525 results match your criteria Anoscopy

Exploratory study of an oral screening dysplasia program for HIV-infected men who have sex with men.

AIDS 2022 Jun 23. Epub 2022 Jun 23.

Universitat Autónoma de Barcelona, Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron, Barcelona, Spain Department of Infectious Diseases.

Background: HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) are at high risk to develop human papilloma virus (HPV)-related oropharyngeal cancer. The aim of our study was to assess the usefulness of a pilot oral dysplasia screening program and its correlation with an anal dysplasia screening program.

Methods: This was a prospective study with HIV-infected MSM. Read More

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Follow-Up to High-Resolution Anoscopy After Abnormal Anal Cytology in People Living with HIV.

AIDS Patient Care STDS 2022 Jun 21. Epub 2022 Jun 21.

Office of the Senior Vice President of Research, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

Current expert recommendations suggest anal cytology followed by high-resolution anoscopy (HRA) for biopsy and histological confirmation may be beneficial in cancer prevention, especially in people living with HIV (PLWH). Guided by the social ecological model, the purpose of this study was to examine sociodemographic and clinical variables, individual-level factors (depression, HIV/AIDS-related stigma, and health beliefs) and interpersonal-level factors (social support) related to time to HRA follow-up after abnormal anal cytology. We enrolled 150 PLWH from a large HIV community clinic, with on-site HRA availability, in Atlanta, GA. Read More

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Treatment of Anal High-Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions to Prevent Anal Cancer.

N Engl J Med 2022 06;386(24):2273-2282

From the University of California, San Francisco School of Medicine, San Francisco (J.M.P., N.J., T.M.D., A.A., C.B., J.M.B.-L.); University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock (J.Y.L., S.Y.L.); Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai (S.E.G., J.A.S.), Weill Cornell Medicine (T.J.W., G.B.E.), Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein School of Medicine (R.L.), and Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (T.M.A.) - all in New York; University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora (H.A.D.); University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami (I.R.-C.); the Emmes Company, Rockland, MD (J.C.P., D.V.); Anal Dysplasia Clinic Midwest, Chicago (G.B.); Boston University School of Medicine, Boston (E.A.S.); University of Puerto Rico Comprehensive Cancer Center, San Juan (M.T.G.); Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta (L.F.); Wake Forest University Health Sciences, Winston-Salem, NC (L.F.B.); University of California, Los Angeles Schools of Medicine (R.T.M.) and Nursing (D.W.), Los Angeles; Denver Public Health, Denver (J.L.); University of Washington School of Medicine (D.M.A., J.T.S.) and the Polyclinic, Virginia Mason Medical Center (J.O.) - both in Seattle; Capital Digestive Care, Washington, DC (J.D.K.); Louisiana State University School of Medicine, New Orleans (M.H.); and Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, Newark (M.H.E., B.M.C.).

Background: The incidence of anal cancer is substantially higher among persons living with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) than in the general population. Similar to cervical cancer, anal cancer is preceded by high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSILs). Treatment for cervical HSIL reduces progression to cervical cancer; however, data from prospective studies of treatment for anal HSIL to prevent anal cancer are lacking. Read More

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New screening strategy combining anal PAP and HPV tests for HPV-related anal cancer: a prospective, single center study.

Sex Transm Dis 2022 Jun 11. Epub 2022 Jun 11.

Proctology Unit, Piero Palagi Hospital, Florence, Italy.

Purpose: The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of a combined approach of liquid-based anal cytology and HPV testing in predicting patients who should undergo high-resolution anoscopy (HRA) for the early detection of anal cancer and anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN)-2 +.

Methods: Prospective single-center quality improvement study. We consecutively enrolled men who had sex with men (MSM) attending our sexually transmitted disease clinic to undergo anal Pap and HPV tests. Read More

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Short-term effectiveness and tolerability of carbon dioxide laser for anal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions in individuals living with HIV.

Int J STD AIDS 2022 Jun 25;33(7):709-717. Epub 2022 May 25.

Department of Infectious Diseases, 16493Hospital Clinic of Barcelona, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

Background: Ablative treatment of intra-anal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) reduces the risk of progression to anal squamous cell carcinoma. Our objective was to assess the short-term effectiveness and tolerability of the carbon dioxide laser for treating intra-anal HSIL in patients at high risk of anal cancer.

Methods: This is an exploratory, pilot, single-arm, clinical trial of treatment response for anal HSIL in people living with HIV diagnosed with ≤3 not previously treated HSILs. Read More

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Anal Intraepithelial Neoplasia: Precursor of Anal Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

J Anus Rectum Colon 2022 27;6(2):92-99. Epub 2022 Apr 27.

Department of Gastroenterology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.

Anal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is rare, but it has been commonly detected as an invasive cancer. The standard treatment for anal SCC was surgical resection. However, recent medical advances have enabled the standard treatment to be chemoradiotherapy. Read More

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Detecting anal human papillomavirus infection in men who have sex with men living with HIV: implications of assay variability.

Sex Transm Infect 2022 May 11. Epub 2022 May 11.

Infection and Cancer Unit. Cancer Epidemiology Research Program, Institut Catala d' Oncologia-Bellvitge Biomedical Research Institute (IDIBELL), L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain.

Background: Incidence of anal cancer (AC) caused by persistent human papillomavirus (HPV) infection has risen in the last years in men who have sex with men (MSM) living with HIV. There is consensus that this population should be screened for anal precancerous lesions, but the role of HPV DNA testing in AC screening programmes is still under debate.

Objectives: This study employed two molecular test to detect anal HPV DNA and compared assay performance and prognostic value for the diagnosis of histology proven high-grade intraepithelial anal lesions. Read More

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A Prospective, Dual-Center Trial Of Circumferential Radiofrequency Ablation of Anal High-Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions Demonstrate Improved Long-term Efficacy Over Historical Controls of Targeted Ablation.

Dis Colon Rectum 2022 May 4. Epub 2022 May 4.

Background: Targeted ablation of anal canal high-grade dysplasia results in high recurrence over time. Circumferential radiofrequency ablation might decrease recurrence.

Objective: To determine the safety and efficacy of circumferential radiofrequency ablation for anal high-grade dysplasia. Read More

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Screening for Anal Dysplasia in Adolescent and Young Adult Men Who Have Sex With Men Living With HIV, a Review of Current Recommendations.

Front Pediatr 2022 6;10:875184. Epub 2022 Apr 6.

Division of Adolescent/Young Adult Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States.

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Anal Cancer Screening and Prevention: Summary of Evidence Reviewed for the 2021 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Sexually Transmitted Infection Guidelines.

Clin Infect Dis 2022 04;74(Suppl_2):S179-S192

Infectious Diseases, University of California, San Francisco, CaliforniaUSA.

In June 2019 the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) convened an advisory group to assist in development of the 2021 CDC sexually transmitted infections (STI) guidelines. The advisory group on anal cancer screening and prevention met to formulate key questions in this field. The group examined published literature and abstracts to assess evidence and give recommendations for development of the CDC guidelines. Read More

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Automated evaluation of p16/Ki-67 dual stain cytology as a biomarker for detection of anal precancer in MSM living with HIV.

Clin Infect Dis 2022 Mar 24. Epub 2022 Mar 24.

Division of Cancer Epidemiology & Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Rockville, MD, USA.

Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV)-related biomarkers such as p16/Ki-67 "dual stain" (DS) cytology have shown promising clinical performance for anal cancer screening. Here, we assessed the performance of automated evaluation of DS cytology to detect anal precancer in men who have sex with men (MSM) living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 320 MSM with HIV undergoing anal cancer screening and high-resolution anoscopy (HRA) between 2009-2010. Read More

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Anal intraepithelial neoplasia screening in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection.

Rev Esp Enferm Dig 2022 Mar 14. Epub 2022 Mar 14.

Cirugía Digestiva, Hospital Universitari Son Espases.

Introduction: The incidence of anal cancer has increased in recent years, making screening and early detection of anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) a necessity in patients at risk.

Methods: A descriptive observational study of homosexual patients (MSM) or women with CIN III, with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection included in an AIN detection screening program was carried out between March 2016 and September 2019.

Results: We have performed 695 anal smears, 156 with results of LSIL (low-grade lesion) or HSIL (high-grade lesion) (22. Read More

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Can Anal Cytology Be a Tool in Following Patients Treated for Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Anus?

Am Surg 2022 Jul 8;88(7):1621-1625. Epub 2022 Mar 8.

Department of Surgery, RinggoldID:12321Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI, USA.

Background: Squamous cell carcinoma of the anus (SCCA) is associated with human papillomavirus infection and preceded by high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL). Following successful treatment, the standard of care is to surveille for local recurrence with both anoscopy and digital rectal examination. While high-resolution anoscopy (HRA) has been shown to identify HSIL during the surveillance period, it requires specialized training and resources. Read More

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Provider preferences for anal cancer prevention screening: Results of the International Anal Neoplasia Society survey.

Tumour Virus Res 2022 Jun 17;13:200235. Epub 2022 Feb 17.

UCSF ANCRE Center, Mount Zion Hospital, 1600 Divisadero Street, 3rd Floor, San Francisco, CA, 94115, USA. Electronic address:

Objective: This study explores provider preferences regarding anal cancer screening indications, initiation age, tools, and referral threshold to high resolution anoscopy (HRA).

Methods: International Anal Neoplasia Society affiliates were invited to complete an online survey. Options for initiation age and tools were delineated by sub-groups. Read More

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Anal High-risk HPV and Liquid-based Cytology of Immunocompetent Brazilian Women with Genital High-risk HPV.

Rev Bras Ginecol Obstet 2022 Mar 9;44(3):280-286. Epub 2022 Feb 9.

Faculdade de Biomedicina, Departamento de Biomedicina, Unichristus, Fortaleza, CE, Brazil.

Objective:  The purpose of this study was to compare the frequency of the occurrence of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) and abnormal anal cytology in immunocompetent women with and without HPV-induced genital lesions.

Methods:  This analytical cross-sectional, observational study was conducted between July 2017 and December 2018 in a specialized outpatient clinic of a tertiary hospital in Fortaleza, CE. Fifty-seven immunocompetent women with and without genital intraepithelial lesions were assessed; they were divided into two groups: group 1 was comprised of women with HPV-associated genital lesions ( = 26), and group 2 was comprised of those without HPV-associated genital lesions ( = 31). Read More

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Circulating tumor-tissue modified HPV DNA analysis for molecular disease monitoring after chemoradiation for anal squamous cell carcinoma: a case report.

J Gastrointest Oncol 2021 Dec;12(6):3155-3162

Department of Surgery, University of Chicago, IL, USA.

Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the anus typically arises after human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. We report on the use of molecular disease monitoring using a novel blood test measuring circulating tumor-tissue -modified HPV DNA in two patients with anal cancer. Two patients with anal SCC received concurrent chemotherapy and radiation therapy (chemoRT) with curative intent, one with a T2N0 anal margin squamous cell carcinoma with a history of AIDS, and one with a T3N0 anal squamous cell carcinoma and a history of concurrent prostate cancer. Read More

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December 2021

Association of smoking with anal high-risk HPV infection and histologically confirmed anal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions among a clinic-based population in Puerto Rico.

Cancer Treat Res Commun 2021 Dec 31;30:100503. Epub 2021 Dec 31.

Center for Health Services Research, Department of Management, Policy, and Community Health, UTHealth School of Public Health, 1200 Pressler Street, Houston, Texas, 77030, U.S.; Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Graduate School of Public Health, Medical Sciences Campus, University of Puerto Rico, PO Box 365067, San Juan, Puerto Rico, 00936, U.S.. Electronic address:

Introduction: Current smoking is a risk factor for anal cancer. Yet, its association with anal human papillomavirus infection (HPV) and anal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) remains unclear. We assessed the association of smoking with 1) anal high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) infection and 2) anal HSIL. Read More

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December 2021

Clinical Effects of Oral Bacteriotherapy on Anal HPV Infection and Related Dysplasia in HIV-Positive MSM: Results from the "HPVinHIV" Trial.

Biomedicines 2021 Nov 22;9(11). Epub 2021 Nov 22.

Department of Public Health and Infectious Diseases, "Sapienza" University of Rome, 00161 Rome, Italy.

Background: Anal HPV infection, anal dysplasia and, ultimately, anal cancer are particularly common in HIV-infected men who have sex with men. Treatment of anal dysplasia, aiming to prevent evolution to squamous cell carcinoma of the anus, is currently limited to direct ablation and/or application of topical therapy. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of oral bacteriotherapy (Vivomixx® in EU, Visbiome® in USA) on anal HPV infection and HPV-related dysplasia of the anal canal in HIV-infected men who have sex with men. Read More

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November 2021

Progression of Anal Intraepithelial Neoplasia to Cancer Is Low with Anoscopy Surveillance and Treatment.

J Gastrointest Surg 2022 04 9;26(4):929-931. Epub 2021 Nov 9.

Department of Surgery, Oregon Health & Science University, 3181 SW Sam Jackson Park Rd, Portland, OR, 97239, USA.

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Vulvar High-Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions and Cancer as a Risk Factor for Anal Cancer: A Review.

J Low Genit Tract Dis 2022 01;26(1):32-37

The Kirby Institute, UNSW Sydney, Sydney, Australia.

Objectives: Anal squamous cell carcinoma (ASCC) has a higher incidence described in certain groups, namely, in women with vulvar high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (vHSILs) and/or human papillomavirus squamous cell carcinoma (VSCC). This review describes terminology, vHSIL, and VSCC in their association with ASCC and the published recommendations for early detection of this cancer in these women.

Materials And Methods: A narrative review was conducted by the authors on vHSIL and VSCC as risk factors for ASCC. Read More

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January 2022

Prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus DNA and mRNA and its association with abnormal anal cytology in the Czech male anal cancer screening cohort.

Diagn Cytopathol 2021 Nov 16;49(11):1188-1195. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Biomedical Center of the Faculty of Medicine in Pilsen, Charles University, Pilsen, Czech Republic.

Background: Anal cancer (AC) screening is justified in high-risk populations, particularly HIV-positive men having sex with men (MSM). HR-HPV testing could improve the efficiency of cytologically based screening of AC, as in the screening of biologically analogical cervical cancer. The specificity of HR-HPV testing is influenced by the prevalence of HR-HPV infection in the screened population. Read More

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November 2021

Prevalence of Abnormal Anal Cytology in Women with Abnormal Cervical Cytology.

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2021 Jul 1;22(7):2165-2169. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of abnormal anal cytology in women presenting with abnormal cervical cytology (intraepithelial lesion or cervical cancer) at the largest tertiary university hospital in Thailand.

Methods: A cross-sectional prospective study design was used. Anal cytology was performed on 145 women with abnormal cervical cytology between June 2014-Octoble 2014. Read More

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Screening with Anal Cytology in Colombia: Initial Experience and Need for High-Resolution Anoscopy.

J Surg Res 2021 11 30;267:374-383. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Unidad de Coloproctología, Departamento de Cirugía General, HUSI, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá, Colombia.

Background: Men who have sex with men (MSM) living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are at increased risk of anal cancer. Anal cytology can be used to screen for dysplasia, with high-resolution anoscopy (HRA) required for diagnostic confirmation. We describe the impact lack of HRA had on management of abnormal screening results in Bogotá, Colombia. Read More

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November 2021

Rationale and design of the Prevent Anal Cancer Self-Swab Study: a protocol for a randomised clinical trial of home-based self-collection of cells for anal cancer screening.

BMJ Open 2021 06 29;11(6):e051118. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Department Epidemiology, Division of Cancer Prevention and Population Sciences, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, USA.

Introduction: Squamous cell carcinoma of the anus is a common cancer among sexual minority men, especially HIV-positive sexual minority men; however, there is no evidenced-based national screening protocol for detection of anal precancers. Our objective is to determine compliance with annual anal canal self-sampling or clinician-sampling for human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA.

Methods And Analysis: This is a prospective, randomised, two-arm clinical study to evaluate compliance with annual home-based versus clinic-based HPV DNA screening of anal canal exfoliated cells. Read More

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Acute abdomen due to J-pouch outlet obstruction: A case report and review of literature.

Int J Surg Case Rep 2021 Jul 15;84:106075. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

State University of Ponta Grossa - Paraná, Ponta Grossa, PR, Brazil.

Introduction: Ileal pouch-anal anastomosis is the procedure of choice for re-establishing intestinal continuity for patients undergoing total proctocolectomy. Despite growing experience with this procedure, it is still associated with considerable morbidity rates.

Presentation Of Case: Herein, we report the case of a 14-year-old boy with familial adenomatous polyposis who underwent total proctocolectomy, ileal pouch-anal anastomosis, and diverting ileostomy. Read More

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Xpert HPV as a Screening Tool for Anal Histologic High-Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions in Women Living With HIV.

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2021 07;87(3):978-984

Weill Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, NY.

Background: Women living with HIV (WLWH) experience high rates of anal cancer. Screening using anal cytology, high-resolution anoscopy (HRA) with biopsies, can histologically diagnose anal cancer precursors called high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL). The low specificity of screening using anal cytology results in HRA referral for many WLWH without HSIL. Read More

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"That's Only for Women": The Importance of Educating HIV-Positive Sexual Minority Men on HPV and High Resolution Anoscopy (HRA).

J Int Assoc Provid AIDS Care 2021 Jan-Dec;20:23259582211016134

Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics; 12239Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) experience disproportionately high burdens of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV)-associated anal cancers. Recent focus has shifted to anorectal cancer prevention through high-resolution anoscopy (HRA); however, little is known about sexual minority men's perceptions, attitudes, or beliefs regarding HRA. We conducted 4 qualitative Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) (n = 15) with sexual minority men, focusing on their beliefs, attitudes, and perceptions of undergoing HRA. Read More

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Comparison of two sample collection devices for anal cytology in HIV-positive men who have sex with men: Cytology brush and Dacron swab.

Cytopathology 2021 Sep 28;32(5):646-653. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

HIV and STD Unit (Infectious Disease Service), Bellvitge University Hospital/Bellvitge Biomedical Research Institute (IDIBELL), L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain.

Objective: HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) are a vulnerable group for anal cancer (AC), a cancer with a well-described precursor lesion, which can be detected early in screening programs using anal liquid-based cytology (aLBC). We aim to compare two aLBC sample collection devices: cytology brush (CB) and Dacron swab (DS).

Methods: Retrospective analysis of two consecutive study periods, the first using CB and the second DS. Read More

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September 2021

The other side of screening: predictors of treatment and follow-up for anal precancers in a large health system.

AIDS 2021 11;35(13):2157-2162

Division of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY.

Background: Anal cancer disproportionately affects people with HIV (PWH). High-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) are cancer precursors and treating them might prevent anal cancer. Data on adherence to HSIL treatment and surveillance is limited but needed to identify deficiencies of screening strategies. Read More

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November 2021

High Prevalence of Anal High-Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions, and Prevention Through Human Papillomavirus Vaccination, in Young Men Who Have Sex With Men Living With Human Immunodeficiency Virus.

Clin Infect Dis 2021 10;73(8):1388-1396

Department of Pediatrics, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center and the University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA.

Background: Men who have sex with men (MSM) are at high risk for human papillomavirus (HPV)-related anal cancer. Little is known about the prevalence of low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSILs) and the anal cancer precursor, high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSILs), among young MSM with HIV (MSMLWH). HPV vaccination is recommended in this group, but its safety, immunogenicity, and protection against vaccine-type HPV infection and associated LSILs/HSILs have not been studied. Read More

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October 2021