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    1125 results match your criteria Annual Review of Psychology [Journal]

    1 OF 23

    Improving Student Outcomes in Higher Education: The Science of Targeted Intervention.
    Annu Rev Psychol 2017 Sep 20. Epub 2017 Sep 20.
    Department of Psychology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706; email: ,
    Many theoretically based interventions have been developed over the past two decades to improve educational outcomes in higher education. Based in social-psychological and motivation theories, well-crafted interventions have proven remarkably effective because they target specific educational problems and the processes that underlie them. In this review, we evaluate the current state of the literature on targeted interventions in higher education with an eye to emerging theoretical and conceptual questions about intervention science. Read More

    Ensemble Perception.
    Annu Rev Psychol 2017 Sep 11. Epub 2017 Sep 11.
    Department of Psychology, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720; email:
    To understand visual consciousness, we must understand how the brain represents ensembles of objects at many levels of perceptual analysis. Ensemble perception refers to the visual system's ability to extract summary statistical information from groups of similar objects-often in a brief glance. It defines foundational limits on cognition, memory, and behavior. Read More

    Linking Language and Cognition in Infancy.
    Annu Rev Psychol 2017 Sep 6. Epub 2017 Sep 6.
    Department of Psychology, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208; email: ,
    Human language, a signature of our species, derives its power from its links to human cognition. For centuries, scholars have been captivated by this link between language and cognition. In this article, we shift this focus. Read More

    How Children Solve the Two Challenges of Cooperation.
    Annu Rev Psychol 2017 Sep 6. Epub 2017 Sep 6.
    Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109; email:
    In this review, I propose a new framework for the psychological origins of human cooperation that harnesses evolutionary theories about the two major problems posed by cooperation: generating and distributing benefits. Children develop skills foundational for identifying and creating opportunities for cooperation with others early: Infants and toddlers already possess basic skills to help others and share resources. Yet mechanisms that solve the free-rider problem-critical for sustaining cooperation as a viable strategy-emerge later in development and are more sensitive to the influence of social norms. Read More

    Multistable Perception and the Role of Frontoparietal Cortex in Perceptual Inference.
    Annu Rev Psychol 2017 Aug 30. Epub 2017 Aug 30.
    Department of Cognitive Psychology, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, 1081BT Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    A given pattern of optical stimulation can arise from countless possible realworld sources, creating a dilemma for vision: What in the world actually gives rise to the current pattern? This dilemma was pointed out centuries ago by the astronomer and mathematician Ibn al-Haytham and was forcefully restated 150 years ago when von Helmholtz characterized perception as unconscious inference. To buttress his contention, von Helmholtz cited multistable perception: recurring changes in perception despite unchanging sensory input. Recent neuroscientific studies have exploited multistable perception to identify brain areas uniquely activated in association with these perceptual changes, but the specific roles of those activations remain controversial. Read More

    Neuro-, Cardio-, and Immunoplasticity: Effects of Early Adversity.
    Annu Rev Psychol 2017 Aug 28. Epub 2017 Aug 28.
    Brain Development Lab, Department of Psychology, University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon 97403; email: ,
    The relationship between early adversity and outcomes across the lifespan is apparent in a striking range of measures. Evidence suggests that many of these outcomes can be traced to the impacts of early adversity on multiple and integrated biological systems mediated by the brain. In this review, we integrate empirical and theoretical advances in the understanding of relationships among the brain and the functions of the endocrine, autonomic, and immune systems. Read More

    Attitudes and Attitude Change.
    Annu Rev Psychol 2017 Aug 25. Epub 2017 Aug 25.
    Department of Psychology and Department of Business Administration, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Champaign, IL 61822; email: ,
    This review covers research on attitudes and attitude change published between 2010 and 2017. We characterize this period as one of significant progress toward an understanding of how attitudes form and change in three critical contexts. The first context is the person, as attitudes change in connection to values, general goals, language, emotions, and human development. Read More

    Prefrontal Cortex and Neurological Impairments of Active Thought.
    Annu Rev Psychol 2017 Aug 16. Epub 2017 Aug 16.
    Neuropsychology Department, National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, London WC1N 3BG, United Kingdom; email:
    This article reviews the effects of lesions to the frontal cortex on the ability to carry out active thought, namely, to reason, think flexibly, produce strategies, and formulate and realize plans.Wediscuss how and why relevant neuropsychological studies should be carried out. The relationships between active thought and both intelligence and language are considered. Read More

    Infant Statistical Learning.
    Annu Rev Psychol 2017 Aug 9. Epub 2017 Aug 9.
    Department of Psychological Sciences, Birkbeck, University of London, London WC1E 7HX, United Kingdom; email:
    Perception involves making sense of a dynamic, multimodal environment. In the absence of mechanisms capable of exploiting the statistical patterns in the natural world, infants would face an insurmountable computational problem. Infant statistical learning mechanisms facilitate the detection of structure. Read More

    Cognitive Foundations of Learning from Testimony.
    Annu Rev Psychol 2017 Aug 9. Epub 2017 Aug 9.
    Department of Psychology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904; email:
    Humans acquire much of their knowledge from the testimony of other people. An understanding of the way that information can be conveyed via gesture and vocalization is present in infancy. Thus, infants seek information from well-informed interlocutors, supply information to the ignorant, and make sense of communicative acts that they observe from a third-party perspective. Read More

    Eavesdropping on Memory.
    Annu Rev Psychol 2017 Jan;68:1-18
    Department of Psychology and Social Behavior and Department of Criminology, Law, and Society, University of California, Irvine, California 92697; email:
    For more than four decades, I have been studying human memory. My research concerns the malleable nature of memory. Information suggested to an individual about an event can be integrated with the memory of the event itself, so that what actually occurred, and what was discussed later about what may have occurred, become inextricably interwoven, allowing distortion, elaboration, and even total fabrication. Read More

    Adjusting to Chronic Health Conditions.
    Annu Rev Psychol 2017 Jan;68:545-571
    Department of Psychology, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213; email:
    Research on adjustment to chronic disease is critical in today's world, in which people are living longer lives, but lives are increasingly likely to be characterized by one or more chronic illnesses. Chronic illnesses may deteriorate, enter remission, or fluctuate, but their defining characteristic is that they persist. In this review, we first examine the effects of chronic disease on one's sense of self. Read More

    Neural Mechanisms of Selective Visual Attention.
    Annu Rev Psychol 2017 Jan;68:47-72
    Department of Neurobiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305; email: ,
    Selective visual attention describes the tendency of visual processing to be confined largely to stimuli that are relevant to behavior. It is among the most fundamental of cognitive functions, particularly in humans and other primates for whom vision is the dominant sense. We review recent progress in identifying the neural mechanisms of selective visual attention. Read More

    Toward a Social Psychophysics of Face Communication.
    Annu Rev Psychol 2017 Jan;68:269-297
    Institute of Neuroscience and Psychology, and School of Psychology, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QB United Kingdom; email:
    As a highly social species, humans are equipped with a powerful tool for social communication-the face. Although seemingly simple, the human face can elicit multiple social perceptions due to the rich variations of its movements, morphology, and complexion. Consequently, identifying precisely what face information elicits different social perceptions is a complex empirical challenge that has largely remained beyond the reach of traditional methods. Read More

    Social Learning and Culture in Child and Chimpanzee.
    Annu Rev Psychol 2017 Jan;68:129-154
    Centre for Social Learning and Cognitive Evolution, School of Psychology and Neuroscience, University of St. Andrews, St. Andrews KY16 9JP, United Kingdom; email:
    A few decades ago, we knew next to nothing about the behavior of our closest animal relative, the chimpanzee, but long-term field studies have since revealed an undreamed-of richness in the diversity of their cultural traditions across Africa. These discoveries have been complemented by a substantial suite of experimental studies, now bridging to the wild through field experiments. These field and experimental studies, particularly those in which direct chimpanzee-child comparisons have been made, delineate a growing set of commonalities between the phenomena of social learning and culture in the lives of chimpanzees and humans. Read More

    Gene × Environment Interactions: From Molecular Mechanisms to Behavior.
    Annu Rev Psychol 2017 Jan 30;68:215-241. Epub 2016 Sep 30.
    Department of Translational Research in Psychiatry, Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry, Munich 80804, Germany; email:
    Gene-by-environment interactions (G×Es) can provide important biological insights into psychiatric disorders and may consequently have direct clinical implications. In this review, we begin with an overview of the major challenges G×E studies have faced (e.g. Read More

    Survival of the Friendliest: Homo sapiens Evolved via Selection for Prosociality.
    Annu Rev Psychol 2017 Jan 12;68:155-186. Epub 2016 Oct 12.
    Department of Evolutionary Anthropology and Center for Cognitive Neuroscience, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708; email:
    The challenge of studying human cognitive evolution is identifying unique features of our intelligence while explaining the processes by which they arose. Comparisons with nonhuman apes point to our early-emerging cooperative-communicative abilities as crucial to the evolution of all forms of human cultural cognition, including language. The human self-domestication hypothesis proposes that these early-emerging social skills evolved when natural selection favored increased in-group prosociality over aggression in late human evolution. Read More

    How Power Affects People: Activating, Wanting, and Goal Seeking.
    Annu Rev Psychol 2017 Jan 21;68:353-381. Epub 2016 Sep 21.
    Department of Experimental Psychology, University College London, London WC1H 0AP, United Kingdom; email:
    Sociocognitive research has demonstrated that power affects how people feel, think, and act. In this article, I review literature from social psychology, neuroscience, management, and animal research and propose an integrated framework of power as an intensifier of goal-related approach motivation. A growing literature shows that power energizes thought, speech, and action and orients individuals toward salient goals linked to power roles, predispositions, tasks, and opportunities. Read More

    Numerical Development.
    Annu Rev Psychol 2017 Jan 21;68:187-213. Epub 2016 Sep 21.
    Department of Psychology, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213; email:
    In this review, we attempt to integrate two crucial aspects of numerical development: learning the magnitudes of individual numbers and learning arithmetic. Numerical magnitude development involves gaining increasingly precise knowledge of increasing ranges and types of numbers: from nonsymbolic to small symbolic numbers, from smaller to larger whole numbers, and from whole to rational numbers. One reason why this development is important is that precision of numerical magnitude knowledge is correlated with, predictive of, and causally related to both whole and rational number arithmetic. Read More

    The Structure of Social Cognition: In(ter)dependence of Sociocognitive Processes.
    Annu Rev Psychol 2017 Jan 21;68:243-267. Epub 2016 Sep 21.
    MRC Social, Genetic & Developmental Psychiatry Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, London SE5 8AF, United Kingdom; email: ,
    Social cognition is a topic of enormous interest and much research, but we are far from having an agreed taxonomy or factor structure of relevant processes. The aim of this review is to outline briefly what is known about the structure of social cognition and to suggest how further progress can be made to delineate the in(ter)dependence of core sociocognitive processes. We focus in particular on several processes that have been discussed and tested together in typical and atypical (notably autism spectrum disorder) groups: imitation, biological motion, empathy, and theory of mind. Read More

    Culture Three Ways: Culture and Subcultures Within Countries.
    Annu Rev Psychol 2017 Jan 21;68:435-463. Epub 2016 Sep 21.
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089-1061; email:
    Culture can be thought of as a set of everyday practices and a core theme-individualism, collectivism, or honor-as well as the capacity to understand each of these themes. In one's own culture, it is easy to fail to see that a cultural lens exists and instead to think that there is no lens at all, only reality. Hence, studying culture requires stepping out of it. Read More

    Learning, Reward, and Decision Making.
    Annu Rev Psychol 2017 Jan 28;68:73-100. Epub 2016 Sep 28.
    Division of Humanities and Social Sciences and Computation and Neural Systems Program, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125; email:
    In this review, we summarize findings supporting the existence of multiple behavioral strategies for controlling reward-related behavior, including a dichotomy between the goal-directed or model-based system and the habitual or model-free system in the domain of instrumental conditioning and a similar dichotomy in the realm of Pavlovian conditioning. We evaluate evidence from neuroscience supporting the existence of at least partly distinct neuronal substrates contributing to the key computations necessary for the function of these different control systems. We consider the nature of the interactions between these systems and show how these interactions can lead to either adaptive or maladaptive behavioral outcomes. Read More

    Mindfulness Interventions.
    Annu Rev Psychol 2017 Jan 28;68:491-516. Epub 2016 Sep 28.
    Department of Psychology, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213; email:
    Mindfulness interventions aim to foster greater attention to and awareness of present moment experience. There has been a dramatic increase in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of mindfulness interventions over the past two decades. This article evaluates the growing evidence of mindfulness intervention RCTs by reviewing and discussing (a) the effects of mindfulness interventions on health, cognitive, affective, and interpersonal outcomes; (b) evidence-based applications of mindfulness interventions to new settings and populations (e. Read More

    Memory: Organization and Control.
    Annu Rev Psychol 2017 Jan 28;68:19-45. Epub 2016 Sep 28.
    Center for Memory and Brain, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02215; email:
    A major goal of memory research is to understand how cognitive processes in memory are supported at the level of brain systems and network representations. Especially promising in this direction are new findings in humans and animals that converge in indicating a key role for the hippocampus in the systematic organization of memories. New findings also indicate that the prefrontal cortex may play an equally important role in the active control of memory organization during both encoding and retrieval. Read More

    Experiments with More Than One Random Factor: Designs, Analytic Models, and Statistical Power.
    Annu Rev Psychol 2017 Jan 28;68:601-625. Epub 2016 Sep 28.
    Department of Psychological Sciences, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269; email:
    Traditional methods of analyzing data from psychological experiments are based on the assumption that there is a single random factor (normally participants) to which generalization is sought. However, many studies involve at least two random factors (e.g. Read More

    Learning from Errors.
    Annu Rev Psychol 2017 Jan 14;68:465-489. Epub 2016 Sep 14.
    Department of Psychology, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027; email:
    Although error avoidance during learning appears to be the rule in American classrooms, laboratory studies suggest that it may be a counterproductive strategy, at least for neurologically typical students. Experimental investigations indicate that errorful learning followed by corrective feedback is beneficial to learning. Interestingly, the beneficial effects are particularly salient when individuals strongly believe that their error is correct: Errors committed with high confidence are corrected more readily than low-confidence errors. Read More

    Moving Beyond Correlations in Assessing the Consequences of Poverty.
    Annu Rev Psychol 2017 Jan 14;68:413-434. Epub 2016 Sep 14.
    Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260; email:
    In the United States, does growing up in a poor household cause negative developmental outcomes for children? Hundreds of studies have documented statistical associations between family income in childhood and a host of outcomes in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. Many of these studies have used correlational evidence to draw policy conclusions regarding the benefits of added family income for children, in particular children in families with incomes below the poverty line. Are these conclusions warranted? After a review of possible mechanisms linking poverty to negative childhood outcomes, we summarize the evidence for income's effects on children, paying particular attention to the strength of the evidence and the timing of economic deprivation. Read More

    Interactions With Robots: The Truths We Reveal About Ourselves.
    Annu Rev Psychol 2017 Jan 14;68:627-652. Epub 2016 Sep 14.
    Department of Psychological Medicine, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, The University of Auckland, Auckland 1142, New Zealand; email:
    In movies, robots are often extremely humanlike. Although these robots are not yet reality, robots are currently being used in healthcare, education, and business. Robots provide benefits such as relieving loneliness and enabling communication. Read More

    The Psychology of Close Relationships: Fourteen Core Principles.
    Annu Rev Psychol 2017 Jan 1;68:383-411. Epub 2016 Sep 1.
    Department of Psychology, University of California, Davis, California 95616; email:
    Relationship science is a theory-rich discipline, but there have been no attempts to articulate the broader themes or principles that cut across the theories themselves. We have sought to fill that void by reviewing the psychological literature on close relationships, particularly romantic relationships, to extract its core principles. This review reveals 14 principles, which collectively address four central questions: (a) What is a relationship? (b) How do relationships operate? (c) What tendencies do people bring to their relationships? (d) How does the context affect relationships? The 14 principles paint a cohesive and unified picture of romantic relationships that reflects a strong and maturing discipline. Read More

    Reinforcement Learning and Episodic Memory in Humans and Animals: An Integrative Framework.
    Annu Rev Psychol 2017 Jan 2;68:101-128. Epub 2016 Sep 2.
    Princeton Neuroscience Institute and Department of Psychology, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544.
    We review the psychology and neuroscience of reinforcement learning (RL), which has experienced significant progress in the past two decades, enabled by the comprehensive experimental study of simple learning and decision-making tasks. However, one challenge in the study of RL is computational: The simplicity of these tasks ignores important aspects of reinforcement learning in the real world: (a) State spaces are high-dimensional, continuous, and partially observable; this implies that (b) data are relatively sparse and, indeed, precisely the same situation may never be encountered twice; furthermore, (c) rewards depend on the long-term consequences of actions in ways that violate the classical assumptions that make RL tractable. A seemingly distinct challenge is that, cognitively, theories of RL have largely involved procedural and semantic memory, the way in which knowledge about action values or world models extracted gradually from many experiences can drive choice. Read More

    Attitude Strength.
    Annu Rev Psychol 2017 Jan 2;68:327-351. Epub 2016 Sep 2.
    Department of Communication, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305; email:
    Attitude strength has been the focus of a huge volume of research in psychology and related sciences for decades. The insights offered by this literature have tremendous value for understanding attitude functioning and structure and for the effective application of the attitude concept in applied settings. This is the first Annual Review of Psychology article on the topic, and it offers a review of theory and evidence regarding one of the most researched strength-related attitude features: attitude importance. Read More

    Health Behavior Change: Moving from Observation to Intervention.
    Annu Rev Psychol 2017 Jan 8;68:573-600. Epub 2016 Sep 8.
    Department of Psychology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455.
    How can progress in research on health behavior change be accelerated? Experimental medicine (EM) offers an approach that can help investigators specify the research questions that need to be addressed and the evidence needed to test those questions. Whereas current research draws predominantly on multiple overlapping theories resting largely on correlational evidence, the EM approach emphasizes experimental tests of targets or mechanisms of change and programmatic research on which targets change health behaviors and which techniques change those targets. There is evidence that engaging particular targets promotes behavior change; however, systematic studies are needed to identify and validate targets and to discover when and how targets are best engaged. Read More

    Hidden Wounds? Inflammatory Links Between Childhood Trauma and Psychopathology.
    Annu Rev Psychol 2017 Jan 17;68:517-544. Epub 2016 Aug 17.
    MRC Social, Genetic, and Developmental Psychiatry Research Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, Kings College London, London SE5 8AF, United Kingdom; email:
    Childhood trauma is a key risk factor for psychopathology. However, little is known about how exposure to childhood trauma is translated into biological risk for psychopathology. Observational human studies and experimental animal models suggest that childhood exposure to stress can trigger an enduring systemic inflammatory response not unlike the bodily response to physical injury. Read More

    Social Motivation: Costs and Benefits of Selfishness and Otherishness.
    Annu Rev Psychol 2017 Jan 24;68:299-325. Epub 2016 Jun 24.
    Department of Psychology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210; email: ,
    We examine recent evidence on the consequences of selfishness and otherishness for psychological well-being, physical health, and relationships. In the first sections, we consider recent evidence regarding the costs and benefits of giving time, money, and support to others and the costs and benefits of taking or receiving those things from others. Then, because the behaviors of giving and taking can be motivated either by selfish or otherish concerns, we next consider the costs and benefits of the motivation underlying giving and taking. Read More

    Socioemotional, Personality, and Biological Development: Illustrations from a Multilevel Developmental Psychopathology Perspective on Child Maltreatment.
    Annu Rev Psychol 2016 ;67:187-211
    Institute of Child Development, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455; email:
    Developmental theories can be affirmed, challenged, and augmented by incorporating knowledge about atypical ontogenesis. Investigations of the biological, socioemotional, and personality development in individuals with high-risk conditions and psychopathological disorders can provide an entrée into the study of system organization, disorganization, and reorganization. This article examines child maltreatment to illustrate the benefit that can be derived from the study of individuals subjected to nonnormative caregiving experiences. Read More

    Episodic Memory and Beyond: The Hippocampus and Neocortex in Transformation.
    Annu Rev Psychol 2016 ;67:105-34
    Department of Psychology and Cognitive Science Program, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721; email:
    The last decade has seen dramatic technological and conceptual changes in research on episodic memory and the brain. New technologies, and increased use of more naturalistic observations, have enabled investigators to delve deeply into the structures that mediate episodic memory, particularly the hippocampus, and to track functional and structural interactions among brain regions that support it. Conceptually, episodic memory is increasingly being viewed as subject to lifelong transformations that are reflected in the neural substrates that mediate it. Read More

    Beyond Work-Life "Integration".
    Annu Rev Psychol 2016 6;67:515-39. Epub 2015 Oct 6.
    Department of Psychology, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida 33620.
    Research on the work-family interface began in the 1960s and has grown exponentially ever since. This vast amount of research, however, has had relatively little impact on workplace practice, and work-family conflict is at an all-time high. We review the work-family research to date and propose that a shift of attention is required, away from the individual experience of work and family and toward understanding how identity and status are defined at work. Read More

    Gene × Environment Determinants of Stress- and Anxiety-Related Disorders.
    Annu Rev Psychol 2016 6;67:239-61. Epub 2015 Oct 6.
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia 30322.
    The burgeoning field of gene-by-environment (G×E) interactions has revealed fascinating biological insights, particularly in the realm of stress-, anxiety-, and depression-related disorders. In this review we present an integrated view of the study of G×E interactions in stress and anxiety disorders, including the evolution of genetic association studies from genetic epidemiology to contemporary large-scale genome-wide association studies and G×E studies. We convey the importance of consortia efforts and collaboration to gain the large sample sizes needed to move the field forward. Read More

    Causal Inference in Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) Research.
    Annu Rev Psychol 2016 6;67:567-85. Epub 2015 Oct 6.
    MRC Integrative Epidemiology Unit (IEU) at the University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 2BN, United Kingdom; email:
    Studies of the developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD) often rely on prospective observational data, from which associations between developmental exposures and outcomes in later life can be identified. Typically, conventional statistical methods are used in an attempt to mitigate problems inherent in observational data, such as confounding and reverse causality, but these have serious limitations. In this review, we discuss a variety of methods that are increasingly being used in observational epidemiological studies to help strengthen causal inference. Read More

    The Affective Neuroscience of Aging.
    Annu Rev Psychol 2016 2;67:213-38. Epub 2015 Oct 2.
    Davis School of Gerontology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089; email:
    Although aging is associated with clear declines in physical and cognitive processes, emotional functioning fares relatively well. Consistent with this behavioral profile, two core emotional brain regions, the amygdala and ventromedial prefrontal cortex, show little structural and functional decline in aging, compared with other regions. However, emotional processes depend on interacting systems of neurotransmitters and brain regions that go beyond these structures. Read More

    Vocational Psychology: Agency, Equity, and Well-Being.
    Annu Rev Psychol 2016 2;67:541-65. Epub 2015 Oct 2.
    College of Education, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742; email:
    The present review organizes the vocational psychology literature published between 2007 and 2014 into three overarching themes: Promoting (a) agency in career development, (b) equity in the work force, and (c) well-being in work and educational settings. Research on career adaptability, self-efficacy beliefs, and work volition is reviewed in the agency section, with the goal of delineating variables that promote or constrain the exercise of personal agency in academic and occupational pursuits. The equity theme covers research on social class and race/ethnicity in career development; entry and retention of women and people of color in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) fields; and the career service needs of survivors of domestic violence and of criminal offenders. Read More

    Counterfactual Thought.
    Annu Rev Psychol 2016 14;67:135-57. Epub 2015 Sep 14.
    School of Psychology and Institute of Neuroscience, Trinity College Dublin, University of Dublin, Ireland; email:
    People spontaneously create counterfactual alternatives to reality when they think "if only" or "what if" and imagine how the past could have been different. The mind computes counterfactuals for many reasons. Counterfactuals explain the past and prepare for the future, they implicate various relations including causal ones, and they affect intentions and decisions. Read More

    Sequential Sampling Models in Cognitive Neuroscience: Advantages, Applications, and Extensions.
    Annu Rev Psychol 2016 17;67:641-66. Epub 2015 Sep 17.
    Department of Methodology, University of Amsterdam, 1018 WV Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Sequential sampling models assume that people make speeded decisions by gradually accumulating noisy information until a threshold of evidence is reached. In cognitive science, one such model--the diffusion decision model--is now regularly used to decompose task performance into underlying processes such as the quality of information processing, response caution, and a priori bias. In the cognitive neurosciences, the diffusion decision model has recently been adopted as a quantitative tool to study the neural basis of decision making under time pressure. Read More

    Annu Rev Psychol 2016 17;67:465-88. Epub 2015 Sep 17.
    Department of Psychology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z4, Canada; email:
    Humanity is teeming with breathtaking theodiversity--in religious beliefs, behaviors, and traditions, as well as in various intensities and forms of disbelief. Yet the origins and consequences of this diversity have received limited attention in psychology. I first describe how evolved psychological processes that influence and respond to cultural evolutionary trajectories generate and channel religious diversity. Read More

    Consistency Versus Licensing Effects of Past Moral Behavior.
    Annu Rev Psychol 2016 17;67:363-85. Epub 2015 Sep 17.
    Graduate School of Business and Department of Psychology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305; email:
    Why does past moral behavior sometimes lead people to do more of the same (consistency), whereas sometimes it liberates them to do the opposite (licensing)? We organize the literature on moderators of moral consistency versus licensing effects using five conceptual themes: construal level, progress versus commitment, identification, value reflection, and ambiguity. Our review reveals that individuals are more likely to exhibit consistency when they focus abstractly on the connection between their initial behavior and their values, whereas they are more likely to exhibit licensing when they think concretely about what they have accomplished with their initial behavior-as long as the second behavior does not blatantly threaten a cherished identity. Moreover, many studies lacked baseline conditions ("donut" designs), leaving it ambiguous whether licensing was observed. Read More

    Psychological Reasoning in Infancy.
    Annu Rev Psychol 2016 17;67:159-86. Epub 2015 Sep 17.
    Department of Psychology, University of Illinois, Champaign, Illinois 61820; email: ,
    Adults routinely make sense of others' actions by inferring the mental states that underlie these actions. Over the past two decades, developmental researchers have made significant advances in understanding the origins of this ability in infancy. This evidence indicates that when infants observe an agent act in a simple scene, they infer the agent's mental states and then use these mental states, together with a principle of rationality (and its corollaries of efficiency and consistency), to predict and interpret the agent's subsequent actions and to guide their own actions toward the agent. Read More

    Modular Brain Networks.
    Annu Rev Psychol 2016 21;67:613-40. Epub 2015 Sep 21.
    Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47405; email:
    The development of new technologies for mapping structural and functional brain connectivity has led to the creation of comprehensive network maps of neuronal circuits and systems. The architecture of these brain networks can be examined and analyzed with a large variety of graph theory tools. Methods for detecting modules, or network communities, are of particular interest because they uncover major building blocks or subnetworks that are particularly densely connected, often corresponding to specialized functional components. Read More

    The Council of Psychological Advisers.
    Annu Rev Psychol 2016 21;67:713-37. Epub 2015 Sep 21.
    Harvard Law School, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138; email:
    Findings in behavioral science, including psychology, have influenced policies and reforms in many nations. Choice architecture can affect outcomes even if material incentives are not involved. In some contexts, default rules, simplification, and social norms have had even larger effects than significant economic incentives. Read More

    From Brain Maps to Cognitive Ontologies: Informatics and the Search for Mental Structure.
    Annu Rev Psychol 2016 21;67:587-612. Epub 2015 Sep 21.
    Department of Psychology, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712; email:
    A major goal of cognitive neuroscience is to delineate how brain systems give rise to mental function. Here we review the increasingly large role informatics-driven approaches are playing in such efforts. We begin by reviewing a number of challenges conventional neuroimaging approaches face in trying to delineate brain-cognition mappings--for example, the difficulty in establishing the specificity of postulated associations. Read More

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