187,402 results match your criteria Annual Review of Pathology-Mechanisms of Disease[Journal]

Mycovirus Diversity and Evolution Revealed/Inferred from Recent Studies.

Annu Rev Phytopathol 2022 May 24. Epub 2022 May 24.

Institute of Plant Science and Resources, Okayama University, Kurashiki, Japan; email:

High-throughput virome analyses with various fungi, from cultured or uncultured sources, have led to the discovery of diverse viruses with unique genome structures and even neo-lifestyles. Examples in the former category include splipalmiviruses and ambiviruses. Splipalmiviruses, related to yeast narnaviruses, have multiple positive-sense (+) single-stranded (ss) RNA genomic segments that separately encode the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase motifs, the hallmark of RNA viruses (members of the kingdom ). Read More

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Glucose-Dependent Insulinotropic Polypeptide-A Postprandial Hormone with Unharnessed Metabolic Potential.

Annu Rev Nutr 2022 May 24. Epub 2022 May 24.

MRC Metabolic Diseases Unit, Wellcome Trust/MRC Institute of Metabolic Science, University of Cambridge, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, United Kingdom; email:

Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) is released from the upper small intestine in response to food intake and contributes to the postprandial control of nutrient disposition, including of sugars and fats. Long neglected as a potential therapeutic target, the GIPR axis has received increasing interest recently, with the emerging data demonstrating the metabolically favorable outcomes of adding GIPR agonism to GLP-1 receptor agonists in people with type 2 diabetes and obesity. This review examines the physiology of the GIP axis, from the mechanisms underlying GIP secretion from the intestine to its action on target tissues and therapeutic development. Read More

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Real-world burden of systemic lupus erythematosus in the USA: a comparative cohort study from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) 2016-2018.

Lupus Sci Med 2022 May;9(1)

US Evidence, AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals LP, Wilmington, Delaware, USA.

Objective: SLE is a chronic, multiorgan, autoimmune disease; however, current prevalence estimates are dated and often from non-generalisable patient populations, and quality of life and patient-reported outcomes in the real-world SLE population are not well-published. The present study used the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS), a generalisable US data source encompassing a representative sample of regions/payers, to estimate SLE prevalence and characterise disease burden compared with non-SLE respondents.

Methods: Retrospective population-based survey data weighted to the full US population from MEPS for the calendar years 2016-2018, pooled over the full study period, was used. Read More

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Microbial Interspecies Interactions and Their Impact on the Emergence and Spread of Antimicrobial Resistance.

Annu Rev Microbiol 2022 May 24. Epub 2022 May 24.

Centre of Microbial and Plant Genetics (CMPG), Department of Microbial and Molecular Systems, KU Leuven, 3001 Leuven, Belgium; email:

Bacteria are social organisms that commonly live in dense communities surrounded by a multitude of other species. The competitive and cooperative interactions between these species not only shape the bacterial communities but also influence their susceptibility to antimicrobials. While several studies have shown that mixed-species communities are more tolerant toward antimicrobials than their monospecies counterparts, only limited empirical data are currently available on how interspecies interactions influence resistance development. Read More

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Signal Transduction Network Principles Underlying Bacterial Collective Behaviors.

Annu Rev Microbiol 2022 May 24. Epub 2022 May 24.

Department of Molecular Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey, USA; email:

Bacteria orchestrate collective behaviors and accomplish feats that would be unsuccessful if carried out by a lone bacterium. Processes undertaken by groups of bacteria include bioluminescence, biofilm formation, virulence factor production, and release of public goods that are shared by the community. Collective behaviors are controlled by signal transduction networks that integrate sensory information and transduce the information internally. Read More

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Sirtuins in Epigenetic Silencing and Control of Gene Expression in Model and Pathogenic Fungi.

Annu Rev Microbiol 2022 May 24. Epub 2022 May 24.

Department of Biological Sciences, University at Buffalo, The State University of New York, Buffalo, New York, USA; email:

Fungi, including yeasts, molds, and mushrooms, proliferate on decaying matter and then adopt quiescent forms once nutrients are depleted. This review explores how fungi use sirtuin deacetylases to sense and respond appropriately to changing nutrients. Because sirtuins are NAD-dependent deacetylases, their activity is sensitive to intracellular NAD availability. Read More

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Division and Transmission: Malaria Parasite Development in the Mosquito.

Annu Rev Microbiol 2022 May 24. Epub 2022 May 24.

School of Life Sciences, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom; email:

The malaria parasite life cycle alternates between two hosts: a vertebrate and the female mosquito vector. Cell division, proliferation, and invasion are essential for parasite development, transmission, and survival. Most research has focused on development in the vertebrate, which causes disease; however, knowledge of malaria parasite development in the mosquito (the sexual and transmission stages) is now rapidly accumulating, gathered largely through investigation of the rodent malaria model, with In this review, we discuss the seminal genome-wide screens that have uncovered key regulators of cell proliferation, invasion, and transmission during sexual development. Read More

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Interdependency and Redundancy Add Complexity and Resilience to Biogenesis of Bacterial Ribosomes.

Annu Rev Microbiol 2022 May 24. Epub 2022 May 24.

Department of Biology, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York, USA; email:

The pace and efficiency of ribosomal subunit production directly impact the fitness of bacteria. Biogenesis demands more than just the union of ribosomal components, including RNA and proteins, to form this functional ribonucleoprotein particle. Extra-ribosomal protein factors play a fundamental role in the efficiency and efficacy of ribosomal subunit biogenesis. Read More

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Extrachromosomal DNA in Cancer.

Annu Rev Genomics Hum Genet 2022 May 24. Epub 2022 May 24.

Department of Pathology and ChEM-H, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, California, USA; email:

In cancer, complex genome rearrangements and other structural alterations, including the amplification of oncogenes on circular extrachromosomal DNA (ecDNA) elements, drive the formation and progression of tumors. ecDNA is a particularly challenging structural alteration. By untethering oncogenes from chromosomal constraints, it elevates oncogene copy number, drives intratumoral genetic heterogeneity, promotes rapid tumor evolution, and results in treatment resistance. Read More

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The Role of Telomeres in Human Disease.

Mary Armanios

Annu Rev Genomics Hum Genet 2022 May 24. Epub 2022 May 24.

Departments of Oncology, Genetic Medicine, Pathology, and Molecular Biology and Genetics; Telomere Center at Johns Hopkins; and Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA; email:

Telomere biology was first studied in maize, ciliates, yeast, and mice, and in recent decades, it has informed understanding of common disease mechanisms with broad implications for patient care. Short telomere syndromes are the most prevalent premature aging disorders, with prominent phenotypes affecting the lung and hematopoietic system. Less understood are a newly recognized group of cancer-prone syndromes that are associated with mutations that lengthen telomeres. Read More

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Biogenesis and Regulatory Roles of Circular RNAs.

Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 2022 May 24. Epub 2022 May 24.

State Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Molecular Andrology, CAS Center for Excellence in Molecular Cell Science, Shanghai Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China; email:

Covalently closed, single-stranded circular RNAs can be produced from viral RNA genomes as well as from the processing of cellular housekeeping noncoding RNAs and precursor messenger RNAs. Recent transcriptomic studies have surprisingly uncovered that many protein-coding genes can be subjected to backsplicing, leading to widespread expression of a specific type of circular RNAs (circRNAs) in eukaryotic cells. Here, we discuss experimental strategies used to discover and characterize diverse circRNAs at both the genome and individual gene scales. Read More

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Developing and Implementing Predictive Models in a Learning Healthcare System: Traditional and Artificial Intelligence Approaches in the Veterans Health Administration.

Annu Rev Biomed Data Sci 2022 May 24. Epub 2022 May 24.

Office of Discovery, Education and Affiliate Networks, Department of Veterans Affairs, Washington, DC, USA.

Predicting clinical risk is an important part of healthcare and can inform decisions about treatments, preventive interventions, and provision of extra services. The field of predictive models has been revolutionized over the past two decades by electronic health record data; the ability to link such data with other demographic, socioeconomic, and geographic information; the availability of high-capacity computing; and new machine learning and artificial intelligence methods for extracting insights from complex datasets. These advances have produced a new generation of computerized predictive models, but debate continues about their development, reporting, validation, evaluation, and implementation. Read More

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Discovering Biological Conflict Systems Through Genome Analysis: Evolutionary Principles and Biochemical Novelty.

Annu Rev Biomed Data Sci 2022 May 24. Epub 2022 May 24.

National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA; email:

Biological replicators, from genes within a genome to whole organisms, are locked in conflicts. Comparative genomics has revealed a staggering diversity of molecular armaments and mechanisms regulating their deployment, collectively termed biological conflict systems. These encompass toxins used in inter- and intraspecific interactions, self/nonself discrimination, antiviral immune mechanisms, and counter-host effectors deployed by viruses and intragenomic selfish elements. Read More

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On the Current Care Situation and Treatment of Ocular Mucous Membrane Pemphigoid in Germany.

Klin Monbl Augenheilkd 2022 May 24. Epub 2022 May 24.

Klinik für Augenheilkunde, Universitätsklinikum Göttingen, Deutschland.

Background: Ocular involvement in mucous membrane pemphigoid (MMP) is relatively rare, with a prevalence of 25 cases per million population, equating to approx. 2,100 patients throughout Germany. Diagnosis can be difficult - especially in cases of isolated ocular involvement - and treatment can be complex and lengthy. Read More

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How can process-based modeling improve peat CO and NO emission factors for oil palm plantations?

Sci Total Environ 2022 May 21:156153. Epub 2022 May 21.

Yayasan Konservasi Alam Nusantara, Graha Iskandarsyah 3(rd) floor, Jalan Iskandarsyah Raya 66 C, 12160 Jakarta, Indonesia.

Oil palm plantations on peat and associated drainage generate sizeable GHG emissions. Current IPCC default emission factors (EF) for oil palm on organic soil are based on a very limited number of observations from young plantations, thereby resulting in large uncertainties in emissions estimates. To explore the potential of process-based modeling to refine oil palm peat CO and NO EFs, we simulated peat GHG emissions and biogeophysical variables over 30 years in plantations of Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. Read More

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Effects of environmental factors on the distribution of microbial communities across soils and lake sediments in the Hoh Xil Nature Reserve of Tibetan Plateau.

Sci Total Environ 2022 May 21:156148. Epub 2022 May 21.

MOE Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China.

Comparison of microbial community diversity and composition of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in undisturbed regions could expand our understandings on the mechanisms of microbial community assembly and ecosystem responses to environmental change. This study investigated the spatial distribution of bacterial community diversity and composition in the lakeshore soils and lake sediments from one of the best preserved nature reserves, Hoh Xil on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, and explored the corresponding environmental drivers. A total of 36 sediment and soil samples were collected from six alpine lakes and the corresponding shore zones, and their bacterial community structure was identified by high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Read More

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Can the Indian national ambient air quality standard protect against the hazardous constituents of PM?

Chemosphere 2022 May 21:135047. Epub 2022 May 21.

CSIR-National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (CSIR-NEERI), Nagpur, India. Electronic address:

Globally, exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM) pollution claims ∼9 million lives, yearly, and a quarter of this deaths occurs in India. Regulation of PM pollution in India is based on compliance with its National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) of 40 μg/m, which is eight times the revised global air quality guideline (AQG) of 5 μg/m. But, whether the NAAQS provides adequate protection against the hazardous components in PM is still not clear. Read More

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20-year Inflation-Adjusted Medicare Reimbursements (Years: 2000-2020) For Common Lumbar and Cervical Degenerative Disc Disease Procedures.

Global Spine J 2022 May 24:21925682221100173. Epub 2022 May 24.

Department of Neurosurgery, McGovern Medical School, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX, USA.

Objective: Reimbursement trends for common procedures have persistently declined over the past 2 decades. Spinal instrumentational and fusion procedures are increasingly utilized and have increased in clinical complexity, yet longitudinal inflation-adjusted data for Medicare reimbursements of these procedures have not been evaluated.

Methods: The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) Physician Fee Schedule Look-Up Tool was used to extract Medicare reimbursements for the 5 most common spinal procedures and associated instrumentations from 2000-2020. Read More

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Spatial analysis and influencing factors of pulmonary tuberculosis among students in Nanning, during 2012-2018.

PLoS One 2022 24;17(5):e0268472. Epub 2022 May 24.

Department of Health Statistics, School of Public Health, Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, Guangxi, China.

Background: Economically underdeveloped areas in western China are hotspots of tuberculosis, especially among students. However, the related spatial and temporal patterns and influencing factors are still unclear and there are few studies to analyze the causes of pulmonary tuberculosis in students from the perspective of space.

Methods: We collected data regarding the reported incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) among students at township level in Nanning, from 2012 to 2018. Read More

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Population birth outcomes in 2020 and experiences of expectant mothers during the COVID-19 pandemic: A 'born in Wales' mixed methods study using routine data.

PLoS One 2022 24;17(5):e0267176. Epub 2022 May 24.

National Centre for Population Health and Wellbeing Research, Swansea University Medical School, Swansea, Wales, United Kingdom.

Background: Pregnancy can be a stressful time and the COVID-19 pandemic has affected all aspects of life. This study aims to investigate the pandemic impact on pregnancy experience, rates of primary childhood immunisations and the differences in birth outcomes in during 2020 to those of previous years.

Methods: Self-reported pregnancy experience: 215 expectant mothers (aged 16+) in Wales completed an online survey about their experiences of pregnancy during the pandemic. Read More

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Impacts of climate and human activities on Daihai Lake in a typical semi-arid watershed, Northern China.

PLoS One 2022 24;17(5):e0266049. Epub 2022 May 24.

Yellow River Engineering Consulting Co., Ltd. (YREC), Zhengzhou, Henan, China.

A rapid shrinkage of Daihai Lake was found in recent decades. The present study analyzed the characteristics of Daihai Lake shrinkage and quantified the contribution of climate and human activities. The results of Mann-Kendall- Sneyers test and moving t-test showed that there was an obvious mutation point of lake level in 2006 and the descending speed of Daihai Lake level post-2006 (-0. Read More

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Analyzing the Cost of Hospital Contact Isolation Practices: Implications for Nursing Administrator Practice, Research, and Policy.

J Nurs Adm 2022 Jun;52(6):352-358

Author Affiliations: Associate Professor (Dr Saber), School of Nursing, University of Maine, Faculty Associate (Dr Saber), Senator George J. Mitchell Center for Sustainability Solutions, University of Maine, Orono, Maine; Director for Nursing Research and Evidence-Based Practice (Dr Saber), Northern Light Eastern Maine Medical Center, Bangor, Maine; Professor Emeritus (Dr Norris), School of Nursing and Health Studies, University of Miami, Coral Gables, Florida; Assistant School Director and Senior Lecturer (Dr Reinking), Professor and C.G. Avery Chair (Dr Trompeter), Dixon School of Accounting, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida; and Vice President of Nursing and Patient Care Services (Ms Sanford), Northern Light Eastern Maine Medical Center, Bangor, Maine.

Objectives: This study aimed to determine the weekly costs of contact precaution (CP) use with medically stable patients infected/colonized with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and to estimate the annual financial and environmental costs of CP.

Background: The increasing use of disposables for infection control contributes to increasing hospital costs and amounts of solid waste at rates that are becoming unsustainable.

Methods: A cost analysis was conducted using data from time/motion observations and previous waste audit study, along with hospital finance department values and US Department of Labor salary rates. Read More

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No pain management for labour: individual and organisational determinants: A secondary analysis of the 2016 French National Perinatal Survey.

Eur J Anaesthesiol 2022 Jun;39(6):489-497

From the Université de Paris, Centre of Research in Epidemiology and StatisticS/CRESS/Obstetrical Perinatal and Pediatric Epidemiology Research Team (EPOPé), INSERM, INRA (JM, AAC, BB, ClR, M-PB), Midwifery school of Baudelocque, AP-HP, Université de Paris (AAC), Port-Royal Maternity Unit, Department of Obstetrics, Cochin Broca Hôtel-Dieu hospital, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris (ClR) and Sorbonne University, GRC 29, DMU DREAM, Department of Anaesthesiology and Critical Care, Armand Trousseau Hospital, Assistance Publique des Hôpitaux de Paris, Paris, France (M-PB).

Background: Disparities in access to pain management have been identified in several care settings, such as emergency departments and intensive care units, but with regard to labour analgesia, it remains poorly explored.

Objectives: To determine the proportion of women without pain management during labour and its individual and organisational determinants.

Design: Secondary analysis of a nationwide cross-sectional population-based study, the 2016 French National Perinatal Survey. Read More

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Cost-effectiveness of Low-Dose Computed Tomography With a Plasma-Based Biomarker for Lung Cancer Screening in China.

JAMA Netw Open 2022 May 2;5(5):e2213634. Epub 2022 May 2.

Center for Health Policy Studies, School of Public Health, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Importance: China, which has one-third of the worldwide smoking population, has a substantial cancer burden, with lung cancer being the leading cause of cancer-related death. The effectiveness of lung cancer screening for mortality reduction has been confirmed, but the cost-effectiveness of diverse screening modalities remains unclear.

Objective: To compare the cost-effectiveness of low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) with a biomarker (micro-RNA signature classifier [MSC]) with that of LDCT alone by screening interval and cumulative smoking exposure. Read More

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Real-World Adherence to Nodal Surveillance for Sentinel Lymph Node-Positive Melanoma.

Ann Surg Oncol 2022 May 24. Epub 2022 May 24.

Department of Surgery, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA.

Background: Patients with sentinel lymph node-positive (SLN+) melanoma are increasingly undergoing active nodal surveillance over completion lymph node dissection (CLND) since the Second Multicenter Selective Lymphadenectomy Trial (MSLT-II). Adherence to nodal surveillance in real-world practice remains unknown.

Methods: In a retrospective cohort of SLN+ melanoma patients who underwent nodal surveillance at a single institution from July 2017 through April 2021, this study evaluated adherence to nodal surveillance ultrasound (US). Read More

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A bibliometric analysis of research trends in life cycle assessment of fresh concrete and mortar during 1997-2021.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2022 May 24. Epub 2022 May 24.

Civil Engineering Faculty, K. N. Toosi University of Technology, No. 1346, Valiasr Street, Mirdamad Intersection, Tehran, 19967-15433, Iran.

The construction industry relies heavily on concrete as a fundamental material. According to the shift towards environmental sustainability in recent years, studies on life cycle assessment (LCA) of concrete and mortar and reducing their environmental impacts have increased significantly. This paper provides insights into studies performed in LCA of fresh concrete and mortar until 2021 by using a bibliometric method. Read More

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Smoke pollution must be part of the savanna fire management equation: A case study from Darwin, Australia.

Ambio 2022 May 24. Epub 2022 May 24.

School of Natural Sciences, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 55, Hobart, TAS, 7001, Australia.

Savanna fire management is a topic of global debate, with early dry season burning promoted as a large-scale emissions reduction opportunity. To date, discussions have centred on carbon abatement efficacy, biodiversity and cultural benefits and/or risks. Here we use a case study of Darwin, Australia to highlight smoke pollution as another critical consideration. Read More

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Temporal patterns of weekly births and conceptions predicted by meteorology, seasonal variation, and lunar phases.

Wien Klin Wochenschr 2022 May 24. Epub 2022 May 24.

Department of Environmental Health, ZPH, Medical University of Vienna, Kinderspitalgasse 15, 1090, Vienna, Austria.

Background: Data reporting the number of births given by women resident in Vienna for each week between 1999 and 2019, and the duration (in weeks) of their pregnancies, were used to estimate the week of conception. When preliminary examinations detected cyclical patterns for births and conceptions, a series of Poisson regressions for births and conceptions were performed to assess whether these cycles could be associated with lunar or solar phases.

Methods: To that end 2 sine-cosine functions, 1 with a wavelength of 1 year (365. Read More

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Economic Burden of Reported Lyme Disease in High-Incidence Areas, United States, 2014-2016.

Emerg Infect Dis 2022 Jun;28(6):1170-1179

Approximately 476,000 cases of Lyme disease are diagnosed in the United States annually, yet comprehensive economic evaluations are lacking. In a prospective study among reported cases in Lyme disease-endemic states, we estimated the total patient cost and total societal cost of the disease. In addition, we evaluated disease and demographic factors associated with total societal cost. Read More

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Incidence of Ischemic Stroke in Patients With Asymptomatic Severe Carotid Stenosis Without Surgical Intervention.

JAMA 2022 May;327(20):1974-1982

Division of Research, Kaiser Permanente Northern California, Oakland.

Importance: Optimal management of patients with asymptomatic severe carotid stenosis is uncertain, due to advances in medical care and a lack of contemporary data comparing medical and surgical treatment.

Objective: To estimate stroke outcomes among patients with medically treated asymptomatic severe carotid stenosis who did not undergo surgical intervention.

Design, Setting, And Participants: Retrospective cohort study that included 3737 adult participants with asymptomatic severe (70%-99%) carotid stenosis diagnosed between 2008 and 2012 and no prior intervention or ipsilateral neurologic event in the prior 6 months. Read More

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