941 results match your criteria Annual Review of Public Health[Journal]


Hazardous Air Pollutants Associated with Upstream Oil and Natural Gas Development: A Critical Synthesis of Current Peer-Reviewed Literature.

Annu Rev Public Health 2019 Apr;40:283-304

Department of Environmental Health Sciences and Center for Occupational and Environmental Health, Fielding School of Public Health, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095-1772, USA; email:

Increased energy demands and innovations in upstream oil and natural gas (ONG) extraction technologies have enabled the United States to become one of the world's leading producers of petroleum and natural gas hydrocarbons. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) lists 187 hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) that are known or suspected to cause cancer or other serious health effects. Several of these HAPs have been measured at elevated concentrations around ONG sites, but most have not been studied in the context of upstream development. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040218-043715DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read
6.469 Impact Factor

Ambient Air Pollution, Noise, and Late-Life Cognitive Decline and Dementia Risk.

Annu Rev Public Health 2019 Apr;40:203-220

Department of Epidemiology, Fielding School of Public Health, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA; email: , ,

Exposure to ambient air pollution and noise is ubiquitous globally. A strong body of evidence links air pollution, and recently noise, to cardiovascular conditions that eventually may also affect cognition in the elderly. Data that support a broader influence of these exposures on cognitive function during aging is just starting to emerge. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040218-044058DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Introduction to the Symposium: Causal Inference and Public Health.

Annu Rev Public Health 2019 Apr;40:1-5

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California, San Francisco, California 94127, USA; email:

Assessing the extent to which public health research findings can be causally interpreted continues to be a critical endeavor. In this symposium, we invited several researchers to review issues related to causal inference in social epidemiology and environmental science and to discuss the importance of external validity in public health. Together, this set of articles provides an integral overview of the strengths and limitations of applying causal inference frameworks and related approaches to a variety of public health problems, for both internal and external validity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-111918-103312DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Making Health Research Matter: A Call to Increase Attention to External Validity.

Annu Rev Public Health 2019 Apr 21;40:45-63. Epub 2019 Jan 21.

Dissemination and Implementation Science Program of Adult and Child Consortium for Outcomes Research and Delivery Science (ACCORDS), School of Medicine, University of Colorado, Aurora, Colorado 80045, USA.

Most of the clinical research conducted with the goal of improving health is not generalizable to nonresearch settings. In addition, scientists often fail to replicate each other's findings due, in part, to lack of attention to contextual factors accounting for their relative effectiveness or failure. To address these problems, we review the literature on assessment of external validity and summarize approaches to designing for generalizability. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040218-043945DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Causes and Patterns of Dementia: An Update in the Era of Redefining Alzheimer's Disease.

Annu Rev Public Health 2019 Apr 14;40:65-84. Epub 2019 Jan 14.

Rush Alzheimer's Disease Center, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois 60612, USA; email:

The burden of dementia continues to increase as the population ages, with no disease-modifying treatments available. However, dementia risk appears to be decreasing, and progress has been made in understanding its multifactorial etiology. The 2018 National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer's Association (NIA-AA) research framework for Alzheimer's disease (AD) defines AD as a biological process measured by brain pathology or biomarkers, spanning the cognitive spectrum from normality to dementia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040218-043758DOI Listing
April 2019
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Brain and Salivary Gland Tumors and Mobile Phone Use: Evaluating the Evidence from Various Epidemiological Study Designs.

Annu Rev Public Health 2019 Apr 11;40:221-238. Epub 2019 Jan 11.

Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden.

Mobile phones (MPs) are the most relevant source of radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure to the brain and the salivary gland. Whether this exposure implies a cancer risk has been addressed in several case-control and few cohort studies. A meta-analysis of these studies does not show increased risks for meningioma, pituitary, and salivary gland tumors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040218-044037DOI Listing
April 2019
11 Reads

Causal Modeling in Environmental Health.

Annu Rev Public Health 2019 Apr 11;40:23-43. Epub 2019 Jan 11.

Department of Statistics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA; email:

The field of environmental health has been dominated by modeling associations, especially by regressing an observed outcome on a linear or nonlinear function of observed covariates. Readers interested in advances in policies for improving environmental health are, however, expecting to be informed about health effects resulting from, or more explicitly caused by, environmental exposures. The quantification of health impacts resulting from the removal of environmental exposures involves causal statements. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040218-044048DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6445691PMC
April 2019
1 Read

Global Environmental Change and Noncommunicable Disease Risks.

Annu Rev Public Health 2019 Apr 11;40:261-282. Epub 2019 Jan 11.

Department of Public Health, Environments and Society and Department of Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London WC1H 9SH, United Kingdom; email:

Multiple global environmental changes (GECs) now under way, including climate change, biodiversity loss, freshwater depletion, tropical deforestation, overexploitation of fisheries, ocean acidification, and soil degradation, have substantial, but still imperfectly understood, implications for human health. Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) make a major contribution to the global burden of disease. Many of the driving forces responsible for GEC also influence NCD risk through a range of mechanisms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040218-043706DOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads

Earth Observation: Investigating Noncommunicable Diseases from Space.

Annu Rev Public Health 2019 Apr 11;40:85-104. Epub 2019 Jan 11.

Global Health Institute; and Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Xi'an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710049, China.

The United Nations has called on all nations to take immediate actions to fight noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), which have become an increasingly significant burden to public health systems around the world. NCDs tend to be more common in developed countries but are also becoming of growing concern in low- and middle-income countries. Earth observation (EO) technologies have been used in many infectious disease studies but have been less commonly employed in NCD studies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040218-043807DOI Listing
April 2019
9 Reads

Realist Synthesis for Public Health: Building an Ontologically Deep Understanding of How Programs Work, For Whom, and In Which Contexts.

Authors:
Justin Jagosh

Annu Rev Public Health 2019 Apr 11;40:361-372. Epub 2019 Jan 11.

Centre for Advancement in Realist Evaluation and Synthesis (CARES; http://www.realistmethodology-cares.org ); and Institute of Population Health Sciences, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3GL, United Kingdom; email:

Realist synthesis is a literature review methodology for understanding how, for whom, and under what circumstances complex interventions function in complex environments. Using a heuristic called the context-mechanism-outcome (CMO) configuration, realist synthesis produces evidence-informed theories about the interactions between intervention mechanisms and their implementation contexts. Public health interventions and their effects unfold over time and develop differently in different contexts. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-031816-044451DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Television News Coverage of Public Health Issues and Implications for Public Health Policy and Practice.

Annu Rev Public Health 2019 Apr 11;40:167-185. Epub 2019 Jan 11.

Department of Communication, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853-4301, USA; email:

Television (TV) news, and especially local TV news, remains an important vehicle through which Americans obtain information about health-related topics. In this review, we synthesize theory and evidence on four main functions of TV news in shaping public health policy and practice: reporting events and information to the public (surveillance); providing the context for and meaning surrounding health issues (interpretation); cultivating community values, beliefs, and norms (socialization); and attracting and maintaining public attention for advertisers (attention merchant). We also identify challenges for TV news as a vehicle for improving public health, including declining audiences, industry changes such as station consolidation, increasingly politicized content, potential spread of misinformation, and lack of attention to inequity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040218-044017DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Innovations in Mixed Methods Evaluations.

Annu Rev Public Health 2019 Apr 11;40:423-442. Epub 2019 Jan 11.

UCLA Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90024-1759, USA; email:

Mixed methods research-i.e., research that draws on both qualitative and quantitative methods in varying configurations-is well suited to address the increasing complexity of public health problems and their solutions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040218-044215DOI Listing
April 2019
4 Reads
6.469 Impact Factor

Environmental Exposures and Depression: Biological Mechanisms and Epidemiological Evidence.

Annu Rev Public Health 2019 Apr 11;40:239-259. Epub 2019 Jan 11.

Central Institute of Mental Health, Medical Faculty Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, 68167 Mannheim, Germany; email:

Mental health and well-being are consistently influenced-directly or indirectly-by multiple environmental exposures. In this review, we have attempted to address some of the most common exposures of the biophysical environment, with a goal of demonstrating how those factors interact with central structures and functions of the brain and thus influence the neurobiology of depression. We emphasize biochemical mechanisms, observational evidence, and areas for future research. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040218-044106DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Racism and Health: Evidence and Needed Research.

Annu Rev Public Health 2019 Apr 2;40:105-125. Epub 2019 Feb 2.

Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA; email:

In recent decades, there has been remarkable growth in scientific research examining the multiple ways in which racism can adversely affect health. This interest has been driven in part by the striking persistence of racial/ethnic inequities in health and the empirical evidence that indicates that socioeconomic factors alone do not account for racial/ethnic inequities in health. Racism is considered a fundamental cause of adverse health outcomes for racial/ethnic minorities and racial/ethnic inequities in health. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040218-043750DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

The Economic Case for the Prevention of Mental Illness.

Annu Rev Public Health 2019 Apr 2;40:373-389. Epub 2019 Jan 2.

The Finnish Association for Mental Health, 00240 Helsinki, Finland; email:

Poor mental health has profound economic consequences. Given the burden of poor mental health, the economic case for preventing mental illness and promoting better mental health may be very strong, but too often prevention attracts little attention and few resources. This article describes the potential role that can be played by economic evidence alongside experimental trials and observational studies, or through modeling, to substantiate the need for increased investment in prevention. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040617-013629DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Health Impact Assessment of Transportation Projects and Policies: Living Up to Aims of Advancing Population Health and Health Equity?

Annu Rev Public Health 2019 Apr 2;40:305-318. Epub 2019 Jan 2.

Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Fielding School of Public Health, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095-1772, USA; email:

Health impact assessment (HIA) is a forward-looking, evidence-based tool used to inform stakeholders and policy makers about the potential health effects of proposed projects and policies and to identify options for maximizing potential health benefits and minimizing potential harm. This review examines how health equity, a core principle of health impact assessment (HIA), has been operationalized in HIAs conducted in the United States in one sector, transportation. Two perspectives on promoting health equity appear in the broader public health research literature; one aims at reducing disparities in health determinants and outcomes in affected populations, whereas the other focuses on facilitating community participation and self-determination. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040617-013836DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

The Next Generation of Diabetes Translation: A Path to Health Equity.

Annu Rev Public Health 2019 Apr 2;40:391-410. Epub 2019 Jan 2.

Departments of Medicine; Health, Behavior and Society; and Acute and Chronic Care; and Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology and Clinical Research, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, Maryland 21287, USA; email:

Disparities in diabetes burden exist in large part because of the social determinants of health (SDOH). Translation research and practice addressing health equity in diabetes have generally focused on changing individual behavior or providing supportive approaches to compensate for, rather than directly target, SDOH. The purpose of this article is to propose a pathway for addressing SDOH as root causes of diabetes disparities and as an essential target for the next generation of interventions needed to achieve health equity in diabetes prevention and treatment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040218-044158DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Policies of Exclusion: Implications for the Health of Immigrants and Their Children.

Annu Rev Public Health 2019 Apr 2;40:147-166. Epub 2019 Jan 2.

Department of Sociology, University of California, Santa Cruz, California 95064, USA; email:

Public policies play a crucial role in shaping how immigrants adapt to life in the United States. Federal, state, and local laws and administrative practices impact immigrants' access to education, health insurance and medical care, cash assistance, food assistance, and other vital services. Additionally, immigration enforcement activities have substantial effects on immigrants' health and participation in public programs, as well as effects on immigrants' families. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040218-044115DOI Listing
April 2019
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The Use of Excise Taxes to Reduce Tobacco, Alcohol, and Sugary Beverage Consumption.

Annu Rev Public Health 2019 Apr 2;40:187-201. Epub 2019 Jan 2.

Department of Health Management and Policy, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2029, USA; email:

In countries around the world, tobacco use, excessive alcohol consumption, and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are significant contributors to the global epidemic of noncommunicable diseases. As a consequence, they contribute, as well, to excess health care costs and productivity losses. A large and growing body of research documents that taxes specific to such products, known as excise taxes, reduce consumption of these products and thereby diminish their adverse health consequences. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040218-043816DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Commentary: Causal Inference for Social Exposures.

Authors:
Jay S Kaufman

Annu Rev Public Health 2019 Apr 2;40:7-21. Epub 2019 Jan 2.

Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics, and Occupational Health, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 1A2, Canada; email:

Social epidemiology seeks to describe and quantify the causal effects of social institutions, interactions, and structures on human health. To accomplish this task, we define exposures as treatments and posit populations exposed or unexposed to these well-defined regimens. This inferential structure allows us to unambiguously estimate and interpret quantitative causal parameters and to investigate how these may be affected by biases such as confounding. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040218-043735DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Happiness and Health.

Authors:
Andrew Steptoe

Annu Rev Public Health 2019 Apr 2;40:339-359. Epub 2019 Jan 2.

Department of Behavioural Science and Health, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom; email:

Research into the relationship between happiness and health is developing rapidly, exploring the possibility that impaired happiness is not only a consequence of ill-health but also a potential contributor to disease risk. Happiness encompasses several constructs, including affective well-being (feelings of joy and pleasure), eudaimonic well-being (sense of meaning and purpose in life), and evaluative well-being (life satisfaction). Happiness is generally associated with reduced mortality in prospective observational studies, albeit with several discrepant results. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040218-044150DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Solving Homelessness from a Complex Systems Perspective: Insights for Prevention Responses.

Annu Rev Public Health 2019 Apr 2;40:465-486. Epub 2019 Jan 2.

Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri 63130, USA; email:

Homelessness represents an enduring public health threat facing communities across the developed world. Children, families, and marginalized adults face life course implications of housing insecurity, while communities struggle to address the extensive array of needs within heterogeneous homeless populations. Trends in homelessness remain stubbornly high despite policy initiatives to end homelessness. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040617-013553DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6445694PMC
April 2019
1 Read

Interventions to Support Behavioral Self-Management of Chronic Diseases.

Annu Rev Public Health 2019 Apr 2;40:127-146. Epub 2019 Jan 2.

Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY 10065, USA; email:

A majority of the US adult population has one or more chronic conditions that require medical intervention and long-term self-management. Such conditions are among the 10 leading causes of mortality; an estimated 86% of the nation's $2.7 trillion in annual health care expenditures goes toward their treatment and management. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040218-044008DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

School Health as a Strategy to Improve Both Public Health and Education.

Authors:
Lloyd J Kolbe

Annu Rev Public Health 2019 Apr 19;40:443-463. Epub 2018 Dec 19.

Department of Applied Health Science, School of Public Health, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47405, USA; email:

Because schools materially influence both health and education, they substantially determine the future well-being and economic productivity of populations. Recent research suggests that healthier children learn better and that more educated adults are healthier. School health is a cross-disciplinary field of study and a fundamental strategy that can be used to improve both health and education outcomes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040218-043727DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

The Digitization of Patient Care: A Review of the Effects of Electronic Health Records on Health Care Quality and Utilization.

Annu Rev Public Health 2019 Apr 19;40:487-500. Epub 2018 Dec 19.

Department of Health Management and Policy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2029, USA; email:

Electronic health records (EHRs) adoption has become nearly universal during the past decade. Academic research into the effects of EHRs has examined factors influencing adoption, clinical care benefits, financial and cost implications, and more. We provide an interdisciplinary overview and synthesis of this literature, drawing on work in public and population health, informatics, medicine, management information systems, and economics. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040218-044206DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Aligning Programs and Policies to Support Food Security and Public Health Goals in the United States.

Annu Rev Public Health 2019 Apr 16;40:319-337. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Division of General Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA.

Food insecurity affects 1 in 8 US households and has clear implications for population health disparities. We present a person-centered, multilevel framework for understanding how individuals living in food-insecure households cope with inadequate access to food themselves and within their households, communities, and broader food system. Many of these coping strategies can have an adverse impact on health, particularly when the coping strategies are sustained over time; others may be salutary for health. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040218-044132DOI Listing
April 2019
6 Reads

High-Deductible Health Plans and Prevention.

Annu Rev Public Health 2019 Apr 7;40:411-421. Epub 2018 Nov 7.

Department of Health Policy and Management, Richard M. Fairbanks School of Public Health, Indiana University-IUPUI, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202-2872, USA; email: ,

High-deductible health plans (HDHPs) are becoming more popular owing to their potential to curb rising health care costs. Relative to traditional health insurance plans, HDHPs involve higher out-of-pocket costs for consumers, which have been associated with lower utilization of health services. We focus specifically on the impact that HDHPs have on the use of preventive services. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040218-044225DOI Listing
April 2019
16 Reads

Policy Approaches for Regulating Alcohol Marketing in a Global Context: A Public Health Perspective.

Annu Rev Public Health 2018 04;39:385-401

Department of Health, Behavior and Society, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, 21205, USA; email:

Alcohol consumption is responsible for 3.3 million deaths globally or nearly 6% of all deaths. Alcohol use contributes to both communicable and noncommunicable diseases, as well as violence and injuries. Read More

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April 2018
6 Reads

From Crowdsourcing to Extreme Citizen Science: Participatory Research for Environmental Health.

Annu Rev Public Health 2018 04;39:335-350

Public Health Institute, Richmond, California 94804, USA; email: ,

Environmental health issues are becoming more challenging, and addressing them requires new approaches to research design and decision-making processes. Participatory research approaches, in which researchers and communities are involved in all aspects of a research study, can improve study outcomes and foster greater data accessibility and utility as well as increase public transparency. Here we review varied concepts of participatory research, describe how it complements and overlaps with community engagement and environmental justice, examine its intersection with emerging environmental sensor technologies, and discuss the strengths and limitations of participatory research. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040617-013702DOI Listing
April 2018
4 Reads

Increasing Disparities in Mortality by Socioeconomic Status.

Authors:
Barry Bosworth

Annu Rev Public Health 2018 04;39:237-251

Economics Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, Washington, DC 20036, USA; email:

This review focuses on the widening disparities in death rates by socioeconomic class. In recent years, there has been a major increase in the availability of data linking mortality risk and measures of socioeconomic status. The result has been a virtual explosion of new empirical research showing not only the existence of large inequities in the risk of death between those at the top and those at the bottom of the socioeconomic distribution, but also that the gaps have been growing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040617-014615DOI Listing
April 2018
7 Reads

Mobile Sensing in Environmental Health and Neighborhood Research.

Authors:
Basile Chaix

Annu Rev Public Health 2018 04;39:367-384

Nemesis Team, Pierre Louis Institute of Epidemiology and Public Health, UMR-S 1136 (Inserm, Sorbonne Universités), 75012, Paris, France; email:

Public health research has witnessed a rapid development in the use of location, environmental, behavioral, and biophysical sensors that provide high-resolution objective time-stamped data. This burgeoning field is stimulated by the development of novel multisensor devices that collect data for an increasing number of channels and algorithms that predict relevant dimensions from one or several data channels. Global positioning system (GPS) tracking, which enables geographic momentary assessment, permits researchers to assess multiplace personal exposure areas and the algorithm-based identification of trips and places visited, eventually validated and complemented using a GPS-based mobility survey. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040617-013731DOI Listing
April 2018
9 Reads

Migrant Workers and Their Occupational Health and Safety.

Annu Rev Public Health 2018 04 24;39:351-365. Epub 2018 Jan 24.

Department of Public Health Sciences, University of California, Davis, California 95616, USA; email:

In 2015, approximately 244 million people were transnational migrants, approximately half of whom were workers, often engaged in jobs that are hazardous to their health. They work for less pay, for longer hours, and in worse conditions than do nonmigrants and are often subject to human rights violations, abuse, human trafficking, and violence. Worldwide, immigrant workers have higher rates of adverse occupational exposures and working conditions, which lead to poor health outcomes, workplace injuries, and occupational fatalities. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040617-013714DOI Listing
April 2018
37 Reads

Promoting Prevention Under the Affordable Care Act.

Annu Rev Public Health 2018 04 24;39:507-524. Epub 2018 Jan 24.

Robert F. Wagner Graduate School of Public Service, New York University, New York, NY 10012, USA; email: ,

The Affordable Care Act (ACA) of 2010 placed a substantial emphasis on public health and prevention. Subsequent research on its effects reveals some notable successes and some missteps and offers important lessons for future legislators. The ACA's Prevention and Public Health Fund, intended to give public health budgetary flexibility, provided crucial funding for public health services during the Great Recession but proved highly vulnerable to subsequent budget cuts. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040617-013534DOI Listing
April 2018
4 Reads

How Much Do We Spend? Creating Historical Estimates of Public Health Expenditures in the United States at the Federal, State, and Local Levels.

Annu Rev Public Health 2018 04 18;39:471-487. Epub 2018 Jan 18.

Department of Health Services Management, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40536-0003, USA; email:

The United States has a complex governmental public health system. Agencies at the federal, state, and local levels all contribute to the protection and promotion of the population's health. Whether the modern public health system is well situated to deliver essential public health services, however, is an open question. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040617-013455DOI Listing
April 2018
8 Reads

Relative Roles of Race Versus Socioeconomic Position in Studies of Health Inequalities: A Matter of Interpretation.

Annu Rev Public Health 2018 04 12;39:169-188. Epub 2018 Jan 12.

Department of Health Policy and Management, Milken Institute School of Public Health, George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052, USA; email:

An abundance of research has documented health inequalities by race and socioeconomic position (SEP) in the United States. However, conceptual and methodological challenges complicate the interpretation of study findings, thereby limiting progress in understanding health inequalities and in achieving health equity. Fundamental to these challenges is a lack of clarity about what race is and the implications of that ambiguity for scientific inquiry. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040617-014230DOI Listing
April 2018
6 Reads

Modeling Health Care Expenditures and Use.

Annu Rev Public Health 2018 04 12;39:489-505. Epub 2018 Jan 12.

Departments of Health Management and Policy and Economics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA; and National Bureau of Economic Research; email:

Health care expenditures and use are challenging to model because these dependent variables typically have distributions that are skewed with a large mass at zero. In this article, we describe estimation and interpretation of the effects of a natural experiment using two classes of nonlinear statistical models: one for health care expenditures and the other for counts of health care use. We extend prior analyses to test the effect of the ACA's young adult expansion on three different outcomes: total health care expenditures, office-based visits, and emergency department visits. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040617-013517DOI Listing
April 2018
6 Reads

Environmental Influences on the Epigenome: Exposure- Associated DNA Methylation in Human Populations.

Annu Rev Public Health 2018 04 12;39:309-333. Epub 2018 Jan 12.

Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, and Curriculum in Toxicology, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA; email: ,

DNA methylation is the most well studied of the epigenetic regulators in relation to environmental exposures. To date, numerous studies have detailed the manner by which DNA methylation is influenced by the environment, resulting in altered global and gene-specific DNA methylation. These studies have focused on prenatal, early-life, and adult exposure scenarios. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040617-014629DOI Listing
April 2018
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Designing Difference in Difference Studies: Best Practices for Public Health Policy Research.

Annu Rev Public Health 2018 04 12;39:453-469. Epub 2018 Jan 12.

School of Public and Environmental Affairs, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47405, USA; email: ,

The difference in difference (DID) design is a quasi-experimental research design that researchers often use to study causal relationships in public health settings where randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are infeasible or unethical. However, causal inference poses many challenges in DID designs. In this article, we review key features of DID designs with an emphasis on public health policy research. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040617-013507DOI Listing
April 2018
9 Reads

Meta-Analysis of Complex Interventions.

Annu Rev Public Health 2018 04 12;39:135-151. Epub 2018 Jan 12.

RAND Corporation, Santa Monica, California 90407-2138, USA; email:

Meta-analysis is a prominent method for estimating the effects of public health interventions, yet these interventions are often complex in ways that pose challenges to using conventional meta-analytic methods. This article discusses meta-analytic techniques that can be used in research syntheses on the effects of complex public health interventions. We first introduce the use of complexity frameworks to conceptualize public health interventions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040617-014112DOI Listing
April 2018
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Environmental Determinants of Breast Cancer.

Annu Rev Public Health 2018 04 12;39:113-133. Epub 2018 Jan 12.

Silent Spring Institute, Newton, Massachusetts 02460, USA; email:

In the United States, breast cancer is the most common invasive malignancy and the second most common cause of death from cancer in women. Reproductive factors, estrogen, and progesterone have major causal roles, but concerns about other potential causes in the external environment continue to drive research inquiries and stimulate calls for action at the policy level. The environment is defined as anything that is not genetic and includes social, built, and chemical toxicant aspects. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040617-014101DOI Listing
April 2018
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Neighborhood Interventions to Reduce Violence.

Annu Rev Public Health 2018 04 12;39:253-271. Epub 2018 Jan 12.

Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA.

Violence is a widespread problem that affects the physical, mental, and social health of individuals and communities. Violence comes with an immense economic cost to its victims and society at large. Although violence interventions have traditionally targeted individuals, changes to the built environment in places where violence occurs show promise as practical, sustainable, and high-impact preventive measures. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040617-014600DOI Listing
April 2018
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Selecting and Improving Quasi-Experimental Designs in Effectiveness and Implementation Research.

Annu Rev Public Health 2018 04 12;39:5-25. Epub 2018 Jan 12.

Center for Vulnerable Populations at Zuckerberg San Francisco General Hospital and Trauma Center, University of California, San Francisco, California 94110, USA.

Interventional researchers face many design challenges when assessing intervention implementation in real-world settings. Intervention implementation requires holding fast on internal validity needs while incorporating external validity considerations (such as uptake by diverse subpopulations, acceptability, cost, and sustainability). Quasi-experimental designs (QEDs) are increasingly employed to achieve a balance between internal and external validity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040617-014128DOI Listing
April 2018
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The Sustainability of Evidence-Based Interventions and Practices in Public Health and Health Care.

Annu Rev Public Health 2018 04 12;39:55-76. Epub 2018 Jan 12.

Dissemination and Training Division, National Center for PTSD and Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94024, USA; email:

There is strong interest in implementation science to address the gap between research and practice in public health. Research on the sustainability of evidence-based interventions has been growing rapidly. Sustainability has been defined as the continued use of program components at sufficient intensity for the sustained achievement of desirable program goals and population outcomes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040617-014731DOI Listing
April 2018
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Achieving Mental Health and Substance Use Disorder Treatment Parity: A Quarter Century of Policy Making and Research.

Annu Rev Public Health 2018 04 12;39:421-435. Epub 2018 Jan 12.

Department of Health Policy and Management, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, Connecticut 06520-8034, USA; email: ,

The Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act (MHPAEA) of 2008 changed the landscape of mental health and substance use disorder coverage in the United States. The MHPAEA's comprehensiveness compared with past parity laws, including its extension of parity to plan management strategies, the so-called nonquantitative treatment limitations (NQTL), led to significant improvements in mental health care coverage. In this article, we review the history of this landmark legislation and its recent expansions to new populations, describe past research on the effects of this and other mental health/substance use disorder parity laws, and describe some directions for future research, including NQTL compliance issues, effects of parity on individuals with severe mental illness, and measurement of benefits other than mental health care use. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040617-013603DOI Listing
April 2018
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Agent-Based Modeling in Public Health: Current Applications and Future Directions.

Annu Rev Public Health 2018 04 12;39:77-94. Epub 2018 Jan 12.

Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA; email:

Agent-based modeling is a computational approach in which agents with a specified set of characteristics interact with each other and with their environment according to predefined rules. We review key areas in public health where agent-based modeling has been adopted, including both communicable and noncommunicable disease, health behaviors, and social epidemiology. We also describe the main strengths and limitations of this approach for questions with public health relevance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040617-014317DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5937544PMC
April 2018
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The Relationship Between Education and Health: Reducing Disparities Through a Contextual Approach.

Annu Rev Public Health 2018 04 12;39:273-289. Epub 2018 Jan 12.

Department of Sociology, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, Nevada 89154, USA; email:

Adults with higher educational attainment live healthier and longer lives compared with their less educated peers. The disparities are large and widening. We posit that understanding the educational and macrolevel contexts in which this association occurs is key to reducing health disparities and improving population health. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-031816-044628DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5880718PMC
April 2018
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Building Evidence for Health: Green Buildings, Current Science, and Future Challenges.

Annu Rev Public Health 2018 04 12;39:291-308. Epub 2018 Jan 12.

Environmental Health Department, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA; email:

Civilizational challenges have questioned the status quo of energy and material consumption by humans. From the built environment perspective, a response to these challenges was the creation of green buildings. Although the revolutionary capacity of the green building movement has elevated the expectations of new commercial construction, its rate of implementation has secluded the majority of the population from its benefits. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-031816-044420DOI Listing
April 2018
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Harm Minimization and Tobacco Control: Reframing Societal Views of Nicotine Use to Rapidly Save Lives.

Annu Rev Public Health 2018 04 11;39:193-213. Epub 2018 Jan 11.

College of Global Public Health, New York University, New York, NY 10012, USA; email: ,

Inhalation of the toxic smoke produced by combusting tobacco products, primarily cigarettes, is the overwhelming cause of tobacco-related disease and death in the United States and globally. A diverse class of alternative nicotine delivery systems (ANDS) has recently been developed that do not combust tobacco and are substantially less harmful than cigarettes. ANDS have the potential to disrupt the 120-year dominance of the cigarette and challenge the field on how the tobacco pandemic could be reversed if nicotine is decoupled from lethal inhaled smoke. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040617-013849DOI Listing
April 2018
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The Debate About Electronic Cigarettes: Harm Minimization or the Precautionary Principle.

Annu Rev Public Health 2018 04 11;39:189-191. Epub 2018 Jan 11.

Prevention Research Center in St. Louis, Brown School; Department of Surgery and Alvin J. Siteman Cancer Center, Washington University School of Medicine, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri 63130, USA; email:

Two contrasting reviews (authored by Abrams et al. and Glantz & Bareham) in this volume have reached opposing conclusions on the effects of electronic cigarettes in a debate that is dividing the scientific and professional communities that have devoted careers to controlling the manufacture, advertising, sale, and use of combustible cigarettes. The research on the types, degree, and extent of harm from e-cigarettes is far from complete and, together with trends in teenage smoking and vaping, has raised new questions and prospects about the potential benefits that the new electronic products offer smokers of combustible cigarettes in quitting or at least cutting back on the known risks associated with the traditional forms of smoking. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-102417-124810DOI Listing
April 2018
7 Reads