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    Clinical and Biochemical Characteristics in PCOS Women With Menstrual Abnormalities.
    J Family Reprod Health 2016 Dec;10(4):184-190
    3rd Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Attiko Hospital, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece.
    Objective: The purpose of the present study was to examine the impact of menstrual cycle abnormalities among patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) on biochemical and anthropometric characteristics. Materials and methods: We conducted a prospective observational study of patients 17-35 years of age with PCOS that attended the department of Gynecological Endocrinology of our hospital. Results: A total of 309 women with PCOS participated in the study. Read More

    Inositol treatment of anovulation in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a meta-analysis of randomised trials.
    BJOG 2017 May 24. Epub 2017 May 24.
    Women's Health Research Unit, The Blizard Institute, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London.
    Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome is a common cause of anovulation and infertility, and a risk factor for development of metabolic syndrome and endometrial cancer.

    Objectives: Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials that evaluated the effects of inositol as an ovulation-induction agent.

    Search Strategy: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane and ISI conference proceedings, Register and Meta-register for RCTs and WHO trials' search portal. Read More

    Polycystic Ovary Morphology Is Associated with Insulin Resistance in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.
    Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2017 May 20. Epub 2017 May 20.
    Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Ewha Womans University School of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.
    Background/objectives: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous disorder characterised by chronic anovulation, hyperandrogenenism, polycystic ovary morphology (PCOM), and metabolic disturbances including insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Although insulin resistance could be associated with PCOM, recent studies have shown controversial results. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between PCOM and insulin resistance. Read More

    Is foetal hyperexposure to androgens a cause of PCOS?
    Hum Reprod Update 2017 May 20:1-12. Epub 2017 May 20.
    Homerton Fertility Centre, Homerton University Hospital, London E9 6SR, UK.
    Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrinopathy affecting reproductive-aged women. The pathophysiology of this syndrome is still not completely understood but recent evidence suggests that the intra-uterine environment may be a key factor in the pathogenesis of PCOS, in particular, hyperexposure of the foetus to androgens. High concentrations of maternal serum testosterone during pregnancy have been shown to influence behaviour during childhood, the prevalence of autism disorders and anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) concentrations in adolescence. Read More

    Combining a nontargeted and targeted metabolomics approach to identify metabolic pathways significantly altered in polycystic ovary syndrome.
    Metabolism 2017 Jun 8;71:52-63. Epub 2017 Mar 8.
    Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, Metabolism, and Nutrition, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN.
    Objective: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a condition of androgen excess and chronic anovulation frequently associated with insulin resistance. We combined a nontargeted and targeted metabolomics approach to identify pathways and metabolites that distinguished PCOS from metabolic syndrome (MetS).

    Methods: Twenty obese women with PCOS were compared with 18 obese women without PCOS. Read More

    Brown adipose tissue activation by rutin ameliorates polycystic ovary syndrome in rat.
    J Nutr Biochem 2017 Apr 22;47:21-28. Epub 2017 Apr 22.
    Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100101, China. Electronic address:
    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex endocrinopathy that is characterized by anovulation, hyperandrogenism and polycystic ovary. However, there is a lack of effective treatment for PCOS at present because the pathologic cause of PCOS has not been elucidated. Although it has been known that brown adipose tissue transplantation ameliorates PCOS by activating endogenous BAT, BAT transplantation is not applicable in clinic. Read More

    Vitamin D and calcium intake and risk of early menopause.
    Am J Clin Nutr 2017 May 10. Epub 2017 May 10.
    Departments of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, and
    Background: Early menopause, defined as the cessation of ovarian function before the age of 45 y, affects ∼10% of women and is associated with higher risk of cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, and other conditions. Few modifiable risk factors for early menopause have been identified, but emerging data suggest that high vitamin D intake may reduce risk.Objective: We evaluated how intakes of vitamin D and calcium are associated with the incidence of early menopause in the prospective Nurses' Health Study II (NHS2). Read More

    Cost-effectiveness analysis of lifestyle intervention in obese infertile women.
    Hum Reprod 2017 May 9:1-9. Epub 2017 May 9.
    Department of Epidemiology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen,  9700RB Groningen, The Netherlands.
    Study Question: What is the cost-effectiveness of lifestyle intervention preceding infertility treatment in obese infertile women?

    Summary Answer: Lifestyle intervention preceding infertility treatment as compared to prompt infertility treatment in obese infertile women is not a cost-effective strategy in terms of healthy live birth rate within 24 months after randomization, but is more likely to be cost-effective using a longer follow-up period and live birth rate as endpoint.

    What Is Known Already: In infertile couples, obesity decreases conception chances. We previously showed that lifestyle intervention prior to infertility treatment in obese infertile women did not increase the healthy singleton vaginal live birth rate at term, but increased natural conceptions, especially in anovulatory women. Read More

    Anovulatory Patients Demonstrate a Sharp Decline in LH Levels upon GnRH Antagonist Administration during IVF Cycles.
    Rambam Maimonides Med J 2017 Apr 28;8(2). Epub 2017 Apr 28.
    IVF Unit, Rambam Health Care Campus, Haifa, Israel; and Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel.
    To evaluate the decrease in luteinizing hormone (LH) levels following gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist administration in in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles, data were retrospectively collected from 305 consecutive IVF or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles of patients who underwent ovarian stimulation with gonadotropins and were treated with GnRH antagonist for the prevention of premature luteinization. We compared the percent change in LH concentration from stimulation start to that observed before ovulation triggering in patients with or without anovulation. Anovulatory patients were younger, with higher body mass index (BMI), and demonstrated higher ovarian reserve parameters as compared to ovulatory patients. Read More

    Effect of combination of Withania somnifera Dunal and Tribulus terrestris Linn on letrozole induced polycystic ovarian syndrome in rats.
    Integr Med Res 2016 Dec 19;5(4):293-300. Epub 2016 Oct 19.
    RMO, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, National Institute of Unani Medicine, Bangalore, India.
    Background: To investigate the effect of the combination of hydroalcoholic extract of Withania somnifera (WS) and Tribulus terrestris (TT) on letrozole induced polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) in rat.

    Methods: Twenty four female Wistar rats of regular estrus cycle were divided into four groups of six animals each. The negative control group received 1 mL of 0. Read More

    Phenotypic variation in anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) production per follicle in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and isolated polycystic ovarian morphology (PCOM): an observational cross-sectional study.
    Gynecol Endocrinol 2017 Apr 28:1-6. Epub 2017 Apr 28.
    a Homerton Fertility Centre , Homerton University Hospital , London , United Kingdom.
    This observational study compares the ratio of serum anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) to the total antral follicle count (AFC) (as a marker of AMH production per follicle) in the various phenotypes of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and isolated polycystic ovarian morphology (PCOM). Two hundred and sixty-two women were recruited. Women with PCOS were divided into four phenotypes based on the diagnostic inclusion criteria of oligo-anovulation (OA), hyperandrogenism (HA) and polycystic ovarian morphology (PCOM). Read More

    Increased cerebrospinal fluid levels of GABA, testosterone and estradiol in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.
    Hum Reprod 2017 Apr 27:1-7. Epub 2017 Apr 27.
    Section of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Medical Center Blvd, Winston-Salem, NC 27157.
    Study Question: Do cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2) differ in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) as compared to eumenorrheic, ovulatory women (EW)?

    Summary Answer: Women with PCOS displayed higher CSF levels of GABA and E2, and possibly T, than EW.

    What Is Known Already: The chronic anovulation characteristic of PCOS has been attributed to increased central GnRH drive and resulting gonadotropin aberrations. Androgens are thought to regulate GABA, which in turn regulates the neural cascade that modulates GnRH drive. Read More

    The use of cyproterone acetate/ethinyl estradiol in hyperandrogenic skin symptoms - a review.
    Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care 2017 Apr 27:1-10. Epub 2017 Apr 27.
    c Departamento de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia da UFMG , Belo Horizonte , Brazil.
    Introduction: Hyperandrogenism affects approximately 10-20% of women of reproductive age. Hyperandrogenic skin symptoms such as hirsutism, acne, seborrhea and alopecia are associated with significant quality of life and psychological impairment. Women with abnormalities in androgen metabolism may have accompanying anovulation and/or polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), both of which have reproductive and metabolic implications if left untreated. Read More

    Age-independent anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) standard deviation scores to estimate ovarian function.
    Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2017 Jun 18;213:64-70. Epub 2017 Apr 18.
    Institute of Molecular Pathobiochemistry, Experimental Gene Therapy and Clinical Chemistry University, Hospital RWTH Aachen, 51072 Aachen, Germany.
    Objectivies: To determine single year age-specific anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) standard deviation scores (SDS) for women associated to normal ovarian function and different ovarian disorders resulting in sub- or infertility.

    Design And Methods: Determination of particular year median and mean AMH values with standard deviations (SD), calculation of age-independent cut off SDS for the discrimination between normal ovarian function and ovarian disorders.

    Results: Single-year-specific median, mean, and SD values have been evaluated for the Beckman Access AMH immunoassay. Read More

    Sexually active bucks counterbalance the seasonal negative feedback of estradiol on LH in ovariectomized goats.
    Domest Anim Endocrinol 2017 Mar 31;60:42-49. Epub 2017 Mar 31.
    Centro de Investigación en Reproducción Caprina, Universidad Autónoma Agraria Antonio Narro, Periférico Raúl López Sánchez y Carretera a Santa Fe, C.P. 27054 Torreón, Coahuila, Mexico. Electronic address:
    We showed previously that the permanent presence of bucks rendered sexually active by photoperiodic treatments, thereafter called photostimulated bucks, prevents the occurrence of seasonal anovulation; also, the introduction of these sexually active bucks induces ovulations during seasonal anestrus. Here, we studied the response of ovariectomized goats bearing 12-mm subcutaneous implants filled or not with estradiol to sexually active males to determine (1) whether the permanent presence of such bucks prevents the decrease of LH despite the presence of a negative feedback by estradiol mimicking that of seasonal anestrus (experiment 1) and (2) whether the introduction of photostimulated bucks increases the plasma LH concentrations in spite of this negative feedback (experiment 2). In experiment 1, one group of goats remained in contact with sexually active bucks, whereas the other group remained in contact with control bucks. Read More

    Prohibitin-induced obesity leads to anovulation and polycystic ovary in mice.
    Biol Open 2017 Apr 21. Epub 2017 Apr 21.
    Department of Internal Medicine, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada
    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a prevalent endocrine disorder and the most common cause of female infertility. However, the etiology of the disease and the mechanisms by which this disorder progress remain unclear. Here we report that a transgenic obese mouse (Mito-Ob) developed by overexpressing prohibitin in adipocytes develops polycystic ovaries. Read More

    High insulin impaired ovarian function in early pregnant mice and the role of autophagy in this process.
    Endocr J 2017 Apr 18. Epub 2017 Apr 18.
    Laboratory of Reproductive Biology, School of Public Health, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016, China.
    Metabolic disorders, such as PCOS (polycystic ovarian syndrome) and T2DM (type 2 diabetes mellitus), are associated with menstrual dysfunction, anovulation, infertility, and early pregnancy loss. Ovarian dysfunction is not only related to low pregnancy rates but also to the increased risk of miscarriage. Women with PCOS or T2DM, characterized by hyperinsulinemia, commonly experience ovarian dysfunction. Read More

    Using gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist before frozen embryo transfer may improve ongoing pregnancy rates in hyperandrogenic polycystic ovary syndrome women.
    Gynecol Endocrinol 2017 Apr 10:1-4. Epub 2017 Apr 10.
    a Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology , Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital , Kaohsiung , Taiwan.
    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), affecting more than 5-10% of woman at reproductive childbearing age, is characterized by anovulation and hyperandrogenism. Frozen-thawed embryo transfer (ET) has been widely used for PCOS women to minimize the risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. However, the hyperandrogenic status of PCOS women deteriorates endometrial function, which has subsequently increased miscarriage rates in PCOS women. Read More

    Progesterone Receptors and Proliferation of the Endometrium in Obese Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome-A Lifestyle Intervention Study.
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2017 Apr;102(4):1244-1253
    Division of Obstetrics and Gynecology, and.
    Context: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with increased risk of endometrial cancer. This is usually explained by chronic anovulation and deficient progesterone activity. However, the role of progesterone receptors (PRs) in endometrial proliferation is unclear. Read More

    Effect of androgen on Kiss1 expression and luteinizing hormone release in female rats.
    J Endocrinol 2017 Jun 4;233(3):281-292. Epub 2017 Apr 4.
    Department of Anatomy and NeurobiologyGraduate School of Medicine, Nippon Medical School, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan.
    Hyperandrogenic women have various grades of ovulatory dysfunction, which lead to infertility. The purpose of this study was to determine whether chronic exposure to androgen affects the expression of kisspeptin (ovulation and follicle development regulator) or release of luteinizing hormone (LH) in female rats. Weaned females were subcutaneously implanted with 90-day continuous-release pellets of 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and studied after 10 weeks of age. Read More

    Functional Hypothalamic Amenorrhea: An Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline.
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2017 May;102(5):1413-1439
    Center for Menopause, Hormonal Disorders, and Women's Health, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York 10021.
    Cosponsoring Associations: The American Society for Reproductive Medicine, the European Society of Endocrinology, and the Pediatric Endocrine Society. This guideline was funded by the Endocrine Society.

    Objective: To formulate clinical practice guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of functional hypothalamic amenorrhea (FHA). Read More

    Exposure to endocrine disruptors during adulthood: consequences for female fertility.
    J Endocrinol 2017 Jun 29;233(3):R109-R129. Epub 2017 Mar 29.
    Department of Comparative BiosciencesUniversity of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois, USA
    Endocrine disrupting chemicals are ubiquitous chemicals that exhibit endocrine disrupting properties in both humans and animals. Female reproduction is an important process, which is regulated by hormones and is susceptible to the effects of exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals. Disruptions in female reproductive functions by endocrine disrupting chemicals may result in subfertility, infertility, improper hormone production, estrous and menstrual cycle abnormalities, anovulation, and early reproductive senescence. Read More

    A homozygous mutation of GNRHR in a familial case diagnosed with polycystic ovary syndrome.
    Eur J Endocrinol 2017 May;176(5):K9-K14
    Institut Jacques MonodUniversité Paris Diderot, Paris, France.
    Context: PCOS is a heterogeneous condition characterized by hyperandrogenism and chronic anovulation and affects about 10% of women. Its etiology is poorly known, but a dysregulation of gonadotropin secretion is one of its hallmarks.

    Objective: As the etiology of PCOS is unclear, we have performed a genome-wide analysis of a consanguineous family with three sisters diagnosed with PCOS. Read More

    Modulation of steroidogenesis by vitamin D3 in granulosa cells of the mouse model of polycystic ovarian syndrome.
    Syst Biol Reprod Med 2017 Jun 27;63(3):150-161. Epub 2017 Mar 27.
    a Department of Anatomy, School of medicine , Tehran University of Medical Sciences , Tehran , Iran.
    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder of women of reproductive age characterized by polycystic ovarian morphology, anovulation or oligomenorrhea, and hyperandrogenism. It is shown that disruption in the steroidogenesis pathway caused by excess androgen in PCOS is a critical element of abnormal folliculogenesis and failure in dominant follicle selection. Vitamin D plays an important role in the regulation of ovulatory dysfunction and can influence genes involved in steroidogenesis in granulosa cells. Read More

    Clustering of PCOS-like traits in naturally hyperandrogenic female rhesus monkeys.
    Hum Reprod 2017 Apr;32(4):923-936
    Wisconsin National Primate Research Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53715, USA.
    Study Question: Do naturally occurring, hyperandrogenic (≥1 SD of population mean testosterone, T) female rhesus monkeys exhibit traits typical of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)?

    Summary Answer: Hyperandrogenic female monkeys exhibited significantly increased serum levels of androstenedione (A4), 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP), estradiol (E2), LH, antimullerian hormone (AMH), cortisol, 11-deoxycortisol and corticosterone, as well as increased uterine endometrial thickness and evidence of reduced fertility, all traits associated with PCOS.

    What Is Known Already: Progress in treating women with PCOS is limited by incomplete knowledge of its pathogenesis and the absence of naturally occurring PCOS in animal models. A female macaque monkey, however, with naturally occurring hyperandrogenism, anovulation and polyfollicular ovaries, accompanied by insulin resistance, increased adiposity and endometrial hyperplasia, suggests naturally occurring origins for PCOS in nonhuman primates. Read More

    Consensus on the integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine criteria of diagnostic classification in polycystic ovary syndrome (draft).
    J Integr Med 2017 Mar;15(2):102-109
    Department of Integration of Western and Traditional Chinese Medicine, Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai 200011, China.
    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine and metabolic disorder of women, with complex pathogenesis and heterogeneous manifestations. Professor Jin Yu recently wrote an article entitled "Proposal of Diagnosis and Diagnostic Classification of PCOS in Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine."From this, the Obstetrics and Gynecology branches of the Chinese Association of Integrative Medicine and the China Association of Chinese Medicine collaborated with the Gynecology branch of the Chinese Association for Research and Advancement of Chinese Medicine to draft a report on the consensus of criteria for the diagnosis and classification of PCOS in integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine. Read More

    Effectiveness of co-treatment with traditional Chinese medicine and letrozole for polycystic ovary syndrome: a meta-analysis.
    J Integr Med 2017 Mar;15(2):95-101
    The First Clinical Medical College, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210023, Jiangsu Province, China.
    Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine disease that affects gynecological health. Treatment of PCOS remains a big challenge for clinicians.

    Objective: This meta-analysis was developed to compare the efficacy of co-treatment with traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and letrozole against letrozole monotherapy in the treatment of PCOS. Read More

    Clomiphene citrate versus letrozole with gonadotropins in intrauterine insemination cycles: A randomized trial.
    Int J Reprod Biomed (Yazd) 2017 Jan;15(1):49-54
    Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.
    Background: Clomiphene citrate is one of the effective drugs for infertility treatment due to oligo-ovulation or anovulation. Intrauterine insemination (IUI) is one of more adherent methods for treatment of infertile cases which is followed by controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH).

    Objective: the aim of this study was to evaluate Clomiphene citrate versus letrozole with gonadotropins in IUI cycles. Read More

    Low birth-weight is a PCOS risk factor for Southern-Italian women.
    Gynecol Endocrinol 2017 May 21;33(5):373-377. Epub 2017 Feb 21.
    a Institute of Obstetric and Gynecological Pathology, Santo Bambino Hospital, University of Catania , Catania , Italy.
    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous endocrine and metabolic disorder, characterized by chronic anovulation/oligomenorrhea, hyperandrogenism and insulin-resistance. Initial studies on the genetic basis of this disorder suggested both a maternal and paternal pattern of inheritance. Birth weight has become a main factor to consider when investigating the etiology of an adult-onset disease, since it is a simple indicator of intrauterine adverse conditions. Read More

    Evaluation of serum hepcidin and iron levels in patients with PCOS: a case-control study.
    J Endocrinol Invest 2017 Mar 8. Epub 2017 Mar 8.
    Vali-e-Asr Reproductive Health Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Purpose: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common cause of chronic anovulation with a prevalence of 5-10% in women of reproductive age. The etiology of this disease is not well known, and hepcidin is one of the factors affecting the pathogenesis of the disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate plasma levels of hepcidin in patients with PCOS and its correlation with serum iron level. Read More

    Clomiphene citrate-induced visual hallucinations: a case report.
    J Med Case Rep 2017 Mar 6;11(1):60. Epub 2017 Mar 6.
    Department of Retina and Vitreous, Shroff's Charity Eye Hospital, 5027, Kedarnath Road, Daryaganj, New Delhi, 110002, India.
    Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome is a common cause of chronic anovulation and infertility in otherwise healthy fertile couples. Clomiphene citrate is used as a first-line ovulation induction therapy in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome. Clomiphene citrate can cause both systemic and ocular side effects. Read More

    The role of estrogen receptor subtypes for induction of delayed effects on the estrous cycle and female reproductive organs in rats.
    Reprod Biol 2017 Mar 17;17(1):111-119. Epub 2017 Feb 17.
    Food Safety Commission, Akasaka Park Bld. 22nd F. Akasaka 5-2-20, Minato-ku, Tokyo 107-6122, Japan. Electronic address:
    It has been reported that neonatal exposure to estrogens at relatively low doses can induce early onset anovulation as a delayed effect in female rats. Dysfunction of kisspeptin neurons in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV) was proposed to be a trigger for this effect. To determine the roles of estrogen receptor (ER) subtypes in the induction of delayed effects, we conducted a series of experiments using Donryu rats to examine whether neonatal injection of an ERα agonist (PPT), an ERβ agonist (DPN) or an ERα antagonist (ICI) could induce delayed effects. Read More

    Animal models of hyperandrogenism and ovarian morphology changes as features of polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review.
    Reprod Biol Endocrinol 2017 Feb 10;15(1):12. Epub 2017 Feb 10.
    Gynecological Endocrinology Unit, Division of Endocrinology, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Rua Ramiro Barcelos, 2350, 90035 003, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.
    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder, affecting 9-18% of women in reproductive age that causes hyperandrogenism and infertility due to dysfunctional follicular maturation and anovulation. The etiology of PCOS is still poorly known, and information from experimental animal models may help improve current understanding of the mechanisms of PCOS initiation and development. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review of currently available methods for simulation of PCOS in experimental models, focusing on two main endocrine traits: ovarian morphology changes and circulating levels of sex hormones and gonadotropins. Read More

    A dairy herd-level study of postpartum diseases and their association with reproductive performance and culling.
    J Dairy Sci 2017 Apr 2;100(4):3068-3078. Epub 2017 Feb 2.
    Faculté de Médecine Vétérinaire, Université de Montréal, C.P. 5000, Saint-Hyacinthe, Québec, J2S 7C6, Canada.
    The objectives of this study were to quantify the herd-level prevalence of postpartum diseases in a large number of dairy farms, and to identify prevalence alarm levels of these diseases based on association with a low prevalence of success at first service, with a high prevalence of pregnancy loss following pregnancy diagnosis at first service, and with a high prevalence of postpartum culling. A total of 126 commercial dairy herds were enrolled in this cohort study, and the herd was the unit of interest. Twenty cows from every herd were enrolled during the study period (a total of 2,520 lactating cows in the study). Read More

    Treatment strategies for women with WHO group II anovulation: systematic review and network meta-analysis.
    BMJ 2017 Jan 31;356:j138. Epub 2017 Jan 31.
    Robinson Research Institute, Discipline of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, School of Medicine, University of Adelaide, North Adelaide, Australia.
    Objective:  To compare the effectiveness of alternative first line treatment options for women with WHO group II anovulation wishing to conceive.

    Design:  Systematic review and network meta-analysis.

    Data Sources:  Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Medline, and Embase, up to 11 April 2016. Read More

    The Rotterdam criteria for polycystic ovary syndrome: evidence-based criteria?
    Hum Reprod 2017 Feb 9;32(2):261-264. Epub 2016 Nov 9.
    Discipline of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, School of Medicine, Robinson Research Institute, The University of Adelaide, 55 King William Road, North Adelaide, SA 5006, Australia.
    The Rotterdam criteria for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are used by a wide range of medical professionals and researchers. However, the development of these criteria was based on expert meetings and not on evidence-based treatment guidance. Over the last decade, the Rotterdam criteria have been useful in guiding research, and a number of clinical studies on PCOS have been published consequently. Read More

    Metformin during ovulation induction with gonadotrophins followed by timed intercourse or intrauterine insemination for subfertility associated with polycystic ovary syndrome.
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2017 01 24;1:CD009090. Epub 2017 Jan 24.
    Center for Reproductive Medicine, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 9, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 1105 AZ.
    Background: Clomiphene citrate (CC) is generally considered first-line treatment in women with anovulation due to polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Ovulation induction with follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH; gonadotrophins) is second-line treatment for women who do not ovulate or conceive while taking CC. Metformin may increase the effectiveness of ovulation induction with gonadotrophins and may promote safety by preventing multiple pregnancy. Read More

    Transcriptomic signatures for ovulation in vertebrates.
    Gen Comp Endocrinol 2017 Jun 19;247:74-86. Epub 2017 Jan 19.
    State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science, College of Ocean and Earth Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian Province 361102, People's Republic of China; Department of Biology, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC 27858, United States. Electronic address:
    The central roles of luteinizing hormone (LH), progestin and their receptors for initiating ovulation have been well established. However, signaling pathways and downstream targets such as proteases that are essential for the rupture of follicular cells are still unclear. Recently, we found anovulation in nuclear progestin receptor (Pgr) knockout (Pgr-KO) zebrafish, which offers a new model for examining genes and pathways that are important for ovulation and fertility. Read More

    Gnrh mRNA expression in the brain of cooperatively breeding female Damaraland mole-rats.
    Reproduction 2017 Apr 19;153(4):453-460. Epub 2017 Jan 19.
    Department of Zoology and EntomologyUniversity of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa.
    The Damaraland mole-rat (Fukomys damarensis) is a eusocial, subterranean rodent, in which breeding is limited to a single reproductive pair within each colony. Non-reproductive females, while in the confines of the colony, exhibit socially induced infertility. Anovulation is thought to be caused by a disruption in the normal gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GNRH) secretion from the hypothalamus. Read More

    Obesity and anovulatory infertility: A review.
    JBRA Assist Reprod 2016 Dec 1;20(4):240-245. Epub 2016 Dec 1.
    Universidade Federal de Goiás. Faculdade de Medicina. Hospital das Clínicas. Departamento de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia. Laboratório de Reprodução Humana - Goiânia/GO - Brazil.
    This global overweight and obesity epidemics has become one of the largest public health problem worldwide and is increasingly more common among women in reproductive age. Along with the prevalence of overweight women, there is an increase in women with anovulatory infertility. Thus, we carried out a bibliographic research in the PubMed, Lilacs and SciELO databases, using the combinations in Portuguese, Spanish and English of the following descriptors: "Body Mass Index", "obesity", "overweight", "female infertility" and "anovulation". Read More

    Alterations in Gut Microbiome Composition and Barrier Function Are Associated with Reproductive and Metabolic Defects in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS): A Pilot Study.
    PLoS One 2017 3;12(1):e0168390. Epub 2017 Jan 3.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology and Diabetology, Medical University Graz, Graz, Austria.
    Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common female endocrinopathy of unclear origin characterized by hyperandrogenism, oligo-/anovulation, and ovarian cysts. Women with PCOS frequently display overweight, insulin resistance, and systemic low-grade inflammation. We hypothesized that endotoxemia resulting from a leaky gut is associated with inflammation, insulin resistance, fat accumulation, and hyperandrogenemia in PCOS. Read More

    Ovarian aging in women with diabetes: An overview.
    Maturitas 2017 Feb 2;96:109-113. Epub 2016 Dec 2.
    University of Michigan, Department of Medicine, 2800 Plymouth Road, Building 16, Room 430W, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA.
    Type 2 diabetes is a global epidemic, and the prevalence and incidence of type 1 diabetes are increasing. The negative effects of diabetes on kidneys, nerves, and vessels are well established. The effect of diabetes on reproductive function is less well understood, but important to characterize, given the increasing numbers of young women with diabetes. Read More

    High salivary testosterone-to-androstenedione ratio and adverse metabolic phenotypes in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.
    Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2017 Apr 23;86(4):567-575. Epub 2017 Jan 23.
    Division of Endocrinology and Diabetology, Department of Internal Medicine, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria.
    Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by a combination of hormonal and metabolic disturbances, such as insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, anovulation and hyperandrogenism. Clinical phenotypes of PCOS show different patterns of steroid hormones that have been investigated to some extent. This study aimed to establish a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the quantification of salivary testosterone and androstenedione and to describe the salivary testosterone-to-androstenedione (T/A4) ratio as a new tool for the assessment of hyperandrogenism and metabolic health. Read More

    Effect of Exercise on Ovulation: A Systematic Review.
    Sports Med 2016 Dec 29. Epub 2016 Dec 29.
    Laboratory of Protein Biochemistry, Federal University of State of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Background: Infertility has been described as a devastating life crisis for couples, and has a particularly severe effect on women, in terms of anxiety and depression. Anovulation accounts for around 30% of female infertility, and while lifestyle factors such as physical activity are known to be important, the relationship between exercise and ovulation is multi-factorial and complex, and to date there are no clear recommendations concerning exercise regimes.

    Objectives: The objective of this review was to systematically assess the effect of physical activity on ovulation and to discuss the possible mechanisms by which exercise acts to modulate ovulation in reproductive-age women. Read More

    Myeloperoxidase in blood neutrophils during normal and abnormal menstrual cycles in women of reproductive age.
    Int J Lab Hematol 2017 Apr 25;39(2):169-174. Epub 2016 Dec 25.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kanazawa Medical University, Uchinada, Ishikawa, Japan.
    Introduction: We previously reported that granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) plays a critical role in ovulation, suggesting that neutrophils may maintain ovulation. We assessed myeloperoxidase (MPO), a major and specific enzyme of neutrophils, in women with abnormal and normal menstrual cycles to clarify the relationship between MPO and ovulation.

    Methods: We analyzed MPO activity in blood neutrophils of women with abnormal menstrual cycles (indicative of anovulation, n = 12) and age- and body mass index-matched normal menstrual cycles (indicative of ovulation, n = 24) using two parameters as a marker of MPO, Neut X and mean peroxidase index (MPXI). Read More

    Association of VDBP and CYP2R1 gene polymorphisms with vitamin D status in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome: a north Indian study.
    Eur J Nutr 2016 Dec 23. Epub 2016 Dec 23.
    Department of Biochemistry, Room No. 302, Third Floor, Casualty Building, Vardhman Mahavir Medical College and Safdarjang Hospital, New Delhi, India.
    Purpose: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine abnormality among women of reproductive age and is usually associated with oligo-ovulation/anovulation, obesity, and insulin resistance. Hypovitaminosis D may also be a primary factor in the initiation and development of PCOS. However, little is known about the role of genetic variation in vitamin D metabolism in PCOS aetiology. Read More

    Ghrelin is independently associated with anti-mullerian hormone levels in obese but not non-obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome.
    Endocrine 2017 Mar 21;55(3):907-913. Epub 2016 Dec 21.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
    Ghrelin is an endogenous appetite stimulant that may have a role in ovarian function. Women with polycystic ovary syndrome have anovulation and frequently weight management issues; however the associations between ghrelin and hormonal markers in polycystic ovary syndrome have not been well studied. In order to characterize the association between total ghrelin levels and ovarian function and the possible modification of this relationship by obesity, we examined total ghrelin levels and anti-mullerian hormone, total testosterone, and insulin in obese and non-obese women with and without polycystic ovary syndrome. Read More

    Current aspects of polycystic ovary syndrome: A literature review.
    Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) 2016 Dec;62(9):867-871
    Postgraduate Program in Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universidade Federal do Piauí (UFPI), Teresina, PI, Brazil.
    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous endocrine disorder with variable prevalence, affecting about one in every 15 women worldwide. The diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome requires at least two of the following criteria: oligoovulation and/or anovulation, clinical and/or biochemical evidence of hyperandrogenism and morphology of polycystic ovaries. Women with PCOS appear to have a higher risk of developing metabolic disorders, hypertension and cardiovascular disorders. Read More

    Neuroprotection via Reduction in Stress: Altered Menstrual Patterns as a Marker for Stress and Implications for Long-Term Neurologic Health in Women.
    Int J Mol Sci 2016 Dec 20;17(12). Epub 2016 Dec 20.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC 27157, USA.
    Individuals under chronic psychological stress can be difficult to identify clinically. There is often no outwardly visible phenotype. Chronic stress of sufficient magnitude not only impacts reproductive function, but also concomitantly elicits a constellation of neuroendocrine changes that may accelerate aging in general and brain aging in particular. Read More

    Natural conception: repeated predictions over time.
    Hum Reprod 2017 Feb 18;32(2):346-353. Epub 2016 Dec 18.
    Department of Medical Statistics and Bioinformatics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.
    Study Question: How can we predict chances of natural conception at various time points in couples diagnosed with unexplained subfertility?

    Summary Answer: We developed a dynamic prediction model that can make repeated predictions over time for couples with unexplained subfertility that underwent a fertility workup at a fertility clinic.

    What Is Known Already: The most frequently used prediction model for natural conception (the 'Hunault model') estimates the probability of natural conception only once per couple, that is, after completion of the fertility workup. This model cannot be used for a second or third time for couples who wish to know their renewed chances after a certain period of expectant management. Read More

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