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    Lipidomics reveals altered biosynthetic pathways of glycerophospholipids and cell signaling as biomarkers of the polycystic ovary syndrome.
    Oncotarget 2018 Jan 17;9(4):4522-4536. Epub 2017 Dec 17.
    Department of Experimental Medicine, Lleida University-Institute for Research in Biomedicine of Lleida (UdL-IRBLleida), 25198 Lleida, Spain.
    Purpose: In this work, a non-targeted approach was used to unravel changes in the plasma lipidome of PCOS patients. The aim is to offer new insights in PCOS patients strictly selected in order to avoid confounding factors such as dyslipemia, obesity, altered glucose/insulin metabolism, cardiovascular disease, or cancer.

    Results: Multivariate statistics revealed a specific lipidomic signature for PCOS patients without associated pathologies. Read More

    Metformin and pioglitazone combination therapy ameliorate polycystic ovary syndrome through AMPK/PI3K/JNK pathway.
    Exp Ther Med 2018 Feb 15;15(2):2120-2127. Epub 2017 Dec 15.
    Reproductive Medicine Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan 450052, P.R. China.
    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common gynecological endocrine disorder, which results in health problems such as menstrual disorders, hyperandrogenism and persistent anovulation. Hyperandrogenism and insulin resistance are the basic characteristics of PCOS. To investigate the combined effect of metformin and pioglitazone on POCS and the potential mechanisms, a rat model of PCOS was established by intramuscular injection of estradiol valerate (EV). Read More

    Association of testosterone and antimüllerian hormone with time to pregnancy and pregnancy loss in fecund women attempting pregnancy.
    Fertil Steril 2018 Feb 7. Epub 2018 Feb 7.
    Division of Intramural Population Health Research, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland.
    Objective: To examine whether higher T and/or antimüllerian hormone (AMH) was associated with anovulation, time to pregnancy (TTP), or pregnancy loss risk among healthy, fecund women without diagnosed polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Design: Prospective cohort study conducted as a secondary analysis from the Effects of Aspirin in Gestation and Reproduction randomized trial.

    Setting: University medical centers. Read More

    The correlation between serum AMH and HOMA-IR among PCOS phenotypes.
    BMC Res Notes 2018 Feb 9;11(1):114. Epub 2018 Feb 9.
    Division of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility, Department of Obstetric and Gynecology Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia; Dr, Cipto Mangunkusumo General Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia.
    Background: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is known to be one of the most prevalent endocrine disorders affecting reproductive age women. One of the endocrine disorder is hyperinsulinemia, which corresponds with the severity of PCOS. However, the pathogenesis of PCOS is not fully understood, but one theory of anti-mullerian hormone (AMH) has been proposed as one of the factor related to the degree of severity of PCOS. Read More

    The numbers of 2- 5 and 6-9 mm ovarian follicles are inversely correlated in both normal women and in polycystic ovary syndrome patients: what is the missing link?
    Hum Reprod 2018 Feb 7. Epub 2018 Feb 7.
    CHU Lille, Service de Gynécologie-Endocrinienne et Médecine de la Reproduction, Hôpital Jeanne de Flandre, rue Eugène Avinée 59000, Lille, France.
    Study Question: Is the negative correlation between the numbers of 2-5 and 6-9 mm follicles influenced by ovarian and/or metabolic parameter(s) in young control women and in patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS)?

    Summary Answer: Our study confirmed that the negative correlation between numbers of follicles sized 2-5 and 6-9 mm was stronger in PCOS than in young control women and was not linked to any ovarian or metabolic parameter.

    What Is Known Already: Previous reports described a direct negative correlation between the number of small antral follicles (2-5 mm) and large antral follicle (6-9 mm) during the early follicular phase (cycle Days 2-5) in normal and PCOS women. Numerous factors, that could be either intrinsic to the ovary or secondary to metabolic influence and/or gonadotropin regulation, might account for this. Read More

    Hormonal contraception in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: choices, challenges, and noncontraceptive benefits.
    Open Access J Contracept 2017 2;8:13-23. Epub 2017 Feb 2.
    Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Ribeirão Preto School of Medicine, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil.
    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine disorder among women of reproductive age characterized by chronic anovulation and polycystic ovary morphology and/or hyperandrogenism. Management of clinical manifestations of PCOS, such as menstrual irregularities and hyperandrogenism symptoms, includes lifestyle changes and combined hormonal contraceptives (CHCs). CHCs contain estrogen that exerts antiandrogenic properties by triggering the hepatic synthesis of sex hormone-binding globulin that reduces the free testosterone levels. Read More

    Altered expression of IL-1β, IL-1RI, IL-1RII, IL-1RA and IL-4 could contribute to anovulation and follicular persistence in cattle.
    Theriogenology 2018 Jan 3;110:61-73. Epub 2018 Jan 3.
    Laboratorio de Biología Celular y Molecular Aplicada, Instituto de Ciencias Veterinarias del Litoral (ICiVet-Litoral), Universidad Nacional del Litoral (UNL) / Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Tecnológicas (CONICET), Esperanza, Santa Fe, Argentina; Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias del Litoral, Universidad Nacional del Litoral (UNL), Esperanza, Santa Fe, Argentina. Electronic address:
    Cystic ovarian disease (COD) is an important cause of infertility in dairy cattle. The main signs of this infertility are ovulation failure and follicular persistence. The aim of this study was to examine the expression of the cytokines IL-1β, IL-1RI, IL-1RII, IL-1RA and IL-4 in ovarian follicular structures at different times of persistence in a model of follicular persistence induced by prolonged administration of progesterone in dairy cows. Read More

    Evaluation of three hormonal protocols for anovulatory lactating cows under regulations restricting the use of estrogenic compounds.
    Anim Sci J 2018 Jan 9. Epub 2018 Jan 9.
    College of Animal Science and Technology, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, China.
    When European Union regulations restricted the use of estrogenic compounds in food-producing animals, refined hormonal protocols were no longer applicable for anovulatory cows. However, Ovsynch and its adaptations are routinely and uniformly applied to all cows regardless of ovarian function. To evaluate their efficacy on anovulatory cows, 143, 147 and 144 anovulatory cows received Ovsynch, Presynch and G6G protocols, respectively. Read More

    C-Reactive protein in relation to fecundability and anovulation among eumenorrheic women.
    Fertil Steril 2018 Feb 6;109(2):232-239.e1. Epub 2018 Jan 6.
    Epidemiology Branch, Division of Intramural Population Health Research, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Bethesda, Maryland. Electronic address:
    Objective: To assess systemic inflammation in relation to fecundability and anovulation.

    Design: Prospective cohort study among participants in the Effects of Aspirin in Gestation and Reproduction trial who were assigned to the placebo.

    Setting: Academic medical centers. Read More

    Sex- and Age-Specific Impact of ERK Loss Within the Pituitary Gonadotrope in Mice.
    Endocrinology 2018 Mar;159(3):1264-1276
    Department of Biomedical Science, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York.
    Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling regulates hormone action in the reproductive axis, but specific mechanisms have yet to be completely elucidated. In the current study, ERK1 null and ERK2 floxed mice were combined with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GnRHR)-internal ribosomal entry site-Cre (GRIC) driver. Female ERK double-knockout (ERKdko) animals were hypogonadotropic, resulting in anovulation and complete infertility. Read More

    Prevalence, clinical characteristics, and reproductive outcomes of polycystic ovary syndrome in older women referred for tertiary fertility care.
    Arch Gynecol Obstet 2017 Dec 30. Epub 2017 Dec 30.
    Division of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, McGill University Health Centre (MUHC) Reproductive Centre, 888, Blvd. de Maisonneuve East, suite 200, Montreal, QC, H2L 4S8, Canada.
    Objective: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in reproductive age women. The clinical symptoms of PCOS vary with female age, as older women tend to have lower hyperandrogenic symptoms and many regain regular cycles. In this study, we aimed to estimate the prevalence of PCOS among older women referred for fertility care, describe their clinical characteristics, and compare their reproductive outcomes to those of matched control group. Read More

    Gonadotrophins versus clomifene citrate with or without intrauterine insemination in women with normogonadotropic anovulation and clomifene failure (M-OVIN): a randomised, two-by-two factorial trial.
    Lancet 2017 Dec 19. Epub 2017 Dec 19.
    Center for Reproductive Medicine, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, Netherlands. Electronic address:
    Background: In many countries, clomifene citrate is the treatment of first choice in women with normogonadotropic anovulation (ie, absent or irregular ovulation). If these women ovulate but do not conceive after several cycles with clomifene citrate, medication is usually switched to gonadotrophins, with or without intrauterine insemination. We aimed to assess whether switching to gonadotrophins is more effective than continuing clomifene citrate, and whether intrauterine insemination is more effective than intercourse. Read More

    Effects of myo-inositol, gymnemic acid, and L-methylfolate in polycystic ovary syndrome patients.
    Gynecol Endocrinol 2017 Dec 21:1-7. Epub 2017 Dec 21.
    a Institute of Obstetric and Gynecological Pathology , Santo Bambino Hospital, University of Catania , Catania , Italy.
    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous endocrine and metabolic disorder, characterized by chronic anovulation/oligomenorrhea, hyperandrogenism, and insulin-resistance. Moreover, some studies propose a possible association between insulin resistance and hyperhomocysteinemia, which is a significant long-term risk for factor for atherogenesis and chronic vascular damage, especially in situations where insulin levels are increased. Insulin-sensitizing agents are used in the treatment of PCOS: in fact, inositols were shown to have insulin-mimetic properties. Read More

    Phase III trial comparing the efficacy and safety of recombinant- or urine-derived human chorionic gonadotropin for ovulation triggering in Japanese women diagnosed with anovulation or oligo-ovulation and undergoing ovulation induction with follitropin-alfa.
    Reprod Med Biol 2017 Jan 4;16(1):45-51. Epub 2016 Dec 4.
    Bashamichi Ladies ClinicYokohamaJapan.
    Aim: Outside of Japan, recombinant-human chorionic gonadotropin (r-hCG) is widely used for the induction of final follicular maturation and early luteinization in women undergoing ovulation induction; whereas in Japan, urine-derived hCG (u-hCG) is predominantly used. The primary objective of this study was to demonstrate the non-inferiority of r-hCG to u-hCG for ovulation induction, as assessed by the ovulation rate.

    Methods: This was an open-label, parallel-group, randomized, multicenter, phase III trial in Japanese women with anovulation or oligo-ovulation secondary to hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction or polycystic ovary syndrome, undergoing ovulation induction with recombinant-human follicle-stimulating hormone. Read More

    Equilibrium between anti-oxidants and reactive oxygen species: a requisite for oocyte development and maturation.
    Reprod Med Biol 2017 Jan 26;16(1):28-35. Epub 2016 Dec 26.
    Department of Pharmacology and ToxicologyB. V. Patel Pharmaceutical Education and Research Development CentreAhmedabadIndia.
    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are required for cellular functioning and are controlled by anti-oxidants. The ROS influence the follicles, oocytes, endometrium, and their environment. The luteinizing hormone surge initiates a massive recruitment of ROS that modulates major reproductive functions namely, oocyte maturation, ovarian steroidogenesis, corpus luteal function, and luteolysis. Read More

    Inflammatory status and its relationships with different patterns of postpartum luteal activity and reproductive performance in early lactating Holstein cows.
    Theriogenology 2018 Mar 14;108:262-268. Epub 2017 Dec 14.
    Department of Animal Science, Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, P.O. Box 578, Sari, Mazandaran, Iran.
    This study was undertaken to determine the effect of inflammatory status on different patterns of postpartum luteal activity and reproductive performance of Holstein cows during early lactation. The cows (n = 75) averaged 3.4 ± 1. Read More

    Monitoring and controlling ovarian function in the rhinoceros.
    Theriogenology 2017 Dec 8. Epub 2017 Dec 8.
    Center for Conservation and Research of Endangered Wildlife (CREW), Cincinnati Zoo & Botanical Garden, 3400 Vine Street, Cincinnati, OH 45220, USA. Electronic address:
    Despite their size and potentially dangerous demeanor, the rhinoceros has been a preferred subject of wildlife reproductive scientists. Several factors contribute to this taxon's popularity including the ability to utilize insightful tools like non-invasive hormone metabolite monitoring and transrectal ultrasonography, the necessity for mate introductions to coincide with the female's estrus when breeding certain species or individuals, and the desire to develop assisted reproductive technologies to facilitate the genetic management and ultimate sustainability of small, managed populations in human care. The resulting profusion of rhinoceros reproductive studies has revealed significant species-specific characteristics and exposed the prevalence of aberrant reproductive activity within this taxon. Read More

    Reproductive performance and herd exit dynamics of lactating dairy cows managed for first service with the Presynch-Ovsynch or Double-Ovsynch protocol and different duration of the voluntary waiting period.
    J Dairy Sci 2018 Feb 14;101(2):1673-1686. Epub 2017 Dec 14.
    Department of Animal Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853. Electronic address:
    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the reproductive performance and herd exit dynamics of dairy cows managed for first service with programs varying in method of submission for insemination and voluntary waiting period (VWP) duration. Holstein cows from a commercial farm in New York were randomly allocated to receive timed artificial insemination (TAI) after the Double-Ovsynch protocol (GnRH, 7 d later PGF, 3 d later GnRH, 7 d later GnRH, 7 d later PGF, 56 h later GnRH, and 16 to 18 h later TAI) at 60 ± 3 d in milk (DIM) (DO60 = 458), TAI after Double-Ovsynch at 88 ± 3 DIM (DO88 = 462), or a combination of AI at detected estrus (starting at 50 ± 3 d in milk) and TAI with the Presynch-Ovsynch protocol (PGF, 14 d later PGF, 12 d later GnRH, 7 d later PGF, 56 h later GnRH, and 16 to 18 h later TAI; PSOv = 450). Subsequent artificial insemination (AI) services were conducted at detected estrus or the Ovsynch protocol (32 ± 3 d after AI GnRH, 7 d later PGF, 56 h later GnRH, and 16 to 18 h later TAI) for cows not reinseminated at detected estrus. Read More

    Authors' reply re: Inositol treatment of anovulation in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a meta-analysis of randomised trials.
    BJOG 2018 Mar 11;125(4):509-510. Epub 2017 Dec 11.
    Women's Health Research Unit, The Blizard Institute, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK.

    Combined Oral Contraception and Bicalutamide in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Severe Hirsutism - a Double-blind RTC.
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2017 Dec 1. Epub 2017 Dec 1.
    Department of Experimental Medicine, Unit of Endocrinology, "Policlinico Umberto I" Hospital, University of Rome La Sapienza, Rome, Italy.
    Background: Hirsutism is frequently expressed in women affected by polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The efficacy of oral contraceptive pill (OC) plus anti-androgens in the treatment of its severe expression is controversial due to the lack of randomized double-blind long-term studies.

    Aim: The primary outcome was the reduction of hirsutism in PCOS women objectively measured by videodermoscopy (VD) on the androgen-sensitive skin areas assessed by the modified Ferriman&Gallwey (mF&G) total score, after 12 months of therapy with OC+Bicalutamide (BC) versus OC plus placebo (P). Read More

    Demographic analysis of a low resource, socioculturally diverse urban community presenting for infertility care in a United States public hospital.
    Contracept Reprod Med 2017 3;2:17. Epub 2017 May 3.
    Obstetrics, Gynecology, & Reproductive Sciences, University of California, 550 16th Street, San Francisco, CA 94158 USA.
    Background: Infertility is a prevalent disease of reproductive health that exerts an impact on an estimated 80 million people worldwide. For many, involuntary childlessness becomes a central and preoccupying issue in their lives, the impact of which is exacerbated by lack of access to basic care and treatment. These effects maybe further magnified among immigrant communities, a growing but highly marginalized population that has been shown in other areas of reproductive health to experience worse health outcomes and delays in access to care. Read More

    High-fat diet exposure from pre-pubertal age induces polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in rats.
    Reproduction 2018 Feb 1;155(2):141-151. Epub 2017 Dec 1.
    Department of PharmacologyL. M. College of Pharmacy, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India.
    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with hyperandrogenism, oligo-anovulation, polycystic ovaries and metabolic syndrome. Many researchers reported that PCOS often starts with menarche in adolescents. Presently available animal model focuses on ovarian but not metabolic features of PCOS. Read More

    Identification of microRNAs and genes associated with hyperandrogenism in the follicular fluid of women with polycystic ovary syndrome.
    J Cell Biochem 2017 Nov 28. Epub 2017 Nov 28.
    Nanjing Maternal and Child Health Institute, Nanjing Maternal and Child Health Hospital, Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital affiliated to Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.
    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common reproductive endocrine disease, which is characterized by hyperandrogenism (HA), chronic anovulation, polycystic ovaries, insulin resistance, and obesity. At present, the mechanism by which PCOS/HA occurs has not been fully elucidated, thus, the mechanisms behind and interventions for HA in PCOS are current hot topics in research. MiRNAs have recently been shown to serve as diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers in patients with cancer. Read More

    Insulin-sensitising drugs (metformin, rosiglitazone, pioglitazone, D-chiro-inositol) for women with polycystic ovary syndrome, oligo amenorrhoea and subfertility.
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2017 11 29;11:CD003053. Epub 2017 Nov 29.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, The General Infirmary of Leeds, United Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Belmont Grove, Leeds, UK, LS2 9NS.
    Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is characterised by infrequent or absent ovulation, and high levels of androgens and insulin (hyperinsulinaemia). Hyperinsulinaemia occurs secondary to insulin resistance and is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. Insulin-sensitising agents such as metformin may be effective in treating PCOS-related anovulation. Read More

    Polycystic ovary syndrome: a common reproductive syndrome with long-term metabolic consequences.
    Hong Kong Med J 2017 Dec 24;23(6):622-34. Epub 2017 Nov 24.
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong.
    Polycystic ovary syndrome is the most common endocrine disorder among women of reproductive age. Although traditionally viewed as a reproductive disorder, there is increasing appreciation that it is associated with significantly increased risk of cardiometabolic disorders. Women with polycystic ovary syndrome may present to clinicians via a variety of different routes and symptoms. Read More

    Heightened cortisol response to exercise challenge in women with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea.
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 2018 Feb 21;218(2):230.e1-230.e6. Epub 2017 Nov 21.
    Section of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center, Winston-Salem, NC. Electronic address:
    Background: Functional hypothalamic amenorrhea is characterized by anovulation caused by reduced gonadotropin-releasing hormone drive and is associated with hypercortisolemia that has been linked to heightened hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal reactivity to common psychological and metabolic challenges.

    Objective: We hypothesized that women with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea would display greater cortisol responses to exercise challenge than ovulatory women with eumenorrhea.

    Study Design: We completed a cross-sectional comparison of 9 women with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea and 11 women with eumenorrhea who were of reproductive age, who weighed 90-110% ideal body weight, who did not exercise excessively, and who had no formal psychiatric diagnosis. Read More

    A case of repeated mixed mood episodes with psychotic symptoms associated with the premenstrual period in a patient with polycystic ovarian syndrome.
    Gynecol Endocrinol 2017 Nov 22:1-3. Epub 2017 Nov 22.
    a Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences , University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston , Houston , TX , USA.
    Studies have demonstrated that estrogen plays an important role in psychotic and mood disorders in women. Estrogens have a protective effect against the development of these disorders, while hypoestrogenic states may be a risk factor for the development or exacerbation of mental illness. Additionally, women with menstrual cycle abnormalities such as those with a history of anovulation may be more susceptible to monthly estrogen level fluctuation-related mood and psychotic symptoms. Read More

    Intrauterine Insemination: Fundamentals Revisited.
    J Obstet Gynaecol India 2017 Dec 25;67(6):385-392. Epub 2017 Oct 25.
    Rotunda-The Center for Human Reproduction, Bandra, Mumbai, India.
    Intrauterine insemination (IUI) is an assisted conception technique that involves the deposition of a processed semen sample in the upper uterine cavity, overcoming natural barriers to sperm ascent in the female reproductive tract. It is a cost-effective, noninvasive first-line therapy for selected patients with functionally normal tubes, and infertility due to a cervical factor, anovulation, moderate male factor, unexplained factors, immunological factor, and ejaculatory disorders with clinical pregnancy rates per cycle ranging from 10 to 20%. It, however, has limited use in patients with endometriosis, severe male factor infertility, tubal factor infertility, and advanced maternal age ≥ 35 years. Read More

    Ovarian surgery for symptom relief in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2017 11 10;11:CD009526. Epub 2017 Nov 10.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Capital and Coast District Health Board, Wellington, New Zealand.
    Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine condition, affecting approximately one in 10 women. PCOS is defined by two of three features: oligo- or anovulation, clinical or biochemical hyperandrogenism or both, or polycystic ovaries.Women with PCOS can have a wide range of health problems, including infrequent and irregular periods, unwanted hair growth and acne, and subnormal fertility. Read More

    Roles of Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis and Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Ovary Axis in the Abnormal Endocrine Functions in Patients with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.
    Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao 2017 Oct;39(5):699-704
    Provincial Key Laboratory for Developmental Biology and Neurosciences,College of Life Sciences,Fujian Normal University,Fuzhou 350007,China.
    Polycystic ovary syndrome(PCOS) is a common reproductive endocrine disease in women of childbearing age. While it can be affected by a variety of factors,its pathophysiology remains unclear. Its clinical features mainly include anovulation,hyperandrogenism,and hyperinsulinemia,which are closely related with abnormal neuroendocrine system. Read More

    MicroRNA-27a-3p affects estradiol and androgen imbalance by targeting Creb1 in the granulosa cells in mouse polycytic ovary syndrome model.
    Reprod Biol 2017 Dec 28;17(4):295-304. Epub 2017 Oct 28.
    State Key Laboratory of Agrobiotechnology, College of Biological Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China. Electronic address:
    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine abnormality in women characterized by a menstrual disturbance with chronic anovulation and hyperandrogenism, polycystic ovaries, and insulin resistance. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important fine-tune regulators involved in various physiological and pathological processes, but their actions are not fully understood. In this study, we observed the increased expression of miR-27a-3p in the ovaries of mice with PCOS and explored its functions in primary mouse granulosa cells (mGCs) and the mouse granulosa-like tumor cell line, KK-1, using several approaches. Read More

    Treatment strategies for women with polycystic ovary syndrome.
    Gynecol Endocrinol 2017 Oct 31:1-6. Epub 2017 Oct 31.
    a Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine , The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University , Wenzhou , China.
    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder in women, and it is the main cause of infertility in women of reproductive age due to anovulation. PCOS also increases the risk of diseases such as cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes in women with this disorder. The mechanism of pathogenesis is not clear, as it may be related to heredity, the environment and internal embryonic factors; thus, the treatment strategies remain unclear. Read More

    Treatment Outcome of Ovulation-inducing Agents in Patients with Anovulatory Infertility: A Prospective, Observational Study.
    J Pharmacol Pharmacother 2017 Jul-Sep;8(3):116-121
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Institute of Kidney Diseases and Research Center, Civil Hospital, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India.
    Objective: To compare different treatment regimens on pregnancy rate and outcome in patients with anovulatory infertility.

    Patients And Methods: A prospective observational study was conducted on patients with infertility due to anovulation. Patients treated with clomiphene citrate (CC) 50/100 mg/day from 2to 6day of menstrual cycle (MC) (= 38), short gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist regimen (leuprolide [0. Read More

    No. 350-Hirsutism: Evaluation and Treatment.
    J Obstet Gynaecol Can 2017 Nov;39(11):1054-1068
    Ottawa, ON.
    Objectives: To review the etiology, evaluation, and treatment of hirsutism.

    Evaluation: A thorough history and physical examination plus selected laboratory evaluations will confirm the diagnosis and direct treatment.

    Treatment: Pharmacologic interventions can suppress ovarian or adrenal androgen production and block androgen receptors in the hair follicle. Read More

    ANP promotes proliferation and inhibits apoptosis of ovarian granulosa cells by NPRA/PGRMC1/EGFR complex and improves ovary functions of PCOS rats.
    Cell Death Dis 2017 Oct 26;8(10):e3145. Epub 2017 Oct 26.
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Dalian Medical University, Liaoning Provincial Core Lab of Glycobiology and Glycoengineering, Dalian 116044, China.
    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complicated reproductive endocrine disease characterized by polycystic ovaries, hyperandrogenism and anovulation. It is one of the main causes of infertility. RU486 is an antagonist of progesterone receptor, and most commonly used as a contraceptive. Read More

    Ultra-low Doses of Follicle Stimulating Hormone and Progesterone Attenuate the Severity of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Features in a Hyperandrogenized Mouse Model.
    J Reprod Infertil 2017 Jul-Sep;18(3):288-297
    Reproductive and Developmental Biology Laboratory, Department of Health, Animal Science and Food Safety, University of Milan, Milan, Italy.
    Background: Polycystic-ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a reproductive illness characterized by hyperandrogenism and anovulation. Using hyperandrogenized mice, it was demonstrated that the oral administration of incremental dose of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) attenuated some of PCOS characteristics. This work aimed to study the effect of ultra-low doses of combined FSH and progesterone orally administered on PCOS murine model. Read More

    Performance of automated activity monitoring systems used in combination with timed artificial insemination compared to timed artificial insemination only in early lactation in dairy cows.
    J Dairy Sci 2018 Jan 18;101(1):624-636. Epub 2017 Oct 18.
    Department of Population Medicine, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario N1G 2W1, Canada. Electronic address:
    Identifying cows in estrus remains a challenge on dairy cattle farms, and tools and technologies have been developed and used to complement or replace visual detection of estrus. Automated activity monitoring (AAM) systems and timed artificial insemination (TAI) are technologies available to dairy farmers, but many factors can influence their relative performance. The objective of the present study was to compare reproductive performance of cows managed with an AAM system combined with TAI, or with a TAI program (Double Ovsynch) for insemination before 88 DIM. Read More

    In Defense of Progesterone: A Review of the Literature.
    Altern Ther Health Med 2017 Nov;23(6):24-32
    Context • The medical literature on the use of progesterone in postmenopausal women is often confusing and contradictory. Some physicians implicate natural progesterone in an increase in the risk of breast cancer. The chemical structure of natural progesterone (P4) is quite different from chemically altered, synthetic chemicals called progestins, which results in different actions at the cell level. Read More

    Effect of clomiphene citrate on endometrial thickness, ovulation, pregnancy and live birth in anovulatory women: systematic review and meta-analysis.
    Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2018 01 3;51(1):64-76. Epub 2017 Dec 3.
    Robinson Research Institute, Adelaide Medical School, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia.
    Objectives: To compare the impact of clomiphene citrate (CC) vs other drug regimens on mid-cycle endometrial thickness (EMT), ovulation, pregnancy and live birth rates in women with World Health Organization (WHO) group II ovulatory disorders.

    Methods: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, Web of Science, The Cochrane Central Register of Clinical Trials (CENTRAL) and the non-MEDLINE subset of PubMed from inception to December 2016 and cross-checked references of relevant articles. We included only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing CC used alone vs other drug regimens for ovulation induction in women with WHO group II anovulation. Read More

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome: Prevalence and impact on the wellbeing of Australian women aged 16-29 years.
    Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 2017 Oct 19. Epub 2017 Oct 19.
    Department of Medicine, Royal Melbourne Hospital, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Australia.
    Background: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is the most common condition among reproductive-aged women. However, its exact prevalence is unknown.

    Aims: To determine the prevalence of PCOS in Australian women aged 16-29 years using the National Institutes of Health (NIH) criteria compared to self-reported PCOS, to compare co-morbidities between the groups and to determine the most distressing aspect of a diagnosis of PCOS for these young women. Read More

    Ovarian volume and PCOS: a controversial issue.
    Gynecol Endocrinol 2018 Mar 18;34(3):229-232. Epub 2017 Oct 18.
    b Department of Neuroscience, Reproductive Sciences and Dentistry , University of Naples Federico II , Naples , Italy.
    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrinopathy. The Rotterdam criteria indicate four distinct phenotypes. In phenotypes with the typical ovarian morphology (ovarian volume ≥10 ml) the sensibility to clomiphene citrate (CC) ovulation therapy was demonstrated inversely proportional to the ovarian volume. Read More

    The Effects of Exercise on Expression of CYP19 and StAR mRNA in Steroid-Induced Polycystic Ovaries of Female Rats.
    Int J Fertil Steril 2018 Jan 12;11(4):298-303. Epub 2017 Oct 12.
    College of Physical Education and Sports Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
    Background: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is the most frequent female endocrine disorder that affects 5-10% of women. PCOS is characterized by hyperandrogenism, oligo-/anovulation, and polycystic ovaries. The aim of the present research is to evaluate the expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and aromatase (CYP19) mRNA in the ovaries of an estradiol valerate (EV)-induced PCOS rat model, and the effect of treadmill and running wheel (voluntary) exercise on these parameters. Read More

    [Research progress on the relationship of brown adipose tissue with polycystic ovary syndrome].
    Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2017 May;46(3):315-320
    Department of Reproductive Endocrinology, People's Hospital of Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou 310014, China.
    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) holds great promise for the prevention and treatment of metabolism diseases through thermoregulation. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex condition with anovulation, hyperandrogenism, and polycystic ovaries, and also manifests glucolipid metabolic disorders. Recent researches have shown that transplantation of BAT into a PCOS rat could significantly alleviate the phenotypes. Read More

    Rates of Anovulation in Adolescents and Young Adults with Moderate to Severe Primary Dysmenorrhea and Those without Primary Dysmenorrhea.
    J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol 2017 Oct 7. Epub 2017 Oct 7.
    Pediatric Pain and Palliative Care Program, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California.
    Study Objective: To evaluate rates of presumptive anovulation in eumenorrheic adolescents and young adults with moderate to severe primary dysmenorrhea and those without primary dysmenorrhea.

    Design: Participants completed luteinizing hormone surge ovulation predictor test kits. Anovulatory cycles were defined by never receiving a positive result before the next menstrual period; participants were grouped as anovulatory if they experienced at least 1 anovulatory cycle during study participation. Read More

    Defective insulin signaling and the protective effects of dimethyldiguanide during follicular development in the ovaries of polycystic ovary syndrome.
    Mol Med Rep 2017 Dec 29;16(6):8164-8170. Epub 2017 Sep 29.
    Provincial Key Laboratory for Developmental Biology and Neurosciences, College of Life Sciences, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350007, P.R. China.
    It is established that the physiological effects of insulin are primarily mediated by the insulin signaling pathway. However, a defective insulin signaling is closely associated with the clinical manifestations of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), which include excess androgen levels, insulin resistance and anovulation, and is involved in the pathophysiology of PCOS at the molecular level. Dimethyldiguanide (DMBG) has been widely employed to alleviate reproduction dysfunction in women with PCOS, however, the exact mechanism of this effect remains unclear. Read More

    Identification of differentially expressed genes in pathways of cerebral neurotransmission of anovulatory mice.
    Genet Mol Res 2017 Sep 27;16(3). Epub 2017 Sep 27.
    Laboratório de Ginecologia Molecular, , , Brasil
    Polycystic ovary syndrome is the classic example of loss of functional cyclicity and anomalous feedback. In this case, the excessive extra-glandular production and conversion of androgens to estrogens are the pathophysiological basis of the chronic anovulation. The literature describes an experimental model of the polymicrocystic ovary in obese diabetic mice with insulin resistance. Read More

    The polycystic ovary syndrome-associated gene Yap1 is regulated by gonadotropins and sex steroid hormones in hyperandrogenism-induced oligo-ovulation in mouse.
    Mol Hum Reprod 2017 Oct;23(10):698-707
    Life Sciences Institute, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China.
    Study Question: What is the physiological function of Yes-associated protein-1 (Yap1), a susceptibility gene for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), in ovarian granulosa cells (GCs)?

    Summary Answer: Physiologically, steroid sex hormones stimulate follicle growth by activating YAP1; however, the preovulatory inhibition of YAP1 activity in GCs is a prerequisite of LH actions.

    What Is Known Already: PCOS is a common gynecologic and endocrine disease with multiple short and long-term consequences. Many PCOS patients suffer anovulation caused by hyperandrogenism, but its etiology remains unclear. Read More

    Premenopausal Reproductive Health Modulates Future Cardiovascular Risk - Comparative Evidence from Monkeys and Women

    Yale J Biol Med 2017 Sep 25;90(3):499-507. Epub 2017 Sep 25.
    Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA.
    Coronary heart disease (CHD) remains the major cause of mortality among postmenopausal women living in industrialized countries. Several lines of evidence suggest that ovarian hormones (especially estrogen) protect the coronary arteries of premenopausal women. However, it is also known that women commonly experience disruptions in cyclic hormonal function during their reproductive years. Read More

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