971 results match your criteria Annual Review of Public Health[Journal]


A Public Health Approach to Global Child Sex Trafficking.

Authors:
Jordan Greenbaum

Annu Rev Public Health 2020 Apr;41:481-497

International Centre for Missing and Exploited Children, Alexandria, Virginia 22314, USA; email:

Human trafficking and child sex trafficking and sexual exploitation in particular are global public health issues with widespread, lasting impacts on children, families, and communities. Traditionally, human trafficking has been treated as a law enforcement problem with an emphasis on the arrest and prosecution of traffickers. However, use of a public health approach focuses efforts on those impacted by exploitation: trafficked persons, their families, and the population at large. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040119-094335DOI Listing

Built Environment, Physical Activity, and Obesity: Findings from the International Physical Activity and Environment Network (IPEN) Adult Study.

Annu Rev Public Health 2020 Apr;41:119-139

Centre for Urban Transitions, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122, Australia.

Creating more physical activity-supportive built environments is recommended by the World Health Organization for controlling noncommunicable diseases. The IPEN (International Physical Activity and Environment Network) Adult Study was undertaken to provide international evidence on associations of built environments with physical activity and weight status in 12 countries on 5 continents ( > 14,000). This article presents reanalyzed data from eight primary papers to identify patterns of findings across studies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040218-043657DOI Listing

The Health of Undocumented Latinx Immigrants: What We Know and Future Directions.

Annu Rev Public Health 2020 Apr;41:289-308

Department of Health Services, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA; email:

Undocumented Latinx immigrants experience unique factors prior to migration, during migration, and after migration that shape their health. Our review summarizes the limited but growing literature highlighting how exposure to trauma, immigration enforcement, changes to social networks, and discrimination negatively affect the mental and physical health of undocumented Latinx immigrants. We also discuss how policies and social ties can promote their health. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040119-094211DOI Listing

Strengthening the Public Health Impacts of the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Through Policy.

Annu Rev Public Health 2020 Apr;41:453-480

Law Center, Georgetown University, Washington, DC 20001, USA; email:

The US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) is the cornerstone of the US nutrition safety net. Each month, SNAP provides assistance to 40 million low-income Americans-nearly half of them children. A number of changes could strengthen the public health impacts of SNAP. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040119-094143DOI Listing

The Impact of Medicare's Alternative Payment Models on the Value of Care.

Annu Rev Public Health 2020 Apr;41:551-565

Leonard Davis Institute of Health Economics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA.

Over the past decade, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) have led the nationwide shift toward value-based payment. A major strategy for achieving this goal has been to implement alternative payment models (APMs) that encourage high-value care by holding providers financially accountable for both the quality and the costs of care. In particular, the CMS has implemented and scaled up two types of APMs: population-based models that emphasize accountability for overall quality and costs for defined patient populations, and episode-based payment models that emphasize accountability for quality and costs for discrete care. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040119-094327DOI Listing

Medicaid Managed Care's Effects on Costs, Access, and Quality: An Update.

Annu Rev Public Health 2020 Apr;41:537-549

Department of Health Policy and Management, the Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA; email:

Medicaid is integral to public health because it insures one in five Americans and half of the nation's births. Nearly two-thirds of all Medicaid recipients are currently enrolled in a health maintenance organization (HMO). Proponents of HMOs argue that they can lower costs while maintaining access and quality. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040119-094345DOI Listing

Autonomous Vehicles and Public Health.

Annu Rev Public Health 2020 Apr 31;41:329-345. Epub 2020 Jan 31.

Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA; email:

Autonomous vehicles (AVs) have the potential to shape urban life and significantly modify travel behaviors. "Autonomous technology" means technology that can drive a vehicle without active physical control or monitoring by a human operator. The first AV fleets are already in service in US cities. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040119-094035DOI Listing

Partnerships, Processes, and Outcomes: A Health Equity-Focused Scoping Meta-Review of Community-Engaged Scholarship.

Annu Rev Public Health 2020 Apr 10;41:177-199. Epub 2020 Jan 10.

College of Population Health, Center for Participatory Research, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131, USA.

In recent decades, there has been remarkable growth in scholarship examining the usefulness of community-engaged research (CEnR) and community-based participatory research (CBPR) for eliminating health inequities.This article seeks to synthesize the extant literature of systematic reviews, scoping reviews, and other related reviews regarding the context, processes, and research designs and interventions underlying CEnR that optimize its effectiveness. Through a scoping review, we have utilized an empirically derived framework of CBPR to map this literature and identify key findings and priorities for future research. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040119-094220DOI Listing

Adverse Cardiovascular Effects of Traffic Noise with a Focus on Nighttime Noise and the New WHO Noise Guidelines.

Annu Rev Public Health 2020 Apr 10;41:309-328. Epub 2020 Jan 10.

Diet, Genes and Environment Unit, Danish Cancer Society Research Center, 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark.

Exposure to traffic noise is associated with stress and sleep disturbances. The World Health Organization (WHO) recently concluded that road traffic noise increases the risk for ischemic heart disease and potentially other cardiometabolic diseases, including stroke, obesity, and diabetes. The WHO report focused on whole-day noise exposure, but new epidemiological and translational field noise studies indicate that nighttime noise, in particular,is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) through increased levels of stress hormones and vascular oxidative stress, leading to endothelial dysfunction and subsequent development of various CVDs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-081519-062400DOI Listing

Impacts of Coal Use on Health.

Annu Rev Public Health 2020 Apr 8;41:397-415. Epub 2020 Jan 8.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47405, USA; email:

This article reviews evidence for the public health impacts of coal across the extraction, processing, use, and waste disposal continuum. Surface coal mining and processing impose public health risks on residential communities through air and water pollution. Burning coal in power plants emits more nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, particulate matter, and heavy metals per unit of energy than any other fuel source and impairs global public health. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040119-094104DOI Listing

Sedentary Behavior and Public Health: Integrating the Evidence and Identifying Potential Solutions.

Annu Rev Public Health 2020 Apr 8;41:265-287. Epub 2020 Jan 8.

Physical Activity Laboratory, Baker Heart and Diabetes Institute, Melbourne, Victoria 3004, Australia; email:

In developed and developing countries, social, economic, and environmental transitions have led to physical inactivity and large amounts of time spent sitting. Research is now unraveling the adverse public health consequences of too much sitting. We describe improvements in device-based measurement that are providing new insights into sedentary behavior and health. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040119-094201DOI Listing

Effects of Electronic Cigarettes on Indoor Air Quality and Health.

Annu Rev Public Health 2020 Apr 7;41:363-380. Epub 2020 Jan 7.

Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Jonathan and Karin Fielding School of Public Health, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095-1772, USA; email:

With the rapid increase in electronic cigarette (e-cig) users worldwide, secondhand exposure to e-cig aerosols has become a serious public health concern. We summarize the evidence on the effects of e-cigs on indoor air quality, chemical compositions of mainstream and secondhand e-cig aerosols, and associated respiratory and cardiovascular effects. The use of e-cigs in indoor environments leads to high levels of fine and ultrafine particles similar to tobacco cigarettes (t-cigs). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040119-094043DOI Listing

Mental Health of Refugee Children and Youth: Epidemiology, Interventions, and Future Directions.

Annu Rev Public Health 2020 Apr 7;41:159-176. Epub 2020 Jan 7.

Research Program on Children and Adversity, School of Social Work, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts 02467, USA; email:

The number of refugee youth worldwide receives international attention and is a top priority in both academic and political agendas. This article adopts a critical eye in summarizing current epidemiological knowledge of refugee youth mental health as well as interventions aimed to prevent or reduce mental health problems among children and adolescents in both high- and low-to-middle-income countries. We highlight current challenges and limitations of extant literature and present potential opportunities and recommendations in refugee child psychiatric epidemiology and mental health services research for moving forward. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040119-094230DOI Listing

External Societal Costs of Antimicrobial Resistance in Humans Attributable to Antimicrobial Use in Livestock.

Annu Rev Public Health 2020 Apr 7;41:141-157. Epub 2020 Jan 7.

Department of Environmental Health and Engineering, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA; email:

Antimicrobial use (AMU) in animal agriculture contributes to antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in humans, which imposes significant health and economic costs on society. Economists call these costs negative externalities, societal costs that are not properly reflected in market prices. We review the relevant literature and develop a model to quantify the external costs of AMU in animal agriculture on AMR in humans. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040218-043954DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7199423PMC

Population-Based Approaches to Mental Health: History, Strategies, and Evidence.

Annu Rev Public Health 2020 Apr 6;41:201-221. Epub 2020 Jan 6.

Department of Community Health and Prevention, Dornsife School of Public Health, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA.

There is growing recognition in the fields of public health and mental health services research that the provision of clinical services to individuals is not a viable approach to meeting the mental health needs of a population. Despite enthusiasm for the notion of population-based approaches to mental health, concrete guidance about what such approaches entail is lacking, and evidence of their effectiveness has not been integrated. Drawing from research and scholarship across multiple disciplines, this review provides a concrete definition of population-based approaches to mental health, situates these approaches within their historical context in the United States, and summarizes the nature of these approaches and their evidence. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040119-094247DOI Listing

Social Media- and Internet-Based Disease Surveillance for Public Health.

Annu Rev Public Health 2020 Apr 6;41:101-118. Epub 2020 Jan 6.

Department of Epidemiology, Carolina Population Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599-7435, USA; email:

Disease surveillance systems are a cornerstone of public health tracking and prevention. This review addresses the use, promise, perils, and ethics of social media- and Internet-based data collection for public health surveillance. Our review highlights untapped opportunities for integrating digital surveillance in public health and current applications that could be improved through better integration, validation, and clarity on rules surrounding ethical considerations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040119-094402DOI Listing

Deregulation and the Assault on Science and the Environment.

Annu Rev Public Health 2020 Apr 6;41:347-361. Epub 2020 Jan 6.

Department of Health Policy and Management, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA; email:

The quality of the environment is a major determinant of the health and well-being of a population. The role of scientific evidence is central in the network of laws addressing environmental pollution in the United States and has been critical in addressing the myriad sources of environmental pollution and the burden of disease attributable to environmental factors. We address the shift away from reasoned action and science to a reliance on belief and document the efforts to separate regulation from science and to remove science-based regulations and policies intended to protect public health. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040119-094056DOI Listing

Addressing Health Equity in Public Health Practice: Frameworks, Promising Strategies, and Measurement Considerations.

Annu Rev Public Health 2020 Apr 3;41:417-432. Epub 2020 Jan 3.

Office of Minority Health and Health Equity, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30341-3717, USA; email:

This review describes the context of health equity and options for integrating equity into public health practice. We first discuss how the conceptualization of health equity and how equity considerations in US public health practice have been shaped by multidisciplinary engagements. We then discuss specific ways to address equity in core public health functions, provide examples of relevant frameworks and promising strategies, and discuss conceptual and measurement issues relevant to assessing progress in moving toward health equity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040119-094119DOI Listing

Disparities in Access to Oral Health Care.

Annu Rev Public Health 2020 Apr 3;41:513-535. Epub 2020 Jan 3.

NYU Langone Dental Medicine-Brooklyn, Postdoctoral Residency Program, Brooklyn, New York 11220, USA; email:

In the United States, people are more likely to have poor oral health if they are low-income, uninsured, and/or members of racial/ethnic minority, immigrant, or rural populations who have suboptimal access to quality oral health care. As a result, poor oral health serves as the national symbol of social inequality. There is increasing recognition among those in public health that oral diseases such as dental caries and periodontal disease and general health conditions such as obesity and diabetes are closely linked by sharing common risk factors, including excess sugar consumption and tobacco use, as well as underlying infection and inflammatory pathways. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040119-094318DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7125002PMC

Psychosocial Stressors and Telomere Length: A Current Review of the Science.

Annu Rev Public Health 2020 Apr 3;41:223-245. Epub 2020 Jan 3.

Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48106, USA; email:

A growing literature suggests that exposure to adverse social conditions may accelerate biological aging, offering one mechanism through which adversity may increase risk for age-related disease. As one of the most extensively studied biological markers of aging, telomere length (TL) provides a valuable tool to understand potential influences of social adversity on the aging process. Indeed, a sizeable literature now links a wide range of stressors to TL across the life span. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040119-094239DOI Listing

Sleep Health: An Opportunity for Public Health to Address Health Equity.

Annu Rev Public Health 2020 Apr 3;41:81-99. Epub 2020 Jan 3.

Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA; email:

The concept of sleep health provides a positive holistic framing of multiple sleep characteristics, including sleep duration, continuity, timing, alertness, and satisfaction. Sleep health promotion is an underrecognized public health opportunity with implications for a wide range of critical health outcomes, including cardiovascular disease, obesity, mental health, and neurodegenerative disease. Using a socioecological framework, we describe interacting domains of individual, social, and contextual influences on sleep health. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040119-094412DOI Listing

Housing and Healthy Child Development: Known and Potential Impacts of Interventions.

Authors:
James R Dunn

Annu Rev Public Health 2020 Apr 24;41:381-396. Epub 2019 Dec 24.

Department of Health, Aging and Society, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4M4, Canada; email:

Housing is often described as an important determinant of health, but less commonly of child health. Despite acknowledgment of the importance of housing to health, however, there are relatively few studies of the effects of housing interventions on health, and again even fewer on child health. This article argues that a broad focus on healthy child development-as opposed to just physical health-coupled with a conceptual framework outlining specific attributes of housing with the potential to influence child health, should be adopted to guide a comprehensive approach to public health policy for healthy child development. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040119-094050DOI Listing

Comparative Approaches to Drug Pricing.

Annu Rev Public Health 2020 Apr 24;41:499-512. Epub 2019 Dec 24.

Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA; email:

The United States relies primarily on market forces to determine prices for drugs, whereas most other industrialized countries use a variety of approaches to determine drug prices. Branded drug companies have patents and market exclusivity periods in most industrialized countries. During this period, pharmaceutical companies are allowed to set their list price as high as they prefer in the United States owing to the absence of government price control mechanisms that exist in other countries. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040119-094305DOI Listing

Public Health and Online Misinformation: Challenges and Recommendations.

Annu Rev Public Health 2020 Apr 24;41:433-451. Epub 2019 Dec 24.

Network Science Institute, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA; email:

The internet has become a popular resource to learn about health and to investigate one's own health condition. However, given the large amount of inaccurate information online, people can easily become misinformed. Individuals have always obtained information from outside the formal health care system, so how has the internet changed people's engagement with health information? This review explores how individuals interact with health misinformation online, whether it be through search, user-generated content, or mobile apps. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040119-094127DOI Listing

Essential Ingredients and Innovations in the Design and Analysis of Group-Randomized Trials.

Annu Rev Public Health 2020 Apr 23;41:1-19. Epub 2019 Dec 23.

Office of Disease Prevention, National Institutes of Health, North Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA; email:

This article reviews the essential ingredients and innovations in the design and analysis of group-randomized trials. The methods literature for these trials has grown steadily since they were introduced to the biomedical research community in the late 1970s, and we summarize those developments. We review, in addition to the group-randomized trial, methods for two closely related designs, the individually randomized group treatment trial and the stepped-wedge group-randomized trial. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040119-094027DOI Listing

Measures of Racism, Sexism, Heterosexism, and Gender Binarism for Health Equity Research: From Structural Injustice to Embodied Harm-An Ecosocial Analysis.

Authors:
Nancy Krieger

Annu Rev Public Health 2020 Apr 25;41:37-62. Epub 2019 Nov 25.

Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA; email:

Racism. Sexism. Heterosexism. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040119-094017DOI Listing

Resetting Policies to End Family Homelessness.

Annu Rev Public Health 2020 Apr 1;41:247-263. Epub 2019 Nov 1.

The Bassuk Center, Needham, Massachusetts 02494, USA; email:

Homelessness is a devastating experience for children and their families. Families, the majority of whose members are children, now comprise more than one-third of the overall US homeless population. Most of these children are less than six years old. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040119-094256DOI Listing
April 2020
1 Read

Sick Individuals and Sick (Microbial) Populations: Challenges in Epidemiology and the Microbiome.

Annu Rev Public Health 2020 Apr 21;41:63-80. Epub 2019 Oct 21.

Department of Global Health and Social Medicine, King's College London, London WC2B 4BG, United Kingdom; email:

The human microbiome represents a new frontier in understanding the biology of human health. While epidemiology in this area is still in its infancy, its scope will likely expand dramatically over the coming years. To rise to the challenge, we argue that epidemiology should capitalize on its population perspective as a critical complement to molecular microbiome research, allowing for the illumination of contextual mechanisms that may vary more across populations rather than among individuals. Read More

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https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/10.1146/annurev-publhealth
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040119-094423DOI Listing
April 2020
7 Reads

Machine Learning in Epidemiology and Health Outcomes Research.

Annu Rev Public Health 2020 Apr 2;41:21-36. Epub 2019 Oct 2.

Department of Computer Science, Bellarmine University, Louisville, Kentucky 40205, USA; email:

Machine learning approaches to modeling of epidemiologic data are becoming increasingly more prevalent in the literature. These methods have the potential to improve our understanding of health and opportunities for intervention, far beyond our past capabilities. This article provides a walkthrough for creating supervised machine learning models with current examples from the literature. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040119-094437DOI Listing

Hazardous Air Pollutants Associated with Upstream Oil and Natural Gas Development: A Critical Synthesis of Current Peer-Reviewed Literature.

Annu Rev Public Health 2019 04;40:283-304

Department of Environmental Health Sciences and Center for Occupational and Environmental Health, Fielding School of Public Health, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095-1772, USA; email:

Increased energy demands and innovations in upstream oil and natural gas (ONG) extraction technologies have enabled the United States to become one of the world's leading producers of petroleum and natural gas hydrocarbons. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) lists 187 hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) that are known or suspected to cause cancer or other serious health effects. Several of these HAPs have been measured at elevated concentrations around ONG sites, but most have not been studied in the context of upstream development. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040218-043715DOI Listing
April 2019
14 Reads
6.469 Impact Factor

Ambient Air Pollution, Noise, and Late-Life Cognitive Decline and Dementia Risk.

Annu Rev Public Health 2019 04;40:203-220

Department of Epidemiology, Fielding School of Public Health, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA; email: , ,

Exposure to ambient air pollution and noise is ubiquitous globally. A strong body of evidence links air pollution, and recently noise, to cardiovascular conditions that eventually may also affect cognition in the elderly. Data that support a broader influence of these exposures on cognitive function during aging is just starting to emerge. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040218-044058DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6544148PMC
April 2019
4 Reads
6.469 Impact Factor

Introduction to the Symposium: Causal Inference and Public Health.

Annu Rev Public Health 2019 04;40:1-5

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California, San Francisco, California 94127, USA; email:

Assessing the extent to which public health research findings can be causally interpreted continues to be a critical endeavor. In this symposium, we invited several researchers to review issues related to causal inference in social epidemiology and environmental science and to discuss the importance of external validity in public health. Together, this set of articles provides an integral overview of the strengths and limitations of applying causal inference frameworks and related approaches to a variety of public health problems, for both internal and external validity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-111918-103312DOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads

Making Health Research Matter: A Call to Increase Attention to External Validity.

Annu Rev Public Health 2019 04 21;40:45-63. Epub 2019 Jan 21.

Dissemination and Implementation Science Program of Adult and Child Consortium for Outcomes Research and Delivery Science (ACCORDS), School of Medicine, University of Colorado, Aurora, Colorado 80045, USA.

Most of the clinical research conducted with the goal of improving health is not generalizable to nonresearch settings. In addition, scientists often fail to replicate each other's findings due, in part, to lack of attention to contextual factors accounting for their relative effectiveness or failure. To address these problems, we review the literature on assessment of external validity and summarize approaches to designing for generalizability. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040218-043945DOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads

Causes and Patterns of Dementia: An Update in the Era of Redefining Alzheimer's Disease.

Annu Rev Public Health 2019 04 14;40:65-84. Epub 2019 Jan 14.

Rush Alzheimer's Disease Center, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois 60612, USA; email:

The burden of dementia continues to increase as the population ages, with no disease-modifying treatments available. However, dementia risk appears to be decreasing, and progress has been made in understanding its multifactorial etiology. The 2018 National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer's Association (NIA-AA) research framework for Alzheimer's disease (AD) defines AD as a biological process measured by brain pathology or biomarkers, spanning the cognitive spectrum from normality to dementia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040218-043758DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Brain and Salivary Gland Tumors and Mobile Phone Use: Evaluating the Evidence from Various Epidemiological Study Designs.

Annu Rev Public Health 2019 04 11;40:221-238. Epub 2019 Jan 11.

Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden.

Mobile phones (MPs) are the most relevant source of radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure to the brain and the salivary gland. Whether this exposure implies a cancer risk has been addressed in several case-control and few cohort studies. A meta-analysis of these studies does not show increased risks for meningioma, pituitary, and salivary gland tumors. Read More

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https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/10.1146/annurev-publhealth
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040218-044037DOI Listing
April 2019
35 Reads

Causal Modeling in Environmental Health.

Annu Rev Public Health 2019 04 11;40:23-43. Epub 2019 Jan 11.

Department of Statistics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA; email:

The field of environmental health has been dominated by modeling associations, especially by regressing an observed outcome on a linear or nonlinear function of observed covariates. Readers interested in advances in policies for improving environmental health are, however, expecting to be informed about health effects resulting from, or more explicitly caused by, environmental exposures. The quantification of health impacts resulting from the removal of environmental exposures involves causal statements. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040218-044048DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6445691PMC
April 2019
2 Reads

Global Environmental Change and Noncommunicable Disease Risks.

Annu Rev Public Health 2019 04 11;40:261-282. Epub 2019 Jan 11.

Department of Public Health, Environments and Society and Department of Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London WC1H 9SH, United Kingdom; email:

Multiple global environmental changes (GECs) now under way, including climate change, biodiversity loss, freshwater depletion, tropical deforestation, overexploitation of fisheries, ocean acidification, and soil degradation, have substantial, but still imperfectly understood, implications for human health. Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) make a major contribution to the global burden of disease. Many of the driving forces responsible for GEC also influence NCD risk through a range of mechanisms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040218-043706DOI Listing
April 2019
4 Reads

Earth Observation: Investigating Noncommunicable Diseases from Space.

Annu Rev Public Health 2019 04 11;40:85-104. Epub 2019 Jan 11.

Global Health Institute; and Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Xi'an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710049, China.

The United Nations has called on all nations to take immediate actions to fight noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), which have become an increasingly significant burden to public health systems around the world. NCDs tend to be more common in developed countries but are also becoming of growing concern in low- and middle-income countries. Earth observation (EO) technologies have been used in many infectious disease studies but have been less commonly employed in NCD studies. Read More

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https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/10.1146/annurev-publhealth
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040218-043807DOI Listing
April 2019
22 Reads

Realist Synthesis for Public Health: Building an Ontologically Deep Understanding of How Programs Work, For Whom, and In Which Contexts.

Authors:
Justin Jagosh

Annu Rev Public Health 2019 04 11;40:361-372. Epub 2019 Jan 11.

Centre for Advancement in Realist Evaluation and Synthesis (CARES; http://www.realistmethodology-cares.org ); and Institute of Population Health Sciences, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3GL, United Kingdom; email:

Realist synthesis is a literature review methodology for understanding how, for whom, and under what circumstances complex interventions function in complex environments. Using a heuristic called the context-mechanism-outcome (CMO) configuration, realist synthesis produces evidence-informed theories about the interactions between intervention mechanisms and their implementation contexts. Public health interventions and their effects unfold over time and develop differently in different contexts. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-031816-044451DOI Listing
April 2019
4 Reads

Television News Coverage of Public Health Issues and Implications for Public Health Policy and Practice.

Annu Rev Public Health 2019 04 11;40:167-185. Epub 2019 Jan 11.

Department of Communication, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853-4301, USA; email:

Television (TV) news, and especially local TV news, remains an important vehicle through which Americans obtain information about health-related topics. In this review, we synthesize theory and evidence on four main functions of TV news in shaping public health policy and practice: reporting events and information to the public (surveillance); providing the context for and meaning surrounding health issues (interpretation); cultivating community values, beliefs, and norms (socialization); and attracting and maintaining public attention for advertisers (attention merchant). We also identify challenges for TV news as a vehicle for improving public health, including declining audiences, industry changes such as station consolidation, increasingly politicized content, potential spread of misinformation, and lack of attention to inequity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040218-044017DOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads

Innovations in Mixed Methods Evaluations.

Annu Rev Public Health 2019 04 11;40:423-442. Epub 2019 Jan 11.

UCLA Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90024-1759, USA; email:

Mixed methods research-i.e., research that draws on both qualitative and quantitative methods in varying configurations-is well suited to address the increasing complexity of public health problems and their solutions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040218-044215DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6501787PMC
April 2019
5 Reads
6.469 Impact Factor

Environmental Exposures and Depression: Biological Mechanisms and Epidemiological Evidence.

Annu Rev Public Health 2019 04 11;40:239-259. Epub 2019 Jan 11.

Central Institute of Mental Health, Medical Faculty Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, 68167 Mannheim, Germany; email:

Mental health and well-being are consistently influenced-directly or indirectly-by multiple environmental exposures. In this review, we have attempted to address some of the most common exposures of the biophysical environment, with a goal of demonstrating how those factors interact with central structures and functions of the brain and thus influence the neurobiology of depression. We emphasize biochemical mechanisms, observational evidence, and areas for future research. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040218-044106DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Racism and Health: Evidence and Needed Research.

Annu Rev Public Health 2019 04 2;40:105-125. Epub 2019 Feb 2.

Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA; email:

In recent decades, there has been remarkable growth in scientific research examining the multiple ways in which racism can adversely affect health. This interest has been driven in part by the striking persistence of racial/ethnic inequities in health and the empirical evidence that indicates that socioeconomic factors alone do not account for racial/ethnic inequities in health. Racism is considered a fundamental cause of adverse health outcomes for racial/ethnic minorities and racial/ethnic inequities in health. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040218-043750DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6532402PMC
April 2019
3 Reads

The Economic Case for the Prevention of Mental Illness.

Annu Rev Public Health 2019 04 2;40:373-389. Epub 2019 Jan 2.

The Finnish Association for Mental Health, 00240 Helsinki, Finland; email:

Poor mental health has profound economic consequences. Given the burden of poor mental health, the economic case for preventing mental illness and promoting better mental health may be very strong, but too often prevention attracts little attention and few resources. This article describes the potential role that can be played by economic evidence alongside experimental trials and observational studies, or through modeling, to substantiate the need for increased investment in prevention. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040617-013629DOI Listing
April 2019
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Health Impact Assessment of Transportation Projects and Policies: Living Up to Aims of Advancing Population Health and Health Equity?

Annu Rev Public Health 2019 04 2;40:305-318. Epub 2019 Jan 2.

Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Fielding School of Public Health, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095-1772, USA; email:

Health impact assessment (HIA) is a forward-looking, evidence-based tool used to inform stakeholders and policy makers about the potential health effects of proposed projects and policies and to identify options for maximizing potential health benefits and minimizing potential harm. This review examines how health equity, a core principle of health impact assessment (HIA), has been operationalized in HIAs conducted in the United States in one sector, transportation. Two perspectives on promoting health equity appear in the broader public health research literature; one aims at reducing disparities in health determinants and outcomes in affected populations, whereas the other focuses on facilitating community participation and self-determination. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040617-013836DOI Listing
April 2019
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The Next Generation of Diabetes Translation: A Path to Health Equity.

Annu Rev Public Health 2019 04 2;40:391-410. Epub 2019 Jan 2.

Departments of Medicine; Health, Behavior and Society; and Acute and Chronic Care; and Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology and Clinical Research, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, Maryland 21287, USA; email:

Disparities in diabetes burden exist in large part because of the social determinants of health (SDOH). Translation research and practice addressing health equity in diabetes have generally focused on changing individual behavior or providing supportive approaches to compensate for, rather than directly target, SDOH. The purpose of this article is to propose a pathway for addressing SDOH as root causes of diabetes disparities and as an essential target for the next generation of interventions needed to achieve health equity in diabetes prevention and treatment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040218-044158DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Policies of Exclusion: Implications for the Health of Immigrants and Their Children.

Annu Rev Public Health 2019 04 2;40:147-166. Epub 2019 Jan 2.

Department of Sociology, University of California, Santa Cruz, California 95064, USA; email:

Public policies play a crucial role in shaping how immigrants adapt to life in the United States. Federal, state, and local laws and administrative practices impact immigrants' access to education, health insurance and medical care, cash assistance, food assistance, and other vital services. Additionally, immigration enforcement activities have substantial effects on immigrants' health and participation in public programs, as well as effects on immigrants' families. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040218-044115DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6494096PMC
April 2019
3 Reads

The Use of Excise Taxes to Reduce Tobacco, Alcohol, and Sugary Beverage Consumption.

Annu Rev Public Health 2019 04 2;40:187-201. Epub 2019 Jan 2.

Department of Health Management and Policy, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2029, USA; email:

In countries around the world, tobacco use, excessive alcohol consumption, and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are significant contributors to the global epidemic of noncommunicable diseases. As a consequence, they contribute, as well, to excess health care costs and productivity losses. A large and growing body of research documents that taxes specific to such products, known as excise taxes, reduce consumption of these products and thereby diminish their adverse health consequences. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040218-043816DOI Listing
April 2019
4 Reads