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    Protective effects of GABA against metabolic and reproductive disturbances in letrozole induced polycystic ovarian syndrome in rats.
    J Ovarian Res 2017 Sep 15;10(1):62. Epub 2017 Sep 15.
    Department of biochemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan.
    Background: PCOs is a heterogeneous disorder with anovulation/oligo ovulation usually taken as oligo menorrhoea or amenorrhoea, hyperandrogenemia, hirsutism, acne, androgen alopecia and polycystic ovaries as the key diagnostic feathers. The study was undertaken to investigate the possible protective and ameliorating effects of GABA in Letrozole induced PCOS model in rats by targeting insulin resistance.

    Methods: PCOs in Adult female rat was induced by the daily gastric administration of letrozole (1 mg/kg/day) in CMC (0. Read More

    Hyperandrogenemia Induced by Letrozole Treatment of Pubertal Female Mice Results in Hyperinsulinemia Prior to Weight Gain and Insulin Resistance.
    Endocrinology 2017 Sep;158(9):2988-3003
    Department of Reproductive Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093.
    Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) diagnosed with hyperandrogenism and ovulatory dysfunction have an increased risk of developing metabolic disorders, including type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We previously developed a model that uses letrozole to elevate endogenous testosterone levels in female mice. This model has hallmarks of PCOS, including hyperandrogenism, anovulation, and polycystic ovaries, as well as increased abdominal adiposity and glucose intolerance. Read More

    Does cardiovascular risk vary according to the criteria for a diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome?
    J Obstet Gynaecol Res 2017 Sep 11. Epub 2017 Sep 11.
    Marmara University School of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Section of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Aim: The risk of cardiovascular disease is higher in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) compared to healthy individuals. Chronic inflammation, insulin resistance, hyperandrogenemia, hyperlipidemia and increased oxidative stress are known to have a role in the formation of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. The aim of our study was to evaluate if cardiovascular risk varied according to different PCOS criteria, using carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), which is an important marker of major cardiovascular events in the later stages of life. Read More

    Effect of Grape Seed Extract on Lipid Profile and Expression of Interleukin-6 in Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome Wistar Rat Model.
    Int J Fertil Steril 2017 Oct 27;11(3):176-183. Epub 2017 Aug 27.
    Animal Center Laboratories and Cellular and Molecular Research Laboratory, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran.
    Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common but complex endocrine disorder and is the major cause of anovulation and consequent subfertility. In this study the effect of grape seed extract (GSE) on triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), highdensity lipoprotein-cholestrol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein-cholestrol (LDL-C) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in PCOS Wistar rats were assessed.

    Materials And Methods: In this experimental study, 84 adult female Wistar rats were divided into 7 groups (n=12) including control (intact), Sham (estradiol valerate solvent injection), control PCOS and 4 experimental PCOS groups. Read More

    Efficacy of Combined Cabergoline and Metformin Compared to Metformin Alone on Cycle Regularity in Patients with Polycystic Ovarian Disease with Hyperprolactinemia: A Randomized Clinical Trial.
    J Obstet Gynaecol India 2017 Oct 24;67(5):363-369. Epub 2017 Jun 24.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt.
    Purpose: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a common reproductive disorder. Increasing serum prolactin in these patients could be detected in both follicular and luteal phase of the normal and stimulated cycles. Hyperprolactinemia affects the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis causing anovulation and abnormal uterine bleeding. Read More

    Role of metformin for ovulation induction in infertile patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): a guideline.
    • Authors:
    • ,
    Fertil Steril 2017 Aug 10. Epub 2017 Aug 10.
    American Society for Reproductive Medicine, Birmingham, Alabama.
    Metformin alone compared with placebo increases the ovulation rate in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) but should not be used as first-line therapy for anovulation because oral ovulation induction agents such as clomiphene citrate (CC) or letrozole alone are much more effective in increasing ovulation, pregnancy, and live-birth rates in women with PCOS. There is fair evidence that metformin alone does not increase rates of miscarriage when stopped at the initiation of pregnancy and insufficient evidence that metformin in combination with other agents used to induce ovulation increases live-birth rates. Read More

    Role of metformin for ovulation induction in infertile patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): a guideline.
    • Authors:
    • ,
    Fertil Steril 2017 Sep;108(3):426-441
    American Society for Reproductive Medicine, Birmingham, Alabama.
    Metformin alone compared with placebo increases the ovulation rate in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) but should not be used as first-line therapy for anovulation because oral ovulation induction agents such as clomiphene citrate or letrozole alone are much more effective in increasing ovulation, pregnancy, and live-birth rates in women with PCOS. There is fair evidence that metformin alone does not increase rates of miscarriage when stopped at the initiation of pregnancy and insufficient evidence that metformin in combination with other agents used to induce ovulation increases live-birth rates. Read More

    Use of the serum anti-Müllerian hormone assay as a surrogate for polycystic ovarian morphology: impact on diagnosis and phenotypic classification of polycystic ovary syndrome.
    Hum Reprod 2017 08;32(8):1716-1722
    Correspondence address. E-mail:
    Study Question: Does the use of the serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) assay to replace or complement ultrasound (U/S) affect the diagnosis or phenotypic distribution of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)?

    Summary Answer: Combining U/S and the serum AMH assay to define polycystic ovarian morphology (PCOM) diagnoses PCOS (according to the Rotterdam classification) in more patients than definitions using one or the other of these indicators exclusively.

    What Is Known Already: Since 2003, PCOM, as defined by U/S, is one of the three diagnostic criteria for PCOS. As it is closely correlated with follicle excess seen at U/S, an excessive serum AMH level could be used as a surrogate for PCOM. Read More

    Folate, homocysteine and the ovarian cycle among healthy regularly menstruating women.
    Hum Reprod 2017 Aug;32(8):1743-1750
    Epidemiology Branch, Division of Intramural Population Health Research, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, 6710B Rockledge Drive, MSC 7004, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.
    Study Question: How are concentrations of plasma homocysteine and serum folate associated with reproductive hormones and anovulation in regularly menstruating women?

    Summary Answer: Higher homocysteine was associated with sporadic anovulation and hormonal changes that may be indicative of impaired ovulatory function, but higher serum folate was associated only with higher luteal phase progesterone.

    What Is Known Already: Higher folate levels as well as some variants in genes relevant to one-carbon metabolism, are associated with improved reproductive outcomes and responses to fertility treatment, but only a few small studies have explored the relationship between markers of one-carbon metabolism and menstrual cycle characteristics.

    Study Design, Size, Duration: The BioCycle Study (2005-2007) is a prospective, longitudinal cohort of 259 regularly menstruating women not using hormonal contraceptives or dietary supplements who were followed for up to two menstrual cycles. Read More

    Polycystic ovary syndrome, personality, and depression: A twin study.
    Psychoneuroendocrinology 2017 Aug 10;85:63-68. Epub 2017 Aug 10.
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Nobels väg 12A, 171 77, Stockholm, Sweden; Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, University of Gothenburg, Medicinaregatan 11, 413 45, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Background: Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are at elevated risk for suffering from depression. Neuroticism is a personality trait that has been associated with an increased risk for developing major depressive disorder (MDD). The aim of the present study was to quantify and decompose the correlation between neuroticism, PCOS, and MDD into shared and unique genetic and environmental etiologies, by using quantitative genetic methods. Read More

    Georgian Med News 2017 Jul-Aug(268-269):63-66
    Erebuni Medical Center, Yerevan.
    When pregnancy occurs as a result of assisted reproductive technologies (ART), there are more chances of developing complications and adverse outcomes for the mother and fetus compared to spontaneous pregnancies. Taking into account the noted features, the purpose of our study was to determine the nature of the complications of induced pregnancy and their frequency, depending on the causes of infertility. Under our supervision were 86 women with induced single-pregnancy. Read More

    Authors' reply re: Inositol treatment of anovulation in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a meta-analysis of randomised trials.
    BJOG 2017 Aug 16. Epub 2017 Aug 16.
    Women's Health Research Unit, The Blizard Institute, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK.

    Association of polycystic ovary syndrome with metabolic syndrome and gestational diabetes: Aggravated complication of pregnancy.
    Exp Ther Med 2017 Aug 22;14(2):1271-1276. Epub 2017 Jun 22.
    Key Laboratory of Birth Defects and Related Diseases of Women and Children (Sichuan University), Ministry of Education, Chengdu, Sichuan, P.R. China.
    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects 5-20% of the reproductive age women globally. PCOS is diagnosed by the presence of hyperandrogenism, oligo-anovulation, and polycystic morphology of at least one ovary. Insulin resistance (IR), hyperinsulinemia and associated metabolic abnormalities including metabolic syndrome play a significant role in the development of PCOS. Read More

    Fasting as possible complementary approach for polycystic ovary syndrome: Hope or hype?
    Med Hypotheses 2017 Aug 23;105:1-3. Epub 2017 Jun 23.
    Unit of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Human Pathology in Adulthood and Childhood "G. Barresi", University of Messina, Messina, Italy.
    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine system disorder among women of reproductive age. In several cases, PCOS women show infertility or subfertility and other metabolic alteration, such as insulin resistance (InsR), dyslipidaemia, hyperinsulinemia and obesity. Despite the aetiology of the syndrome is still far from be elucidated, it could be considered the result of concurrent endocrine modifications, lifestyle factors and genetic background. Read More

    The incidence of metabolic syndrome in adolescents with different phenotypes of PCOS.
    Ginekol Pol 2017 ;88(6):289-295
    Department of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility, Etlik Zubeyde Hanım Women's Health Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey, Turkey.
    Objectives: To evaluate the incidence of metabolic syndrome in Turkish adolescents with different phenotypes of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

    Material And Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on the Youth Center clinic of a tertiary referral hospital in Turkey. Adolescents with PCOS (n = 144) were classified into four phenotype groups according to the presence of oligo/anovulation (O), hyperandrogenism (H), and polycystic ovarian morphology (P) as follows: Phenotype A (O + H + P), Phenotype B (H + O), Phenotype C (H + P), Phenotype D (O + P). Read More

    Adding sildenafil vaginal gel to clomiphene citrate in infertile women with prior clomiphene citrate failure due to thin endometrium: a prospective self-controlled clinical trial.
    Facts Views Vis Obgyn 2017 Mar;9(1):21-27
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Egypt.
    We aimed to investigate the effect of adding sildenafil vaginal gel to clomiphene citrate (CC) in infertile women with prior CC failure.

    Methods: This is a self- controlled clinical trial. Women with CC failure (in prior 5 cycles) and thin endometrium were recruited (N = 42). Read More

    Insulin resistance and obesity among infertile women with different polycystic ovary syndrome phenotypes.
    Sci Rep 2017 Jul 13;7(1):5339. Epub 2017 Jul 13.
    Department of Anatomy and Histology, Mutah Medical Faculty, Mutah University, Mutah, Jordan.
    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common problem among Arab women and is the main cause of infertility due to anovulation. This study investigates insulin resistance (IR) and obesity in different PCOS phenotypes among infertile women (n = 213), of whom 159 had PCOS and 54 women without PCOS, recruited as a control group. Biometric, hormonal and clinical parameters were studied. Read More

    Three-step method for menstrual and oral contraceptive cycle verification.
    J Sci Med Sport 2016 Aug 26. Epub 2016 Aug 26.
    School of Human Movement and Nutrition Sciences, The University of Queensland, Australia.
    Objectives: Fluctuating endogenous and exogenous ovarian hormones may influence exercise parameters; yet control and verification of ovarian hormone status is rarely reported and limits current exercise science and sports medicine research. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of an individualised three-step method in identifying the mid-luteal or high hormone phase in endogenous and exogenous hormone cycles in recreationally-active women and determine hormone and demographic characteristics associated with unsuccessful classification.

    Design: Cross-sectional study design. Read More

    Subclinical hypothyroidism does not influence the metabolic and hormonal profile of women with PCOS.
    Horm Mol Biol Clin Investig 2017 Jun 23. Epub 2017 Jun 23.
    Background Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) is present in 5%-10% of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients. To date, its impact on the metabolic and hormonal profile of those women remains controversial. The purpose of our study is to evaluate the impact of SCH on the glycemic, lipid and hormonal profile of PCOS patients. Read More

    New biomarkers for diagnosis and management of polycystic ovary syndrome.
    Clin Chim Acta 2017 Aug 15;471:248-253. Epub 2017 Jun 15.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, The University of California at Davis, Davis, CA, United States; Department of Veterans Affairs Northern California Health Care System, Mather, CA, United States. Electronic address:
    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder affecting young women. Even though the definition of PCOS has changed over the years, all diagnostic criteria include two or more of the following: oligomenorrhea/oligoovulation/anovulation, androgen excess and polycystic ovaries (PCO). Traditional method of assessing the ovarian morphology has been transvaginal pelvic ultrasound. Read More

    Which origin for polycystic ovaries syndrome: Genetic, environmental or both?
    Ann Endocrinol (Paris) 2017 Jul 9;78(3):176-185. Epub 2017 Jun 9.
    Department of Endocrinology, Diabetology and Reproduction, groupe hospitalier l'Archet, CHU de Nice, 151, route de Saint-Antoine-de-Ginestière, 06202 Nice, France; Inserm U1065/C3M, hôpital de l'Archet, 151, route de Saint-Antoine-de-Ginestière, 06202 Nice, France.
    Polycystic ovaries syndrome (PCOS), the most common female endocrine disorder, affects 7-10% of women of childbearing age. It includes ovarian hyperandrogenism, impaired follicular maturation, anovulation and subfertility. Insulin resistance, although present in most cases, is not necessary for diagnosis. Read More

    Elevated anti-Mullerian hormone in lean women may not indicate polycystic ovarian syndrome.
    Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 2017 Jun 9. Epub 2017 Jun 9.
    Westmead Fertility Centre, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.
    Background: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous disorder with clinical features shared with functional hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism (FHH).

    Aim: To investigate the usefulness of an elevated (>40 pmol/L) anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) in identifying PCOS and distinguishing PCOS from FHH.

    Materials And Methods: 141 patients with an elevated AMH and body mass index either <20 kg/m(2) (lean) or >30 kg/m(2) (obese) were selected and three subgroups analysed - obese, lean, lean with suspected FHH. Read More

    Hyperandrogenism in adolescent girls: relationship with the somatotrophic axis.
    J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2017 May;30(5):561-568
    Institute of Maternal and Child Research, Faculty of Medicine, University of Chile, Santiago.
    Background: During puberty there is a physiologic increase in adrenal and ovarian androgens. It has been suggested that the somatotrophic axis may be related to the development of hyperandrogenism and anovulation in non-obese adult women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). The objective of the study was to investigate whether ovarian androgen secretion in young postmenarchal girls is related to the function of their somatotropic axis. Read More

    Orlistat (The Lipase Inhibitor) Therapy in Overweight and Obese Subfertile Women.
    Mymensingh Med J 2017 Apr;26(2):432-438
    Dr Dalia Rahman, Junior Consultant, Obstetrics & Gynecology, Dhaka Medical College Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    This experimental study was carried out to evaluate the efficacy of orlistat (a pancreatic lipase inhibitor) therapy over lifestyle change on weight reduction and ovulation in overweight and obese subfertile women. It was carried out in Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU) Dhaka, Bangladesh from August 2015 to January 2016. Subfertile obese and overweight female patients attending the study centre during study period was considered as study population. Read More

    Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and Metabolic Disorder Among the Different Phenotypes of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.
    Oman Med J 2017 May;32(3):214-220
    Department of Endocrinology and Female Infertility, Reproductive Biomedicine Research Center, Royan Institute for Reproductive Biomedicine, Acadmic Center for Education, Culture, and Research, Tehran, Iran.
    Objectives: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder related to several metabolic consequences. However, there remains uncertainty regarding the metabolic features of various phenotypes. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and metabolic disorders among the four different phenotypes of PCOS. Read More

    Oocyte-specific deletion of furin leads to female infertility by causing early secondary follicle arrest in mice.
    Cell Death Dis 2017 Jun 1;8(6):e2846. Epub 2017 Jun 1.
    State Key Laboratory of Stem Cell and Reproductive Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China.
    The process of follicular development involves communications between oocyte and surrounding granulosa cells. FURIN is a member of the family of proprotein convertases that is involved in the activation of a large number of zymogens and proproteins by cleavage at its recognition motif. To investigate the functions of FURIN in female fertility, furin(flox/flox) (fur(fl/fl)) mice were crossed with Zp3-Cre mice and Gdf9-Cre, respectively, to achieve oocyte-specific disruption of FURIN. Read More

    Cytokine signal suppressor (SOCS) 1-1478 CA/del gene polymorphism in Turkish patients with polycystic ovary syndrome.
    J Obstet Gynaecol 2017 Oct 1;37(7):896-901. Epub 2017 Jun 1.
    a Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism , Uludag University Medical School , Bursa , Turkey.
    Eighty-four subjects, premenopausal female patients (n = 42, mean (SD) age: 26.4 (4.2) years) diagnosed with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and age-matched healthy volunteers (n = 42, mean (SD) age: 27. Read More

    Successful treatment of low-grade endometrial cancer in premenopausal women with an aromatase inhibitor after failure with oral or intrauterine progesterone.
    Gynecol Oncol Rep 2017 Aug 10;21:10-12. Epub 2017 May 10.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Utah, Huntsman Cancer Institute, 30N, 1900E, Suite 2B200, SLC, UT 84132, United States.
    Introduction: Young women with endometrial intraepithelial hyperplasia or low-grade endometrial carcinoma are potential candidates for conservative fertility sparing therapy utilizing progesterone rather than hysterectomy. High-dose progesterone treatment is associated with 55-80% initial response but high relapse rates. Using aromatase inhibitors in conjunction with high-dose progesterone has largely been unstudied. Read More

    Clinical and Biochemical Characteristics in PCOS Women With Menstrual Abnormalities.
    J Family Reprod Health 2016 Dec;10(4):184-190
    3rd Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Attiko Hospital, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece.
    Objective: The purpose of the present study was to examine the impact of menstrual cycle abnormalities among patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) on biochemical and anthropometric characteristics. Materials and methods: We conducted a prospective observational study of patients 17-35 years of age with PCOS that attended the department of Gynecological Endocrinology of our hospital. Results: A total of 309 women with PCOS participated in the study. Read More

    Inositol treatment of anovulation in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a meta-analysis of randomised trials.
    BJOG 2017 May 24. Epub 2017 May 24.
    Women's Health Research Unit, The Blizard Institute, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK.
    Polycystic ovary syndrome is a common cause of anovulation and infertility, and a risk factor for development of metabolic syndrome and endometrial cancer. Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCT) that evaluated the effects of inositol as an ovulation induction agent. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane and ISI conference proceedings, Register and Meta-register for RCT and WHO trials' search portal. Read More

    Polycystic ovary morphology is associated with insulin resistance in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.
    Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2017 Oct 19;87(4):375-380. Epub 2017 Jun 19.
    Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Ewha Womans University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.
    Background/objectives: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous disorder characterized by chronic anovulation, hyperandrogenism, polycystic ovary morphology (PCOM) and metabolic disturbances including insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Although insulin resistance could be associated with PCOM, recent studies have shown controversial results. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between PCOM and insulin resistance. Read More

    Is foetal hyperexposure to androgens a cause of PCOS?
    Hum Reprod Update 2017 Jul;23(4):421-432
    Homerton Fertility Centre, Homerton University Hospital, London E9 6SR, UK.
    Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrinopathy affecting reproductive-aged women. The pathophysiology of this syndrome is still not completely understood but recent evidence suggests that the intra-uterine environment may be a key factor in the pathogenesis of PCOS, in particular, hyperexposure of the foetus to androgens. High concentrations of maternal serum testosterone during pregnancy have been shown to influence behaviour during childhood, the prevalence of autism disorders and anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) concentrations in adolescence. Read More

    Combining a nontargeted and targeted metabolomics approach to identify metabolic pathways significantly altered in polycystic ovary syndrome.
    Metabolism 2017 Jun 8;71:52-63. Epub 2017 Mar 8.
    Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, Metabolism, and Nutrition, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN.
    Objective: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a condition of androgen excess and chronic anovulation frequently associated with insulin resistance. We combined a nontargeted and targeted metabolomics approach to identify pathways and metabolites that distinguished PCOS from metabolic syndrome (MetS).

    Methods: Twenty obese women with PCOS were compared with 18 obese women without PCOS. Read More

    Brown adipose tissue activation by rutin ameliorates polycystic ovary syndrome in rat.
    J Nutr Biochem 2017 Sep 22;47:21-28. Epub 2017 Apr 22.
    Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100101, China. Electronic address:
    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex endocrinopathy that is characterized by anovulation, hyperandrogenism and polycystic ovary. However, there is a lack of effective treatment for PCOS at present because the pathologic cause of PCOS has not been elucidated. Although it has been known that brown adipose tissue transplantation ameliorates PCOS by activating endogenous BAT, BAT transplantation is not applicable in clinic. Read More

    Vitamin D and calcium intake and risk of early menopause.
    Am J Clin Nutr 2017 Jun 10;105(6):1493-1501. Epub 2017 May 10.
    Departments of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, and
    Background: Early menopause, defined as the cessation of ovarian function before the age of 45 y, affects ∼10% of women and is associated with higher risk of cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, and other conditions. Few modifiable risk factors for early menopause have been identified, but emerging data suggest that high vitamin D intake may reduce risk.Objective: We evaluated how intakes of vitamin D and calcium are associated with the incidence of early menopause in the prospective Nurses' Health Study II (NHS2). Read More

    Cost-effectiveness analysis of lifestyle intervention in obese infertile women.
    Hum Reprod 2017 May 9:1-9. Epub 2017 May 9.
    Department of Epidemiology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen,  9700RB Groningen, The Netherlands.
    Study Question: What is the cost-effectiveness of lifestyle intervention preceding infertility treatment in obese infertile women?

    Summary Answer: Lifestyle intervention preceding infertility treatment as compared to prompt infertility treatment in obese infertile women is not a cost-effective strategy in terms of healthy live birth rate within 24 months after randomization, but is more likely to be cost-effective using a longer follow-up period and live birth rate as endpoint.

    What Is Known Already: In infertile couples, obesity decreases conception chances. We previously showed that lifestyle intervention prior to infertility treatment in obese infertile women did not increase the healthy singleton vaginal live birth rate at term, but increased natural conceptions, especially in anovulatory women. Read More

    Anovulatory Patients Demonstrate a Sharp Decline in LH Levels upon GnRH Antagonist Administration during IVF Cycles.
    Rambam Maimonides Med J 2017 Apr 28;8(2). Epub 2017 Apr 28.
    IVF Unit, Rambam Health Care Campus, Haifa, Israel; and Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel.
    To evaluate the decrease in luteinizing hormone (LH) levels following gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist administration in in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles, data were retrospectively collected from 305 consecutive IVF or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles of patients who underwent ovarian stimulation with gonadotropins and were treated with GnRH antagonist for the prevention of premature luteinization. We compared the percent change in LH concentration from stimulation start to that observed before ovulation triggering in patients with or without anovulation. Anovulatory patients were younger, with higher body mass index (BMI), and demonstrated higher ovarian reserve parameters as compared to ovulatory patients. Read More

    Effect of combination of Withania somnifera Dunal and Tribulus terrestris Linn on letrozole induced polycystic ovarian syndrome in rats.
    Integr Med Res 2016 Dec 19;5(4):293-300. Epub 2016 Oct 19.
    RMO, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, National Institute of Unani Medicine, Bangalore, India.
    Background: To investigate the effect of the combination of hydroalcoholic extract of Withania somnifera (WS) and Tribulus terrestris (TT) on letrozole induced polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) in rat.

    Methods: Twenty four female Wistar rats of regular estrus cycle were divided into four groups of six animals each. The negative control group received 1 mL of 0. Read More

    Phenotypic variation in anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) production per follicle in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and isolated polycystic ovarian morphology (PCOM): an observational cross-sectional study.
    Gynecol Endocrinol 2017 Apr 28:1-6. Epub 2017 Apr 28.
    a Homerton Fertility Centre , Homerton University Hospital , London , United Kingdom.
    This observational study compares the ratio of serum anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) to the total antral follicle count (AFC) (as a marker of AMH production per follicle) in the various phenotypes of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and isolated polycystic ovarian morphology (PCOM). Two hundred and sixty-two women were recruited. Women with PCOS were divided into four phenotypes based on the diagnostic inclusion criteria of oligo-anovulation (OA), hyperandrogenism (HA) and polycystic ovarian morphology (PCOM). Read More

    Increased cerebrospinal fluid levels of GABA, testosterone and estradiol in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.
    Hum Reprod 2017 Apr 27:1-7. Epub 2017 Apr 27.
    Section of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Medical Center Blvd, Winston-Salem, NC 27157.
    Study Question: Do cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2) differ in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) as compared to eumenorrheic, ovulatory women (EW)?

    Summary Answer: Women with PCOS displayed higher CSF levels of GABA and E2, and possibly T, than EW.

    What Is Known Already: The chronic anovulation characteristic of PCOS has been attributed to increased central GnRH drive and resulting gonadotropin aberrations. Androgens are thought to regulate GABA, which in turn regulates the neural cascade that modulates GnRH drive. Read More

    The use of cyproterone acetate/ethinyl estradiol in hyperandrogenic skin symptoms - a review.
    Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care 2017 Jun 27;22(3):172-182. Epub 2017 Apr 27.
    c Departamento de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia da UFMG , Belo Horizonte , Brazil.
    Introduction: Hyperandrogenism affects approximately 10-20% of women of reproductive age. Hyperandrogenic skin symptoms such as hirsutism, acne, seborrhea and alopecia are associated with significant quality of life and psychological impairment. Women with abnormalities in androgen metabolism may have accompanying anovulation and/or polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), both of which have reproductive and metabolic implications if left untreated. Read More

    Age-independent anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) standard deviation scores to estimate ovarian function.
    Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2017 Jun 18;213:64-70. Epub 2017 Apr 18.
    Institute of Molecular Pathobiochemistry, Experimental Gene Therapy and Clinical Chemistry University, Hospital RWTH Aachen, 51072 Aachen, Germany.
    Objectivies: To determine single year age-specific anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) standard deviation scores (SDS) for women associated to normal ovarian function and different ovarian disorders resulting in sub- or infertility.

    Design And Methods: Determination of particular year median and mean AMH values with standard deviations (SD), calculation of age-independent cut off SDS for the discrimination between normal ovarian function and ovarian disorders.

    Results: Single-year-specific median, mean, and SD values have been evaluated for the Beckman Access AMH immunoassay. Read More

    Sexually active bucks counterbalance the seasonal negative feedback of estradiol on LH in ovariectomized goats.
    Domest Anim Endocrinol 2017 Jul 31;60:42-49. Epub 2017 Mar 31.
    Centro de Investigación en Reproducción Caprina, Universidad Autónoma Agraria Antonio Narro, Periférico Raúl López Sánchez y Carretera a Santa Fe, C.P. 27054 Torreón, Coahuila, Mexico. Electronic address:
    We showed previously that the permanent presence of bucks rendered sexually active by photoperiodic treatments, thereafter called photostimulated bucks, prevents the occurrence of seasonal anovulation; also, the introduction of these sexually active bucks induces ovulations during seasonal anestrus. Here, we studied the response of ovariectomized goats bearing 12-mm subcutaneous implants filled or not with estradiol to sexually active males to determine (1) whether the permanent presence of such bucks prevents the decrease of LH despite the presence of a negative feedback by estradiol mimicking that of seasonal anestrus (experiment 1) and (2) whether the introduction of photostimulated bucks increases the plasma LH concentrations in spite of this negative feedback (experiment 2). In experiment 1, one group of goats remained in contact with sexually active bucks, whereas the other group remained in contact with control bucks. Read More

    Prohibitin-induced obesity leads to anovulation and polycystic ovary in mice.
    Biol Open 2017 Jun 15;6(6):825-831. Epub 2017 Jun 15.
    Department of Internal Medicine, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, R3E 3P4 Canada
    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a prevalent endocrine disorder and the most common cause of female infertility. However, its etiology and underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here we report that a transgenic obese mouse (Mito-Ob) developed by overexpressing prohibitin in adipocytes develops polycystic ovaries. Read More

    High insulin impaired ovarian function in early pregnant mice and the role of autophagy in this process.
    Endocr J 2017 Jun 18;64(6):613-621. Epub 2017 Apr 18.
    Laboratory of Reproductive Biology, School of Public Health, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016, China.
    Metabolic disorders, such as PCOS (polycystic ovarian syndrome) and T2DM (type 2 diabetes mellitus), are associated with menstrual dysfunction, anovulation, infertility, and early pregnancy loss. Ovarian dysfunction is not only related to low pregnancy rates but also to the increased risk of miscarriage. Women with PCOS or T2DM, characterized by hyperinsulinemia, commonly experience ovarian dysfunction. Read More

    Using gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist before frozen embryo transfer may improve ongoing pregnancy rates in hyperandrogenic polycystic ovary syndrome women.
    Gynecol Endocrinol 2017 Apr 10:1-4. Epub 2017 Apr 10.
    a Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology , Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital , Kaohsiung , Taiwan.
    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), affecting more than 5-10% of woman at reproductive childbearing age, is characterized by anovulation and hyperandrogenism. Frozen-thawed embryo transfer (ET) has been widely used for PCOS women to minimize the risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. However, the hyperandrogenic status of PCOS women deteriorates endometrial function, which has subsequently increased miscarriage rates in PCOS women. Read More

    Progesterone Receptors and Proliferation of the Endometrium in Obese Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome-A Lifestyle Intervention Study.
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2017 Apr;102(4):1244-1253
    Division of Obstetrics and Gynecology, and.
    Context: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with increased risk of endometrial cancer. This is usually explained by chronic anovulation and deficient progesterone activity. However, the role of progesterone receptors (PRs) in endometrial proliferation is unclear. Read More

    Effect of androgen on Kiss1 expression and luteinizing hormone release in female rats.
    J Endocrinol 2017 Jun 4;233(3):281-292. Epub 2017 Apr 4.
    Department of Anatomy and NeurobiologyGraduate School of Medicine, Nippon Medical School, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan.
    Hyperandrogenic women have various grades of ovulatory dysfunction, which lead to infertility. The purpose of this study was to determine whether chronic exposure to androgen affects the expression of kisspeptin (ovulation and follicle development regulator) or release of luteinizing hormone (LH) in female rats. Weaned females were subcutaneously implanted with 90-day continuous-release pellets of 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and studied after 10 weeks of age. Read More

    Functional Hypothalamic Amenorrhea: An Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline.
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2017 May;102(5):1413-1439
    Center for Menopause, Hormonal Disorders, and Women's Health, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York 10021.
    Cosponsoring Associations: The American Society for Reproductive Medicine, the European Society of Endocrinology, and the Pediatric Endocrine Society. This guideline was funded by the Endocrine Society.

    Objective: To formulate clinical practice guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of functional hypothalamic amenorrhea (FHA). Read More

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