144,714 results match your criteria Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology [Journal]


In Vitro Methods for Assessing Nanoparticle Toxicity.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1894:1-29

Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA.

As a consequence of their increase in annual production and widespread distribution in the environment, nanoparticles potentially pose a significant public health risk. The sought-after catalytic activity granted by their physiochemical properties doubles as a hazard to physiological processes following exposure through inhalation, oral, transdermal, subcutaneous, and intravenous uptake. Upon uptake into the body, their size, morphology, surface charge, coating, and chemical composition augment the response of biological systems to the materials and enhance their toxicity. Read More

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January 2019

Pediatric Thrombotic Events: Incidence, Clinical Risk Factors and Outcome.

Indian J Pediatr 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Neonatology, Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research (JIPMER), Puducherry, 605006, India.

Objective: To study the incidence, clinical risk factors and outcome of thrombotic events in pediatric age group of 1 mo-12 y.

Methods: This prospective observational study was conducted in a tertiary care institute from September 2015 through October 2017. Forty nine children with thrombosis from 1 mo-12 y were enrolled. Read More

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December 2018
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Multiplex PCR for the rapid detection of insulin-like growth factor in the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas: a useful indicator for growth assessment.

Mol Biol Rep 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Marine Bio-Materials & Aquaculture, Pukyong National University, Busan, 48513, South Korea.

Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) expression plays a critical role in the endocrine regulation of proliferation, differentiation, and growth in shellfish as well as in fish. The Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, is a significant aquaculture species that comprises a large percentage of the Korean shellfish industry; moreover, its growth is economically important in aquaculture. However, when measuring the growth rate in shellfish, the soft tissue weight is difficult to determine because of the shell weight. Read More

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December 2018

Standardized Cost Estimates for Home Visiting: Pilot Study of the Home Visiting Budget Assistance Tool (HV-BAT).

Matern Child Health J 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Division of Home Visiting and Early Childhood Systems, HRSA, Maternal and Child Health Bureau, 5600 Fishers Lane, Rockville, MD, 20857, USA.

Purpose Using a standardized approach and metrics to estimate home visiting costs across multiple evidence-based models and regions could improve the consistency and accuracy of cost estimates, allow stakeholders to observe trends in cost allocation, analyze how home visiting costs vary, and develop future program budgets. Between October 2015 and December 2018, we developed and pilot-tested the Home Visiting Budget Assistance Tool (HV-BAT) to standardize the collection of home visiting program costs and analyze costs for local implementing agencies (LIAs). Methods We recruited LIAs that implemented at least one of nine evidence-based home visiting models in 15 states implementing the Maternal, Infant, and Early Childhood Home Visiting (MIECHV) Program. Read More

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December 2018

Trends in cervical disc arthroplasty and revisions in the Medicare database.

J Spine Surg 2018 Sep;4(3):522-528

East Coast Orthopedics, Pompano, FL, USA.

Background: Due to increased postoperative complications with anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF), there has been an increasing interest in the use of cervical disc arthroplasty (CDA). Advancements in prosthetic designs and techniques have improved patient reported outcome measurements and minimized revision rates. There is a paucity in the literature regarding recent trends in CDA utilization and revision rates. Read More

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September 2018

Economic Evaluation of an Integrated Health and Social Care Program for Heart Failure Through 2 Different Modeling Techniques.

Health Serv Res Manag Epidemiol 2018 Jan-Dec;5:2333392818795795. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

AP-OSI Research Unit, Alto Deba Integrated Healthcare Organisation, Mondragón, Spain.

Introduction: An integrated health and social care program for patients with heart failure (HF) was implemented at the Friuli-Venezia Giulia deployment site as part of the SmartCare European project. The objective of this study was to validate 2 different decision modeling techniques used to perform the economic evaluation.

Methods: Data were collected during the SmartCare project which enrolled 108 patients with HF and followed for more than 6 months. Read More

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December 2018

Large-scale loyalty card data in health research.

Digit Health 2018 Jan-Dec;4:2055207618816898. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Department of Food and Nutrition, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

Objective: To study the characteristics of large-scale loyalty card data obtained in Finland, and to evaluate their potential and challenges in health research.

Methods: We contacted the holders of a certain loyalty card living in a specific region in Finland via email, and requested their electronic informed consent to obtain their basic background characteristics and grocery expenditure data from 2016 for health research purposes. Non-participation and the characteristics and expenditure of the participants were mainly analysed using summary statistics and figures. Read More

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November 2018
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Intransitivity increases plant functional diversity by limiting dominance in drylands worldwide.

J Ecol 2019 Jan 14;107(1):240-252. Epub 2018 Jun 14.

Departamento de Biología y Geología, Física y Química Inorgánica, Escuela Superior de Ciencias Experimentales y Tecnología, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, C/ Tulipán s/n, 28933 Móstoles, Spain.

1. Biotic interactions are key determinants of plant community structure. Indirect interactions such as intransitivity ( in the absence of competitive hierarchies among species) have been hypothesized to benefit diversity within plant communities. Read More

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January 2019

Annual acknowledgement of manuscript reviewers.

Authors:

Eye (Lond) 2018 Dec;32(12):1797-1799

In this issue, we acknowledge and thank the reviewers who have been active over the past year. We greatly appreciate their tireless and largely unseen work. It is thanks to them that the quality of papers continues to increase. Read More

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December 2018

27 years of prenatal diagnosis for Huntington disease in the United Kingdom.

Genet Med 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

School of Medicine, Medical Sciences and Nutrition, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK.

Purpose: There is little long-term, population-based data on uptake of prenatal diagnosis for Huntington disease (HD), a late-onset autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder, and the effect of the availability of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) on families' decisions about conventional prenatal diagnosis is not known. We report trends in prenatal diagnosis and preimplantation diagnosis for HD in the United Kingdom since services commenced.

Methods: Long-term UK-wide prospective case record-based service evaluation in 23 UK Regional Genetic Centres 1988-2015, and four UK PGD centers 2002-2015. Read More

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December 2018

Quantity and Reporting Quality of Kidney Research.

J Am Soc Nephrol 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Division of Nephrology, Medizinische Klinik and Poliklinik IV, Klinikum der Universität München, Ludwig Maximilians University München, Munich, Germany

Background: In 2004, researchers reported that the number of nephrology clinical trials was low and that the reporting quality of such trials was suboptimal. Furthermore, the number or quality of preclinical kidney-related studies has not been systematically evaluated.

Methods: We performed a systematic review of randomized clinical trials published in 1966-2017 (listed in the Cochrane Library) and preclinical studies published in 1945-2017 (listed in PubMed). Read More

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December 2018

Updated BTS Adult Bronchiectasis Guideline 2018: a multidisciplinary approach to comprehensive care.

Thorax 2019 Jan;74(1):1-3

Host Defence Unit, Division of Respiratory Medicine, Royal Brompton Hospital, London, UK.

The new British Thoracic Society (BTS) Guideline for Bronchiectasis in Adults has been published. This article provides a summary of key highlights of the new BTS Guideline and covers who to investigate, what investigations should be carried out and a management strategy. Read More

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January 2019
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Much to do with nothing: microsimulation study on time management in primary care.

BMJ 2018 Dec 13;363:k4983. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

VA Center for Clinical Management Research, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA.

Objective: To investigate the credibility of claims that general practitioners lack time for shared decision making and preventive care.

Design: Monte Carlo microsimulation study.

Setting: Primary care, United States. Read More

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December 2018

Analysis of Trends in Insulin Utilization and Spending Across Canada From 2010 to 2015.

Can J Diabetes 2018 Aug 16. Epub 2018 Aug 16.

Leslie Dan Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute, St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address:

Objectives: To describe insulin utilization and spending across Canada and investigate how interprovincial variations in long-acting insulin uptake impact provincial spending.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional time-series analysis of insulin products dispensed nationally from January 1, 2010, to December 31, 2015, using data from IQVIA (Durham, North Carolina, United States). Analysis was stratified according to insulin type, payer and province. Read More

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Past and anticipated trends in cardiology service requirements at Mater Dei Hospital, Malta.

Early Hum Dev 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Mater Dei Hospital, Malta. Electronic address:

Introduction: The requirement for medical services fluctuates. This study was carried out in order to attempt to extrapolate the service requirements for various cardiology services at Mater Dei Hospital, Malta over the coming five years, based on service demands from previous years.

Methods: Past annual data was obtained from hospital records for various services (to 2017). Read More

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December 2018

The dose-response effects of uric acid on the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy in healthy individuals.

Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2018 Oct 16. Epub 2018 Oct 16.

Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, 10051, Taiwan; Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University College of Medicine and Hospital, Taipei, 10581, Taiwan; Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital Yunlin Branch, Yunlin, 64057, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Background And Aim: Hyperuricemia (HUA) is associated with the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and cardiovascular risks in various populations. HUA is also able to induce cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in mouse models. However, the dose-response effects of serum uric acid (SUA) on the prevalence of MetS and electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) are unclear. Read More

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October 2018

Annual review of selected scientific literature: A report of the Committee on Scientific Investigation of the American Academy of Restorative Dentistry.

J Prosthet Dent 2018 Dec;120(6):816-878

Private practice oral and maxillofacial surgery, Ansbach, Bavaria, Germany.

Problem: There are countless numbers of scientific studies published in countless scientific journals on subjects related to restorative dentistry.

Purpose: The purpose of this article is to review pertinent scientific studies published in 2017 on topics of interest to restorative dentists.

Methods And Materials: The authors, considered to be experts in their disciplines searched the scientific literature in 7 different areas (prosthodontics, periodontics, dental materials, occlusion and temporomandibular disorders, sleep-disordered breathing, oral medicine and oral and maxillofacial surgery and dental caries). Read More

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December 2018

Air travel and incidence of pneumothorax in lymphangioleiomyomatosis.

Orphanet J Rare Dis 2018 Dec 13;13(1):222. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Service de pneumologie, Centre hospitalier universitaire vaudois, PMU BU44.07, Rue du Bugnon 44, 1011, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Background: Pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare disease of women characterized by multiple lung cysts leading to respiratory insufficiency and frequent pneumothorax (PT). Air travel (AT) could increase the risk of PT in LAM through rupture of subpleural cysts induced by atmospheric pressure changes in aircraft cabin. To determine whether AT increases the risk of PT in LAM, we performed a retrospective survey of members of European LAM patient associations. Read More

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December 2018

Evaluation of an educational intervention to increase HIV-testing in high HIV prevalence general practices: a pilot feasibility stepped-wedged randomised controlled trial.

BMC Fam Pract 2018 Dec 13;19(1):195. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Bristol Medical School, University of Bristol, Canynge Hall, 39 Whatley Road, Bristol, BS8 2PS, UK.

Background: HIV-infected patients often present to primary care several times with HIV-indicator conditions before diagnosis but the opportunity to test by healthcare professionals (HCPs) is frequently missed. Current HIV testing rates in primary care are low and educational interventions to facilitate HCPs to increase testing and awareness of HIV are needed.

Method: We implemented a pilot feasibility stepped-wedged randomised controlled trial of an educational intervention in high HIV prevalence practices in Bristol. Read More

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December 2018

21st century research in urban WASH and health in sub-Saharan Africa: methods and outcomes in transition.

Int J Environ Health Res 2018 Dec 13:1-22. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

g University College, London Institute of Global Health , London , United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

Tackling global inequalities in access to Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) remains an urgent issue - 58% of annual diarrhoeal deaths are caused by inadequate WASH provision. A global context of increasing urbanisation, changing demographics and health transitions demands an understanding and impact of WASH on a broad set of health outcomes. We examine the literature, in terms of health outcomes, considering WASH access and interventions in urban sub-Saharan Africa from 2000 to 2017. Read More

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December 2018

Modulation of Innate Immune Responses by the Influenza A NS1 and PA-X Proteins.

Viruses 2018 Dec 12;10(12). Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York, NY 14642, USA.

Influenza A viruses (IAV) can infect a broad range of animal hosts, including humans. In humans, IAV causes seasonal annual epidemics and occasional pandemics, representing a serious public health and economic problem, which is most effectively prevented through vaccination. The defense mechanisms that the host innate immune system provides restrict IAV replication and infection. Read More

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December 2018

Spatial Patterns of Satellite-Retrieved PM and Long-Term Exposure Assessment of China from 1998 to 2016.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2018 Dec 8;15(12). Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Geographic Information Science and Technology, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023, China.

Previous studies have shown that particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 2.5 micrometers (PM) is tightly associated with adverse effects on human health, i.e. Read More

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December 2018

Network Design for Municipal Solid Waste Collection: A Case Study of the Nanjing Jiangbei New Area.

Authors:
Jing Liang Ming Liu

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2018 Dec 10;15(12). Epub 2018 Dec 10.

School of Economics and Management, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094, China.

Garbage collection is an important part of municipal engineering. An effective service network design can help to reduce the municipal operation cost and improve its service level. In this paper, we propose an optimization model for the network design of municipal solid waste (MSW) collection in the Nanjing Jiangbei new area. Read More

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December 2018

Rhabdomyosarcoma and Extraosseous Ewing Sarcoma.

Children (Basel) 2018 Dec 10;5(12). Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Division of Pediatric General and Thoracic Surgery, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA.

Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is a malignant tumor that represents the most common form of pediatric soft tissue sarcoma. It arises from mesenchymal origin and forms part of the group of small round blue cell tumors of childhood. It has a constant annual incidence of 4. Read More

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December 2018

Melatonin Sensitizes Human Colorectal Cancer Cells to γ-ray Ionizing Radiation In Vitro and In Vivo.

Int J Mol Sci 2018 Dec 10;19(12). Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Tianjin Key Lab of Radiation Medicine Molecular Nuclear Medicine, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Chinese Academy of Medical Science and Peking Union Medical College, Tianjin 300192, China.

Colorectal cancer is the most commonly reported gastrointestinal malignancy, with a recent, rapid increase of the annual incidence all over the world. Enhancing the radiosensitivity of cancer cells while preserving the health of normal cells is one of the most important tasks in clinical radiobiology. However, resistance to radiotherapy for colorectal cancer greatly decreases the therapeutic outcome. Read More

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December 2018

Determinants of Termite Assemblages' Characteristics within Natural Habitats of a Sudano-Guinean Savanna (Comoe National Park, Côte d'Ivoire).

Insects 2018 Dec 10;9(4). Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Station de Recherche en Ecologie du Parc National de la Comoé, 27 BP 847 Abidjan 27, Ivory Coast.

Termites are one of the major components of tropical ecosystems. However, the ecological and biological variables determining the structure of their communities within natural habitats are less documented in general and especially in the Comoe National Park, a Sudano-Guinean savanna zone located in the north-eastern part of Côte d'Ivoire (West Africa). Using a standardized method of belt transects, the structure of termite's communities was estimated within habitats differing in the structure of their vegetation, soil characteristics, and the disturbance level caused by annual occurrences of bushfires. Read More

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December 2018

The Effects of System Changes in Grazed Dairy Farmlet Trials on Greenhouse Gas Emissions.

Animals (Basel) 2018 Dec 7;8(12). Epub 2018 Dec 7.

AgResearch, Lincoln Research Centre, Lincoln 7674, New Zealand.

An important challenge facing the New Zealand (NZ) dairy industry is development of production systems that can maintain or increase production and profitability, while reducing impacts on receiving environments including water and air. Using research 'farmlets' in Waikato, Canterbury, and Otago (32⁻200 animals per herd), we assessed if system changes aimed at reducing nitrate leaching can also reduce total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (methane and nitrous oxide) and emissions intensity (kg GHG per unit of product) by comparing current and potential 'improved' dairy systems. Annual average GHG emissions for each system were estimated for three or four years using calculations based on the New Zealand Agricultural Inventory Methodology, but included key farmlet-specific emission factors determined from regional experiments. Read More

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December 2018

Decomposition Analysis of Factors Affecting Changes in Industrial Wastewater Emission Intensity in China: Based on a SSBM-GMI Approach.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2018 Dec 7;15(12). Epub 2018 Dec 7.

School of Business, Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211, China.

This paper investigated the factors driving the changes in industrial wastewater emission intensity (IWEI) across provinces in China. To do this, we proposed a Super-efficiency Slacks-based Measure-Global Malmquist Index (SSBM-GMI) to decompose the change in IWEI into the effects from efficiency change (ECE), technological change (TCE), capital⁻wastewater substitution (KWE) and labor⁻wastewater substitution (LWE). The method was applied to conduct an empirical study using Chinese provincial data from 2003⁻2015. Read More

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December 2018

Impact of hospital care volume on clinical outcomes of laparoscopic radical hysterectomy for cervical cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2018 Dec;97(49):e13445

Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Obstetrics and Gynecology, Irvine Medical Center, University of California, Orange, CA.

Background: In cervical cancer, the impact of hospital volume of laparoscopic radical hysterectomy (LRH) has not been investigated systematically as in ovarian cancer.The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of hospital care volume of LRH on treatment outcomes of patients with cervical cancer.

Methods: The PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases were searched with the terms "cervical cancer," "radical hysterectomy," and "laparoscopy. Read More

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December 2018

The 2018 AANS Presidential Address. The privilege of service.

Authors:

J Neurosurg 2018 Dec;129(6):1377-1383

The theme of the 2018 American Association of Neurological Surgeons Annual Meeting was "The Privilege of Service." In the current climate of rapid change in healthcare delivery and increasing pressure on physicians, this theme was chosen to remind us of our true priorities and of the amazing opportunities that we have as neurosurgeons. In parallel to the classic triple-threat practitioner who excels in teaching, research, and clinical care, future neurosurgeons will need to acquire mastery in three areas of service, which have been summarized as the three A's: administration, advocacy, and altruism. Read More

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December 2018

Spine surgery in the International Security Assistance Force Role 3 combat support hospital in Mazar-e-Sharif, northern Afghanistan, 2007-2014.

Authors:

Neurosurg Focus 2018 Dec;45(6):E13

OBJECTIVESince 2007, a continuous neurosurgery emergency service has been available in the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) field hospital in Mazar-e-Sharif (MeS), Afghanistan. The object of this study was to assess the number and range of surgical procedures performed on the spine in the period from 2007 to 2014.METHODSThis is a retrospective analysis of the annual neurosurgical caseload statistics from July 2007 to October 2014 (92 months). Read More

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December 2018

A novel method to determine the natural course of unruptured brain arteriovenous malformations without the need for follow-up information.

Authors:

J Neurosurg 2018 Dec;129(Suppl1):10-16

OBJECTIVEThere is a strong clinical need to accurately determine the average annual hemorrhage risk in unruptured brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). This need motivated the present initiative to use data from a uniquely large patient population and design a novel methodology to achieve a risk determination with unprecedented accuracy. The authors also aimed to determine the impact of sex, pregnancy, AVM volume, and location on the risk for AVM rupture. Read More

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December 2018

Modeling the Asian Longhorned Tick (Acari: Ixodidae) Suitable Habitat in North America.

Authors:
Ilia Rochlin

J Med Entomol 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Center for Vector Biology, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ.

Asian longhorned or bush tick (Haemaphysalis longicornis Neumann) is a vector species of considerable medical and veterinary importance within its native range in East Asia, and in introduced areas of Australia and Oceania. Recently, this tick species was detected in several regions of the United States. This study aimed at modeling areas suitable for H. Read More

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December 2018

Trends in Opioid Prescribing Among Hemodialysis Patients, 2007-2014.

Am J Nephrol 2018 Dec 13;49(1):20-31. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland,

Background: Hemodialysis (HD) patients frequently experience pain. Previous studies of HD patients suggest increased opioid prescribing through 2010. It remains unclear if this trend continued after 2010 or declined with national trends. Read More

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December 2018

Quantifying the contribution of tile drainage to basin-scale water yield using analytical and numerical models.

Sci Total Environ 2018 Dec 3;657:297-309. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Grassland Soil and Water Research Laboratory, USDA-ARS, Temple, TX, United States of America.

The Des Moines Lobe (DML) of north-central Iowa has been artificially drained by subsurface drains and surface ditches to provide some of the most productive agricultural land in the world. Herein we report on the use of end-member mixing analysis (EMMA) models and the numerical model Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to quantify the contribution of tile drainage to basin-scale water yields at various scales within the 2370 km Boone River watershed (BRW), a subbasin within the Des Moines River watershed. EMMA and SWAT methods suggested that tile drainage provided approximately 46 to 54% of annual discharge in the Boone River and during the March to June period, accounted for a majority of flow in the river. Read More

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December 2018

Determining landscape-level drivers of variability for over fifty soil chemical elements.

Sci Total Environ 2018 Dec 4;657:279-286. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

College of Agro-grassland Science, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China; Department of Grassland Science, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China.

Syntheses of large datasets have allowed increased clarity of distribution patterns and variation in soil major and trace elements. However, the drivers of variation in topsoil elements across biogeographical scales are not well understood. Our aim was to (1) identify how landscape-scale climate, geographical features, and edaphic factors influence soil elements, and (2) determine key environmental thresholds for shifts in soil element concentration. Read More

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December 2018

The clinical and prognostic value of antinuclear antibodies in NMO-IgG seropositive neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder.

J Neuroimmunol 2018 Nov 28;328:1-4. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Department of Neurology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan, College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea. Electronic address:

In neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD), the clinical and long-term prognostic value of antinuclear antibodies (ANAs) is unclear. We analyzed registry data of NMO-IgG seropositive NMOSD patients (n = 74) according to ANA presence. The ANA-positive group (n = 32) demonstrated more frequent other autoantibodies (anti-SSA/Ro, anti-SSB/La, antiphospholipid, and anti-double stranded DNA antibodies) than did the ANA-negative group (n = 42). Read More

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November 2018

The trends in incidence of primary liver cancer caused by specific etiologies: results from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016 and implications for liver cancer prevention.

J Hepatol 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering and Collaborative Innovation Center for Genetics and Development, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200438, China; Fudan University Taizhou Institute of Health Sciences, Taizhou, China; Human Phenome Institute, Fudan University, 825 Zhangheng Road, Shanghai 201203, China. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: Liver cancer is a common malignant neoplasm worldwide. The etiologies for liver cancer are diverse and the incidence trends of liver cancer caused by specific etiologies are rarely studied.

Methods: We collected detailed information on liver cancer etiology between 1990-2016, derived from the global burden of disease (GBD) in 2016. Read More

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December 2018

Optimization of PET reconstruction algorithm, SUV thresholding algorithm and PET acquisition time in clinical 11C-acetate PET/CT.

PLoS One 2018 13;13(12):e0209169. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology, Umea University, Umea, Sweden.

Introduction: 11C-acetate (ACE)-PET/CT is used for staging of high-risk prostate cancer. PET data is reconstructed with iterative algorithms, such as VUEPointHD ViP (VPHD) and VUEPoint HD Sharp IR (SharpIR), the latter with additional resolution recovery. It is expected that the resolution recovery algorithm should render more accurate maximum and mean standardized uptake values (SUVmax and SUVmean) and functional tumor volumes (FTV) than the ordinary OSEM. Read More

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December 2018

Bayesian adjustment for trend of colorectal cancer incidence in misclassified registering across Iranian provinces.

PLoS One 2018 13;13(12):e0199273. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases Research Center, Research Institute for Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Misclassification error is a common problem of cancer registries in developing countries that leads to biased cancer rates. The purpose of this research is to use Bayesian method for correcting misclassification in registered cancer incidence of eighteen provinces in Iran. Incidence data of patients with colorectal cancer were extracted from Iranian annual of national cancer registration reports from 2005 to 2008. Read More

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December 2018

Modelling the number of quitters needed to achieve New Zealand's Smokefree 2025 goal for Māori and non-Māori.

N Z Med J 2018 Dec 14;131(1487):30-37. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Public Health, University of Otago, Wellington.

Aim: To estimate the numbers of people required to quit smoking in New Zealand to achieve the Smokefree 2025 goal and to compare these with current levels of quitting.

Methods: We used the established BODE3 tobacco forecasting model to project smoking prevalence separately for Māori and non-Māori to 2025 under a business-as-usual (BAU) scenario. We then determined by what factor current annual cessation rates would have to increase to achieve an adult smoking prevalence of under 5% by the year 2025, while annual smoking uptake rates continued to follow BAU patterns. Read More

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December 2018

Concept and treatment outcomes of dynamic spinal brace for scoliosis in cerebral palsy.

J Pediatr Orthop B 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Osaka Rehabilitation Hospital for Children.

We developed a novel device, dynamic spinal brace (DSB), with the basic concept of automatic correction by maximizing posture control. Herein, we report the structure of the DSB and preliminary treatment outcomes for scoliosis in patients with cerebral palsy. The study cohort comprised 219 patients with cerebral palsy treated for scoliosis with Cobb angle of at least 20° and follow-up of more than 3 years under the DSB. Read More

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December 2018

Cost-effectiveness and Budgetary Consequence Analysis of Durvalumab Consolidation Therapy vs No Consolidation Therapy After Chemoradiotherapy in Stage III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer in the Context of the US Health Care System.

JAMA Oncol 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Institute for Technology Assessment, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston.

Importance: In early 2018, durvalumab became the first immunotherapy to be approved for adjuvant treatment of patients with unresectable stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) whose cancer has not progressed after definitive chemoradiotherapy. However, the cost-effectiveness and potential economic implications of using this high-priced therapy in this indication are unknown to date.

Objective: To explore the cost-effectiveness and potential budgetary consequences of durvalumab consolidation therapy vs no consolidation therapy after chemoradiotherapy in stage III NSCLC in the context of the US health care system. Read More

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December 2018

Contrast-enhanced ultrasound and/or colour duplex ultrasound for surveillance after endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair: a systematic review and economic evaluation.

Health Technol Assess 2018 Dec;22(72):1-220

Regional Vascular Unit, Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Liverpool, UK.

Background: Endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is less invasive than open surgery, but may be associated with important complications. Patients receiving EVAR require long-term surveillance to detect abnormalities and direct treatments. Computed tomography angiography (CTA) has been the most common imaging modality adopted for EVAR surveillance, but it is associated with repeated radiation exposure and the risk of contrast-related nephropathy. Read More

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December 2018

The temporal relationship between pain intensity and pain interference and incident dementia.

Curr Alzheimer Res 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Saul B. Korey Department of Neurology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461 . United States.

Background: Chronic pain is common among older adults and is associated with cognitive dysfunction based on cross-sectional studies. However, the longitudinal association between chronic pain and incident dementia in community-based samples is unknown.

Objective: We aimed to evaluate the associations of pain intensity and pain interference with incident dementia in a community-based sample of older adults. Read More

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December 2018

Emodin attenuated severe acute pancreatitis via the P2X ligand‑gated ion channel 7/NOD‑like receptor protein 3 signaling pathway.

Oncol Rep 2018 Nov 2. Epub 2018 Nov 2.

Department of Integrative Medicine Surgery, Dalian Medical University, Dalian, Liaoning 116011, P.R. China.

Acute pancreatitis (AP) is an aseptic inflammation characterized with an annual incidence rate, and ~20% patients progressing to severe AP (SAP) with a high mortality rate. Although Qingyi decoction has been frequently used for SAP treatment over the past 3 decades in clinic, the actual mechanism of its protective effects remains unknown. As the major active ingredient of Qingyi decoction, emodin was selected in the present study to investigate the effect of emodin against severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) in rats through NOD‑like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasomes. Read More

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November 2018

Improving uptake of seasonal influenza vaccination by healthcare workers: Implementation differences between higher and lower uptake NHS trusts in England.

Infect Dis Health 2018 Oct 19. Epub 2018 Oct 19.

NatCen Social Research, 35 Northampton Square, London, EC1V 0AX, UK.

Background: Uptake of influenza vaccination by healthcare workers (HCWs) may be related to how influenza campaigns are implemented. This study explores differences in annual influenza campaign implementation between NHS trusts (healthcare organisations) with higher and lower vaccine uptake.

Methods: A cross-sectional survey with influenza campaign staff in 2016/2017 in 87 NHS trusts in England. Read More

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October 2018

The effect of changes to GOLD severity stage on long term morbidity and mortality in COPD.

Respir Res 2018 Dec 12;19(1):249. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Division of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, University of Dundee, Ninewells Hospital & Medical School, Dundee, DD1 9SY, UK.

Background: The Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) severity stage classifies Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) into groups based on symptoms, exacerbations and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV). This allows patients to change to less severe COPD stages, a novel aspect of assessment not previously evaluated. We aimed to investigate the association between temporal changes in GOLD severity stage and outcomes in COPD patients. Read More

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December 2018