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    883 results match your criteria Annual Review of Public Health[Journal]

    1 OF 18

    Evaluating the Health Impact of Large-Scale Public Policy Changes: Classical and Novel Approaches.
    Annu Rev Public Health 2017 Mar;38:351-370
    Department of Epidemiology and Department of Social and Behavioral Health Sciences, Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5T 3M7, Canada; email:
    Large-scale public policy changes are often recommended to improve public health. Despite varying widely-from tobacco taxes to poverty-relief programs-such policies present a common dilemma to public health researchers: how to evaluate their health effects when randomized controlled trials are not possible. Here, we review the state of knowledge and experience of public health researchers who rigorously evaluate the health consequences of large-scale public policy changes. Read More

    An Overview of Research and Evaluation Designs for Dissemination and Implementation.
    Annu Rev Public Health 2017 Mar;38:1-22
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois 60611; email:
    The wide variety of dissemination and implementation designs now being used to evaluate and improve health systems and outcomes warrants review of the scope, features, and limitations of these designs. This article is one product of a design workgroup that was formed in 2013 by the National Institutes of Health to address dissemination and implementation research, and whose members represented diverse methodologic backgrounds, content focus areas, and health sectors. These experts integrated their collective knowledge on dissemination and implementation designs with searches of published evaluations strategies. Read More

    Strengthening Integrated Care Through Population-Focused Primary Care Services: International Experiences Outside the United States.
    Annu Rev Public Health 2017 Mar;38:413-429
    Training and Research Support Centre, United Kingdom; email: EquiACT, France; email:
    Many high- and middle-income countries (HMICs) are experiencing a burden of comorbidity and chronic diseases. Together with increasing patient expectations, this burden is raising demand for population health-oriented innovation in health care. Using desk review and country case studies, we examine strategies applied in HMICs outside the United States to address these challenges, with a focus on and use of a new framework for analyzing primary care (PC). Read More

    Assessing the Exposome with External Measures: Commentary on the State of the Science and Research Recommendations.
    Annu Rev Public Health 2017 Mar;38:215-239
    Division of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, California 94704; email:
    The exposome comprises all environmental exposures that a person experiences from conception throughout the life course. Here we review the state of the science for assessing external exposures within the exposome. This article reviews (a) categories of exposures that can be assessed externally, (b) the current state of the science in external exposure assessment, (c) current tools available for external exposure assessment, and (d) priority research needs. Read More

    Countermarketing Alcohol and Unhealthy Food: An Effective Strategy for Preventing Noncommunicable Diseases? Lessons from Tobacco.
    Annu Rev Public Health 2017 Mar;38:119-144
    School of Public Health, City University of New York, New York, NY 10027; email:
    Countermarketing campaigns use health communications to reduce the demand for unhealthy products by exposing motives and undermining marketing practices of producers. These campaigns can contribute to the prevention of noncommunicable diseases by denormalizing the marketing of tobacco, alcohol, and unhealthy food. By portraying these activities as outside the boundaries of civilized corporate behavior, countermarketing can reduce the demand for unhealthy products and lead to changes in industry marketing practices. Read More

    Surveillance Systems to Track and Evaluate Obesity Prevention Efforts.
    Annu Rev Public Health 2017 Mar 11;38:187-214. Epub 2017 Jan 11.
    Michael & Susan Dell Center for Healthy Living, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Austin, Texas 78701; email: , ,
    To address the obesity epidemic, the public health community must develop surveillance systems that capture data at levels through which obesity prevention efforts are conducted. Current systems assess body mass index (BMI), diet, and physical activity behaviors at the individual level, but environmental and policy-related data are often lacking. The goal of this review is to describe US surveillance systems that evaluate obesity prevention efforts within the context of international trends in obesity monitoring, to identify potential data gaps, and to present recommendations to improve the evaluation of population-level initiatives. Read More

    Natural Experiments: An Overview of Methods, Approaches, and Contributions to Public Health Intervention Research.
    Annu Rev Public Health 2017 Mar 11;38:39-56. Epub 2017 Jan 11.
    MRC/CSO Social and Public Health Sciences Unit, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G2 3QB, United Kingdom; email: , , ,
    Population health interventions are essential to reduce health inequalities and tackle other public health priorities, but they are not always amenable to experimental manipulation. Natural experiment (NE) approaches are attracting growing interest as a way of providing evidence in such circumstances. One key challenge in evaluating NEs is selective exposure to the intervention. Read More

    Generalizing about Public Health Interventions: A Mixed-Methods Approach to External Validity.
    Annu Rev Public Health 2017 Mar 6;38:371-391. Epub 2017 Jan 6.
    The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, Princeton, New Jersey 08543-2316; email:
    Public health researchers and practitioners are calling for greater focus on external validity, the ability to generalize findings of evidence-based interventions (EBIs) beyond the limited number of studies testing effectiveness. For public health, the goal is applicability: to translate, disseminate, and implement EBIs for an impact on population health. This article is a review of methods and how they might be combined to better assess external validity. Read More

    Engagement of Sectors Other than Health in Integrated Health Governance, Policy, and Action.
    Annu Rev Public Health 2017 Mar 11;38:329-349. Epub 2017 Jan 11.
    Centre for Health Equity Training, Research and Evaluation (CHETRE), Part of the UNSW Australia Research Centre for Primary Health Care & Equity, A Unit of Population Health, South Western Sydney Local Health District, NSW Health, A Member of the Ingham Institute, Liverpool Hospital, Liverpool, New South Wales 1871, Australia; email:
    Health is created largely outside the health sector. Engagement in health governance, policy, and intervention development and implementation by sectors other than health is therefore important. Recent calls for building and implementing Health in All Policies, and continued arguments for intersectoral action, may strengthen the potential that other sectors have for health. Read More

    The Impact of Trauma Care Systems in Low- and Middle-Income Countries.
    Annu Rev Public Health 2017 Mar 11;38:507-532. Epub 2017 Jan 11.
    Department of Surgery, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98105; email:
    Injury is a leading cause of death globally, and organized trauma care systems have been shown to save lives. However, even though most injuries occur in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), most trauma care research comes from high-income countries where systems have been implemented with few resource constraints. Little context-relevant guidance exists to help policy makers set priorities in LMICs, where resources are limited and where trauma care may be implemented in distinct ways. Read More

    Bias Analysis for Uncontrolled Confounding in the Health Sciences.
    Annu Rev Public Health 2017 Mar 6;38:23-38. Epub 2017 Jan 6.
    Department of Epidemiology, Fielding School of Public Health; UCLA Center for Health Policy Research; and California Center for Population Research, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095; email:
    Uncontrolled confounding due to unmeasured confounders biases causal inference in health science studies using observational and imperfect experimental designs. The adoption of methods for analysis of bias due to uncontrolled confounding has been slow, despite the increasing availability of such methods. Bias analysis for such uncontrolled confounding is most useful in big data studies and systematic reviews to gauge the extent to which extraneous preexposure variables that affect the exposure and the outcome can explain some or all of the reported exposure-outcome associations. Read More

    Toward Greater Implementation of the Exposome Research Paradigm within Environmental Epidemiology.
    Annu Rev Public Health 2017 Mar 6;38:315-327. Epub 2017 Jan 6.
    Department of Environmental Medicine and Public Health, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029; email: ,
    Investigating a single environmental exposure in isolation does not reflect the actual human exposure circumstance nor does it capture the multifactorial etiology of health and disease. The exposome, defined as the totality of environmental exposures from conception onward, may advance our understanding of environmental contributors to disease by more fully assessing the multitude of human exposures across the life course. Implementation into studies of human health has been limited, in part owing to theoretical and practical challenges including a lack of infrastructure to support comprehensive exposure assessment, difficulty in differentiating physiologic variation from environmentally induced changes, and the need for study designs and analytic methods that accommodate specific aspects of the exposome, such as high-dimensional exposure data and multiple windows of susceptibility. Read More

    Moving From Discovery to System-Wide Change: The Role of Research in a Learning Health Care System: Experience from Three Decades of Health Systems Research in the Veterans Health Administration.
    Annu Rev Public Health 2017 Mar 11;38:467-487. Epub 2017 Jan 11.
    Veterans Health Administration, US Department of Veterans Affairs, Washington, DC 20420; emails: , ,
    The Veterans Health Administration is unique, functioning as an integrated health care system that provides care to more than six million veterans annually and as a home to an established scientific enterprise that conducts more than $1 billion of research each year. The presence of research, spanning the continuum from basic health services to translational research, has helped the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) realize the potential of a learning health care system and has contributed to significant improvements in clinical quality over the past two decades. It has also illustrated distinct pathways by which research influences clinical care and policy and has provided lessons on challenges in translating research into practice on a national scale. Read More

    Climate Change and Collective Violence.
    Annu Rev Public Health 2017 Mar 11;38:241-257. Epub 2017 Jan 11.
    Global Health Institute, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53726; email:
    Climate change is causing increases in temperature, changes in precipitation and extreme weather events, sea-level rise, and other environmental impacts. It is also causing or contributing to heat-related disorders, respiratory and allergic disorders, infectious diseases, malnutrition due to food insecurity, and mental health disorders. In addition, increasing evidence indicates that climate change is causally associated with collective violence, generally in combination with other causal factors. Read More

    China's Health Reform Update.
    Annu Rev Public Health 2017 Mar 11;38:431-448. Epub 2017 Jan 11.
    School of Management, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing 10029, China; email:
    China experienced both economic and epistemological transitions within the past few decades, greatly increasing demand for accessible and affordable health care. These shifts put significant pressure on the existing outdated, highly centralized bureaucratic system. Adjusting to growing demands, the government has pursued a new round of health reforms since the late 2000s; the main goals are to reform health care financing, essential drug policies, and public hospitals. Read More

    Climate Change and Global Food Systems: Potential Impacts on Food Security and Undernutrition.
    Annu Rev Public Health 2017 Mar 6;38:259-277. Epub 2017 Jan 6.
    Harvard University Center for the Environment, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138; email:
    Great progress has been made in addressing global undernutrition over the past several decades, in part because of large increases in food production from agricultural expansion and intensification. Food systems, however, face continued increases in demand and growing environmental pressures. Most prominently, human-caused climate change will influence the quality and quantity of food we produce and our ability to distribute it equitably. Read More

    The Changing Epidemiology of Autism Spectrum Disorders.
    Annu Rev Public Health 2017 Mar 21;38:81-102. Epub 2016 Dec 21.
    A.J. Drexel Autism Institute, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104; email:
    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental condition with lifelong impacts. Genetic and environmental factors contribute to ASD etiology, which remains incompletely understood. Research on ASD epidemiology has made significant advances in the past decade. Read More

    Obesity in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: Burden, Drivers, and Emerging Challenges.
    Annu Rev Public Health 2017 Mar 23;38:145-164. Epub 2016 Dec 23.
    Nutrition and Health Sciences Program, Laney Graduate School, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322; email:
    We have reviewed the distinctive features of excess weight, its causes, and related prevention and management efforts, as well as data gaps and recommendations for future research in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Obesity is rising in every region of the world, and no country has been successful at reversing the epidemic once it has begun. In LMICs, overweight is higher in women compared with men, in urban compared with rural settings, and in older compared with younger individuals; however, the urban-rural overweight differential is shrinking in many countries. Read More

    Informatics and Data Analytics to Support Exposome-Based Discovery for Public Health.
    Annu Rev Public Health 2017 Mar 23;38:279-294. Epub 2016 Dec 23.
    Department of Biomedical Informatics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115; email:
    The complexity of the human exposome-the totality of environmental exposures encountered from birth to death-motivates systematic, high-throughput approaches to discover new environmental determinants of disease. In this review, we describe the state of science in analyzing the human exposome and provide recommendations for the public health community to consider in dealing with analytic challenges of exposome-based biomedical research. We describe extant and novel analytic methods needed to associate the exposome with critical health outcomes and contextualize the data-centered challenges by drawing parallels to other research endeavors such as human genomics research. Read More

    Impact of Provider Incentives on Quality and Value of Health Care.
    Annu Rev Public Health 2017 Mar 15;38:449-465. Epub 2016 Dec 15.
    Department of Health Management and Policy, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109; email: ,
    The use of financial incentives to improve quality in health care has become widespread. Yet evidence on the effectiveness of incentives suggests that they have generally had limited impact on the value of care and have not led to better patient outcomes. Lessons from social psychology and behavioral economics indicate that incentive programs in health care have not been effectively designed to achieve their intended impact. Read More

    The Affordable Care Act's Impacts on Access to Insurance and Health Care for Low-Income Populations.
    Annu Rev Public Health 2017 Mar 15;38:489-505. Epub 2016 Dec 15.
    Department of Health Policy and Management, Fielding School of Public Health, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095-1772; email: , ,
    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) expands access to health insurance in the United States, and, to date, an estimated 20 million previously uninsured individuals have gained coverage. Understanding the law's impact on coverage, access, utilization, and health outcomes, especially among low-income populations, is critical to informing ongoing debates about its effectiveness and implementation. Early findings indicate that there have been significant reductions in the rate of uninsurance among the poor and among those who live in Medicaid expansion states. Read More

    An Appraisal of Social Network Theory and Analysis as Applied to Public Health: Challenges and Opportunities.
    Annu Rev Public Health 2017 Mar 15;38:103-118. Epub 2016 Dec 15.
    Institute for Prevention Research, Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90034; email:
    The use of social network theory and analysis methods as applied to public health has expanded greatly in the past decade, yielding a significant academic literature that spans almost every conceivable health issue. This review identifies several important theoretical challenges that confront the field but also provides opportunities for new research. These challenges include (a) measuring network influences, (b) identifying appropriate influence mechanisms, (c) the impact of social media and computerized communications, (d) the role of networks in evaluating public health interventions, and (e) ethics. Read More

    Macro Trends and the Future of Public Health Practice.
    Annu Rev Public Health 2017 Mar 15;38:393-412. Epub 2016 Dec 15.
    Prevention Research Center in St. Louis, Brown School; and Division of Public Health Sciences and Alvin J. Siteman Cancer Center, School of Medicine, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri 63130-4838; email:
    Public health practice in the twenty-first century is in a state of significant flux. Several macro trends are impacting the current practice of governmental public health and will likely have effects for many years to come. These macro trends are described as forces of change, which are changes that affect the context in which the community and its public health system operate. Read More

    Organic Food in the Diet: Exposure and Health Implications.
    Annu Rev Public Health 2017 Mar 15;38:295-313. Epub 2016 Dec 15.
    Domain of Infection Control and Environmental Health, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, 0403 Norway; email: , ,
    The market for organic food products is growing rapidly worldwide. Such foods meet certified organic standards for production, handling, processing, and marketing. Most notably, the use of synthetic fertilizers, pesticides, and genetic modification is not allowed. Read More

    Public Health Surveillance Systems: Recent Advances in Their Use and Evaluation.
    Annu Rev Public Health 2017 Mar 15;38:57-79. Epub 2016 Dec 15.
    Surveillance Lab, McGill Clinical and Health Informatics, Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics, and Occupational Health, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3A 1A3; email:
    Surveillance is critical for improving population health. Public health surveillance systems generate information that drives action, and the data must be of sufficient quality and with a resolution and timeliness that matches objectives. In the context of scientific advances in public health surveillance, changing health care and public health environments, and rapidly evolving technologies, the aim of this article is to review public health surveillance systems. Read More

    Smoking, Mental Illness, and Public Health.
    Annu Rev Public Health 2017 Mar 16;38:165-185. Epub 2016 Dec 16.
    Division of Research, Kaiser Permanente Northern California, Oakland, California 94612; email:
    Tobacco use remains the leading preventable cause of death worldwide. In particular, people with mental illness are disproportionately affected with high smoking prevalence; they account for more than 200,000 of the 520,000 tobacco-attributable deaths in the United States annually and die on average 25 years prematurely. Our review aims to provide an update on smoking in the mentally ill. Read More

    Opportunities for Palliative Care in Public Health.
    Annu Rev Public Health 2016 21;37:357-74. Epub 2016 Jan 21.
    Department of Palliative Medicine, Medical Faculty, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen 52074, Germany; email:
    In May 2014, the World Health Assembly, of the World Health Organization (WHO), unanimously adopted a palliative care (PC) resolution, which outlines clear recommendations to the United Nations member states, such as including PC in national health policies and in the undergraduate curricula for health care professionals, and highlights the critical need for countries to ensure that there is an adequate supply of essential PC medicines, especially those needed to alleviate pain. This resolution also carries great challenges: Every year over 20 million patients (of which 6% are children) need PC at the end of life (EOL). However, in 2011, approximately three million patients received PC, and only one in ten people in need is currently receiving it. Read More

    Visible and Invisible Trends in Black Men's Health: Pitfalls and Promises for Addressing Racial, Ethnic, and Gender Inequities in Health.
    Annu Rev Public Health 2016 ;37:295-311
    Center for Medicine, Health, and Society and.
    Over the past two decades, there has been growing interest in improving black men's health and the health disparities affecting them. Yet, the health of black men consistently ranks lowest across nearly all groups in the United States. Evidence on the health and social causes of morbidity and mortality among black men has been narrowly concentrated on public health problems (e. Read More

    Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Children's Health.
    Annu Rev Public Health 2016 ;37:273-93
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908; email: ,
    Temporal trends in the epidemic of childhood obesity have been paralleled by increases in the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) during childhood. Consumption has increased dramatically over the past several decades in all age ranges, with some moderation over the past 10 years. Evidence from cross-sectional, longitudinal, and interventional studies supports links between SSB consumption in childhood and unhealthy weight gain, as well as other untoward health outcomes. Read More

    Preventing Obesity Across Generations: Evidence for Early Life Intervention.
    Annu Rev Public Health 2016 ;37:253-71
    Prevention Research Center, Brown School, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri 63130; email: ,
    To prevent the intergenerational transfer of obesity and end the current epidemic, interventions are needed across the early life stages, from preconception to prenatal to infancy through the age of 2 years. The foundation for obesity is laid in early life by actions and interactions passed from parent to child that have long-lasting biologic and behavioral consequences. The purpose of this paper is to examine the best evidence about (a) factors in parents and offspring that promote obesity during the early life stages, (b) the social determinants and dimensions of obesity in early life, (c) promising and effective interventions for preventing obesity in early life, and (d) opportunities for future research into strategies to disrupt the intergenerational cycle of obesity that begins early in life. Read More

    Documenting the Effects of Armed Conflict on Population Health.
    Annu Rev Public Health 2016 ;37:205-18
    Department of Medicine and Department of Healthcare Policy and Research, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY 10021; email:
    War and other forms of armed conflict have profound adverse effects on population health. It is important to document these effects to inform the general public and policy makers about the consequences of armed conflict, provide services to meet the needs of affected populations, protect human rights and document violations of international humanitarian law, and help to prevent future armed conflict. Documentation can be accomplished with surveillance, epidemiological surveys, and rapid assessment. Read More

    Heat, Human Performance, and Occupational Health: A Key Issue for the Assessment of Global Climate Change Impacts.
    Annu Rev Public Health 2016 21;37:97-112. Epub 2016 Jan 21.
    Ruby Coast Research Centre, Mapua, 7005, New Zealand.
    Ambient heat exposure is a well-known health hazard, which reduces human performance and work capacity at heat levels already common in tropical and subtropical areas. Various health problems have been reported. Increasing heat exposure during the hottest seasons of each year is a key feature of global climate change. Read More

    A Review of Opportunities to Improve the Health of People Involved in the Criminal Justice System in the United States.
    Annu Rev Public Health 2016 18;37:313-33. Epub 2016 Jan 18.
    School of Public Health, City University of New York, New York, NY 10027; email: ,
    In the past decade, many constituencies have questioned the efficacy, cost, and unintended consequences of mass incarceration in the United States. Although substantial evidence now demonstrates that US incarceration policies have had unintended adverse health consequences, we know less about the strategies and policies that can prevent or reduce these problems for justice-involved individuals and how the criminal justice system (CJS) can contribute to the Healthy People 2020 national goal of eliminating inequities in health. This review examines strategies that have been used to improve the health of people at various stages of CJS involvement, including diversion from jail and prison stays into community settings, improvements to the social and physical environments within correctional facilities, provision of health and other services to inmates, assistance for people leaving correctional facilities to make the transition back to the community, and systems coordination and integration. Read More

    Nutritional Determinants of the Timing of Puberty.
    Annu Rev Public Health 2016 18;37:33-46. Epub 2016 Jan 18.
    Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health;
    The timing of puberty has important public health, clinical, and social implications. The plasticity of sexual development onset could be a mechanism that adapts to prevailing environmental conditions. Early-life nutrition may provide cues for the environment's suitability for reproduction. Read More

    Improved Designs for Cluster Randomized Trials.
    Annu Rev Public Health 2016 18;37:1-16. Epub 2016 Jan 18.
    Department of Biostatistics, Fielding School of Public Health, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095-1772; email:
    Studies in which clusters of individuals are randomized to conditions are increasingly common in public health research. However, the designs utilized for such studies are often suboptimal and inefficient. We review strategies to improve the design of cluster randomized trials. Read More

    Defining and Assessing Public Health Functions: A Global Analysis.
    Annu Rev Public Health 2016 18;37:335-55. Epub 2016 Jan 18.
    World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark; email: ,
    Given the broad scope and intersectoral nature of public health structures and practices, there are inherent difficulties in defining which services fall under the public health remit and in assessing their capacity and performance. The aim of this study is to analyze how public health functions and practice have been defined and operationalized in different countries and regions around the world, with a specific focus on assessment tools that have been developed to evaluate the performance of essential public health functions, services, and operations. Our review has identified nearly 100 countries that have carried out assessments, using diverse analytical and methodological approaches. Read More

    Racial and Ethnic Disparities in the Quality of Health Care.
    Annu Rev Public Health 2016 18;37:375-94. Epub 2016 Jan 18.
    Departments of Family Medicine and Public Health Sciences, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York 14620; email:
    The annual National Healthcare Quality and Disparities Reports document widespread and persistent racial and ethnic disparities. These disparities result from complex interactions between patient factors related to social disadvantage, clinicians, and organizational and health care system factors. Separate and unequal systems of health care between states, between health care systems, and between clinicians constrain the resources that are available to meet the needs of disadvantaged groups, contribute to unequal outcomes, and reinforce implicit bias. Read More

    Civil Rights Laws as Tools to Advance Health in the Twenty-First Century.
    Annu Rev Public Health 2016 18;37:185-204. Epub 2016 Jan 18.
    National Health Law Program, Washington, DC 20005; email:
    To improve health in the twenty-first century, to promote both access to and quality of health care services and delivery, and to address significant health disparities, legal and policy approaches, specifically those focused on civil rights, could be used more intentionally and strategically. This review describes how civil rights laws, and their implementation and enforcement, help to encourage health in the United States, and it provides examples for peers around the world. The review uses a broad lens to define health for both classes of individuals and their communities--places where people live, learn, work, and play. Read More

    Metrics in Urban Health: Current Developments and Future Prospects.
    Annu Rev Public Health 2016 18;37:113-33. Epub 2016 Jan 18.
    Center for Health Development, World Health Organization (WHO), Chuo-ku, Kobe 651-0073, Japan; email: , , ,
    The research community has shown increasing interest in developing and using metrics to determine the relationships between urban living and health. In particular, we have seen a recent exponential increase in efforts aiming to investigate and apply metrics for urban health, especially the health impacts of the social and built environments as well as air pollution. A greater recognition of the need to investigate the impacts and trends of health inequities is also evident through more recent literature. Read More

    Spatial Data Analysis.
    Annu Rev Public Health 2016 20;37:47-60. Epub 2016 Jan 20.
    Department of Biostatistics, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095; email:
    With increasing accessibility to geographic information systems (GIS) software, statisticians and data analysts routinely encounter scientific data sets with geocoded locations. This has generated considerable interest in statistical modeling for location-referenced spatial data. In public health, spatial data routinely arise as aggregates over regions, such as counts or rates over counties, census tracts, or some other administrative delineation. Read More

    One Hundred Years in the Making: The Global Tobacco Epidemic.
    Annu Rev Public Health 2016 14;37:149-66. Epub 2016 Jan 14.
    Department of Preventive Medicine and Institute for Global Health, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089; email: ,
    Today's global tobacco epidemic may represent one of the first instances of the globalization of a noninfectious cause of disease. This article focuses on the first century of the global tobacco epidemic and its current status, reviewing the current and projected future of the global tobacco epidemic and the steps that are in progress to end it. In the United States and many countries of Western Europe, tobacco consumption peaked during the 1960s and 1970s and declined as tobacco control programs were initiated, motivated by the evidence indicting smoking as a leading cause of disease. Read More

    Rural Health Care Access and Policy in Developing Countries.
    Annu Rev Public Health 2016 6;37:395-412. Epub 2016 Jan 6.
    Northern Ontario School of Medicine, Sudbury and Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada; email:
    Compared to their urban counterparts, rural and remote inhabitants experience lower life expectancy and poorer health status. Nowhere is the worldwide shortage of health professionals more pronounced than in rural areas of developing countries. Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) includes a disproportionately large number of developing countries; therefore, this article explores SSA in depth as an example. Read More

    Latino Immigrants, Acculturation, and Health: Promising New Directions in Research.
    Annu Rev Public Health 2016 6;37:219-36. Epub 2016 Jan 6.
    RAND Corporation, Santa Monica, California 90407-2138; email:
    This article provides an analysis of novel topics emerging in recent years in research on Latino immigrants, acculturation, and health. In the past ten years, the number of studies assessing new ways to conceptualize and understand how acculturation-related processes may influence health has grown. These new frameworks draw from integrative approaches testing new ground to acknowledge the fundamental role of context and policy. Read More

    Making Healthy Choices Easier: Regulation versus Nudging.
    Annu Rev Public Health 2016 30;37:237-51. Epub 2015 Dec 30.
    Danish Nudging Network, 1208 København K, Denmark; email:
    In recent years, the nudge approach to behavior change has emerged from the behavioral sciences to challenge the traditional use of regulation in public health strategies to address modifiable individual-level behaviors related to the rise of noncommunicable diseases and their treatment. However, integration and testing of the nudge approach as part of more comprehensive public health strategies aimed at making healthy choices easier are being threatened by inadequate understandings of its scientific character, its relationship with regulation, and its ethical implications. This article reviews this character and its ethical implication with a special emphasis on the compatibility of nudging with traditional regulation, special domains of experience, and the need for a more nuanced approach to the ethical debate. Read More

    Cumulative Environmental Impacts: Science and Policy to Protect Communities.
    Annu Rev Public Health 2016 6;37:83-96. Epub 2016 Jan 6.
    Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, California Environmental Protection Agency (CalEPA), Oakland, California 94612; email: ,
    Many communities are located near multiple sources of pollution, including current and former industrial sites, major roadways, and agricultural operations. Populations in such locations are predominantly low-income, with a large percentage of minorities and non-English speakers. These communities face challenges that can affect the health of their residents, including limited access to health care, a shortage of grocery stores, poor housing quality, and a lack of parks and open spaces. Read More

    The Double Disparity Facing Rural Local Health Departments.
    Annu Rev Public Health 2016 6;37:167-84. Epub 2016 Jan 6.
    Public Health Department.
    Residents of rural jurisdictions face significant health challenges, including some of the highest rates of risky health behaviors and worst health outcomes of any group in the country. Rural communities are served by smaller local health departments (LHDs) that are more understaffed and underfunded than their suburban and urban peers. As a result of history and current need, rural LHDs are more likely than their urban peers to be providers of direct health services, leading to relatively lower levels of population-focused activities. Read More

    The Health Effects of Income Inequality: Averages and Disparities.
    Annu Rev Public Health 2016 6;37:413-30. Epub 2016 Jan 6.
    Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138; email: ,
    Much research has investigated the association of income inequality with average life expectancy, usually finding negative correlations that are not very robust. A smaller body of work has investigated socioeconomic disparities in life expectancy, which have widened in many countries since 1980. These two lines of work should be seen as complementary because changes in average life expectancy are unlikely to affect all socioeconomic groups equally. Read More

    A Transdisciplinary Approach to Public Health Law: The Emerging Practice of Legal Epidemiology.
    Annu Rev Public Health 2016 30;37:135-48. Epub 2015 Nov 30.
    Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, Princeton, New Jersey 08543; email:
    Public health law has roots in both law and science. For more than a century, lawyers have helped develop and implement health laws; over the past 50 years, scientific evaluation of the health effects of laws and legal practices has achieved high levels of rigor and influence. We describe an emerging model of public health law that unites these two traditions. Read More

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