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    1136 results match your criteria Annual Review of Psychology [Journal]

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    Psychology, Science, and Knowledge Construction: Broadening Perspectives from the Replication Crisis.
    Annu Rev Psychol 2018 Jan;69:487-510
    Department of Psychology and Human Development, Peabody College, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37205; email:
    Psychology advances knowledge by testing statistical hypotheses using empirical observations and data. The expectation is that most statistically significant findings can be replicated in new data and in new laboratories, but in practice many findings have replicated less often than expected, leading to claims of a replication crisis. We review recent methodological literature on questionable research practices, meta-analysis, and power analysis to explain the apparently high rates of failure to replicate. Read More

    Psychology's Renaissance.
    Annu Rev Psychol 2018 Jan 25;69:511-534. Epub 2017 Oct 25.
    The Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104; email: ,
    In 2010-2012, a few largely coincidental events led experimental psychologists to realize that their approach to collecting, analyzing, and reporting data made it too easy to publish false-positive findings. This sparked a period of methodological reflection that we review here and call Psychology's Renaissance. We begin by describing how psychologists' concerns with publication bias shifted from worrying about file-drawered studies to worrying about p-hacked analyses. Read More

    Developmental Origins of Chronic Physical Aggression: A Bio-Psycho-Social Model for the Next Generation of Preventive Interventions.
    Annu Rev Psychol 2018 Jan 16;69:383-407. Epub 2017 Oct 16.
    Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Montreal, Montreal QC H3T 1J4, Canada; email:
    This review describes a bio-psycho-social approach to understanding and preventing the development of chronic physical aggression. The debate on the developmental origins of aggression has historically opposed genetic and environmental mechanisms. Recent studies have shown that the frequency of physical aggression peaks in early childhood and then decreases until old age. Read More

    How We Hear: The Perception and Neural Coding of Sound.
    Annu Rev Psychol 2018 Jan 16;69:27-50. Epub 2017 Oct 16.
    Department of Psychology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455; email:
    Auditory perception is our main gateway to communication with others via speech and music, and it also plays an important role in alerting and orienting us to new events. This review provides an overview of selected topics pertaining to the perception and neural coding of sound, starting with the first stage of filtering in the cochlea and its profound impact on perception. The next topic, pitch, has been debated for millennia, but recent technical and theoretical developments continue to provide us with new insights. Read More

    The Psychology of Music: Rhythm and Movement.
    Annu Rev Psychol 2018 Jan 16;69:51-75. Epub 2017 Oct 16.
    Departments of Music and Cognitive Science, Carleton College, Northfield, Minnesota 55057; email:
    The urge to move to music is universal among humans. Unlike visual art, which is manifest across space, music is manifest across time. When listeners get carried away by the music, either through movement (such as dancing) or through reverie (such as trance), it is usually the temporal qualities of the music-its pulse, tempo, and rhythmic patterns-that put them in this state. Read More

    Principles and Challenges of Applying Epigenetic Epidemiology to Psychology.
    Annu Rev Psychol 2018 Jan 16;69:459-485. Epub 2017 Oct 16.
    Centre for Molecular Medicine and Therapeutics, British Columbia Children's Hospital, Vancouver, British Columbia V6H 3N1, Canada; email: , ,
    The interplay of genetically driven biological processes and environmental factors is a key driver of research questions spanning multiple areas of psychology. A nascent area of research focuses on the utility of epigenetic marks in capturing this intersection of genes and environment, as epigenetic mechanisms are both tightly linked to the genome and environmentally responsive. Advances over the past 10 years have allowed large-scale assessment of one epigenetic mark in particular, DNA methylation, in human populations, and the examination of DNA methylation is becoming increasingly common in psychological studies. Read More

    Why Social Relationships Are Important for Physical Health: A Systems Approach to Understanding and Modifying Risk and Protection.
    Annu Rev Psychol 2018 Jan 16;69:437-458. Epub 2017 Oct 16.
    Departments of Psychology and Neuroscience, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah 84602; email:
    Social relationships are adaptive and crucial for survival. This review presents existing evidence indicating that our social connections to others have powerful influences on health and longevity and that lacking social connection qualifies as a risk factor for premature mortality. A systems perspective is presented as a framework by which to move social connection into the realm of public health. Read More

    Persuasion, Influence, and Value: Perspectives from Communication and Social Neuroscience.
    Annu Rev Psychol 2018 Jan 27;69:329-356. Epub 2017 Sep 27.
    Annenberg School for Communication, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104; email: ,
    Opportunities to persuade and be persuaded are ubiquitous. What determines whether influence spreads and takes hold? This review provides an overview of evidence for the central role of subjective valuation in persuasion and social influence for both propagators and receivers of influence. We first review evidence that decisions to communicate information are determined by the subjective value a communicator expects to gain from sharing. Read More

    Gender Stereotypes.
    Annu Rev Psychol 2018 Jan 27;69:275-298. Epub 2017 Sep 27.
    Faculty of Social Sciences, Utrecht University, 3508 TC Utrecht, Netherlands; email:
    There are many differences between men and women. To some extent, these are captured in the stereotypical images of these groups. Stereotypes about the way men and women think and behave are widely shared, suggesting a kernel of truth. Read More

    Social Mobilization.
    Annu Rev Psychol 2018 Jan 25;69:357-381. Epub 2017 Sep 25.
    Anderson School of Management, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095; email: ,
    This article reviews research from several behavioral disciplines to derive strategies for prompting people to perform behaviors that are individually costly and provide negligible individual or social benefits but are meaningful when performed by a large number of individuals. Whereas the term social influence encompasses all the ways in which people influence other people, social mobilization refers specifically to principles that can be used to influence a large number of individuals to participate in such activities. The motivational force of social mobilization is amplified by the fact that others benefit from the encouraged behaviors, and its overall impact is enhanced by the fact that people are embedded within social networks. Read More

    Improving Student Outcomes in Higher Education: The Science of Targeted Intervention.
    Annu Rev Psychol 2018 Jan 20;69:409-435. Epub 2017 Sep 20.
    Department of Psychology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706; email: ,
    Many theoretically based interventions have been developed over the past two decades to improve educational outcomes in higher education. Based in social-psychological and motivation theories, well-crafted interventions have proven remarkably effective because they target specific educational problems and the processes that underlie them. In this review, we evaluate the current state of the literature on targeted interventions in higher education with an eye to emerging theoretical and conceptual questions about intervention science. Read More

    Ensemble Perception.
    Annu Rev Psychol 2018 Jan 11;69:105-129. Epub 2017 Sep 11.
    Department of Psychology, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720; email:
    To understand visual consciousness, we must understand how the brain represents ensembles of objects at many levels of perceptual analysis. Ensemble perception refers to the visual system's ability to extract summary statistical information from groups of similar objects-often in a brief glance. It defines foundational limits on cognition, memory, and behavior. Read More

    Linking Language and Cognition in Infancy.
    Annu Rev Psychol 2018 Jan 6;69:231-250. Epub 2017 Sep 6.
    Department of Psychology, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208; email: ,
    Human language, a signature of our species, derives its power from its links to human cognition. For centuries, scholars have been captivated by this link between language and cognition. In this article, we shift this focus. Read More

    How Children Solve the Two Challenges of Cooperation.
    Annu Rev Psychol 2018 Jan 6;69:205-229. Epub 2017 Sep 6.
    Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109; email:
    In this review, I propose a new framework for the psychological origins of human cooperation that harnesses evolutionary theories about the two major problems posed by cooperation: generating and distributing benefits. Children develop skills foundational for identifying and creating opportunities for cooperation with others early: Infants and toddlers already possess basic skills to help others and share resources. Yet mechanisms that solve the free-rider problem-critical for sustaining cooperation as a viable strategy-emerge later in development and are more sensitive to the influence of social norms. Read More

    Multistable Perception and the Role of the Frontoparietal Cortex in Perceptual Inference.
    Annu Rev Psychol 2018 Jan 11;69:77-103. Epub 2017 Sep 11.
    Department of Cognitive Psychology, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, 1081BT Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    A given pattern of optical stimulation can arise from countless possible real-world sources, creating a dilemma for vision: What in the world actually gives rise to the current pattern? This dilemma was pointed out centuries ago by the astronomer and mathematician Ibn Al-Haytham and was forcefully restated 150 years ago when von Helmholtz characterized perception as unconscious inference. To buttress his contention, von Helmholtz cited multistable perception: recurring changes in perception despite unchanging sensory input. Recent neuroscientific studies have exploited multistable perception to identify brain areas uniquely activated in association with these perceptual changes, but the specific roles of those activations remain controversial. Read More

    Neuro-, Cardio-, and Immunoplasticity: Effects of Early Adversity.
    Annu Rev Psychol 2018 Jan 28;69:131-156. Epub 2017 Aug 28.
    Brain Development Lab, Department of Psychology, University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon, 97403; email: ,
    The relationship between early adversity and outcomes across the lifespan is apparent in a striking range of measures. Evidence suggests that many of these outcomes can be traced to the impacts of early adversity on multiple and integrated biological systems mediated by the brain. In this review, we integrate empirical and theoretical advances in the understanding of relationships among the brain and the functions of the endocrine, autonomic, and immune systems. Read More

    Attitudes and Attitude Change.
    Annu Rev Psychol 2018 Jan 25;69:299-327. Epub 2017 Aug 25.
    Department of Psychology and Department of Business Administration, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Champaign, Illinois 61822; email: ,
    This review covers research on attitudes and attitude change published between 2010 and 2017. We characterize this period as one of significant progress toward an understanding of how attitudes form and change in three critical contexts. The first context is the person, as attitudes change in connection to values, general goals, language, emotions, and human development. Read More

    The Prefrontal Cortex and Neurological Impairments of Active Thought.
    Annu Rev Psychol 2018 Jan 16;69:157-180. Epub 2017 Aug 16.
    Neuropsychology Department, National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, London WC1N 3BG, United Kingdom; email:
    This article reviews the effects of lesions to the frontal cortex on the ability to carry out active thought, namely, to reason, think flexibly, produce strategies, and formulate and realize plans. We discuss how and why relevant neuropsychological studies should be carried out. The relationships between active thought and both intelligence and language are considered. Read More

    Infant Statistical Learning.
    Annu Rev Psychol 2018 Jan 9;69:181-203. Epub 2017 Aug 9.
    Department of Psychological Sciences, Birkbeck, University of London, London WC1E 7HX, United Kingdom; email:
    Perception involves making sense of a dynamic, multimodal environment. In the absence of mechanisms capable of exploiting the statistical patterns in the natural world, infants would face an insurmountable computational problem. Infant statistical learning mechanisms facilitate the detection of structure. Read More

    Cognitive Foundations of Learning from Testimony.
    Annu Rev Psychol 2018 Jan 9;69:251-273. Epub 2017 Aug 9.
    Department of Psychology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904; email:
    Humans acquire much of their knowledge from the testimony of other people. An understanding of the way that information can be conveyed via gesture and vocalization is present in infancy. Thus, infants seek information from well-informed interlocutors, supply information to the ignorant, and make sense of communicative acts that they observe from a third-party perspective. Read More

    Eavesdropping on Memory.
    Annu Rev Psychol 2017 Jan;68:1-18
    Department of Psychology and Social Behavior and Department of Criminology, Law, and Society, University of California, Irvine, California 92697; email:
    For more than four decades, I have been studying human memory. My research concerns the malleable nature of memory. Information suggested to an individual about an event can be integrated with the memory of the event itself, so that what actually occurred, and what was discussed later about what may have occurred, become inextricably interwoven, allowing distortion, elaboration, and even total fabrication. Read More

    Adjusting to Chronic Health Conditions.
    Annu Rev Psychol 2017 Jan;68:545-571
    Department of Psychology, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213; email:
    Research on adjustment to chronic disease is critical in today's world, in which people are living longer lives, but lives are increasingly likely to be characterized by one or more chronic illnesses. Chronic illnesses may deteriorate, enter remission, or fluctuate, but their defining characteristic is that they persist. In this review, we first examine the effects of chronic disease on one's sense of self. Read More

    Neural Mechanisms of Selective Visual Attention.
    Annu Rev Psychol 2017 Jan;68:47-72
    Department of Neurobiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305; email: ,
    Selective visual attention describes the tendency of visual processing to be confined largely to stimuli that are relevant to behavior. It is among the most fundamental of cognitive functions, particularly in humans and other primates for whom vision is the dominant sense. We review recent progress in identifying the neural mechanisms of selective visual attention. Read More

    Toward a Social Psychophysics of Face Communication.
    Annu Rev Psychol 2017 Jan;68:269-297
    Institute of Neuroscience and Psychology, and School of Psychology, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QB United Kingdom; email:
    As a highly social species, humans are equipped with a powerful tool for social communication-the face. Although seemingly simple, the human face can elicit multiple social perceptions due to the rich variations of its movements, morphology, and complexion. Consequently, identifying precisely what face information elicits different social perceptions is a complex empirical challenge that has largely remained beyond the reach of traditional methods. Read More

    Social Learning and Culture in Child and Chimpanzee.
    Annu Rev Psychol 2017 Jan;68:129-154
    Centre for Social Learning and Cognitive Evolution, School of Psychology and Neuroscience, University of St. Andrews, St. Andrews KY16 9JP, United Kingdom; email:
    A few decades ago, we knew next to nothing about the behavior of our closest animal relative, the chimpanzee, but long-term field studies have since revealed an undreamed-of richness in the diversity of their cultural traditions across Africa. These discoveries have been complemented by a substantial suite of experimental studies, now bridging to the wild through field experiments. These field and experimental studies, particularly those in which direct chimpanzee-child comparisons have been made, delineate a growing set of commonalities between the phenomena of social learning and culture in the lives of chimpanzees and humans. Read More

    Gene × Environment Interactions: From Molecular Mechanisms to Behavior.
    Annu Rev Psychol 2017 Jan 30;68:215-241. Epub 2016 Sep 30.
    Department of Translational Research in Psychiatry, Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry, Munich 80804, Germany; email:
    Gene-by-environment interactions (G×Es) can provide important biological insights into psychiatric disorders and may consequently have direct clinical implications. In this review, we begin with an overview of the major challenges G×E studies have faced (e.g. Read More

    Survival of the Friendliest: Homo sapiens Evolved via Selection for Prosociality.
    Annu Rev Psychol 2017 Jan 12;68:155-186. Epub 2016 Oct 12.
    Department of Evolutionary Anthropology and Center for Cognitive Neuroscience, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708; email:
    The challenge of studying human cognitive evolution is identifying unique features of our intelligence while explaining the processes by which they arose. Comparisons with nonhuman apes point to our early-emerging cooperative-communicative abilities as crucial to the evolution of all forms of human cultural cognition, including language. The human self-domestication hypothesis proposes that these early-emerging social skills evolved when natural selection favored increased in-group prosociality over aggression in late human evolution. Read More

    How Power Affects People: Activating, Wanting, and Goal Seeking.
    Annu Rev Psychol 2017 Jan 21;68:353-381. Epub 2016 Sep 21.
    Department of Experimental Psychology, University College London, London WC1H 0AP, United Kingdom; email:
    Sociocognitive research has demonstrated that power affects how people feel, think, and act. In this article, I review literature from social psychology, neuroscience, management, and animal research and propose an integrated framework of power as an intensifier of goal-related approach motivation. A growing literature shows that power energizes thought, speech, and action and orients individuals toward salient goals linked to power roles, predispositions, tasks, and opportunities. Read More

    Numerical Development.
    Annu Rev Psychol 2017 Jan 21;68:187-213. Epub 2016 Sep 21.
    Department of Psychology, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213; email:
    In this review, we attempt to integrate two crucial aspects of numerical development: learning the magnitudes of individual numbers and learning arithmetic. Numerical magnitude development involves gaining increasingly precise knowledge of increasing ranges and types of numbers: from nonsymbolic to small symbolic numbers, from smaller to larger whole numbers, and from whole to rational numbers. One reason why this development is important is that precision of numerical magnitude knowledge is correlated with, predictive of, and causally related to both whole and rational number arithmetic. Read More

    The Structure of Social Cognition: In(ter)dependence of Sociocognitive Processes.
    Annu Rev Psychol 2017 Jan 21;68:243-267. Epub 2016 Sep 21.
    MRC Social, Genetic & Developmental Psychiatry Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, London SE5 8AF, United Kingdom; email: ,
    Social cognition is a topic of enormous interest and much research, but we are far from having an agreed taxonomy or factor structure of relevant processes. The aim of this review is to outline briefly what is known about the structure of social cognition and to suggest how further progress can be made to delineate the in(ter)dependence of core sociocognitive processes. We focus in particular on several processes that have been discussed and tested together in typical and atypical (notably autism spectrum disorder) groups: imitation, biological motion, empathy, and theory of mind. Read More

    Culture Three Ways: Culture and Subcultures Within Countries.
    Annu Rev Psychol 2017 Jan 21;68:435-463. Epub 2016 Sep 21.
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089-1061; email:
    Culture can be thought of as a set of everyday practices and a core theme-individualism, collectivism, or honor-as well as the capacity to understand each of these themes. In one's own culture, it is easy to fail to see that a cultural lens exists and instead to think that there is no lens at all, only reality. Hence, studying culture requires stepping out of it. Read More

    Learning, Reward, and Decision Making.
    Annu Rev Psychol 2017 Jan 28;68:73-100. Epub 2016 Sep 28.
    Division of Humanities and Social Sciences and Computation and Neural Systems Program, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125; email:
    In this review, we summarize findings supporting the existence of multiple behavioral strategies for controlling reward-related behavior, including a dichotomy between the goal-directed or model-based system and the habitual or model-free system in the domain of instrumental conditioning and a similar dichotomy in the realm of Pavlovian conditioning. We evaluate evidence from neuroscience supporting the existence of at least partly distinct neuronal substrates contributing to the key computations necessary for the function of these different control systems. We consider the nature of the interactions between these systems and show how these interactions can lead to either adaptive or maladaptive behavioral outcomes. Read More

    Mindfulness Interventions.
    Annu Rev Psychol 2017 Jan 28;68:491-516. Epub 2016 Sep 28.
    Department of Psychology, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213; email:
    Mindfulness interventions aim to foster greater attention to and awareness of present moment experience. There has been a dramatic increase in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of mindfulness interventions over the past two decades. This article evaluates the growing evidence of mindfulness intervention RCTs by reviewing and discussing (a) the effects of mindfulness interventions on health, cognitive, affective, and interpersonal outcomes; (b) evidence-based applications of mindfulness interventions to new settings and populations (e. Read More

    Memory: Organization and Control.
    Annu Rev Psychol 2017 Jan 28;68:19-45. Epub 2016 Sep 28.
    Center for Memory and Brain, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02215; email:
    A major goal of memory research is to understand how cognitive processes in memory are supported at the level of brain systems and network representations. Especially promising in this direction are new findings in humans and animals that converge in indicating a key role for the hippocampus in the systematic organization of memories. New findings also indicate that the prefrontal cortex may play an equally important role in the active control of memory organization during both encoding and retrieval. Read More

    Experiments with More Than One Random Factor: Designs, Analytic Models, and Statistical Power.
    Annu Rev Psychol 2017 Jan 28;68:601-625. Epub 2016 Sep 28.
    Department of Psychological Sciences, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269; email:
    Traditional methods of analyzing data from psychological experiments are based on the assumption that there is a single random factor (normally participants) to which generalization is sought. However, many studies involve at least two random factors (e.g. Read More

    Learning from Errors.
    Annu Rev Psychol 2017 Jan 14;68:465-489. Epub 2016 Sep 14.
    Department of Psychology, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027; email:
    Although error avoidance during learning appears to be the rule in American classrooms, laboratory studies suggest that it may be a counterproductive strategy, at least for neurologically typical students. Experimental investigations indicate that errorful learning followed by corrective feedback is beneficial to learning. Interestingly, the beneficial effects are particularly salient when individuals strongly believe that their error is correct: Errors committed with high confidence are corrected more readily than low-confidence errors. Read More

    Moving Beyond Correlations in Assessing the Consequences of Poverty.
    Annu Rev Psychol 2017 Jan 14;68:413-434. Epub 2016 Sep 14.
    Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260; email:
    In the United States, does growing up in a poor household cause negative developmental outcomes for children? Hundreds of studies have documented statistical associations between family income in childhood and a host of outcomes in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. Many of these studies have used correlational evidence to draw policy conclusions regarding the benefits of added family income for children, in particular children in families with incomes below the poverty line. Are these conclusions warranted? After a review of possible mechanisms linking poverty to negative childhood outcomes, we summarize the evidence for income's effects on children, paying particular attention to the strength of the evidence and the timing of economic deprivation. Read More

    Interactions With Robots: The Truths We Reveal About Ourselves.
    Annu Rev Psychol 2017 Jan 14;68:627-652. Epub 2016 Sep 14.
    Department of Psychological Medicine, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, The University of Auckland, Auckland 1142, New Zealand; email:
    In movies, robots are often extremely humanlike. Although these robots are not yet reality, robots are currently being used in healthcare, education, and business. Robots provide benefits such as relieving loneliness and enabling communication. Read More

    The Psychology of Close Relationships: Fourteen Core Principles.
    Annu Rev Psychol 2017 Jan 1;68:383-411. Epub 2016 Sep 1.
    Department of Psychology, University of California, Davis, California 95616; email:
    Relationship science is a theory-rich discipline, but there have been no attempts to articulate the broader themes or principles that cut across the theories themselves. We have sought to fill that void by reviewing the psychological literature on close relationships, particularly romantic relationships, to extract its core principles. This review reveals 14 principles, which collectively address four central questions: (a) What is a relationship? (b) How do relationships operate? (c) What tendencies do people bring to their relationships? (d) How does the context affect relationships? The 14 principles paint a cohesive and unified picture of romantic relationships that reflects a strong and maturing discipline. Read More

    Reinforcement Learning and Episodic Memory in Humans and Animals: An Integrative Framework.
    Annu Rev Psychol 2017 Jan 2;68:101-128. Epub 2016 Sep 2.
    Princeton Neuroscience Institute and Department of Psychology, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544.
    We review the psychology and neuroscience of reinforcement learning (RL), which has experienced significant progress in the past two decades, enabled by the comprehensive experimental study of simple learning and decision-making tasks. However, one challenge in the study of RL is computational: The simplicity of these tasks ignores important aspects of reinforcement learning in the real world: (a) State spaces are high-dimensional, continuous, and partially observable; this implies that (b) data are relatively sparse and, indeed, precisely the same situation may never be encountered twice; furthermore, (c) rewards depend on the long-term consequences of actions in ways that violate the classical assumptions that make RL tractable. A seemingly distinct challenge is that, cognitively, theories of RL have largely involved procedural and semantic memory, the way in which knowledge about action values or world models extracted gradually from many experiences can drive choice. Read More

    Attitude Strength.
    Annu Rev Psychol 2017 Jan 2;68:327-351. Epub 2016 Sep 2.
    Department of Communication, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305; email:
    Attitude strength has been the focus of a huge volume of research in psychology and related sciences for decades. The insights offered by this literature have tremendous value for understanding attitude functioning and structure and for the effective application of the attitude concept in applied settings. This is the first Annual Review of Psychology article on the topic, and it offers a review of theory and evidence regarding one of the most researched strength-related attitude features: attitude importance. Read More

    Health Behavior Change: Moving from Observation to Intervention.
    Annu Rev Psychol 2017 Jan 8;68:573-600. Epub 2016 Sep 8.
    Department of Psychology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455.
    How can progress in research on health behavior change be accelerated? Experimental medicine (EM) offers an approach that can help investigators specify the research questions that need to be addressed and the evidence needed to test those questions. Whereas current research draws predominantly on multiple overlapping theories resting largely on correlational evidence, the EM approach emphasizes experimental tests of targets or mechanisms of change and programmatic research on which targets change health behaviors and which techniques change those targets. There is evidence that engaging particular targets promotes behavior change; however, systematic studies are needed to identify and validate targets and to discover when and how targets are best engaged. Read More

    Hidden Wounds? Inflammatory Links Between Childhood Trauma and Psychopathology.
    Annu Rev Psychol 2017 Jan 17;68:517-544. Epub 2016 Aug 17.
    MRC Social, Genetic, and Developmental Psychiatry Research Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, Kings College London, London SE5 8AF, United Kingdom; email:
    Childhood trauma is a key risk factor for psychopathology. However, little is known about how exposure to childhood trauma is translated into biological risk for psychopathology. Observational human studies and experimental animal models suggest that childhood exposure to stress can trigger an enduring systemic inflammatory response not unlike the bodily response to physical injury. Read More

    Social Motivation: Costs and Benefits of Selfishness and Otherishness.
    Annu Rev Psychol 2017 Jan 24;68:299-325. Epub 2016 Jun 24.
    Department of Psychology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210; email: ,
    We examine recent evidence on the consequences of selfishness and otherishness for psychological well-being, physical health, and relationships. In the first sections, we consider recent evidence regarding the costs and benefits of giving time, money, and support to others and the costs and benefits of taking or receiving those things from others. Then, because the behaviors of giving and taking can be motivated either by selfish or otherish concerns, we next consider the costs and benefits of the motivation underlying giving and taking. Read More

    Socioemotional, Personality, and Biological Development: Illustrations from a Multilevel Developmental Psychopathology Perspective on Child Maltreatment.
    Annu Rev Psychol 2016 ;67:187-211
    Institute of Child Development, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455; email:
    Developmental theories can be affirmed, challenged, and augmented by incorporating knowledge about atypical ontogenesis. Investigations of the biological, socioemotional, and personality development in individuals with high-risk conditions and psychopathological disorders can provide an entrée into the study of system organization, disorganization, and reorganization. This article examines child maltreatment to illustrate the benefit that can be derived from the study of individuals subjected to nonnormative caregiving experiences. Read More

    Episodic Memory and Beyond: The Hippocampus and Neocortex in Transformation.
    Annu Rev Psychol 2016 ;67:105-34
    Department of Psychology and Cognitive Science Program, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721; email:
    The last decade has seen dramatic technological and conceptual changes in research on episodic memory and the brain. New technologies, and increased use of more naturalistic observations, have enabled investigators to delve deeply into the structures that mediate episodic memory, particularly the hippocampus, and to track functional and structural interactions among brain regions that support it. Conceptually, episodic memory is increasingly being viewed as subject to lifelong transformations that are reflected in the neural substrates that mediate it. Read More

    Beyond Work-Life "Integration".
    Annu Rev Psychol 2016 6;67:515-39. Epub 2015 Oct 6.
    Department of Psychology, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida 33620.
    Research on the work-family interface began in the 1960s and has grown exponentially ever since. This vast amount of research, however, has had relatively little impact on workplace practice, and work-family conflict is at an all-time high. We review the work-family research to date and propose that a shift of attention is required, away from the individual experience of work and family and toward understanding how identity and status are defined at work. Read More

    Gene × Environment Determinants of Stress- and Anxiety-Related Disorders.
    Annu Rev Psychol 2016 6;67:239-61. Epub 2015 Oct 6.
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia 30322.
    The burgeoning field of gene-by-environment (G×E) interactions has revealed fascinating biological insights, particularly in the realm of stress-, anxiety-, and depression-related disorders. In this review we present an integrated view of the study of G×E interactions in stress and anxiety disorders, including the evolution of genetic association studies from genetic epidemiology to contemporary large-scale genome-wide association studies and G×E studies. We convey the importance of consortia efforts and collaboration to gain the large sample sizes needed to move the field forward. Read More

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