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    High insulin impaired ovarian function in early pregnant mice and the role of autophagy in this process.
    Endocr J 2017 Apr 18. Epub 2017 Apr 18.
    Laboratory of Reproductive Biology, School of Public Health, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016, China.
    Metabolic disorders, such as PCOS (polycystic ovarian syndrome) and T2DM (type 2 diabetes mellitus), are associated with menstrual dysfunction, anovulation, infertility, and early pregnancy loss. Ovarian dysfunction is not only related to low pregnancy rates but also to the increased risk of miscarriage. Women with PCOS or T2DM, characterized by hyperinsulinemia, commonly experience ovarian dysfunction. Read More

    Using gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist before frozen embryo transfer may improve ongoing pregnancy rates in hyperandrogenic polycystic ovary syndrome women.
    Gynecol Endocrinol 2017 Apr 10:1-4. Epub 2017 Apr 10.
    a Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology , Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital , Kaohsiung , Taiwan.
    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), affecting more than 5-10% of woman at reproductive childbearing age, is characterized by anovulation and hyperandrogenism. Frozen-thawed embryo transfer (ET) has been widely used for PCOS women to minimize the risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. However, the hyperandrogenic status of PCOS women deteriorates endometrial function, which has subsequently increased miscarriage rates in PCOS women. Read More

    Progesterone Receptors and Proliferation of the Endometrium in Obese Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome-A Lifestyle Intervention Study.
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2017 Apr;102(4):1244-1253
    Division of Obstetrics and Gynecology, and.
    Context: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with increased risk of endometrial cancer. This is usually explained by chronic anovulation and deficient progesterone activity. However, the role of progesterone receptors (PRs) in endometrial proliferation is unclear. Read More

    Effect of androgen on Kiss1 expression and luteinizing hormone release in female rats.
    J Endocrinol 2017 Apr 4. Epub 2017 Apr 4.
    H Ozawa, Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Nippon Medical School, Bunkyo-ku, 113-8602, Japan.
    Hyperandrogenic women have various grades of ovulatory dysfunction, which lead to infertility. The purpose of this study was to determine whether chronic exposure to androgen affects expression of kisspeptin (ovulation and follicle development regulator) or release of luteinizing hormone (LH) in female rats. Weaned females were subcutaneously implanted with 90-day continuous-release pellets of 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and studied after 10 weeks of age. Read More

    Functional Hypothalamic Amenorrhea: An Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline.
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2017 Mar 22. Epub 2017 Mar 22.
    Center for Menopause, Hormonal Disorders, and Women's Health, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York 10021.
    Cosponsoring Associations: The American Society for Reproductive Medicine, the European Society of Endocrinology, and the Pediatric Endocrine Society. This guideline was funded by the Endocrine Society.

    Objective: To formulate clinical practice guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of functional hypothalamic amenorrhea (FHA). Read More

    Exposure to endocrine disruptors during adulthood: consequences for female fertility.
    J Endocrinol 2017 Mar 29. Epub 2017 Mar 29.
    J Flaws, Comparative Biosciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, United States
    Endocrine disrupting chemicals are ubiquitous chemicals that exhibit endocrine disrupting properties in both humans and animals. Female reproduction is an important process, which is regulated by hormones and is susceptible to the effects of exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals. Disruptions in female reproductive functions by endocrine disrupting chemicals may result in subfertility, infertility, improper hormone production, estrous and menstrual cycle abnormalities, anovulation, and early reproductive senescence. Read More

    A homozygous mutation of GNRHR in a familial case diagnosed with polycystic ovary syndrome.
    Eur J Endocrinol 2017 May;176(5):K9-K14
    Institut Jacques MonodUniversité Paris Diderot, Paris, France.
    Context: PCOS is a heterogeneous condition characterized by hyperandrogenism and chronic anovulation and affects about 10% of women. Its etiology is poorly known, but a dysregulation of gonadotropin secretion is one of its hallmarks.

    Objective: As the etiology of PCOS is unclear, we have performed a genome-wide analysis of a consanguineous family with three sisters diagnosed with PCOS. Read More

    Modulation of steroidogenesis by vitamin D3 in granulosa cells of the mouse model of polycystic ovarian syndrome.
    Syst Biol Reprod Med 2017 Jun 27;63(3):150-161. Epub 2017 Mar 27.
    a Department of Anatomy, School of medicine , Tehran University of Medical Sciences , Tehran , Iran.
    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder of women of reproductive age characterized by polycystic ovarian morphology, anovulation or oligomenorrhea, and hyperandrogenism. It is shown that disruption in the steroidogenesis pathway caused by excess androgen in PCOS is a critical element of abnormal folliculogenesis and failure in dominant follicle selection. Vitamin D plays an important role in the regulation of ovulatory dysfunction and can influence genes involved in steroidogenesis in granulosa cells. Read More

    Clustering of PCOS-like traits in naturally hyperandrogenic female rhesus monkeys.
    Hum Reprod 2017 Apr;32(4):923-936
    Wisconsin National Primate Research Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53715, USA.
    Study Question: Do naturally occurring, hyperandrogenic (≥1 SD of population mean testosterone, T) female rhesus monkeys exhibit traits typical of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)?

    Summary Answer: Hyperandrogenic female monkeys exhibited significantly increased serum levels of androstenedione (A4), 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP), estradiol (E2), LH, antimullerian hormone (AMH), cortisol, 11-deoxycortisol and corticosterone, as well as increased uterine endometrial thickness and evidence of reduced fertility, all traits associated with PCOS.

    What Is Known Already: Progress in treating women with PCOS is limited by incomplete knowledge of its pathogenesis and the absence of naturally occurring PCOS in animal models. A female macaque monkey, however, with naturally occurring hyperandrogenism, anovulation and polyfollicular ovaries, accompanied by insulin resistance, increased adiposity and endometrial hyperplasia, suggests naturally occurring origins for PCOS in nonhuman primates. Read More

    Consensus on the integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine criteria of diagnostic classification in polycystic ovary syndrome (draft).
    J Integr Med 2017 Mar;15(2):102-109
    Department of Integration of Western and Traditional Chinese Medicine, Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai 200011, China.
    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine and metabolic disorder of women, with complex pathogenesis and heterogeneous manifestations. Professor Jin Yu recently wrote an article entitled "Proposal of Diagnosis and Diagnostic Classification of PCOS in Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine."From this, the Obstetrics and Gynecology branches of the Chinese Association of Integrative Medicine and the China Association of Chinese Medicine collaborated with the Gynecology branch of the Chinese Association for Research and Advancement of Chinese Medicine to draft a report on the consensus of criteria for the diagnosis and classification of PCOS in integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine. Read More

    Effectiveness of co-treatment with traditional Chinese medicine and letrozole for polycystic ovary syndrome: a meta-analysis.
    J Integr Med 2017 Mar;15(2):95-101
    The First Clinical Medical College, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210023, Jiangsu Province, China.
    Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine disease that affects gynecological health. Treatment of PCOS remains a big challenge for clinicians.

    Objective: This meta-analysis was developed to compare the efficacy of co-treatment with traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and letrozole against letrozole monotherapy in the treatment of PCOS. Read More

    Clomiphene citrate versus letrozole with gonadotropins in intrauterine insemination cycles: A randomized trial.
    Int J Reprod Biomed (Yazd) 2017 Jan;15(1):49-54
    Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.
    Background: Clomiphene citrate is one of the effective drugs for infertility treatment due to oligo-ovulation or anovulation. Intrauterine insemination (IUI) is one of more adherent methods for treatment of infertile cases which is followed by controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH).

    Objective: the aim of this study was to evaluate Clomiphene citrate versus letrozole with gonadotropins in IUI cycles. Read More

    Low birth-weight is a PCOS risk factor for Southern-Italian women.
    Gynecol Endocrinol 2017 Feb 21:1-5. Epub 2017 Feb 21.
    a Institute of Obstetric and Gynecological Pathology, Santo Bambino Hospital, University of Catania , Catania , Italy.
    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous endocrine and metabolic disorder, characterized by chronic anovulation/oligomenorrhea, hyperandrogenism and insulin-resistance. Initial studies on the genetic basis of this disorder suggested both a maternal and paternal pattern of inheritance. Birth weight has become a main factor to consider when investigating the etiology of an adult-onset disease, since it is a simple indicator of intrauterine adverse conditions. Read More

    Evaluation of serum hepcidin and iron levels in patients with PCOS: a case-control study.
    J Endocrinol Invest 2017 Mar 8. Epub 2017 Mar 8.
    Vali-e-Asr Reproductive Health Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Purpose: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common cause of chronic anovulation with a prevalence of 5-10% in women of reproductive age. The etiology of this disease is not well known, and hepcidin is one of the factors affecting the pathogenesis of the disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate plasma levels of hepcidin in patients with PCOS and its correlation with serum iron level. Read More

    Clomiphene citrate-induced visual hallucinations: a case report.
    J Med Case Rep 2017 Mar 6;11(1):60. Epub 2017 Mar 6.
    Department of Retina and Vitreous, Shroff's Charity Eye Hospital, 5027, Kedarnath Road, Daryaganj, New Delhi, 110002, India.
    Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome is a common cause of chronic anovulation and infertility in otherwise healthy fertile couples. Clomiphene citrate is used as a first-line ovulation induction therapy in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome. Clomiphene citrate can cause both systemic and ocular side effects. Read More

    The role of estrogen receptor subtypes for induction of delayed effects on the estrous cycle and female reproductive organs in rats.
    Reprod Biol 2017 Mar 17;17(1):111-119. Epub 2017 Feb 17.
    Food Safety Commission, Akasaka Park Bld. 22nd F. Akasaka 5-2-20, Minato-ku, Tokyo 107-6122, Japan. Electronic address:
    It has been reported that neonatal exposure to estrogens at relatively low doses can induce early onset anovulation as a delayed effect in female rats. Dysfunction of kisspeptin neurons in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV) was proposed to be a trigger for this effect. To determine the roles of estrogen receptor (ER) subtypes in the induction of delayed effects, we conducted a series of experiments using Donryu rats to examine whether neonatal injection of an ERα agonist (PPT), an ERβ agonist (DPN) or an ERα antagonist (ICI) could induce delayed effects. Read More

    Animal models of hyperandrogenism and ovarian morphology changes as features of polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review.
    Reprod Biol Endocrinol 2017 Feb 10;15(1):12. Epub 2017 Feb 10.
    Gynecological Endocrinology Unit, Division of Endocrinology, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Rua Ramiro Barcelos, 2350, 90035 003, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.
    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder, affecting 9-18% of women in reproductive age that causes hyperandrogenism and infertility due to dysfunctional follicular maturation and anovulation. The etiology of PCOS is still poorly known, and information from experimental animal models may help improve current understanding of the mechanisms of PCOS initiation and development. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review of currently available methods for simulation of PCOS in experimental models, focusing on two main endocrine traits: ovarian morphology changes and circulating levels of sex hormones and gonadotropins. Read More

    A dairy herd-level study of postpartum diseases and their association with reproductive performance and culling.
    J Dairy Sci 2017 Apr 2;100(4):3068-3078. Epub 2017 Feb 2.
    Faculté de Médecine Vétérinaire, Université de Montréal, C.P. 5000, Saint-Hyacinthe, Québec, J2S 7C6, Canada.
    The objectives of this study were to quantify the herd-level prevalence of postpartum diseases in a large number of dairy farms, and to identify prevalence alarm levels of these diseases based on association with a low prevalence of success at first service, with a high prevalence of pregnancy loss following pregnancy diagnosis at first service, and with a high prevalence of postpartum culling. A total of 126 commercial dairy herds were enrolled in this cohort study, and the herd was the unit of interest. Twenty cows from every herd were enrolled during the study period (a total of 2,520 lactating cows in the study). Read More

    Treatment strategies for women with WHO group II anovulation: systematic review and network meta-analysis.
    BMJ 2017 Jan 31;356:j138. Epub 2017 Jan 31.
    Robinson Research Institute, Discipline of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, School of Medicine, University of Adelaide, North Adelaide, Australia.
    Objective:  To compare the effectiveness of alternative first line treatment options for women with WHO group II anovulation wishing to conceive.

    Design:  Systematic review and network meta-analysis.

    Data Sources:  Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Medline, and Embase, up to 11 April 2016. Read More

    The Rotterdam criteria for polycystic ovary syndrome: evidence-based criteria?
    Hum Reprod 2017 Feb 9;32(2):261-264. Epub 2016 Nov 9.
    Discipline of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, School of Medicine, Robinson Research Institute, The University of Adelaide, 55 King William Road, North Adelaide, SA 5006, Australia.
    The Rotterdam criteria for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are used by a wide range of medical professionals and researchers. However, the development of these criteria was based on expert meetings and not on evidence-based treatment guidance. Over the last decade, the Rotterdam criteria have been useful in guiding research, and a number of clinical studies on PCOS have been published consequently. Read More

    Metformin during ovulation induction with gonadotrophins followed by timed intercourse or intrauterine insemination for subfertility associated with polycystic ovary syndrome.
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2017 01 24;1:CD009090. Epub 2017 Jan 24.
    Center for Reproductive Medicine, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 9, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 1105 AZ.
    Background: Clomiphene citrate (CC) is generally considered first-line treatment in women with anovulation due to polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Ovulation induction with follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH; gonadotrophins) is second-line treatment for women who do not ovulate or conceive while taking CC. Metformin may increase the effectiveness of ovulation induction with gonadotrophins and may promote safety by preventing multiple pregnancy. Read More

    Transcriptomic signatures for ovulation in vertebrates.
    Gen Comp Endocrinol 2017 Jan 19. Epub 2017 Jan 19.
    State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science, College of Ocean and Earth Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian Province 361102, People's Republic of China; Department of Biology, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC 27858, United States. Electronic address:
    The central roles of luteinizing hormone (LH), progestin and their receptors for initiating ovulation have been well established. However, signaling pathways and downstream targets such as proteases that are essential for the rupture of follicular cells are still unclear. Recently, we found anovulation in nuclear progestin receptor (Pgr) knockout (Pgr-KO) zebrafish, which offers a new model for examining genes and pathways that are important for ovulation and fertility. Read More

    Gnrh mRNA expression in the brain of cooperatively breeding female Damaraland mole-rats.
    Reproduction 2017 Apr 19;153(4):453-460. Epub 2017 Jan 19.
    Department of Zoology and EntomologyUniversity of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa.
    The Damaraland mole-rat (Fukomys damarensis) is a eusocial, subterranean rodent, in which breeding is limited to a single reproductive pair within each colony. Non-reproductive females, while in the confines of the colony, exhibit socially induced infertility. Anovulation is thought to be caused by a disruption in the normal gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GNRH) secretion from the hypothalamus. Read More

    Obesity and anovulatory infertility: A review.
    JBRA Assist Reprod 2016 Dec 1;20(4):240-245. Epub 2016 Dec 1.
    Universidade Federal de Goiás. Faculdade de Medicina. Hospital das Clínicas. Departamento de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia. Laboratório de Reprodução Humana - Goiânia/GO - Brazil.
    This global overweight and obesity epidemics has become one of the largest public health problem worldwide and is increasingly more common among women in reproductive age. Along with the prevalence of overweight women, there is an increase in women with anovulatory infertility. Thus, we carried out a bibliographic research in the PubMed, Lilacs and SciELO databases, using the combinations in Portuguese, Spanish and English of the following descriptors: "Body Mass Index", "obesity", "overweight", "female infertility" and "anovulation". Read More

    Alterations in Gut Microbiome Composition and Barrier Function Are Associated with Reproductive and Metabolic Defects in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS): A Pilot Study.
    PLoS One 2017 3;12(1):e0168390. Epub 2017 Jan 3.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology and Diabetology, Medical University Graz, Graz, Austria.
    Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common female endocrinopathy of unclear origin characterized by hyperandrogenism, oligo-/anovulation, and ovarian cysts. Women with PCOS frequently display overweight, insulin resistance, and systemic low-grade inflammation. We hypothesized that endotoxemia resulting from a leaky gut is associated with inflammation, insulin resistance, fat accumulation, and hyperandrogenemia in PCOS. Read More

    Ovarian aging in women with diabetes: An overview.
    Maturitas 2017 Feb 2;96:109-113. Epub 2016 Dec 2.
    University of Michigan, Department of Medicine, 2800 Plymouth Road, Building 16, Room 430W, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA.
    Type 2 diabetes is a global epidemic, and the prevalence and incidence of type 1 diabetes are increasing. The negative effects of diabetes on kidneys, nerves, and vessels are well established. The effect of diabetes on reproductive function is less well understood, but important to characterize, given the increasing numbers of young women with diabetes. Read More

    High salivary testosterone-to-androstenedione ratio and adverse metabolic phenotypes in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.
    Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2017 Apr 23;86(4):567-575. Epub 2017 Jan 23.
    Division of Endocrinology and Diabetology, Department of Internal Medicine, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria.
    Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by a combination of hormonal and metabolic disturbances, such as insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, anovulation and hyperandrogenism. Clinical phenotypes of PCOS show different patterns of steroid hormones that have been investigated to some extent. This study aimed to establish a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the quantification of salivary testosterone and androstenedione and to describe the salivary testosterone-to-androstenedione (T/A4) ratio as a new tool for the assessment of hyperandrogenism and metabolic health. Read More

    Effect of Exercise on Ovulation: A Systematic Review.
    Sports Med 2016 Dec 29. Epub 2016 Dec 29.
    Laboratory of Protein Biochemistry, Federal University of State of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Background: Infertility has been described as a devastating life crisis for couples, and has a particularly severe effect on women, in terms of anxiety and depression. Anovulation accounts for around 30% of female infertility, and while lifestyle factors such as physical activity are known to be important, the relationship between exercise and ovulation is multi-factorial and complex, and to date there are no clear recommendations concerning exercise regimes.

    Objectives: The objective of this review was to systematically assess the effect of physical activity on ovulation and to discuss the possible mechanisms by which exercise acts to modulate ovulation in reproductive-age women. Read More

    Myeloperoxidase in blood neutrophils during normal and abnormal menstrual cycles in women of reproductive age.
    Int J Lab Hematol 2017 Apr 25;39(2):169-174. Epub 2016 Dec 25.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kanazawa Medical University, Uchinada, Ishikawa, Japan.
    Introduction: We previously reported that granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) plays a critical role in ovulation, suggesting that neutrophils may maintain ovulation. We assessed myeloperoxidase (MPO), a major and specific enzyme of neutrophils, in women with abnormal and normal menstrual cycles to clarify the relationship between MPO and ovulation.

    Methods: We analyzed MPO activity in blood neutrophils of women with abnormal menstrual cycles (indicative of anovulation, n = 12) and age- and body mass index-matched normal menstrual cycles (indicative of ovulation, n = 24) using two parameters as a marker of MPO, Neut X and mean peroxidase index (MPXI). Read More

    Association of VDBP and CYP2R1 gene polymorphisms with vitamin D status in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome: a north Indian study.
    Eur J Nutr 2016 Dec 23. Epub 2016 Dec 23.
    Department of Biochemistry, Room No. 302, Third Floor, Casualty Building, Vardhman Mahavir Medical College and Safdarjang Hospital, New Delhi, India.
    Purpose: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine abnormality among women of reproductive age and is usually associated with oligo-ovulation/anovulation, obesity, and insulin resistance. Hypovitaminosis D may also be a primary factor in the initiation and development of PCOS. However, little is known about the role of genetic variation in vitamin D metabolism in PCOS aetiology. Read More

    Ghrelin is independently associated with anti-mullerian hormone levels in obese but not non-obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome.
    Endocrine 2017 Mar 21;55(3):907-913. Epub 2016 Dec 21.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
    Ghrelin is an endogenous appetite stimulant that may have a role in ovarian function. Women with polycystic ovary syndrome have anovulation and frequently weight management issues; however the associations between ghrelin and hormonal markers in polycystic ovary syndrome have not been well studied. In order to characterize the association between total ghrelin levels and ovarian function and the possible modification of this relationship by obesity, we examined total ghrelin levels and anti-mullerian hormone, total testosterone, and insulin in obese and non-obese women with and without polycystic ovary syndrome. Read More

    Current aspects of polycystic ovary syndrome: A literature review.
    Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) 2016 Dec;62(9):867-871
    Postgraduate Program in Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universidade Federal do Piauí (UFPI), Teresina, PI, Brazil.
    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous endocrine disorder with variable prevalence, affecting about one in every 15 women worldwide. The diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome requires at least two of the following criteria: oligoovulation and/or anovulation, clinical and/or biochemical evidence of hyperandrogenism and morphology of polycystic ovaries. Women with PCOS appear to have a higher risk of developing metabolic disorders, hypertension and cardiovascular disorders. Read More

    Neuroprotection via Reduction in Stress: Altered Menstrual Patterns as a Marker for Stress and Implications for Long-Term Neurologic Health in Women.
    Int J Mol Sci 2016 Dec 20;17(12). Epub 2016 Dec 20.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC 27157, USA.
    Individuals under chronic psychological stress can be difficult to identify clinically. There is often no outwardly visible phenotype. Chronic stress of sufficient magnitude not only impacts reproductive function, but also concomitantly elicits a constellation of neuroendocrine changes that may accelerate aging in general and brain aging in particular. Read More

    Natural conception: repeated predictions over time.
    Hum Reprod 2017 Feb 18;32(2):346-353. Epub 2016 Dec 18.
    Department of Medical Statistics and Bioinformatics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.
    Study Question: How can we predict chances of natural conception at various time points in couples diagnosed with unexplained subfertility?

    Summary Answer: We developed a dynamic prediction model that can make repeated predictions over time for couples with unexplained subfertility that underwent a fertility workup at a fertility clinic.

    What Is Known Already: The most frequently used prediction model for natural conception (the 'Hunault model') estimates the probability of natural conception only once per couple, that is, after completion of the fertility workup. This model cannot be used for a second or third time for couples who wish to know their renewed chances after a certain period of expectant management. Read More

    The impact of postnatal leuprolide acetate treatment on reproductive characteristics in a rodent model of polycystic ovary syndrome.
    Mol Cell Endocrinol 2017 Feb 14;442:125-133. Epub 2016 Dec 14.
    Laboratory of Biotechnology and Animal Reproduction - BioRep, Federal University of Santa Maria (UFSM), Santa Maria, RS, Brazil; Department of Clinical Medicine, Federal University of Santa Maria (UFSM), Santa Maria, RS, Brazil. Electronic address:
    In this study, a GnRH agonist, leuprolide acetate (LA), was given as a single depot injection before 48 h of life to Wistar female rats allotted to prenatal (E16-18) and postnatal androgenization (day 5 of life) by the use of testosterone propionate, looking for reproductive endpoints. Remarkably, a single injection of LA increased the estrus cycles in the postnatal group (PostN) from 0% to 25% of the estrus cycles in the postnatal LA treated group (PostN L). LA also reduced the serum testosterone levels and cysts and atretic follicles in PostN L in contrast with rats (>100 days) from the PostN group (p = 0. Read More

    Clomiphene and other antioestrogens for ovulation induction in polycystic ovarian syndrome.
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2016 12 15;12:CD002249. Epub 2016 Dec 15.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Auckland, Park Rd, Grafton, Auckland, New Zealand, 1142.
    Background: Subfertility due to anovulation is a common problem in women. First-line oral treatment is with antioestrogens such as clomiphene citrate, but resistance may be apparent with clomiphene. Alternative and adjunctive treatments have been used including tamoxifen, dexamethasone, and bromocriptine. Read More

    Impaired receptivity and decidualization in DHEA-induced PCOS mice.
    Sci Rep 2016 Dec 7;6:38134. Epub 2016 Dec 7.
    College of Veterinary Medicine, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, China.
    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a complex endocrine disorder, is a leading cause of female infertility. An obvious reason for infertility in PCOS women is anovulation. However, success rate with high quality embryos selected by assisted reproduction techniques in PCOS patients still remain low with a high rate of early clinical pregnancy loss, suggesting a problem in uterine receptivity. Read More

    Hysterectomy due to Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in a 15-year Old Girl with Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome.
    J Lifestyle Med 2016 Sep 30;6(2):76-78. Epub 2016 Sep 30.
    Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Yonsei University Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju, Korea.
    Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome is characterized by mental retardation, atypical facial features, broad thumbs and toes, and scoliosis. Polycystic ovaries are associated with chronic anovulation and abnormal uterine bleeding. A 15-year old female patient was diagnosed with Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome, and had prolonged abnormal uterine bleeding for 2 years, accompanied by a polycystic ovary. Read More

    Polycystic ovary syndrome in adolescent girls.
    Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes 2017 Feb;24(1):56-66
    Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.
    Purpose Of Review: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common heterogeneous disorder that appears to have its origins during the peripubertal years. The diagnostic conundrum is that the typical clinical features, irregular menses and acne, occur during normal female puberty. Understanding the physiologic origins and molecular basis of the dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in PCOS is fundamental to interrupting the distinctive vicious cycle of hyperandrogenism and chronic anovulation. Read More

    Dairy Food Intake Is Associated with Reproductive Hormones and Sporadic Anovulation among Healthy Premenopausal Women.
    J Nutr 2017 Feb 23;147(2):218-226. Epub 2016 Nov 23.
    Division of Intramural Population Health Research and
    Background: Dairy food intake has been associated with infertility; however, little is known with regard to associations with reproductive hormones or anovulation.

    Objective: We investigated whether intakes of dairy foods and specific nutrients were associated with reproductive hormone concentrations across the cycle and the risk of sporadic anovulation among healthy women.

    Methods: We prospectively measured serum reproductive hormones ≤8 times/menstrual cycle for 2 cycles from 259 regularly menstruating women (mean age: 27. Read More

    Comparison clinical and metabolic effects of metformin and pioglitazone in polycystic ovary syndrome.
    Indian J Endocrinol Metab 2016 Nov-Dec;20(6):805-809
    Department of Biostatistics, Faculty of Medicine, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.
    Introduction: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine disorders in women. PCOS comprises a broad spectrum of anomalies, including hyperandrogenism, chronic anovulation, obesity, and infertility. Insulin resistance and its compensatory hyperinsulinemia play a key role in the pathogenicity of PCOS. Read More

    Ovulation induction in polycystic ovary syndrome: Current options.
    Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol 2016 Nov 21;37:152-159. Epub 2016 Sep 21.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Public Health Sciences, Penn State College of Medicine, Hershey, PA, USA. Electronic address:
    There are a variety of effective treatment options to induce ovulation in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The most effective treatments are primarily reproductive and target the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian (HPO) axis. Letrozole, an aromatase inhibitor, is headed toward replacing clomiphene, a selective estrogen receptor modulator, as the first-choice option. Read More

    Elevated circulating micro-ribonucleic acid (miRNA)-200b and miRNA-429 levels in anovulatory women.
    Fertil Steril 2017 Jan 2;107(1):269-275. Epub 2016 Nov 2.
    The Magda and Richard Hoffman Center for Human Placenta Research, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel; IVF Unit, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel. Electronic address:
    Objective: To study the role of micro-RNA (miRNA)-200b and miRNA-429 in human ovulation and to measure their expression levels in ovulatory and anovulatory patients.

    Design: Micro-RNA-200b and miRNA-429 expression analysis in human serum and granulosa cells at different phases of the ovulation cycle in normal cycling women and women undergoing assisted reproductive technology cycles.

    Setting: University-affiliated hospital and academic research laboratory. Read More

    Neurotransmitter alteration in a testosterone propionate-induced polycystic ovarian syndrome rat model.
    Horm Mol Biol Clin Investig 2017 Feb;29(2):71-77
    Background: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), one of the leading causes of infertility seen in women, is characterized by anovulation and hyperandrogenism, resulting in ovarian dysfunction. In addition, associations of several metabolic complications like insulin resistance, obesity, dyslipidemia and psychological co-morbidities are well known in PCOS. One of the major factors influencing mood and the emotional state of mind is neurotransmitters. Read More

    Impact of hypocaloric dietary intervention on ovulation in obese women with PCOS.
    Reproduction 2016 Oct 31. Epub 2016 Oct 31.
    M Lujan, Human Metabolic Research Unit, Division of Nutritional Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, United States
    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common cause of ovulatory dysfunction impacting women of reproductive age. Obesity and insulin resistance are thought to potentiate disruptions in antral follicle development that result in chronic anovulation, and as such, have become important therapeutic targets of dietary interventions aimed at weight loss. Caloric restriction has been shown to promote sporadic ovulation in obese women with PCOS, but improvements have occurred across a wide range of patients and little has been garnered about the factors that distinguish responders from non-responders. Read More

    Effectiveness of lifestyle intervention in subgroups of obese infertile women: a subgroup analysis of a RCT.
    Hum Reprod 2016 Dec 19;31(12):2704-2713. Epub 2016 Oct 19.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, 9700RB Groningen, The Netherlands.
    Study Question: Do age, ovulatory status, severity of obesity and body fat distribution affect the effectiveness of lifestyle intervention in obese infertile women?

    Summary Answer: We did not identify a subgroup in which lifestyle intervention increased the healthy live birth rate however it did increase the natural conception rate in anovulatory obese infertile women.

    What Is Known Already: Obese women are at increased risk of infertility and are less likely to conceive after infertility treatment. We previously demonstrated that a 6-month lifestyle intervention preceding infertility treatment did not increase the rate of healthy live births (vaginal live birth of a healthy singleton at term) within 24 months of follow-up as compared to prompt infertility treatment in obese infertile women. Read More

    Dysfunctional uterine bleeding as an early sign of polycystic ovary syndrome during adolescence: an update.
    Minerva Ginecol 2017 Feb 27;69(1):68-74. Epub 2016 Oct 27.
    Division of Pediatric-Adolescent Gynecology and Reconstructive Surgery, Second Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Medical School, Aretaieion Hospital, Athens, Greece.
    Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is a frequent reason for concern between adolescents. The most common cause of AUB in these girls, when other pathologies have been excluded, is dysfunctional uterine bleeding (DUB). The aim of this review is to assess the role of DUB as an early symptom of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) diagnosis later in life. Read More

    Thermosensitive bioadhesive gels for the vaginal delivery of sildenafil citrate: in vitro characterization and clinical evaluation in women using clomiphene citrate for induction of ovulation.
    Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2017 Mar 14;43(3):399-408. Epub 2016 Nov 14.
    c Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine , Assiut University , Assiut , Egypt.
    Objective: The objective of this study is to develop and characterize in situ thermosensitive gels for the vaginal administration of sildenafil as a potential treatment of endometrial thinning occurring as a result of using clomiphene citrate for ovulation induction in women with type II eugonadotrophic anovulation. While sildenafil has shown promising results in the treatment of infertility in women, the lack of vaginal pharmaceutical preparation and the side effects associated with oral sildenafil limit its clinical effectiveness.

    Methods: Sildenafil citrate in situ forming gels were prepared using different grades of Pluronic(®) (PF-68 and PF-127). Read More

    Low-Dose Aspirin and Sporadic Anovulation in the EAGeR Randomized Trial.
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2017 Jan;102(1):86-92
    Epidemiology Branch, Division of Intramural Population Health Research, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20817.
    Context: Among women with a single, recent pregnancy loss, daily preconception low-dose aspirin (LDA) increased the live birth rate with no effect on pregnancy loss. Ovulation is a potential mechanism underlying this effect.

    Objective: We estimated the effect of LDA on the per-cycle risk of anovulation among eumenorrheic women. Read More

    Puberty, ovarian cycle, pregnancy, and postpartum ovulation in captive Sichuan golden monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana) based on changes in urinary and fecal gonadal steroid metabolites.
    Theriogenology 2017 Jan 8;87:179-186. Epub 2016 Sep 8.
    Nagoya Higashiyama Zoo, Nagoya, Aichi, Japan.
    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reproductive status and clarify the reproductive physiology of captive Sichuan golden monkeys. The concentrations of urinary estradiol-3-glucuronide (E2G) and pregnanediol-glucuronide (PdG) or fecal estradiol-17β (E2) and PdG in two females, and fecal testosterone concentrations in a male, were measured continuously using enzyme immunoassays. On the basis of these hormone profiles, the follicular phase, luteal phase, and ovarian cycle were calculated to be 14. Read More

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