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil.
    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine disorder among women of reproductive age characterized by chronic anovulation and polycystic ovary morphology and/or hyperandrogenism. Management of clinical manifestations of PCOS, such as menstrual irregularities and hyperandrogenism symptoms, includes lifestyle changes and combined hormonal contraceptives (CHCs). CHCs contain estrogen that exerts antiandrogenic properties by triggering the hepatic synthesis of sex hormone-binding globulin that reduces the free testosterone levels. Read More

    Altered expression of IL-1β, IL-1RI, IL-1RII, IL-1RA and IL-4 could contribute to anovulation and follicular persistence in cattle.
    Theriogenology 2018 Apr 3;110:61-73. Epub 2018 Jan 3.
    Laboratorio de Biología Celular y Molecular Aplicada, Instituto de Ciencias Veterinarias del Litoral (ICiVet-Litoral), Universidad Nacional del Litoral (UNL) / Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Tecnológicas (CONICET), Esperanza, Santa Fe, Argentina; Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias del Litoral, Universidad Nacional del Litoral (UNL), Esperanza, Santa Fe, Argentina. Electronic address:
    Cystic ovarian disease (COD) is an important cause of infertility in dairy cattle. The main signs of this infertility are ovulation failure and follicular persistence. The aim of this study was to examine the expression of the cytokines IL-1β, IL-1RI, IL-1RII, IL-1RA and IL-4 in ovarian follicular structures at different times of persistence in a model of follicular persistence induced by prolonged administration of progesterone in dairy cows. Read More

    Evaluation of three hormonal protocols for anovulatory lactating cows under regulations restricting the use of estrogenic compounds.
    Anim Sci J 2018 Apr 9;89(4):640-647. Epub 2018 Jan 9.
    College of Animal Science and Technology, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, China.
    When European Union regulations restricted the use of estrogenic compounds in food-producing animals, refined hormonal protocols were no longer applicable for anovulatory cows. However, Ovsynch and its adaptations are routinely and uniformly applied to all cows regardless of ovarian function. To evaluate their efficacy on anovulatory cows, 143, 147 and 144 anovulatory cows received Ovsynch, Presynch and G6G protocols, respectively. Read More

    C-Reactive protein in relation to fecundability and anovulation among eumenorrheic women.
    Fertil Steril 2018 Feb 6;109(2):232-239.e1. Epub 2018 Jan 6.
    Epidemiology Branch, Division of Intramural Population Health Research, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Bethesda, Maryland. Electronic address:
    Objective: To assess systemic inflammation in relation to fecundability and anovulation.

    Design: Prospective cohort study among participants in the Effects of Aspirin in Gestation and Reproduction trial who were assigned to the placebo.

    Setting: Academic medical centers. Read More

    Sex- and Age-Specific Impact of ERK Loss Within the Pituitary Gonadotrope in Mice.
    Endocrinology 2018 Mar;159(3):1264-1276
    Department of Biomedical Science, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York.
    Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling regulates hormone action in the reproductive axis, but specific mechanisms have yet to be completely elucidated. In the current study, ERK1 null and ERK2 floxed mice were combined with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GnRHR)-internal ribosomal entry site-Cre (GRIC) driver. Female ERK double-knockout (ERKdko) animals were hypogonadotropic, resulting in anovulation and complete infertility. Read More

    Prevalence, clinical characteristics, and reproductive outcomes of polycystic ovary syndrome in older women referred for tertiary fertility care.
    Arch Gynecol Obstet 2018 Apr 30;297(4):1037-1042. Epub 2017 Dec 30.
    Division of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, McGill University Health Centre (MUHC) Reproductive Centre, 888, Blvd. de Maisonneuve East, suite 200, Montreal, QC, H2L 4S8, Canada.
    Objective: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in reproductive age women. The clinical symptoms of PCOS vary with female age, as older women tend to have lower hyperandrogenic symptoms and many regain regular cycles. In this study, we aimed to estimate the prevalence of PCOS among older women referred for fertility care, describe their clinical characteristics, and compare their reproductive outcomes to those of matched control group. Read More

    Gonadotrophins versus clomifene citrate with or without intrauterine insemination in women with normogonadotropic anovulation and clomifene failure (M-OVIN): a randomised, two-by-two factorial trial.
    Lancet 2018 Feb 19;391(10122):758-765. Epub 2017 Dec 19.
    Center for Reproductive Medicine, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, Netherlands. Electronic address:
    Background: In many countries, clomifene citrate is the treatment of first choice in women with normogonadotropic anovulation (ie, absent or irregular ovulation). If these women ovulate but do not conceive after several cycles with clomifene citrate, medication is usually switched to gonadotrophins, with or without intrauterine insemination. We aimed to assess whether switching to gonadotrophins is more effective than continuing clomifene citrate, and whether intrauterine insemination is more effective than intercourse. Read More

    Effects of myo-inositol, gymnemic acid, and L-methylfolate in polycystic ovary syndrome patients.
    Gynecol Endocrinol 2017 Dec 21:1-7. Epub 2017 Dec 21.
    a Institute of Obstetric and Gynecological Pathology , Santo Bambino Hospital, University of Catania , Catania , Italy.
    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous endocrine and metabolic disorder, characterized by chronic anovulation/oligomenorrhea, hyperandrogenism, and insulin-resistance. Moreover, some studies propose a possible association between insulin resistance and hyperhomocysteinemia, which is a significant long-term risk for factor for atherogenesis and chronic vascular damage, especially in situations where insulin levels are increased. Insulin-sensitizing agents are used in the treatment of PCOS: in fact, inositols were shown to have insulin-mimetic properties. Read More

    Phase III trial comparing the efficacy and safety of recombinant- or urine-derived human chorionic gonadotropin for ovulation triggering in Japanese women diagnosed with anovulation or oligo-ovulation and undergoing ovulation induction with follitropin-alfa.
    Reprod Med Biol 2017 Jan 4;16(1):45-51. Epub 2016 Dec 4.
    Bashamichi Ladies ClinicYokohamaJapan.
    Aim: Outside of Japan, recombinant-human chorionic gonadotropin (r-hCG) is widely used for the induction of final follicular maturation and early luteinization in women undergoing ovulation induction; whereas in Japan, urine-derived hCG (u-hCG) is predominantly used. The primary objective of this study was to demonstrate the non-inferiority of r-hCG to u-hCG for ovulation induction, as assessed by the ovulation rate.

    Methods: This was an open-label, parallel-group, randomized, multicenter, phase III trial in Japanese women with anovulation or oligo-ovulation secondary to hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction or polycystic ovary syndrome, undergoing ovulation induction with recombinant-human follicle-stimulating hormone. Read More

    Equilibrium between anti-oxidants and reactive oxygen species: a requisite for oocyte development and maturation.
    Reprod Med Biol 2017 Jan 26;16(1):28-35. Epub 2016 Dec 26.
    Department of Pharmacology and ToxicologyB. V. Patel Pharmaceutical Education and Research Development CentreAhmedabadIndia.
    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are required for cellular functioning and are controlled by anti-oxidants. The ROS influence the follicles, oocytes, endometrium, and their environment. The luteinizing hormone surge initiates a massive recruitment of ROS that modulates major reproductive functions namely, oocyte maturation, ovarian steroidogenesis, corpus luteal function, and luteolysis. Read More

    Inflammatory status and its relationships with different patterns of postpartum luteal activity and reproductive performance in early lactating Holstein cows.
    Theriogenology 2018 Mar 14;108:262-268. Epub 2017 Dec 14.
    Department of Animal Science, Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, P.O. Box 578, Sari, Mazandaran, Iran.
    This study was undertaken to determine the effect of inflammatory status on different patterns of postpartum luteal activity and reproductive performance of Holstein cows during early lactation. The cows (n = 75) averaged 3.4 ± 1. Read More

    Monitoring and controlling ovarian function in the rhinoceros.
    Theriogenology 2018 Mar 8;109:48-57. Epub 2017 Dec 8.
    Center for Conservation and Research of Endangered Wildlife (CREW), Cincinnati Zoo & Botanical Garden, 3400 Vine Street, Cincinnati, OH 45220, USA. Electronic address:
    Despite their size and potentially dangerous demeanor, the rhinoceros has been a preferred subject of wildlife reproductive scientists. Several factors contribute to this taxon's popularity including the ability to utilize insightful tools like non-invasive hormone metabolite monitoring and transrectal ultrasonography, the necessity for mate introductions to coincide with the female's estrus when breeding certain species or individuals, and the desire to develop assisted reproductive technologies to facilitate the genetic management and ultimate sustainability of small, managed populations in human care. The resulting profusion of rhinoceros reproductive studies has revealed significant species-specific characteristics and exposed the prevalence of aberrant reproductive activity within this taxon. Read More

    Reproductive performance and herd exit dynamics of lactating dairy cows managed for first service with the Presynch-Ovsynch or Double-Ovsynch protocol and different duration of the voluntary waiting period.
    J Dairy Sci 2018 Feb 14;101(2):1673-1686. Epub 2017 Dec 14.
    Department of Animal Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853. Electronic address:
    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the reproductive performance and herd exit dynamics of dairy cows managed for first service with programs varying in method of submission for insemination and voluntary waiting period (VWP) duration. Holstein cows from a commercial farm in New York were randomly allocated to receive timed artificial insemination (TAI) after the Double-Ovsynch protocol (GnRH, 7 d later PGF, 3 d later GnRH, 7 d later GnRH, 7 d later PGF, 56 h later GnRH, and 16 to 18 h later TAI) at 60 ± 3 d in milk (DIM) (DO60 = 458), TAI after Double-Ovsynch at 88 ± 3 DIM (DO88 = 462), or a combination of AI at detected estrus (starting at 50 ± 3 d in milk) and TAI with the Presynch-Ovsynch protocol (PGF, 14 d later PGF, 12 d later GnRH, 7 d later PGF, 56 h later GnRH, and 16 to 18 h later TAI; PSOv = 450). Subsequent artificial insemination (AI) services were conducted at detected estrus or the Ovsynch protocol (32 ± 3 d after AI GnRH, 7 d later PGF, 56 h later GnRH, and 16 to 18 h later TAI) for cows not reinseminated at detected estrus. Read More

    Authors' reply re: Inositol treatment of anovulation in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a meta-analysis of randomised trials.
    BJOG 2018 Mar 11;125(4):509-510. Epub 2017 Dec 11.
    Women's Health Research Unit, The Blizard Institute, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK.

    Demographic analysis of a low resource, socioculturally diverse urban community presenting for infertility care in a United States public hospital.
    Contracept Reprod Med 2017 3;2:17. Epub 2017 May 3.
    Obstetrics, Gynecology, & Reproductive Sciences, University of California, 550 16th Street, San Francisco, CA 94158 USA.
    Background: Infertility is a prevalent disease of reproductive health that exerts an impact on an estimated 80 million people worldwide. For many, involuntary childlessness becomes a central and preoccupying issue in their lives, the impact of which is exacerbated by lack of access to basic care and treatment. These effects maybe further magnified among immigrant communities, a growing but highly marginalized population that has been shown in other areas of reproductive health to experience worse health outcomes and delays in access to care. Read More

    High-fat diet exposure from pre-pubertal age induces polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in rats.
    Reproduction 2018 Feb 1;155(2):141-151. Epub 2017 Dec 1.
    Department of PharmacologyL. M. College of Pharmacy, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India.
    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with hyperandrogenism, oligo-anovulation, polycystic ovaries and metabolic syndrome. Many researchers reported that PCOS often starts with menarche in adolescents. Presently available animal model focuses on ovarian but not metabolic features of PCOS. Read More

    Identification of microRNAs and genes associated with hyperandrogenism in the follicular fluid of women with polycystic ovary syndrome.
    J Cell Biochem 2018 May 22;119(5):3913-3921. Epub 2018 Jan 22.
    Nanjing Maternal and Child Health Institute, Nanjing Maternal and Child Health Hospital, Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital affiliated to Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.
    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common reproductive endocrine disease, which is characterized by hyperandrogenism (HA), chronic anovulation, polycystic ovaries, insulin resistance, and obesity. At present, the mechanism by which PCOS/HA occurs has not been fully elucidated, thus, the mechanisms behind and interventions for HA in PCOS are current hot topics in research. MiRNAs have recently been shown to serve as diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers in patients with cancer. Read More

    Insulin-sensitising drugs (metformin, rosiglitazone, pioglitazone, D-chiro-inositol) for women with polycystic ovary syndrome, oligo amenorrhoea and subfertility.
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2017 11 29;11:CD003053. Epub 2017 Nov 29.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, The General Infirmary of Leeds, United Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Belmont Grove, Leeds, UK, LS2 9NS.
    Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is characterised by infrequent or absent ovulation, and high levels of androgens and insulin (hyperinsulinaemia). Hyperinsulinaemia occurs secondary to insulin resistance and is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. Insulin-sensitising agents such as metformin may be effective in treating PCOS-related anovulation. Read More

    Polycystic ovary syndrome: a common reproductive syndrome with long-term metabolic consequences.
    Hong Kong Med J 2017 Dec 24;23(6):622-34. Epub 2017 Nov 24.
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong.
    Polycystic ovary syndrome is the most common endocrine disorder among women of reproductive age. Although traditionally viewed as a reproductive disorder, there is increasing appreciation that it is associated with significantly increased risk of cardiometabolic disorders. Women with polycystic ovary syndrome may present to clinicians via a variety of different routes and symptoms. Read More

    Heightened cortisol response to exercise challenge in women with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea.
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 2018 Feb 21;218(2):230.e1-230.e6. Epub 2017 Nov 21.
    Section of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center, Winston-Salem, NC. Electronic address:
    Background: Functional hypothalamic amenorrhea is characterized by anovulation caused by reduced gonadotropin-releasing hormone drive and is associated with hypercortisolemia that has been linked to heightened hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal reactivity to common psychological and metabolic challenges.

    Objective: We hypothesized that women with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea would display greater cortisol responses to exercise challenge than ovulatory women with eumenorrhea.

    Study Design: We completed a cross-sectional comparison of 9 women with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea and 11 women with eumenorrhea who were of reproductive age, who weighed 90-110% ideal body weight, who did not exercise excessively, and who had no formal psychiatric diagnosis. Read More

    A case of repeated mixed mood episodes with psychotic symptoms associated with the premenstrual period in a patient with polycystic ovarian syndrome.
    Gynecol Endocrinol 2017 Nov 22:1-3. Epub 2017 Nov 22.
    a Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences , University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston , Houston , TX , USA.
    Studies have demonstrated that estrogen plays an important role in psychotic and mood disorders in women. Estrogens have a protective effect against the development of these disorders, while hypoestrogenic states may be a risk factor for the development or exacerbation of mental illness. Additionally, women with menstrual cycle abnormalities such as those with a history of anovulation may be more susceptible to monthly estrogen level fluctuation-related mood and psychotic symptoms. Read More

    Intrauterine Insemination: Fundamentals Revisited.
    J Obstet Gynaecol India 2017 Dec 25;67(6):385-392. Epub 2017 Oct 25.
    Rotunda-The Center for Human Reproduction, Bandra, Mumbai, India.
    Intrauterine insemination (IUI) is an assisted conception technique that involves the deposition of a processed semen sample in the upper uterine cavity, overcoming natural barriers to sperm ascent in the female reproductive tract. It is a cost-effective, noninvasive first-line therapy for selected patients with functionally normal tubes, and infertility due to a cervical factor, anovulation, moderate male factor, unexplained factors, immunological factor, and ejaculatory disorders with clinical pregnancy rates per cycle ranging from 10 to 20%. It, however, has limited use in patients with endometriosis, severe male factor infertility, tubal factor infertility, and advanced maternal age ≥ 35 years. Read More

    Ovarian surgery for symptom relief in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2017 11 10;11:CD009526. Epub 2017 Nov 10.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Capital and Coast District Health Board, Wellington, New Zealand.
    Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine condition, affecting approximately one in 10 women. PCOS is defined by two of three features: oligo- or anovulation, clinical or biochemical hyperandrogenism or both, or polycystic ovaries.Women with PCOS can have a wide range of health problems, including infrequent and irregular periods, unwanted hair growth and acne, and subnormal fertility. Read More

    Roles of Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis and Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Ovary Axis in the Abnormal Endocrine Functions in Patients with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.
    Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao 2017 Oct;39(5):699-704
    Provincial Key Laboratory for Developmental Biology and Neurosciences,College of Life Sciences,Fujian Normal University,Fuzhou 350007,China.
    Polycystic ovary syndrome(PCOS) is a common reproductive endocrine disease in women of childbearing age. While it can be affected by a variety of factors,its pathophysiology remains unclear. Its clinical features mainly include anovulation,hyperandrogenism,and hyperinsulinemia,which are closely related with abnormal neuroendocrine system. Read More

    MicroRNA-27a-3p affects estradiol and androgen imbalance by targeting Creb1 in the granulosa cells in mouse polycytic ovary syndrome model.
    Reprod Biol 2017 Dec 28;17(4):295-304. Epub 2017 Oct 28.
    State Key Laboratory of Agrobiotechnology, College of Biological Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China. Electronic address:
    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine abnormality in women characterized by a menstrual disturbance with chronic anovulation and hyperandrogenism, polycystic ovaries, and insulin resistance. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important fine-tune regulators involved in various physiological and pathological processes, but their actions are not fully understood. In this study, we observed the increased expression of miR-27a-3p in the ovaries of mice with PCOS and explored its functions in primary mouse granulosa cells (mGCs) and the mouse granulosa-like tumor cell line, KK-1, using several approaches. Read More

    Treatment strategies for women with polycystic ovary syndrome.
    Gynecol Endocrinol 2018 Apr 31;34(4):272-277. Epub 2017 Oct 31.
    a Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine , The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University , Wenzhou , China.
    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder in women, and it is the main cause of infertility in women of reproductive age due to anovulation. PCOS also increases the risk of diseases such as cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes in women with this disorder. The mechanism of pathogenesis is not clear, as it may be related to heredity, the environment and internal embryonic factors; thus, the treatment strategies remain unclear. Read More

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