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    913 results match your criteria Annual Review of Public Health[Journal]

    1 OF 19

    Policy Approaches for Regulating Alcohol Marketing in a Global Context: A Public Health Perspective.
    Annu Rev Public Health 2018 Apr;39:385-401
    Department of Health, Behavior and Society, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, 21205, USA; email:
    Alcohol consumption is responsible for 3.3 million deaths globally or nearly 6% of all deaths. Alcohol use contributes to both communicable and noncommunicable diseases, as well as violence and injuries. Read More

    From Crowdsourcing to Extreme Citizen Science: Participatory Research for Environmental Health.
    Annu Rev Public Health 2018 Apr;39:335-350
    Public Health Institute, Richmond, California 94804, USA; email: ,
    Environmental health issues are becoming more challenging, and addressing them requires new approaches to research design and decision-making processes. Participatory research approaches, in which researchers and communities are involved in all aspects of a research study, can improve study outcomes and foster greater data accessibility and utility as well as increase public transparency. Here we review varied concepts of participatory research, describe how it complements and overlaps with community engagement and environmental justice, examine its intersection with emerging environmental sensor technologies, and discuss the strengths and limitations of participatory research. Read More

    Increasing Disparities in Mortality by Socioeconomic Status.
    Annu Rev Public Health 2018 Apr;39:237-251
    Economics Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, Washington, DC 20036, USA; email:
    This review focuses on the widening disparities in death rates by socioeconomic class. In recent years, there has been a major increase in the availability of data linking mortality risk and measures of socioeconomic status. The result has been a virtual explosion of new empirical research showing not only the existence of large inequities in the risk of death between those at the top and those at the bottom of the socioeconomic distribution, but also that the gaps have been growing. Read More

    Mobile Sensing in Environmental Health and Neighborhood Research.
    Annu Rev Public Health 2018 Apr;39:367-384
    Nemesis Team, Pierre Louis Institute of Epidemiology and Public Health, UMR-S 1136 (Inserm, Sorbonne Universités), 75012, Paris, France; email:
    Public health research has witnessed a rapid development in the use of location, environmental, behavioral, and biophysical sensors that provide high-resolution objective time-stamped data. This burgeoning field is stimulated by the development of novel multisensor devices that collect data for an increasing number of channels and algorithms that predict relevant dimensions from one or several data channels. Global positioning system (GPS) tracking, which enables geographic momentary assessment, permits researchers to assess multiplace personal exposure areas and the algorithm-based identification of trips and places visited, eventually validated and complemented using a GPS-based mobility survey. Read More

    Migrant Workers and Their Occupational Health and Safety.
    Annu Rev Public Health 2018 Apr 24;39:351-365. Epub 2018 Jan 24.
    Department of Public Health Sciences, University of California, Davis, California 95616, USA; email:
    In 2015, approximately 244 million people were transnational migrants, approximately half of whom were workers, often engaged in jobs that are hazardous to their health. They work for less pay, for longer hours, and in worse conditions than do nonmigrants and are often subject to human rights violations, abuse, human trafficking, and violence. Worldwide, immigrant workers have higher rates of adverse occupational exposures and working conditions, which lead to poor health outcomes, workplace injuries, and occupational fatalities. Read More

    Promoting Prevention Under the Affordable Care Act.
    Annu Rev Public Health 2018 Apr 24;39:507-524. Epub 2018 Jan 24.
    Robert F. Wagner Graduate School of Public Service, New York University, New York, NY 10012, USA; email: ,
    The Affordable Care Act (ACA) of 2010 placed a substantial emphasis on public health and prevention. Subsequent research on its effects reveals some notable successes and some missteps and offers important lessons for future legislators. The ACA's Prevention and Public Health Fund, intended to give public health budgetary flexibility, provided crucial funding for public health services during the Great Recession but proved highly vulnerable to subsequent budget cuts. Read More

    How Much Do We Spend? Creating Historical Estimates of Public Health Expenditures in the United States at the Federal, State, and Local Levels.
    Annu Rev Public Health 2018 Apr 18;39:471-487. Epub 2018 Jan 18.
    Department of Health Services Management, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40536-0003, USA; email:
    The United States has a complex governmental public health system. Agencies at the federal, state, and local levels all contribute to the protection and promotion of the population's health. Whether the modern public health system is well situated to deliver essential public health services, however, is an open question. Read More

    Relative Roles of Race Versus Socioeconomic Position in Studies of Health Inequalities: A Matter of Interpretation.
    Annu Rev Public Health 2018 Apr 12;39:169-188. Epub 2018 Jan 12.
    Department of Health Policy and Management, Milken Institute School of Public Health, George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052, USA; email:
    An abundance of research has documented health inequalities by race and socioeconomic position (SEP) in the United States. However, conceptual and methodological challenges complicate the interpretation of study findings, thereby limiting progress in understanding health inequalities and in achieving health equity. Fundamental to these challenges is a lack of clarity about what race is and the implications of that ambiguity for scientific inquiry. Read More

    Modeling Health Care Expenditures and Use.
    Annu Rev Public Health 2018 Apr 12;39:489-505. Epub 2018 Jan 12.
    Departments of Health Management and Policy and Economics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA; and National Bureau of Economic Research; email:
    Health care expenditures and use are challenging to model because these dependent variables typically have distributions that are skewed with a large mass at zero. In this article, we describe estimation and interpretation of the effects of a natural experiment using two classes of nonlinear statistical models: one for health care expenditures and the other for counts of health care use. We extend prior analyses to test the effect of the ACA's young adult expansion on three different outcomes: total health care expenditures, office-based visits, and emergency department visits. Read More

    Environmental Influences on the Epigenome: Exposure- Associated DNA Methylation in Human Populations.
    Annu Rev Public Health 2018 Apr 12;39:309-333. Epub 2018 Jan 12.
    Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, and Curriculum in Toxicology, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA; email: ,
    DNA methylation is the most well studied of the epigenetic regulators in relation to environmental exposures. To date, numerous studies have detailed the manner by which DNA methylation is influenced by the environment, resulting in altered global and gene-specific DNA methylation. These studies have focused on prenatal, early-life, and adult exposure scenarios. Read More

    Designing Difference in Difference Studies: Best Practices for Public Health Policy Research.
    Annu Rev Public Health 2018 Apr 12;39:453-469. Epub 2018 Jan 12.
    School of Public and Environmental Affairs, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47405, USA; email: ,
    The difference in difference (DID) design is a quasi-experimental research design that researchers often use to study causal relationships in public health settings where randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are infeasible or unethical. However, causal inference poses many challenges in DID designs. In this article, we review key features of DID designs with an emphasis on public health policy research. Read More

    Meta-Analysis of Complex Interventions.
    Annu Rev Public Health 2018 Apr 12;39:135-151. Epub 2018 Jan 12.
    RAND Corporation, Santa Monica, California 90407-2138, USA; email:
    Meta-analysis is a prominent method for estimating the effects of public health interventions, yet these interventions are often complex in ways that pose challenges to using conventional meta-analytic methods. This article discusses meta-analytic techniques that can be used in research syntheses on the effects of complex public health interventions. We first introduce the use of complexity frameworks to conceptualize public health interventions. Read More

    Environmental Determinants of Breast Cancer.
    Annu Rev Public Health 2018 Apr 12;39:113-133. Epub 2018 Jan 12.
    Silent Spring Institute, Newton, Massachusetts 02460, USA; email:
    In the United States, breast cancer is the most common invasive malignancy and the second most common cause of death from cancer in women. Reproductive factors, estrogen, and progesterone have major causal roles, but concerns about other potential causes in the external environment continue to drive research inquiries and stimulate calls for action at the policy level. The environment is defined as anything that is not genetic and includes social, built, and chemical toxicant aspects. Read More

    Neighborhood Interventions to Reduce Violence.
    Annu Rev Public Health 2018 Apr 12;39:253-271. Epub 2018 Jan 12.
    Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA.
    Violence is a widespread problem that affects the physical, mental, and social health of individuals and communities. Violence comes with an immense economic cost to its victims and society at large. Although violence interventions have traditionally targeted individuals, changes to the built environment in places where violence occurs show promise as practical, sustainable, and high-impact preventive measures. Read More

    Selecting and Improving Quasi-Experimental Designs in Effectiveness and Implementation Research.
    Annu Rev Public Health 2018 Apr 12;39:5-25. Epub 2018 Jan 12.
    Center for Vulnerable Populations at Zuckerberg San Francisco General Hospital and Trauma Center, University of California, San Francisco, California 94110, USA.
    Interventional researchers face many design challenges when assessing intervention implementation in real-world settings. Intervention implementation requires holding fast on internal validity needs while incorporating external validity considerations (such as uptake by diverse subpopulations, acceptability, cost, and sustainability). Quasi-experimental designs (QEDs) are increasingly employed to achieve a balance between internal and external validity. Read More

    The Sustainability of Evidence-Based Interventions and Practices in Public Health and Health Care.
    Annu Rev Public Health 2018 Apr 12;39:55-76. Epub 2018 Jan 12.
    Dissemination and Training Division, National Center for PTSD and Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94024, USA; email:
    There is strong interest in implementation science to address the gap between research and practice in public health. Research on the sustainability of evidence-based interventions has been growing rapidly. Sustainability has been defined as the continued use of program components at sufficient intensity for the sustained achievement of desirable program goals and population outcomes. Read More

    Achieving Mental Health and Substance Use Disorder Treatment Parity: A Quarter Century of Policy Making and Research.
    Annu Rev Public Health 2018 Apr 12;39:421-435. Epub 2018 Jan 12.
    Department of Health Policy and Management, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, Connecticut 06520-8034, USA; email: ,
    The Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act (MHPAEA) of 2008 changed the landscape of mental health and substance use disorder coverage in the United States. The MHPAEA's comprehensiveness compared with past parity laws, including its extension of parity to plan management strategies, the so-called nonquantitative treatment limitations (NQTL), led to significant improvements in mental health care coverage. In this article, we review the history of this landmark legislation and its recent expansions to new populations, describe past research on the effects of this and other mental health/substance use disorder parity laws, and describe some directions for future research, including NQTL compliance issues, effects of parity on individuals with severe mental illness, and measurement of benefits other than mental health care use. Read More

    Agent-Based Modeling in Public Health: Current Applications and Future Directions.
    Annu Rev Public Health 2018 Apr 12;39:77-94. Epub 2018 Jan 12.
    Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA; email:
    Agent-based modeling is a computational approach in which agents with a specified set of characteristics interact with each other and with their environment according to predefined rules. We review key areas in public health where agent-based modeling has been adopted, including both communicable and noncommunicable disease, health behaviors, and social epidemiology. We also describe the main strengths and limitations of this approach for questions with public health relevance. Read More

    The Relationship Between Education and Health: Reducing Disparities Through a Contextual Approach.
    Annu Rev Public Health 2018 Apr 12;39:273-289. Epub 2018 Jan 12.
    Department of Sociology, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, Nevada 89154, USA; email:
    Adults with higher educational attainment live healthier and longer lives compared with their less educated peers. The disparities are large and widening. We posit that understanding the educational and macrolevel contexts in which this association occurs is key to reducing health disparities and improving population health. Read More

    Building Evidence for Health: Green Buildings, Current Science, and Future Challenges.
    Annu Rev Public Health 2018 Apr 12;39:291-308. Epub 2018 Jan 12.
    Environmental Health Department, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA; email:
    Civilizational challenges have questioned the status quo of energy and material consumption by humans. From the built environment perspective, a response to these challenges was the creation of green buildings. Although the revolutionary capacity of the green building movement has elevated the expectations of new commercial construction, its rate of implementation has secluded the majority of the population from its benefits. Read More

    Harm Minimization and Tobacco Control: Reframing Societal Views of Nicotine Use to Rapidly Save Lives.
    Annu Rev Public Health 2018 Apr 11;39:193-213. Epub 2018 Jan 11.
    College of Global Public Health, New York University, New York, NY 10012, USA; email: ,
    Inhalation of the toxic smoke produced by combusting tobacco products, primarily cigarettes, is the overwhelming cause of tobacco-related disease and death in the United States and globally. A diverse class of alternative nicotine delivery systems (ANDS) has recently been developed that do not combust tobacco and are substantially less harmful than cigarettes. ANDS have the potential to disrupt the 120-year dominance of the cigarette and challenge the field on how the tobacco pandemic could be reversed if nicotine is decoupled from lethal inhaled smoke. Read More

    The Debate About Electronic Cigarettes: Harm Minimization or the Precautionary Principle.
    Annu Rev Public Health 2018 Apr 11;39:189-191. Epub 2018 Jan 11.
    Prevention Research Center in St. Louis, Brown School; Department of Surgery and Alvin J. Siteman Cancer Center, Washington University School of Medicine, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri 63130, USA; email:
    Two contrasting reviews (authored by Abrams et al. and Glantz & Bareham) in this volume have reached opposing conclusions on the effects of electronic cigarettes in a debate that is dividing the scientific and professional communities that have devoted careers to controlling the manufacture, advertising, sale, and use of combustible cigarettes. The research on the types, degree, and extent of harm from e-cigarettes is far from complete and, together with trends in teenage smoking and vaping, has raised new questions and prospects about the potential benefits that the new electronic products offer smokers of combustible cigarettes in quitting or at least cutting back on the known risks associated with the traditional forms of smoking. Read More

    E-Cigarettes: Use, Effects on Smoking, Risks, and Policy Implications.
    Annu Rev Public Health 2018 Apr 11;39:215-235. Epub 2018 Jan 11.
    Lincolnshire Community Health Services NHS Trust, Louth, LN11 0EU, United Kingdom; email:
    Since e-cigarettes appeared in the mid-2000s, some practitioners, researchers, and policy makers have embraced them as a safer alternative to conventional cigarettes and an effective way to stop smoking. While e-cigarettes deliver lower levels of carcinogens than do conventional cigarettes, they still expose users to high levels of ultrafine particles and other toxins that may substantially increase cardiovascular and noncancer lung disease risks, which account for more than half of all smoking-caused deaths, at rates similar to conventional cigarettes. Moreover, rather than stimulating smokers to switch from conventional cigarettes to less dangerous e-cigarettes or quitting altogether, e-cigarettes are reducing smoking cessation rates and expanding the nicotine market by attracting youth. Read More

    Problems and Prospects: Public Health Regulation of Dietary Supplements.
    Annu Rev Public Health 2018 Apr 22;39:403-420. Epub 2017 Dec 22.
    School of Public Health, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia 6845, Australia; email: ,
    Dietary supplements are a global business worth more than US$100 billion annually. These supplements are taken by up to 50% of adults and perhaps one-third of children in economically advanced economies. Definitions of dietary supplements differ from country to country, and regulation is generally lax and often seems to be directed more toward promoting commerce than protecting public health. Read More

    Data Resources for Conducting Health Services and Policy Research.
    Annu Rev Public Health 2018 Apr 22;39:437-452. Epub 2017 Dec 22.
    Division of Health Policy and Management, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55414, USA; email: , ,
    Rich federal data resources provide essential data inputs for monitoring the health and health care of the US population and are essential for conducting health services policy research. The six household surveys we document in this article cover a broad array of health topics, including health insurance coverage (American Community Survey, Current Population Survey), health conditions and behaviors (National Health Interview Survey, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System), health care utilization and spending (Medical Expenditure Panel Survey), and longitudinal data on public program participation (SIPP). New federal activities are linking federal surveys with administrative data to reduce duplication and response burden. Read More

    Treatment and Prevention of Opioid Use Disorder: Challenges and Opportunities.
    Annu Rev Public Health 2018 Apr 22;39:525-541. Epub 2017 Dec 22.
    Oregon Health & Science University-Portland State University School of Public Health, Portland, Oregon 97239, USA; email: , ,
    Treatment for opioid use disorder in the United States evolved in response to changing federal policy and advances in science. Inpatient care began in 1935 with the US Public Health Service Hospitals in Lexington, Kentucky, and Fort Worth, Texas. Outpatient clinics emerged in the 1960s to provide aftercare. Read More

    Commentary: Increasing the Connectivity Between Implementation Science and Public Health: Advancing Methodology, Evidence Integration, and Sustainability.
    Annu Rev Public Health 2018 Apr 22;39:1-4. Epub 2017 Dec 22.
    Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, National Cancer Institute, Rockville, Maryland 20850, USA; email:
    Gaps remain between the outcomes of biomedical research and their application within clinical and community settings. The field of implementation science, also referred to as dissemination and implementation research, is intended to improve the adoption, uptake, and sustainability of evidence-based health interventions. The articles in this volume's symposium on implementation science and public health identify important directions in the effort to maximize the impact of research on public and population health. Read More

    Big Data in Public Health: Terminology, Machine Learning, and Privacy.
    Annu Rev Public Health 2018 Apr 20;39:95-112. Epub 2017 Dec 20.
    Department of Biomedical Informatics and Medical Education and the eScience Institute, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98109, USA; email:
    The digital world is generating data at a staggering and still increasing rate. While these "big data" have unlocked novel opportunities to understand public health, they hold still greater potential for research and practice. This review explores several key issues that have arisen around big data. Read More

    Precision Medicine from a Public Health Perspective.
    Annu Rev Public Health 2018 Apr 20;39:153-168. Epub 2017 Nov 20.
    Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02118, USA; email:
    Over the past decade, precision medicine (PM) approaches have received significant investment to create new therapies, learn more about disease processes, and potentially prevent diseases before they arise. However, in many ways, PM investments may come at the expense of existing public health measures that could have a greater impact on population health. As we tackle burgeoning public health concerns, such as obesity, and chronic diseases, such as cancer, it is not clear whether PM is aligned with public health or in conflict with its goals. Read More

    Building Capacity for Evidence-Based Public Health: Reconciling the Pulls of Practice and the Push of Research.
    Annu Rev Public Health 2018 Apr 20;39:27-53. Epub 2017 Nov 20.
    Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California, San Francisco, California 94127, USA; email:
    Timely implementation of principles of evidence-based public health (EBPH) is critical for bridging the gap between discovery of new knowledge and its application. Public health organizations need sufficient capacity (the availability of resources, structures, and workforce to plan, deliver, and evaluate the preventive dose of an evidence-based intervention) to move science to practice. We review principles of EBPH, the importance of capacity building to advance evidence-based approaches, promising approaches for capacity building, and future areas for research and practice. Read More

    Evaluating the Health Impact of Large-Scale Public Policy Changes: Classical and Novel Approaches.
    Annu Rev Public Health 2017 Mar;38:351-370
    Department of Epidemiology and Department of Social and Behavioral Health Sciences, Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5T 3M7, Canada; email:
    Large-scale public policy changes are often recommended to improve public health. Despite varying widely-from tobacco taxes to poverty-relief programs-such policies present a common dilemma to public health researchers: how to evaluate their health effects when randomized controlled trials are not possible. Here, we review the state of knowledge and experience of public health researchers who rigorously evaluate the health consequences of large-scale public policy changes. Read More

    An Overview of Research and Evaluation Designs for Dissemination and Implementation.
    Annu Rev Public Health 2017 Mar;38:1-22
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois 60611; email:
    The wide variety of dissemination and implementation designs now being used to evaluate and improve health systems and outcomes warrants review of the scope, features, and limitations of these designs. This article is one product of a design workgroup that was formed in 2013 by the National Institutes of Health to address dissemination and implementation research, and whose members represented diverse methodologic backgrounds, content focus areas, and health sectors. These experts integrated their collective knowledge on dissemination and implementation designs with searches of published evaluations strategies. Read More

    Strengthening Integrated Care Through Population-Focused Primary Care Services: International Experiences Outside the United States.
    Annu Rev Public Health 2017 Mar;38:413-429
    Training and Research Support Centre, United Kingdom; email: EquiACT, France; email:
    Many high- and middle-income countries (HMICs) are experiencing a burden of comorbidity and chronic diseases. Together with increasing patient expectations, this burden is raising demand for population health-oriented innovation in health care. Using desk review and country case studies, we examine strategies applied in HMICs outside the United States to address these challenges, with a focus on and use of a new framework for analyzing primary care (PC). Read More

    Assessing the Exposome with External Measures: Commentary on the State of the Science and Research Recommendations.
    Annu Rev Public Health 2017 Mar;38:215-239
    Division of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, California 94704; email:
    The exposome comprises all environmental exposures that a person experiences from conception throughout the life course. Here we review the state of the science for assessing external exposures within the exposome. This article reviews (a) categories of exposures that can be assessed externally, (b) the current state of the science in external exposure assessment, (c) current tools available for external exposure assessment, and (d) priority research needs. Read More

    Countermarketing Alcohol and Unhealthy Food: An Effective Strategy for Preventing Noncommunicable Diseases? Lessons from Tobacco.
    Annu Rev Public Health 2017 Mar;38:119-144
    School of Public Health, City University of New York, New York, NY 10027; email:
    Countermarketing campaigns use health communications to reduce the demand for unhealthy products by exposing motives and undermining marketing practices of producers. These campaigns can contribute to the prevention of noncommunicable diseases by denormalizing the marketing of tobacco, alcohol, and unhealthy food. By portraying these activities as outside the boundaries of civilized corporate behavior, countermarketing can reduce the demand for unhealthy products and lead to changes in industry marketing practices. Read More

    Surveillance Systems to Track and Evaluate Obesity Prevention Efforts.
    Annu Rev Public Health 2017 Mar 11;38:187-214. Epub 2017 Jan 11.
    Michael & Susan Dell Center for Healthy Living, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Austin, Texas 78701; email: , ,
    To address the obesity epidemic, the public health community must develop surveillance systems that capture data at levels through which obesity prevention efforts are conducted. Current systems assess body mass index (BMI), diet, and physical activity behaviors at the individual level, but environmental and policy-related data are often lacking. The goal of this review is to describe US surveillance systems that evaluate obesity prevention efforts within the context of international trends in obesity monitoring, to identify potential data gaps, and to present recommendations to improve the evaluation of population-level initiatives. Read More

    Natural Experiments: An Overview of Methods, Approaches, and Contributions to Public Health Intervention Research.
    Annu Rev Public Health 2017 Mar 11;38:39-56. Epub 2017 Jan 11.
    MRC/CSO Social and Public Health Sciences Unit, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G2 3QB, United Kingdom; email: , , ,
    Population health interventions are essential to reduce health inequalities and tackle other public health priorities, but they are not always amenable to experimental manipulation. Natural experiment (NE) approaches are attracting growing interest as a way of providing evidence in such circumstances. One key challenge in evaluating NEs is selective exposure to the intervention. Read More

    Generalizing about Public Health Interventions: A Mixed-Methods Approach to External Validity.
    Annu Rev Public Health 2017 Mar 6;38:371-391. Epub 2017 Jan 6.
    The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, Princeton, New Jersey 08543-2316; email:
    Public health researchers and practitioners are calling for greater focus on external validity, the ability to generalize findings of evidence-based interventions (EBIs) beyond the limited number of studies testing effectiveness. For public health, the goal is applicability: to translate, disseminate, and implement EBIs for an impact on population health. This article is a review of methods and how they might be combined to better assess external validity. Read More

    Engagement of Sectors Other than Health in Integrated Health Governance, Policy, and Action.
    Annu Rev Public Health 2017 Mar 11;38:329-349. Epub 2017 Jan 11.
    Centre for Health Equity Training, Research and Evaluation (CHETRE), Part of the UNSW Australia Research Centre for Primary Health Care & Equity, A Unit of Population Health, South Western Sydney Local Health District, NSW Health, A Member of the Ingham Institute, Liverpool Hospital, Liverpool, New South Wales 1871, Australia; email:
    Health is created largely outside the health sector. Engagement in health governance, policy, and intervention development and implementation by sectors other than health is therefore important. Recent calls for building and implementing Health in All Policies, and continued arguments for intersectoral action, may strengthen the potential that other sectors have for health. Read More

    The Impact of Trauma Care Systems in Low- and Middle-Income Countries.
    Annu Rev Public Health 2017 Mar 11;38:507-532. Epub 2017 Jan 11.
    Department of Surgery, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98105; email:
    Injury is a leading cause of death globally, and organized trauma care systems have been shown to save lives. However, even though most injuries occur in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), most trauma care research comes from high-income countries where systems have been implemented with few resource constraints. Little context-relevant guidance exists to help policy makers set priorities in LMICs, where resources are limited and where trauma care may be implemented in distinct ways. Read More

    Bias Analysis for Uncontrolled Confounding in the Health Sciences.
    Annu Rev Public Health 2017 Mar 6;38:23-38. Epub 2017 Jan 6.
    Department of Epidemiology, Fielding School of Public Health; UCLA Center for Health Policy Research; and California Center for Population Research, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095; email:
    Uncontrolled confounding due to unmeasured confounders biases causal inference in health science studies using observational and imperfect experimental designs. The adoption of methods for analysis of bias due to uncontrolled confounding has been slow, despite the increasing availability of such methods. Bias analysis for such uncontrolled confounding is most useful in big data studies and systematic reviews to gauge the extent to which extraneous preexposure variables that affect the exposure and the outcome can explain some or all of the reported exposure-outcome associations. Read More

    Toward Greater Implementation of the Exposome Research Paradigm within Environmental Epidemiology.
    Annu Rev Public Health 2017 Mar 6;38:315-327. Epub 2017 Jan 6.
    Department of Environmental Medicine and Public Health, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029; email: ,
    Investigating a single environmental exposure in isolation does not reflect the actual human exposure circumstance nor does it capture the multifactorial etiology of health and disease. The exposome, defined as the totality of environmental exposures from conception onward, may advance our understanding of environmental contributors to disease by more fully assessing the multitude of human exposures across the life course. Implementation into studies of human health has been limited, in part owing to theoretical and practical challenges including a lack of infrastructure to support comprehensive exposure assessment, difficulty in differentiating physiologic variation from environmentally induced changes, and the need for study designs and analytic methods that accommodate specific aspects of the exposome, such as high-dimensional exposure data and multiple windows of susceptibility. Read More

    Moving From Discovery to System-Wide Change: The Role of Research in a Learning Health Care System: Experience from Three Decades of Health Systems Research in the Veterans Health Administration.
    Annu Rev Public Health 2017 Mar 11;38:467-487. Epub 2017 Jan 11.
    Veterans Health Administration, US Department of Veterans Affairs, Washington, DC 20420; emails: , ,
    The Veterans Health Administration is unique, functioning as an integrated health care system that provides care to more than six million veterans annually and as a home to an established scientific enterprise that conducts more than $1 billion of research each year. The presence of research, spanning the continuum from basic health services to translational research, has helped the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) realize the potential of a learning health care system and has contributed to significant improvements in clinical quality over the past two decades. It has also illustrated distinct pathways by which research influences clinical care and policy and has provided lessons on challenges in translating research into practice on a national scale. Read More

    Climate Change and Collective Violence.
    Annu Rev Public Health 2017 Mar 11;38:241-257. Epub 2017 Jan 11.
    Global Health Institute, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53726; email:
    Climate change is causing increases in temperature, changes in precipitation and extreme weather events, sea-level rise, and other environmental impacts. It is also causing or contributing to heat-related disorders, respiratory and allergic disorders, infectious diseases, malnutrition due to food insecurity, and mental health disorders. In addition, increasing evidence indicates that climate change is causally associated with collective violence, generally in combination with other causal factors. Read More

    China's Health Reform Update.
    Annu Rev Public Health 2017 Mar 11;38:431-448. Epub 2017 Jan 11.
    School of Management, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing 10029, China; email:
    China experienced both economic and epistemological transitions within the past few decades, greatly increasing demand for accessible and affordable health care. These shifts put significant pressure on the existing outdated, highly centralized bureaucratic system. Adjusting to growing demands, the government has pursued a new round of health reforms since the late 2000s; the main goals are to reform health care financing, essential drug policies, and public hospitals. Read More

    Climate Change and Global Food Systems: Potential Impacts on Food Security and Undernutrition.
    Annu Rev Public Health 2017 Mar 6;38:259-277. Epub 2017 Jan 6.
    Harvard University Center for the Environment, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138; email:
    Great progress has been made in addressing global undernutrition over the past several decades, in part because of large increases in food production from agricultural expansion and intensification. Food systems, however, face continued increases in demand and growing environmental pressures. Most prominently, human-caused climate change will influence the quality and quantity of food we produce and our ability to distribute it equitably. Read More

    The Changing Epidemiology of Autism Spectrum Disorders.
    Annu Rev Public Health 2017 Mar 21;38:81-102. Epub 2016 Dec 21.
    A.J. Drexel Autism Institute, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104; email:
    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental condition with lifelong impacts. Genetic and environmental factors contribute to ASD etiology, which remains incompletely understood. Research on ASD epidemiology has made significant advances in the past decade. Read More

    Obesity in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: Burden, Drivers, and Emerging Challenges.
    Annu Rev Public Health 2017 Mar 23;38:145-164. Epub 2016 Dec 23.
    Nutrition and Health Sciences Program, Laney Graduate School, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322; email:
    We have reviewed the distinctive features of excess weight, its causes, and related prevention and management efforts, as well as data gaps and recommendations for future research in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Obesity is rising in every region of the world, and no country has been successful at reversing the epidemic once it has begun. In LMICs, overweight is higher in women compared with men, in urban compared with rural settings, and in older compared with younger individuals; however, the urban-rural overweight differential is shrinking in many countries. Read More

    Informatics and Data Analytics to Support Exposome-Based Discovery for Public Health.
    Annu Rev Public Health 2017 Mar 23;38:279-294. Epub 2016 Dec 23.
    Department of Biomedical Informatics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115; email:
    The complexity of the human exposome-the totality of environmental exposures encountered from birth to death-motivates systematic, high-throughput approaches to discover new environmental determinants of disease. In this review, we describe the state of science in analyzing the human exposome and provide recommendations for the public health community to consider in dealing with analytic challenges of exposome-based biomedical research. We describe extant and novel analytic methods needed to associate the exposome with critical health outcomes and contextualize the data-centered challenges by drawing parallels to other research endeavors such as human genomics research. Read More

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