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    A case of repeated mixed mood episodes with psychotic symptoms associated with the premenstrual period in a patient with polycystic ovarian syndrome.
    Gynecol Endocrinol 2017 Nov 22:1-3. Epub 2017 Nov 22.
    a Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences , University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston , Houston , TX , USA.
    Studies have demonstrated that estrogen plays an important role in psychotic and mood disorders in women. Estrogens have a protective effect against the development of these disorders, while hypoestrogenic states may be a risk factor for the development or exacerbation of mental illness. Additionally, women with menstrual cycle abnormalities such as those with a history of anovulation may be more susceptible to monthly estrogen level fluctuation-related mood and psychotic symptoms. Read More

    Intrauterine Insemination: Fundamentals Revisited.
    J Obstet Gynaecol India 2017 Dec 25;67(6):385-392. Epub 2017 Oct 25.
    Rotunda-The Center for Human Reproduction, Bandra, Mumbai, India.
    Intrauterine insemination (IUI) is an assisted conception technique that involves the deposition of a processed semen sample in the upper uterine cavity, overcoming natural barriers to sperm ascent in the female reproductive tract. It is a cost-effective, noninvasive first-line therapy for selected patients with functionally normal tubes, and infertility due to a cervical factor, anovulation, moderate male factor, unexplained factors, immunological factor, and ejaculatory disorders with clinical pregnancy rates per cycle ranging from 10 to 20%. It, however, has limited use in patients with endometriosis, severe male factor infertility, tubal factor infertility, and advanced maternal age ≥ 35 years. Read More

    Ovarian surgery for symptom relief in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2017 Nov 10;11:CD009526. Epub 2017 Nov 10.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Capital and Coast District Health Board, Wellington, New Zealand.
    Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine condition, affecting approximately one in 10 women. PCOS is defined by two of three features: oligo- or anovulation, clinical or biochemical hyperandrogenism or both, or polycystic ovaries.Women with PCOS can have a wide range of health problems, including infrequent and irregular periods, unwanted hair growth and acne, and subnormal fertility. Read More

    Roles of Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis and Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Ovary Axis in the Abnormal Endocrine Functions in Patients with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.
    Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao 2017 Oct;39(5):699-704
    Provincial Key Laboratory for Developmental Biology and Neurosciences,College of Life Sciences,Fujian Normal University,Fuzhou 350007,China.
    Polycystic ovary syndrome(PCOS) is a common reproductive endocrine disease in women of childbearing age. While it can be affected by a variety of factors,its pathophysiology remains unclear. Its clinical features mainly include anovulation,hyperandrogenism,and hyperinsulinemia,which are closely related with abnormal neuroendocrine system. Read More

    MicroRNA-27a-3p affects estradiol and androgen imbalance by targeting Creb1 in the granulosa cells in mouse polycytic ovary syndrome model.
    Reprod Biol 2017 Oct 28. Epub 2017 Oct 28.
    State Key Laboratory of Agrobiotechnology, College of Biological Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China. Electronic address:
    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine abnormality in women characterized by a menstrual disturbance with chronic anovulation and hyperandrogenism, polycystic ovaries, and insulin resistance. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important fine-tune regulators involved in various physiological and pathological processes, but their actions are not fully understood. In this study, we observed the increased expression of miR-27a-3p in the ovaries of mice with PCOS and explored its functions in primary mouse granulosa cells (mGCs) and the mouse granulosa-like tumor cell line, KK-1, using several approaches. Read More

    Treatment strategies for women with polycystic ovary syndrome.
    Gynecol Endocrinol 2017 Oct 31:1-6. Epub 2017 Oct 31.
    a Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine , The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University , Wenzhou , China.
    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder in women, and it is the main cause of infertility in women of reproductive age due to anovulation. PCOS also increases the risk of diseases such as cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes in women with this disorder. The mechanism of pathogenesis is not clear, as it may be related to heredity, the environment and internal embryonic factors; thus, the treatment strategies remain unclear. Read More

    Treatment Outcome of Ovulation-inducing Agents in Patients with Anovulatory Infertility: A Prospective, Observational Study.
    J Pharmacol Pharmacother 2017 Jul-Sep;8(3):116-121
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Institute of Kidney Diseases and Research Center, Civil Hospital, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India.
    Objective: To compare different treatment regimens on pregnancy rate and outcome in patients with anovulatory infertility.

    Patients And Methods: A prospective observational study was conducted on patients with infertility due to anovulation. Patients treated with clomiphene citrate (CC) 50/100 mg/day from 2(nd) to 6(th) day of menstrual cycle (MC) (n = 38), short gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist regimen (leuprolide [0. Read More

    No. 350-Hirsutism: Evaluation and Treatment.
    J Obstet Gynaecol Can 2017 Nov;39(11):1054-1068
    Ottawa, ON.
    Objectives: To review the etiology, evaluation, and treatment of hirsutism.

    Evaluation: A thorough history and physical examination plus selected laboratory evaluations will confirm the diagnosis and direct treatment.

    Treatment: Pharmacologic interventions can suppress ovarian or adrenal androgen production and block androgen receptors in the hair follicle. Read More

    ANP promotes proliferation and inhibits apoptosis of ovarian granulosa cells by NPRA/PGRMC1/EGFR complex and improves ovary functions of PCOS rats.
    Cell Death Dis 2017 Oct 26;8(10):e3145. Epub 2017 Oct 26.
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Dalian Medical University, Liaoning Provincial Core Lab of Glycobiology and Glycoengineering, Dalian 116044, China.
    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complicated reproductive endocrine disease characterized by polycystic ovaries, hyperandrogenism and anovulation. It is one of the main causes of infertility. RU486 is an antagonist of progesterone receptor, and most commonly used as a contraceptive. Read More

    Ultra-low Doses of Follicle Stimulating Hormone and Progesterone Attenuate the Severity of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Features in a Hyperandrogenized Mouse Model.
    J Reprod Infertil 2017 Jul-Sep;18(3):288-297
    Reproductive and Developmental Biology Laboratory, Department of Health, Animal Science and Food Safety, University of Milan, Milan, Italy.
    Background: Polycystic-ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a reproductive illness characterized by hyperandrogenism and anovulation. Using hyperandrogenized mice, it was demonstrated that the oral administration of incremental dose of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) attenuated some of PCOS characteristics. This work aimed to study the effect of ultra-low doses of combined FSH and progesterone orally administered on PCOS murine model. Read More

    Performance of automated activity monitoring systems used in combination with timed artificial insemination compared to timed artificial insemination only in early lactation in dairy cows.
    J Dairy Sci 2017 Oct 18. Epub 2017 Oct 18.
    Department of Population Medicine, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario N1G 2W1, Canada. Electronic address:
    Identifying cows in estrus remains a challenge on dairy cattle farms, and tools and technologies have been developed and used to complement or replace visual detection of estrus. Automated activity monitoring (AAM) systems and timed artificial insemination (TAI) are technologies available to dairy farmers, but many factors can influence their relative performance. The objective of the present study was to compare reproductive performance of cows managed with an AAM system combined with TAI, or with a TAI program (Double Ovsynch) for insemination before 88 DIM. Read More

    In Defense of Progesterone: A Review of the Literature.
    Altern Ther Health Med 2017 Oct 21. Epub 2017 Oct 21.
    Context • The medical literature on the use of progesterone in postmenopausal women is often confusing and contradictory. Some physicians implicate natural progesterone in an increase in the risk of breast cancer. The chemical structure of natural progesterone (P4) is quite different from chemically altered, synthetic chemicals called progestins, which results in different actions at the cell level. Read More

    The effect of clomiphene citrate on endometrial thickness, ovulation, pregnancy and live birth in anovulatory women: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
    Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2017 Oct 21. Epub 2017 Oct 21.
    Robinson Research Institute, Adelaide Medical School, University of Adelaide, Australia.
    Objectives: To compare the impact of clomiphene citrate (CC) versus other drug regimens on mid-cycle endometrial thickness (EMT), ovulation, pregnancy and live birth rates in women with WHO group II ovulatory disorders.

    Methods: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, Web of Science, The Cochrane Central Register of Clinical Trial (CENTRAL), and the non-MEDLINE subset of PubMed from inception to December 2016 and cross-checked references of relevant articles. We only included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing CC used alone versus other drug regimens for ovulation induction in women with WHO group II anovulation. Read More

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome: Prevalence and impact on the wellbeing of Australian women aged 16-29 years.
    Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 2017 Oct 19. Epub 2017 Oct 19.
    Department of Medicine, Royal Melbourne Hospital, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Australia.
    Background: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is the most common condition among reproductive-aged women. However, its exact prevalence is unknown.

    Aims: To determine the prevalence of PCOS in Australian women aged 16-29 years using the National Institutes of Health (NIH) criteria compared to self-reported PCOS, to compare co-morbidities between the groups and to determine the most distressing aspect of a diagnosis of PCOS for these young women. Read More

    Ovarian volume and PCOS: a controversial issue.
    Gynecol Endocrinol 2017 Oct 18:1-4. Epub 2017 Oct 18.
    b Department of Neuroscience, Reproductive Sciences and Dentistry , University of Naples Federico II , Naples , Italy.
    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrinopathy. The Rotterdam criteria indicate four distinct phenotypes. In phenotypes with the typical ovarian morphology (ovarian volume ≥10 ml) the sensibility to clomiphene citrate (CC) ovulation therapy was demonstrated inversely proportional to the ovarian volume. Read More

    The Effects of Exercise on Expression of CYP19 and StAR mRNA in Steroid-Induced Polycystic Ovaries of Female Rats.
    Int J Fertil Steril 2018 Jan 12;11(4):298-303. Epub 2017 Oct 12.
    College of Physical Education and Sports Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
    Background: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is the most frequent female endocrine disorder that affects 5-10% of women. PCOS is characterized by hyperandrogenism, oligo-/anovulation, and polycystic ovaries. The aim of the present research is to evaluate the expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and aromatase (CYP19) mRNA in the ovaries of an estradiol valerate (EV)-induced PCOS rat model, and the effect of treadmill and running wheel (voluntary) exercise on these parameters. Read More

    [Research progress on the relationship of brown adipose tissue with polycystic ovary syndrome].
    Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2017 May;46(3):315-320
    Department of Reproductive Endocrinology, People's Hospital of Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou 310014, China.
    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) holds great promise for the prevention and treatment of metabolism diseases through thermoregulation. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex condition with anovulation, hyperandrogenism, and polycystic ovaries, and also manifests glucolipid metabolic disorders. Recent researches have shown that transplantation of BAT into a PCOS rat could significantly alleviate the phenotypes. Read More

    Rates of anovulation in adolescents and young adults with moderate to severe primary dysmenorrhea and those without primary dysmenorrhea.
    J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol 2017 Oct 7. Epub 2017 Oct 7.
    Pediatric Pain and Palliative Care Program, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA.
    Objective: To evaluate rates of presumptive anovulation in eumenorrheic adolescents and young adults with moderate to severe primary dysmenorrhea and those without primary dysmenorrhea.

    Participants: Thirty-nine adolescents and young adults (ages 16-24) with primary dysmenorrhea and 52 age-matched controls.

    Design: Participants completed luteinizing hormone surge ovulation predictor test kits. Read More

    Defective insulin signaling and the protective effects of dimethyldiguanide during follicular development in the ovaries of polycystic ovary syndrome.
    Mol Med Rep 2017 Dec 29;16(6):8164-8170. Epub 2017 Sep 29.
    Provincial Key Laboratory for Developmental Biology and Neurosciences, College of Life Sciences, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350007, P.R. China.
    It is established that the physiological effects of insulin are primarily mediated by the insulin signaling pathway. However, a defective insulin signaling is closely associated with the clinical manifestations of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), which include excess androgen levels, insulin resistance and anovulation, and is involved in the pathophysiology of PCOS at the molecular level. Dimethyldiguanide (DMBG) has been widely employed to alleviate reproduction dysfunction in women with PCOS, however, the exact mechanism of this effect remains unclear. Read More

    Identification of differentially expressed genes in pathways of cerebral neurotransmission of anovulatory mice.
    Genet Mol Res 2017 Sep 27;16(3). Epub 2017 Sep 27.
    Laboratório de Ginecologia Molecular, , , Brasil
    Polycystic ovary syndrome is the classic example of loss of functional cyclicity and anomalous feedback. In this case, the excessive extra-glandular production and conversion of androgens to estrogens are the pathophysiological basis of the chronic anovulation. The literature describes an experimental model of the polymicrocystic ovary in obese diabetic mice with insulin resistance. Read More

    The polycystic ovary syndrome-associated gene Yap1 is regulated by gonadotropins and sex steroid hormones in hyperandrogenism-induced oligo-ovulation in mouse.
    Mol Hum Reprod 2017 Oct;23(10):698-707
    Life Sciences Institute, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China.
    Study Question: What is the physiological function of Yes-associated protein-1 (Yap1), a susceptibility gene for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), in ovarian granulosa cells (GCs)?

    Summary Answer: Physiologically, steroid sex hormones stimulate follicle growth by activating YAP1; however, the preovulatory inhibition of YAP1 activity in GCs is a prerequisite of LH actions.

    What Is Known Already: PCOS is a common gynecologic and endocrine disease with multiple short and long-term consequences. Many PCOS patients suffer anovulation caused by hyperandrogenism, but its etiology remains unclear. Read More

    Premenopausal Reproductive Health Modulates Future Cardiovascular Risk - Comparative Evidence from Monkeys and Women

    Yale J Biol Med 2017 Sep 25;90(3):499-507. Epub 2017 Sep 25.
    Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA.
    Coronary heart disease (CHD) remains the major cause of mortality among postmenopausal women living in industrialized countries. Several lines of evidence suggest that ovarian hormones (especially estrogen) protect the coronary arteries of premenopausal women. However, it is also known that women commonly experience disruptions in cyclic hormonal function during their reproductive years. Read More

    Polycystic ovary syndrome throughout a woman's life.
    J Assist Reprod Genet 2017 Sep 27. Epub 2017 Sep 27.
    Fundación Jiménez Díaz, Madrid, Spain.
    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder among reproductive-aged women and the main cause of infertility due to anovulation. However, this syndrome spans the lives of women affecting them from in-utero life until death, leading to several health risks that can impair quality of life and increase morbidity and mortality rates. Fetal programming may represent the beginning of the condition characterized by hyperandrogenism and insulin resistance which leads to a series of medical consequences in adolescence, adulthood, and old age. Read More

    The effect of metformin use on pregnancy rates among polycystic ovary syndrome patients undergoing in vitro fertilization: A retrospective-cohort study.
    Saudi Pharm J 2017 Sep 14;25(6):906-910. Epub 2017 Feb 14.
    King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
    Background: Metformin is widely used with gonadotropins by women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) during in vitro fertilization (IVF) to increase their chances of pregnancy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of metformin in improving the rates of clinical pregnancy among women with PCOS undergoing IVF.

    Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study of women with PCOS, aged 18-40 years, undergoing IVF during 2006-2012 at a University Hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Read More

    The cardiometabolic effect of current management of polycystic ovary syndrome: strategies of prevention and treatment.
    Gynecol Endocrinol 2017 Sep 23:1-5. Epub 2017 Sep 23.
    a Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility , University of Zagreb, School of Medicine, Clinical Hospital Centre Zagreb , Zagreb , Croatia.
    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the commonest endocrine disorder amongst women of reproductive age, which is characterized by reproductive and cardiometabolic disturbances with long-term health repercussions. Insulin resistance (IR), impaired glucose tolerance, type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2), obesity and dyslipidemia occur more in women with PCOS than in age-comparable women without PCOS. Long term data regarding risks or benefits of medical intervention for metabolic dysfunction of PCOS are lacking. Read More

    Relationship between serum anti-Mullerian hormone and intrafollicular AMH levels in PCOS women.
    Gynecol Endocrinol 2017 Sep 23:1-6. Epub 2017 Sep 23.
    a Institute of Obstetric and Gynecological Pathology , Santo Bambino Hospital, University of Catania , Catania , Italy.
    Polycystic ovary syndrome is a complex disease characterized by various endocrine disorders that are the potential cause of anovulation and hyperandrogenism. Anti-Müllerian hormone expression is suspected to be overexpressed in PCOS granulosa cells. AMH acts as a regulator of folliculogenesis: it is produced by the granulosa cells of follicles from the stage of the primary follicle to the initial formation of the antrum. Read More

    Androgen excess and metabolic disorders in women with PCOS: beyond the body mass index.
    J Endocrinol Invest 2017 Sep 23. Epub 2017 Sep 23.
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Catania, Policlinico "G. Rodolico", Via S. Sofia 78, 95123, Catania, Italy.
    Background: Insulin resistance is a common feature among women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), especially in those patients with hyperandrogenism and chronic anovulation. PCOS women are at risk for developing metabolic syndrome, impaired glucose tolerance and type II diabetes mellitus (DM II).

    Objective: The aim of this review is to explore the existing knowledge of the interplay between androgen excess, pancreatic β-cell function, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), intra-abdominal and subcutaneous (SC) abdominal adipocytes in PCOS, providing a better comprehension of the molecular mechanisms of diabetologic interest. Read More

    [Research progress in mechanism of traditional Chinese medicine treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome].
    Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2016 Oct;41(20):3715-3720
    Shanghai Institute of Planned Parenthood Research, National Evaluation Centre for Toxicology of Fertility Regulating Drugs, Shanghai 200032, China.
    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous endocrine disorder, which is characterized by hyperandrogenism, insulin resistance and chronic anovulation, and has become a serious threat to the health of adolescents and women of childbearing age.At present,lowering androgen, improving insulin resistance and inducing ovulation are the main methods adopted by doctors to treat the disease, but the adverse reactions of the western medicine and the long-term treatment are hard to be accepted by the patients. PCOS treated by traditional Chinese medicine has achieved a certain effect in recent years. Read More

    Protective effects of GABA against metabolic and reproductive disturbances in letrozole induced polycystic ovarian syndrome in rats.
    J Ovarian Res 2017 Sep 15;10(1):62. Epub 2017 Sep 15.
    Department of biochemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan.
    Background: PCOs is a heterogeneous disorder with anovulation/oligo ovulation usually taken as oligo menorrhoea or amenorrhoea, hyperandrogenemia, hirsutism, acne, androgen alopecia and polycystic ovaries as the key diagnostic feathers. The study was undertaken to investigate the possible protective and ameliorating effects of GABA in Letrozole induced PCOS model in rats by targeting insulin resistance.

    Methods: PCOs in Adult female rat was induced by the daily gastric administration of letrozole (1 mg/kg/day) in CMC (0. Read More

    Hyperandrogenemia Induced by Letrozole Treatment of Pubertal Female Mice Results in Hyperinsulinemia Prior to Weight Gain and Insulin Resistance.
    Endocrinology 2017 Sep;158(9):2988-3003
    Department of Reproductive Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093.
    Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) diagnosed with hyperandrogenism and ovulatory dysfunction have an increased risk of developing metabolic disorders, including type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We previously developed a model that uses letrozole to elevate endogenous testosterone levels in female mice. This model has hallmarks of PCOS, including hyperandrogenism, anovulation, and polycystic ovaries, as well as increased abdominal adiposity and glucose intolerance. Read More

    Does cardiovascular risk vary according to the criteria for a diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome?
    J Obstet Gynaecol Res 2017 Sep 11. Epub 2017 Sep 11.
    Marmara University School of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Section of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Aim: The risk of cardiovascular disease is higher in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) compared to healthy individuals. Chronic inflammation, insulin resistance, hyperandrogenemia, hyperlipidemia and increased oxidative stress are known to have a role in the formation of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. The aim of our study was to evaluate if cardiovascular risk varied according to different PCOS criteria, using carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), which is an important marker of major cardiovascular events in the later stages of life. Read More

    Effect of Grape Seed Extract on Lipid Profile and Expression of Interleukin-6 in Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome Wistar Rat Model.
    Int J Fertil Steril 2017 Oct 27;11(3):176-183. Epub 2017 Aug 27.
    Animal Center Laboratories and Cellular and Molecular Research Laboratory, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran.
    Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common but complex endocrine disorder and is the major cause of anovulation and consequent subfertility. In this study the effect of grape seed extract (GSE) on triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), highdensity lipoprotein-cholestrol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein-cholestrol (LDL-C) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in PCOS Wistar rats were assessed.

    Materials And Methods: In this experimental study, 84 adult female Wistar rats were divided into 7 groups (n=12) including control (intact), Sham (estradiol valerate solvent injection), control PCOS and 4 experimental PCOS groups. Read More

    Efficacy of Combined Cabergoline and Metformin Compared to Metformin Alone on Cycle Regularity in Patients with Polycystic Ovarian Disease with Hyperprolactinemia: A Randomized Clinical Trial.
    J Obstet Gynaecol India 2017 Oct 24;67(5):363-369. Epub 2017 Jun 24.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt.
    Purpose: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a common reproductive disorder. Increasing serum prolactin in these patients could be detected in both follicular and luteal phase of the normal and stimulated cycles. Hyperprolactinemia affects the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis causing anovulation and abnormal uterine bleeding. Read More

    Role of metformin for ovulation induction in infertile patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): a guideline.
    • Authors:
    • ,
    Fertil Steril 2017 Aug 10. Epub 2017 Aug 10.
    American Society for Reproductive Medicine, Birmingham, Alabama.
    Metformin alone compared with placebo increases the ovulation rate in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) but should not be used as first-line therapy for anovulation because oral ovulation induction agents such as clomiphene citrate (CC) or letrozole alone are much more effective in increasing ovulation, pregnancy, and live-birth rates in women with PCOS. There is fair evidence that metformin alone does not increase rates of miscarriage when stopped at the initiation of pregnancy and insufficient evidence that metformin in combination with other agents used to induce ovulation increases live-birth rates. Read More

    Role of metformin for ovulation induction in infertile patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): a guideline.
    • Authors:
    • ,
    Fertil Steril 2017 Sep;108(3):426-441
    American Society for Reproductive Medicine, Birmingham, Alabama.
    Metformin alone compared with placebo increases the ovulation rate in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) but should not be used as first-line therapy for anovulation because oral ovulation induction agents such as clomiphene citrate or letrozole alone are much more effective in increasing ovulation, pregnancy, and live-birth rates in women with PCOS. There is fair evidence that metformin alone does not increase rates of miscarriage when stopped at the initiation of pregnancy and insufficient evidence that metformin in combination with other agents used to induce ovulation increases live-birth rates. Read More

    Use of the serum anti-Müllerian hormone assay as a surrogate for polycystic ovarian morphology: impact on diagnosis and phenotypic classification of polycystic ovary syndrome.
    Hum Reprod 2017 08;32(8):1716-1722
    Correspondence address. E-mail:
    Study Question: Does the use of the serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) assay to replace or complement ultrasound (U/S) affect the diagnosis or phenotypic distribution of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)?

    Summary Answer: Combining U/S and the serum AMH assay to define polycystic ovarian morphology (PCOM) diagnoses PCOS (according to the Rotterdam classification) in more patients than definitions using one or the other of these indicators exclusively.

    What Is Known Already: Since 2003, PCOM, as defined by U/S, is one of the three diagnostic criteria for PCOS. As it is closely correlated with follicle excess seen at U/S, an excessive serum AMH level could be used as a surrogate for PCOM. Read More

    Folate, homocysteine and the ovarian cycle among healthy regularly menstruating women.
    Hum Reprod 2017 Aug;32(8):1743-1750
    Epidemiology Branch, Division of Intramural Population Health Research, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, 6710B Rockledge Drive, MSC 7004, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.
    Study Question: How are concentrations of plasma homocysteine and serum folate associated with reproductive hormones and anovulation in regularly menstruating women?

    Summary Answer: Higher homocysteine was associated with sporadic anovulation and hormonal changes that may be indicative of impaired ovulatory function, but higher serum folate was associated only with higher luteal phase progesterone.

    What Is Known Already: Higher folate levels as well as some variants in genes relevant to one-carbon metabolism, are associated with improved reproductive outcomes and responses to fertility treatment, but only a few small studies have explored the relationship between markers of one-carbon metabolism and menstrual cycle characteristics.

    Study Design, Size, Duration: The BioCycle Study (2005-2007) is a prospective, longitudinal cohort of 259 regularly menstruating women not using hormonal contraceptives or dietary supplements who were followed for up to two menstrual cycles. Read More

    Polycystic ovary syndrome, personality, and depression: A twin study.
    Psychoneuroendocrinology 2017 Nov 10;85:63-68. Epub 2017 Aug 10.
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Nobels väg 12A, 171 77, Stockholm, Sweden; Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, University of Gothenburg, Medicinaregatan 11, 413 45, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Background: Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are at elevated risk for suffering from depression. Neuroticism is a personality trait that has been associated with an increased risk for developing major depressive disorder (MDD). The aim of the present study was to quantify and decompose the correlation between neuroticism, PCOS, and MDD into shared and unique genetic and environmental etiologies, by using quantitative genetic methods. Read More

    Georgian Med News 2017 Jul-Aug(268-269):63-66
    Erebuni Medical Center, Yerevan.
    When pregnancy occurs as a result of assisted reproductive technologies (ART), there are more chances of developing complications and adverse outcomes for the mother and fetus compared to spontaneous pregnancies. Taking into account the noted features, the purpose of our study was to determine the nature of the complications of induced pregnancy and their frequency, depending on the causes of infertility. Under our supervision were 86 women with induced single-pregnancy. Read More

    Authors' reply re: Inositol treatment of anovulation in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a meta-analysis of randomised trials.
    BJOG 2017 Aug 16. Epub 2017 Aug 16.
    Women's Health Research Unit, The Blizard Institute, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK.

    Association of polycystic ovary syndrome with metabolic syndrome and gestational diabetes: Aggravated complication of pregnancy.
    Exp Ther Med 2017 Aug 22;14(2):1271-1276. Epub 2017 Jun 22.
    Key Laboratory of Birth Defects and Related Diseases of Women and Children (Sichuan University), Ministry of Education, Chengdu, Sichuan, P.R. China.
    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects 5-20% of the reproductive age women globally. PCOS is diagnosed by the presence of hyperandrogenism, oligo-anovulation, and polycystic morphology of at least one ovary. Insulin resistance (IR), hyperinsulinemia and associated metabolic abnormalities including metabolic syndrome play a significant role in the development of PCOS. Read More

    Fasting as possible complementary approach for polycystic ovary syndrome: Hope or hype?
    Med Hypotheses 2017 Aug 23;105:1-3. Epub 2017 Jun 23.
    Unit of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Human Pathology in Adulthood and Childhood "G. Barresi", University of Messina, Messina, Italy.
    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine system disorder among women of reproductive age. In several cases, PCOS women show infertility or subfertility and other metabolic alteration, such as insulin resistance (InsR), dyslipidaemia, hyperinsulinemia and obesity. Despite the aetiology of the syndrome is still far from be elucidated, it could be considered the result of concurrent endocrine modifications, lifestyle factors and genetic background. Read More

    The incidence of metabolic syndrome in adolescents with different phenotypes of PCOS.
    Ginekol Pol 2017 ;88(6):289-295
    Department of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility, Etlik Zubeyde Hanım Women's Health Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey, Turkey.
    Objectives: To evaluate the incidence of metabolic syndrome in Turkish adolescents with different phenotypes of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

    Material And Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on the Youth Center clinic of a tertiary referral hospital in Turkey. Adolescents with PCOS (n = 144) were classified into four phenotype groups according to the presence of oligo/anovulation (O), hyperandrogenism (H), and polycystic ovarian morphology (P) as follows: Phenotype A (O + H + P), Phenotype B (H + O), Phenotype C (H + P), Phenotype D (O + P). Read More

    Adding sildenafil vaginal gel to clomiphene citrate in infertile women with prior clomiphene citrate failure due to thin endometrium: a prospective self-controlled clinical trial.
    Facts Views Vis Obgyn 2017 Mar;9(1):21-27
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Egypt.
    We aimed to investigate the effect of adding sildenafil vaginal gel to clomiphene citrate (CC) in infertile women with prior CC failure.

    Methods: This is a self- controlled clinical trial. Women with CC failure (in prior 5 cycles) and thin endometrium were recruited (N = 42). Read More

    Insulin resistance and obesity among infertile women with different polycystic ovary syndrome phenotypes.
    Sci Rep 2017 Jul 13;7(1):5339. Epub 2017 Jul 13.
    Department of Anatomy and Histology, Mutah Medical Faculty, Mutah University, Mutah, Jordan.
    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common problem among Arab women and is the main cause of infertility due to anovulation. This study investigates insulin resistance (IR) and obesity in different PCOS phenotypes among infertile women (n = 213), of whom 159 had PCOS and 54 women without PCOS, recruited as a control group. Biometric, hormonal and clinical parameters were studied. Read More

    Three-step method for menstrual and oral contraceptive cycle verification.
    J Sci Med Sport 2017 Nov 26;20(11):965-969. Epub 2016 Aug 26.
    School of Human Movement and Nutrition Sciences, The University of Queensland, Australia.
    Objectives: Fluctuating endogenous and exogenous ovarian hormones may influence exercise parameters; yet control and verification of ovarian hormone status is rarely reported and limits current exercise science and sports medicine research. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of an individualised three-step method in identifying the mid-luteal or high hormone phase in endogenous and exogenous hormone cycles in recreationally-active women and determine hormone and demographic characteristics associated with unsuccessful classification.

    Design: Cross-sectional study design. Read More

    Subclinical hypothyroidism does not influence the metabolic and hormonal profile of women with PCOS.
    Horm Mol Biol Clin Investig 2017 Jun 23;31(3). Epub 2017 Jun 23.
    Background Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) is present in 5%-10% of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients. To date, its impact on the metabolic and hormonal profile of those women remains controversial. The purpose of our study is to evaluate the impact of SCH on the glycemic, lipid and hormonal profile of PCOS patients. Read More

    New biomarkers for diagnosis and management of polycystic ovary syndrome.
    Clin Chim Acta 2017 Aug 15;471:248-253. Epub 2017 Jun 15.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, The University of California at Davis, Davis, CA, United States; Department of Veterans Affairs Northern California Health Care System, Mather, CA, United States. Electronic address:
    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder affecting young women. Even though the definition of PCOS has changed over the years, all diagnostic criteria include two or more of the following: oligomenorrhea/oligoovulation/anovulation, androgen excess and polycystic ovaries (PCO). Traditional method of assessing the ovarian morphology has been transvaginal pelvic ultrasound. Read More

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