81,131 results match your criteria Annual research & review in biology[Journal]


Effectiveness of implementing the criminal administrative punishment law of drunk driving in China: An interrupted time series analysis, 2004-2017.

Accid Anal Prev 2020 Jul 8;144:105670. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Injury Prevention Research Institute, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Southeast University, China; Key Laboratory of Environmental Medicine Engineering, Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Southeast University, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, China. Electronic address:

In 2011, a more severe drunk driving law was implemented in China, which criminalized driving under the influence of alcohol for the first time and increased penalties for drunk driving. The present study aimed to assess effectiveness of the drunk driving law in China in reducing traffic crashes, injuries, and mortality. Data used in this study was obtained from the Traffic Management Bureau of the Ministry of Public Security of the People's Republic of China. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2020.105670DOI Listing

Uric acid and risk of diabetic kidney disease.

J Nephrol 2020 Jul 10. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Research Division, Section on Genetics and Epidemiology, Joslin Diabetes Center and Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, One Joslin Place, Boston, MA, 02215, USA.

Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is the leading cause of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) in the Western world. Better control of glycemia and blood pressure, including renin-angiotensin system blockade (RASB), appear to have slowed DKD progression rate but have been unable to substantially decrease the annual incidence of new cases of DKD related ESKD. Thus, new treatment targets are needed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40620-020-00796-zDOI Listing

Characteristics of methane emissions in the Living Water Garden in Chengdu City from 2012 to 2017.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2020 Jul 10. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Department of Municipal Engineering, College of Civil Engineering, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, 611830, China.

CH flux measured by a portable chamber using an infrared analyzer was compared with the flux by static chamber measurement for CW at 13 different sites from May 2012 to May 2017 in the Living Water Garden (LWG) in Chengdu, Sichuan Province, China, over 4 timescales (daily, monthly, seasonal, and annual). During the measurement period, a total of 1443 data were collected. CH fluxes were measured using the portable chamber method and the results showed that the annual mean and median CH flux values in the LWG were 17. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-09679-zDOI Listing

The role of tourism and renewable energy in testing the environmental Kuznets curve in the BRICS countries: fresh evidence from methods of moments quantile regression.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2020 Jul 10. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Department for Management of Science and Technology Development, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

BRICS are among the rising nations which drive economic growth by excessive utilization of resources and resulting in environment degradation. Although there is bulk of research on environmental Kuznets curve (EKC), very limited studies explored the scope in context of tourism in BRICS countries. So this research is conducted to explore the association of tourism, renewable energy, and economic growth with carbon emissions by using annual data of BRICS countries from the year 1995 to 2018. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-10011-yDOI Listing

Water rights shape crop yield and revenue volatility tradeoffs for adaptation in snow dependent systems.

Nat Commun 2020 Jul 10;11(1):3473. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

School of Economic Sciences, Washington State University, Pullman, WA, USA.

Irrigated agriculture in snow-dependent regions contributes significantly to global food production. This study quantifies the impacts of climate change on irrigated agriculture in the snow-dependent Yakima River Basin (YRB) in the Pacific Northwest United States. Here we show that increasingly severe droughts and temperature driven reductions in growing season significantly reduces expected annual agricultural productivity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-17219-zDOI Listing

Gainers and losers of surface and terrestrial water resources in China during 1989-2016.

Nat Commun 2020 Jul 10;11(1):3471. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Coastal Ecosystems Research Station of the Yangtze River Estuary, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Biodiversity Science and Ecological Engineering, Institute of Biodiversity Science, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200438, China.

Data and knowledge of the spatial-temporal dynamics of surface water area (SWA) and terrestrial water storage (TWS) in China are critical for sustainable management of water resources but remain very limited. Here we report annual maps of surface water bodies in China during 1989-2016 at 30m spatial resolution. We find that SWA decreases in water-poor northern China but increases in water-rich southern China during 1989-2016. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-17103-wDOI Listing

Universities as catalysts of social innovation in health systems in low-and middle-income countries: a multi-country case study.

Infect Dis Poverty 2020 Jul 11;9(1):90. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK.

Background: Social innovation (SI) in health holds potential to contribute to health systems strengthening and universal health coverage (UHC). The role of universities in SI has been well described in the context of high-income countries. An evidence gap exits on SI in healthcare delivery in the context of low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) as well as on the engagement of universities from these contexts. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40249-020-00684-5DOI Listing

The impact of healthcare worker influenza vaccination on nosocomial influenza in a tertiary hospital: an ecological study.

BMC Health Serv Res 2020 Jul 10;20(1):636. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Singapore General Hospital, Singapore, Singapore.

Background: To protect hospitalized patients, who are more susceptible to complications of influenza, seasonal influenza vaccination of healthcare workers (HCW) has been recommended internationally. However, its effectiveness is still being debated. To assess the effectiveness of HCW influenza vaccination, we performed an ecological study to evaluate the association between healthcare worker influenza vaccination and the incidence of nosocomial influenza in a tertiary hospital within Singapore between 2013 and 2018. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12913-020-05490-1DOI Listing

Seroprevalence and factors associated with hepatitis B infection among the hill tribe adult population in Thailand: a cross-sectional study.

BMC Infect Dis 2020 Jul 10;20(1):494. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Center of Excellence for The Hill tribe Health Research, Mae Fah Luang University, Chiang Rai, Thailand.

Background: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is one of the greatest public health burdens, particularly for people living with several barriers to access to health care services, such as the hill tribe adult population in Thailand. People aged 25 years and over who are out of the target population for HBV immunization under the national Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) are at risk of HBV infection. The study aimed to estimate the prevalence and determine the factors associated with HBV infection among hill tribe adults aged 25 years and over living in Chiang Rai Province, Thailand. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-020-05221-1DOI Listing

Lake Drainage in Permafrost Regions Produces Variable Plant Communities of High Biomass and Productivity.

Plants (Basel) 2020 Jul 8;9(7). Epub 2020 Jul 8.

BIO-GEO-CLIM Laboratory, National Research Tomsk State University, Lenina St. 36, 634050 Tomsk, Russia.

Climate warming, increased precipitation, and permafrost thaw in the Arctic are accompanied by an increase in the frequency of full or partial drainage of thermokarst lakes. After lake drainage, highly productive plant communities on nutrient-rich sediments may develop, thus increasing the influencing greening trends of Arctic tundra. However, the magnitude and extent of this process remain poorly understood. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants9070867DOI Listing

Epidemiological Impact of Novel Preventive and Therapeutic HSV-2 Vaccination in the United States: Mathematical Modeling Analyses.

Vaccines (Basel) 2020 Jul 8;8(3). Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Infectious Diseases Epidemiology Group, Weill Cornell Medicine-Qatar, Cornell University, Qatar Foundation-Education City, Doha 24144, Qatar.

This study aims to inform herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) vaccine development, licensure, and implementation by delineating the population-level impact of vaccination. Mathematical models were constructed to describe the transmission dynamics in presence of prophylactic or therapeutic vaccines assuming 50% efficacy, with application to the United States. Catch-up prophylactic vaccination will reduce, by 2050, annual number of new infections by 58%, incidence rate by 60%, seroprevalence by 21%, and avert yearly as much as 350,000 infections. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8030366DOI Listing

Understanding multifactorial drivers of child stunting reduction in Exemplar countries: a mixed-methods approach.

Am J Clin Nutr 2020 Jul 10. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Centre for Global Child Health, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada.

Background: Several countries have notably reduced childhood stunting relative to economic growth over the past 15-20 y. The Exemplars in Stunting Reduction project, or "Exemplars," studies success factors among these countries with a lens toward replicability.

Objectives: This paper details the standardized mixed-methods framework for studying determinants of childhood stunting reduction applied in Exemplars studies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa152DOI Listing

Why apple orchards are shifting to the higher altitudes of the Himalayas?

PLoS One 2020 10;15(7):e0235041. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Graduate School of Advanced Integrated Studies (GSAIS) in Human Survivability (Shishu-Kan), Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.

Apple cultivation is one of the most important sources of livelihood in Indian side of the Himalayas. The present study focuses on the apple orchards of Himachal Pradesh, a state within the Himalayan Mountains, a major apple producers of India. In the study, it is found that the optimum apple growing conditions in the region have been consistently shifting and farmers are shifting their orchards to the higher altitudes. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0235041PLOS

Patterns of percutaneous transthoracic needle biopsy (PTNB) of the lung and risk of PTNB-related severe pneumothorax: A nationwide population-based study.

PLoS One 2020 10;15(7):e0235599. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

School of Medicine, Inha University, Incheon, Republic of Korea.

Background: As percutaneous transthoracic needle biopsy (PTNB) of the lung is a well-established diagnostic method for the evaluating pulmonary lesions, evidence of safety based on representative data is limited. This study investigated the practice patterns of PTNB of the lung and assessed the incidence and risk factors of PTNB-related severe pneumothorax in Korea.

Methods: We used a national-level health insurance database between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2015. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0235599PLOS

Race modifies the association between animal protein metabolite 1-methylhistidine and blood pressure in middle-aged adults: the Bogalusa Heart Study.

J Hypertens 2020 Jul 6. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Department of Epidemiology.

Objective: Dietary factors mediate racial disparities in hypertension. However, the physiological mechanisms underlying this relationship are incompletely understood. We sought to assess the association between 1-methylhistidine (1-MH), a metabolite marker of animal protein consumption, and blood pressure (BP) in a community-based cohort of black and white middle-aged adults. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HJH.0000000000002571DOI Listing

Adoption of Lean management and hospital performance: Results from a national survey.

Health Care Manage Rev 2020 Jul 1. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Thomas G. Rundall, PhD, is Henry J. Kaiser Professor of Health Policy and Management, Emeritus and Co-director, Center for Lean Engagement and Research in Healthcare, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley. E-mail: Stephen M. Shortell, PhD, MPH, MBA, is Blue Cross of California Distinguished Professor of Health Policy and Management, Emeritus and Co-director, Center for Lean Engagement and Research in Healthcare, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley. Janet C. Blodgett, MS, is Senior Data Analyst and Project Director, Center for Lean Engagement and Research in Healthcare, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley. Rachel Mosher Henke, PhD, is Senior Director, Evaluation and Economic Research, IBM Watson Health, Cambridge, Massachusetts. David Foster, PhD, MPH, is Principal Scientist, IBM Watson Health, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Background: Despite being adopted by a large number of hospitals, the relationship between Lean management and hospital performance is mixed and not well understood.

Purpose: We examined the relationships between Lean and hospital financial performance, patient outcomes, and patient satisfaction in a large national sample of hospitals, controlling for relevant organizational and market factors.

Methodology/approach: A mixed effects linear regression analysis was performed to assess the relationships between adoption of Lean and 10 measures of hospital performance using data from 1,152 hospitals that responded to the 2017 National Survey of Lean/Transformational Performance Improvement in Hospitals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HMR.0000000000000287DOI Listing

Integration of Mental Health Screening and Treatment into Cystic Fibrosis Clinics: Evaluation of Initial Implementation in 84 Programs Across the United States.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2020 Jul 10. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, State University of New York at Buffalo.

Background: A large-scale epidemiological study of 6088 individuals with CF and 4102 caregivers in 9 countries documented elevated symptoms of depression and anxiety, leading to international guidelines for annual screening and follow-up. To facilitate national implementation, 84 CF programs funded a mental health coordinators (MHC). Implementation was evaluated after 1 year using the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) to identify facilitators and barriers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ppul.24949DOI Listing

Global, regional, and national burden of lung cancer and its attributable risk factors, 1990 to 2017.

Cancer 2020 Jul 10. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

School of Public Health and Social Work, Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

Background: China's lung cancer (LC) burden plays a pivotal role in the global cancer epidemic. Comparing LC burden and population attributable fractions (PAFs) of risk factors between China and other countries/regions is essential to inform effective intervention. The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study provides a unique opportunity for such comparisons. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.33078DOI Listing

Multiple sclerosis among first- and second-generation immigrant groups in Sweden.

Acta Neurol Scand 2020 Jul 10. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Center for Primary Health Care Research, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.

Objectives: Risk of multiple sclerosis (MS) is low among first-generation immigrants in Sweden. We aimed to study incident MS in first- and second-generation immigrant groups.

Materials & Methods: We included adults aged 18 years and older in Sweden in first-generation (n=6,042,891) and second-generation (n=4,860,469) sub-studies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ane.13314DOI Listing

Hepatitis B seroprevalence in the U.S. military and its impact on potential screening strategies.

Mil Med 2020 Jul 10. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, 503 Robert Grant Avenue, Silver Spring, MD 20910.

Introduction: Knowledge of the contemporary epidemiology of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection among military personnel can inform potential Department of Defense (DoD) screening policy and infection and disease control strategies.

Materials And Methods: HBV infection status at accession and following deployment was determined by evaluating reposed serum from 10,000 service members recently deployed to combat operations in Iraq and Afghanistan in the period from 2007 to 2010. A cost model was developed from the perspective of the Department of Defense for a program to integrate HBV infection screening of applicants for military service into the existing screening program of screening new accessions for vaccine-preventable infections. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/milmed/usaa131DOI Listing

Efficiency Model of Cladribine Tablets Versus Infusion-Based Disease-Modifying Drugs for Patients with Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis.

Adv Ther 2020 Jul 9. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Global Evidence and Value Development, Global Research and Development, EMD Serono, Inc, Billerica, MA, USA.

Introduction: To develop a simulation model assessing the efficiency of using cladribine tablets versus infusion-based disease-modifying drugs (DMDs) for the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) from a facility perspective in the UK.

Methods: A scheduling algorithm was developed to simulate day-case admissions and calculate the mean changes to resource use and time burden for patients in a facility that transitions from infusion-based treatments to cladribine tablets over 1 year. Model inputs and assumptions were based on previous research and expert opinion. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12325-020-01426-7DOI Listing

A Changing Paradigm for the Treatment of Intermediate-Stage Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Asia-Pacific Primary Liver Cancer Expert Consensus Statements.

Liver Cancer 2020 Jun 13;9(3):245-260. Epub 2020 May 13.

Department of Medical Oncology, National Taiwan University Cancer Center, Taipei, Taiwan.

The Asia-Pacific Primary Liver Cancer Expert (APPLE) Consensus Statement on the treatment strategy for patients with intermediate-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was established on August 31, 2019, in Sapporo, Hokkaido during the 10th Annual APPLE Meeting. This manuscript summarizes the international consensus statements developed at APPLE 2019. Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) is the only guideline-recommended global standard of care for intermediate-stage HCC. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000507370DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7325125PMC

Rate of chronic otitis media operations and cholesteatoma surgeries in South Korea: a nationwide population-based study (2006-2018).

Sci Rep 2020 Jul 9;10(1):11356. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

The aim of this study was to estimate the total number and rate of chronic otitis media (COM) operations and cholesteatoma surgeries in South Korea, using a nationwide survey which analysed a 13-year trend (2006-2018). This study also analysed the trend of COM operations and cholesteatoma surgeries according to year, sex, and age using a nationwide population-based database, and the 13-year trend was analysed according to age groups. This study used nationwide data from the National Health Information Database (NHID), which is a government-affiliated agency under the Korean Ministry of Health and Welfare that supervises all medical activities in Korea. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-67799-5DOI Listing

Measuring 'Need for Recovery' as an indicator of staff well-being in the emergency department: a survey study.

Emerg Med J 2020 Jul 9. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Faculty of Health, University of Plymouth, Plymouth, UK.

Background: The Need for Recovery (NFR) Scale is an 11-item questionnaire that assesses how work affects intershift recovery. Items are summated to form a score with a maximum value of 100. Previously reported scores range from 38 in nurses to 55 in miners. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/emermed-2019-208797DOI Listing

Spatiotemporal association of low birth weight with Cs-137 deposition at the prefecture level in Japan after the Fukushima nuclear power plant accidents: an analytical-ecologic epidemiological study.

Environ Health 2020 Jul 9;19(1):82. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Hayashi Children's Clinic, 4-6-11-1F Nagata, Joto-ku Osaka-Shi, Osaka, 536-0022, Japan.

Background: Perinatal mortality increased in contaminated prefectures after the Fukushima Daichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accidents in Japan in 2011. Elevated counts of surgeries for cryptorchidism and congenital heart malformations were observed throughout Japan from 2012 onward. The thyroid cancer detection rate (2011 to 2016) was associated with the dose-rate at the municipality level in the Fukushima prefecture. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12940-020-00630-wDOI Listing

Quantifying the annual incidence and underestimation of seasonal influenza: A modelling approach.

Theor Biol Med Model 2020 Jul 10;17(1):11. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Department of Mathematics and Statistics, York University, Toronto, M3J 1P3, Canada.

Background: Seasonal influenza poses a significant public health and economic burden, associated with the outcome of infection and resulting complications. The true burden of the disease is difficult to capture due to the wide range of presentation, from asymptomatic cases to non-respiratory complications such as cardiovascular events, and its seasonal variability. An understanding of the magnitude of the true annual incidence of influenza is important to support prevention and control policy development and to evaluate the impact of preventative measures such as vaccination. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12976-020-00129-4DOI Listing

Diurnal patterns of sedentary behavior and changes in physical function over time among older women: a prospective cohort study.

Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 2020 Jul 9;17(1):88. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Department of Family Medicine and Public Health, University of California San Diego, San Diego, California, 92093, USA.

Background: Sedentary behavior (SB) is linked to negative health outcomes in older adults. Most studies use summary values, e.g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12966-020-00992-xDOI Listing

Impact of substandard and falsified antimalarials in Zambia: application of the SAFARI model.

BMC Public Health 2020 Jul 9;20(1):1083. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Division of Practice Advancement and Clinical Education, UNC Eshelman School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina, CB#7574, Beard Hall, 115H, Chapel Hill, NC, 27599, USA.

Background: Many countries are striving to become malaria-free, but global reduction in case estimates has stagnated in recent years. Substandard and falsified medicines may contribute to this lack of progress. Zambia aims to eliminate their annual burden of 1. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-08852-wDOI Listing

Thyroid cancer in Ecuador.

BMC Cancer 2020 Jul 9;20(1):637. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

AECE Research Group from Association of Clinical Endocrinologists of Ecuador, Guayaquil, Ecuador.

Background: The incidence of thyroid cancer is increasing worldwide. This is not accompanied by a corresponding increase in mortality. In contrast, in most populations' thyroid cancer mortality has been decreasing in recent decades, although there are some notable exceptions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12885-020-07137-0DOI Listing

Burden of Stroke in Europe: Thirty-Year Projections of Incidence, Prevalence, Deaths, and Disability-Adjusted Life Years.

Stroke 2020 Jul 10:STROKEAHA120029606. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

School of Population Health and Environmental Sciences, King's College London, United Kingdom (H.A.W., C.D.A.W., E.E., Y.W.).

Background And Purpose: Prediction of stroke impact provides essential information for healthcare planning and priority setting. We aim to estimate 30-year projections of stroke epidemiology in the European Union using multiple modeling approaches.

Methods: Data on stroke incidence, prevalence, deaths, and disability-adjusted life years in the European Union between 1990 and 2017 were obtained from the global burden of disease study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.120.029606DOI Listing

Mortality of Patients with Cushing's Disease.

Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 2020 Jul 9. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Institute of Metabolism and Systems Research, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

Cushing's disease is a rare condition of cortisol excess attributed to a pituitary adenoma with an annual incidence of 1.2-2.4 cases per million population. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1197-6380DOI Listing

Novel advances in biotransformation and bioactivation research-2019 year in review.

Drug Metab Rev 2020 Jul 9:1-33. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Department of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, Genentech, Inc, South San Francisco, CA, USA.

Biotransformation is one of the main mechanisms used by the body to eliminate drugs. As drug molecules become more complicated, the involvement of drug metabolizing enzymes increases beyond those that are typically studied, such as the cytochrome P450 enzymes. In this review, we try to capture the many outstanding articles that were published in the past year in the field of biotransformation (see Table 1). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03602532.2020.1772281DOI Listing

Main and interacting effects of physical activity and sedentary time on older adults' BMI: The moderating roles of socio-demographic and environmental attributes.

PLoS One 2020 9;15(7):e0235833. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Mary MacKillop Institute for Health Research, Australian Catholic University, Melbourne, Australia.

Objectives: Our first aim was to examine the main and interacting effects of accelerometer-based sedentary time (ST) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) with BMI and the likelihood of being overweight/obese in Hong Kong and Ghent (Belgium) older adults. Second, we examined whether these main associations and interactions between MVPA and ST were moderated by socio-demographics (gender, education) and objective neighbourhood attributes supposed to be associated with healthy food intake (food outlet density, neighbourhood-level SES). Finally, we determined whether the associations and interactions were generalisable across study sites. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0235833PLOS

Modelling heat recovery potential from household wastewater.

Water Sci Technol 2020 Apr;81(8):1597-1605

Division of Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation, Lund University, Ole Römers väg 1, Lund, Sweden E-mail:

There is a strongly growing interest for wastewater heat recovery (WWHR) in Sweden and elsewhere, but a lack of adequate tools to determine downstream impacts due to the associated temperature drop. The heat recovery potential and associated temperature drop after heat recovery on a building level is modelled for a case study in Linköping, Sweden. The maximum temperature drop reaches 4. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2166/wst.2020.103DOI Listing

A Neuromuscular-Based Analysis of the Open Payments Program.

Muscle Nerve 2020 Jul 9. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Department of Neurology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR.

Introduction: In August 2013, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) Open Payments Program (OPP) made eligible payment information publicly available. Data about industry payments to neuromuscular neurologists is lacking.

Method: Financial relationships were investigated between industry and US neuromuscular neurologists from January 2014 through December 2018 using the CMS OPP database. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mus.27016DOI Listing

Increased risk of severe maternal morbidity in women with twin pregnancies resulting from oocyte donation.

Hum Reprod 2020 Jul 9. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Centre for Epidemiology and Statistics Sorbonne Paris Cité (CRESS), Université de Paris, Obstetrical Perinatal and Pediatric Epidemiology Research Team, EPOPé, INSERM, INRA, Paris, France.

Study Question: Is there a difference in the risk of serious maternal complications during pregnancy and the postpartum in twin pregnancies according to mode of conception: natural conception, non-IVF fertility treatment, IVF, ICSI or oocyte donation?

Summary Answer: Women with twin pregnancies after medically assisted reproduction (MAR) had an overall risk of serious maternal complications 30% higher compared with women with natural twin pregnancies, and this association varied according to the MAR procedure; the risk was increased by 50% with IVF using autologous oocytes and by 270% with oocyte donation.

What Is Known Already: IVF has been reported as a risk factor for serious maternal complications in several concordant studies of singleton pregnancies. For twin pregnancies, this association is less well documented with imprecise categorisation of the mode of conception, and results are contradictory. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/humrep/deaa108DOI Listing

The ASPET Mentoring Network: Enhancing Diversity and Inclusion through Career Coaching Groups within a Scientific Society.

CBE Life Sci Educ 2020 Sep;19(3):ar29

Faculty Affairs, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL 60611.

Over the past decades, two persisting priorities in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) training have been: 1) increasing the knowledge of and access to careers beyond academic scientist; and 2) increasing the diversity of the STEM workforce. Previous studies show that a uniquely constructed career coaching group provides strong support and progress for both priorities. This report extends this design into a more sustainable model that is positioned within the professional context of rising young scientists. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1187/cbe.19-10-0195DOI Listing
September 2020

Representation of women in pediatric dermatology leadership and research: Trends over the past 45 years.

Pediatr Dermatol 2020 Jul 9. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Department of Dermatology, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, New Hampshire, USA.

Background/objectives: The representation of women among practicing dermatologists has increased over the last several decades. Here, we analyze the evolving representation of women in the Society for Pediatric Dermatology (SPD) and the Pediatric Dermatology Research Alliance (PeDRA), with particular focus on the role of women as society leaders, researchers, and annual meeting speakers.

Methods: A retrospective review of SPD and PeDRA professional society leaders (SPD presidents, PeDRA co-chairs, PeDRA executive committee members), grant recipients (pilot grant recipients, team/collaborative grant recipients, William Weston Research Grant recipients), and annual meeting speakers (named lecturers at the SPD Annual Meeting, plenary lecturers at the PeDRA Annual Conference) was performed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pde.14266DOI Listing

The relationship between HbA1c reduction and healthcare costs among patients with type 2 diabetes: evidence from a U.S. claims database.

Curr Med Res Opin 2020 Jul 9. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Eli Lilly and Co., Indianapolis, IN, USA.

To examine the relationship between HbA1c reduction and healthcare costs among patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Truven MarketScan databases over the time period from 2013 through 2017 were utilized. Patients with T2D who had an HbA1c laboratory result from January 1, 2014 through January 1, 2017 were included, first such date identified as the index date. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03007995.2020.1787971DOI Listing

40 years and beyond for the National Society of Genetic Counselors: Reflections on genetic counseling practice.

J Genet Couns 2020 Jul 8. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Invitae, San Francisco, CA, USA.

The National Society of Genetic Counselors (NSGC) was established in 1979 and has grown from a small dedicated group of genetic counselors to over 5,000 certified genetic counselors in 2019. During this time period, there have been tremendous advances in the practice of genetic counseling, the availability of genetic testing, and the use of technology. These advances have significantly changed our roles and responsibilities and have contributed to the expansion and diversification of our field in clinical and non-clinical work settings. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jgc4.1301DOI Listing

Patterns and Factors Influencing Oral Anticoagulant Prescription in People with Atrial Fibrillation and Dementia: Results from UK Primary Care.

Br J Clin Pharmacol 2020 Jul 8. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Research Department of Practice and Policy, School of Pharmacy, University College London, London, United Kingdom.

Aims: Oral anticoagulant (OAC) is recommended for preventing stroke in atrial fibrillation (AF). However, the OAC utilisation in AF patients with dementia or cognitive impairment (CI) is limited. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of OAC prescriptions in AF patients with dementia/CI and to identify factors associated with OAC treatment within 180 days after dementia/CI diagnosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bcp.14464DOI Listing

Building Telemedicine Capacity for Trainees During the Novel Coronavirus Outbreak: a Case Study and Lessons Learned.

J Gen Intern Med 2020 Jul 8. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Department of General Internal Medicine and Clinical Innovation, NYU Grossman School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA.

Introduction: Hospital and ambulatory care systems are rapidly building their virtual care capacity in response to the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. The use of resident trainees in telemedicine is one area of potential development and expansion. To date, however, training opportunities in this field have been limited, and residents may not be adequately prepared to provide high-quality telemedicine care. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11606-020-05979-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7343380PMC

Association between ambient air pollution and laryngeal neoplasms incidence in twelve major Chinese cities, 2006-2013.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2020 Jul 9. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

School of Management and Economics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, 100081, China.

Epidemiological evidence has suggested that ambient air pollution is an increasingly important risk factor for respiratory diseases without assessing its influence on laryngeal neoplasms incidence in China. We constructed two-way fixed effect models and Poisson regression models to explore the effects of ambient air pollutants including nitrogen dioxide (NO), sulfur dioxide (SO), and particulate matter less than or equal to 10 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM) on incidence of laryngeal neoplasms in twelve major cities in China over the period 2006-2013. The annual average concentration for PM, SO, and NO was 107. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-09948-xDOI Listing

Do we need to see to believe?-radiomics for lung nodule classification and lung cancer risk stratification.

J Thorac Dis 2020 Jun;12(6):3303-3316

Divison of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.

Despite multiple recent advances, the diagnosis and management of lung cancer remain challenging and it continues to be the deadliest malignancy. In 2011, the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) reported 20% reduction in lung cancer related mortality using annual low dose chest computed tomography (CT). These results led to the approval and nationwide establishment of lung cancer CT-based lung cancer screening programs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/jtd.2020.03.105DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7330769PMC

Impact of Acarbose on Incident Diabetes and Regression to Normoglycemia in People With Coronary Heart Disease and Impaired Glucose Tolerance: Insights From the ACE Trial.

Diabetes Care 2020 Jul 8. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Diabetes Trials Unit, Radcliffe Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, U.K.

Objective: We examined the impact of acarbose, an α-glucosidase inhibitor, on incident diabetes and regression to normoglycemia in 6,522 Acarbose Cardiovascular Evaluation trial participants in China who had impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and coronary heart disease (CHD).

Research Design And Methods: Participants were randomly assigned to acarbose or placebo and followed with four monthly fasting plasma glucose (FPG) tests and annual oral glucose tolerance tests. Incident diabetes was defined as two successive diagnostic FPG levels ≥7 mmol/L or 2-h plasma glucose (PG) levels ≥11. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/dc19-2046DOI Listing

Cohort profile: protocol and baseline survey for the Shanghai Suburban Adult Cohort and Biobank (SSACB) study.

BMJ Open 2020 Jul 8;10(7):e035430. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Department of Health Economic, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Purpose: The Shanghai Suburban Adult Cohort and Biobank (SSACB) was established to identify environmental, lifestyle and genetic risk factors for non-communicable chronic diseases (NCDs) in adults (20-74 years old) living in a suburban area of Shanghai with rapid urbanisation.

Participants: Two of eight suburban district were purposely selected according to participant willingness, health service facilities, population, geographic region and electronic medical record system. From these suburban districts, four communities were selected based on economic level and population size. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2019-035430DOI Listing

Diabetes mellitus among adults with tuberculosis in the USA, 2010-2017.

BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care 2020 Jul;8(1)

Division of Tuberculosis Elimination, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA

Introduction: To describe diabetes trends among adults with incident tuberculosis (TB) disease and examine diabetes-associated TB characteristics and patient outcomes in the USA.

Research Design And Methods: We examined all 71 855 persons aged ≥20 years with incident TB disease reported to the National Tuberculosis Surveillance System during 2010-2017. We performed multivariable logistic regression, comparing characteristics and outcomes among patients with TB reported to have diabetes and those whose diabetes status was unknown. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjdrc-2020-001275DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7342266PMC

Risk of Liver Cirrhosis and Hepatocellular Carcinoma after Fontan Operation: A Need for Surveillance.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jul 6;12(7). Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Department of Pediatrics, Seoul National University Children's Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 03080, Korea.

Liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are serious late complications that can occur after the Fontan procedure. This study aimed to investigate the cumulative incidence of cirrhosis and HCC and to identify specific features distinguishing HCC from benign arterial-phase hyperenhancing (APHE) nodules that developed after the Fontan operation. We retrospectively enrolled 313 post-Fontan patients who had been followed for more than 5 years and had undergone ultrasound or computed tomography (CT) of the liver between January 2000 and August 2018. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12071805DOI Listing

A systematic review of occupational radiation individual dose monitoring among healthcare workers exposed in Africa.

J Radiol Prot 2020 Jul 8. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

CESP - Unit 1018 INSERM, Institut Gustave-Roussy, Espace Maurice Tubiana, 39 rue Camile Desmoulins, 94805 Vilejuif Cedex, Villejuif, FRANCE.

Dosimetric monitoring is useful to requested limit exposures to ionizing radiation in medical occupational settings, and reduce subsequent health risks. Scientific literatures, such as UNSCEAR report, 2017 and International Atomic Energy Agency Report, 2014, updated informations on this subject, whereas, such a few African works were found. That's the reasons why we undertake this study, which consists in summarizing existing informations on monitoring external radiation exposure doses for whole body, from medical workers on this continent. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6498/aba402DOI Listing

Incidence of acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease in Melbourne, Australia from 1937 to 2013.

J Paediatr Child Health 2020 Jul 8. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Tropical Diseases Research Group, Murdoch Children's Research Institute, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Aim: Acute rheumatic fever (ARF) most commonly presents in children aged 5-14 years old. Lifelong rheumatic heart disease (RHD) can result. This study investigated time trends in ARF and RHD using inpatient data from the Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne (RCH). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jpc.14950DOI Listing