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    797 results match your criteria Annual Review of Nutrition [Journal]

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    Nutrition from the Inside Out.
    Annu Rev Nutr 2017 Aug;37:1-31
    USDA/ARS Children's Nutrition Research Center, Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030; email:
    Nearly 50 years ago, I set out to investigate the clinical problem of hypoglycemia in children with illnesses that limited their food intake. My goal was to gather accurate and precise measurable data. At the time, I wasn't interested in nutrition as a discipline defined in its more general or popular sense. Read More

    Nature, Nurture, and Cancer Risks: Genetic and Nutritional Contributions to Cancer.
    Annu Rev Nutr 2017 Aug;37:293-320
    Stanford Prevention Research Center, Departments of Medicine and Health Research and Policy, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305-5411; email:
    It is speculated that genetic variants are associated with differential responses to nutrients (known as gene-diet interactions) and that these variations may be linked to different cancer risks. In this review, we critically evaluate the evidence across 314 meta-analyses of observational studies and randomized controlled trials of dietary risk factors and the five most common cancers (breast, lung, prostate, colorectal, and stomach). We also critically evaluate the evidence across 13 meta-analyses of observational studies of gene-diet interactions for the same cancers. Read More

    Coffee, Caffeine, and Health Outcomes: An Umbrella Review.
    Annu Rev Nutr 2017 Aug;37:131-156
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02115; email:
    To evaluate the associations between coffee and caffeine consumption and various health outcomes, we performed an umbrella review of the evidence from meta-analyses of observational studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Of the 59 unique outcomes examined in the selected 112 meta-analyses of observational studies, coffee was associated with a probable decreased risk of breast, colorectal, colon, endometrial, and prostate cancers; cardiovascular disease and mortality; Parkinson's disease; and type-2 diabetes. Of the 14 unique outcomes examined in the 20 selected meta-analyses of observational studies, caffeine was associated with a probable decreased risk of Parkinson's disease and type-2 diabetes and an increased risk of pregnancy loss. Read More

    Fatty Acids and NLRP3 Inflammasome-Mediated Inflammation in Metabolic Tissues.
    Annu Rev Nutr 2017 Aug;37:77-102
    Nutrigenomics Research Group; UCD Conway Institute of Biomolecular and Biomedical Research; School of Public Health, Physiotherapy, and Sports Science; and Institute of Food and Health; University College Dublin, Dublin 4, Ireland; email: , , , ,
    Worldwide obesity rates have reached epidemic proportions and significantly contribute to the growing prevalence of metabolic diseases. Chronic low-grade inflammation, a hallmark of obesity, involves immune cell infiltration into expanding adipose tissue. In turn, obesity-associated inflammation can lead to complications in other metabolic tissues (e. Read More

    β-Hydroxybutyrate: A Signaling Metabolite.
    Annu Rev Nutr 2017 Aug;37:51-76
    Buck Institute for Research on Aging, Novato, California 94945; email: ,
    Various mechanisms in the mammalian body provide resilience against food deprivation and dietary stress. The ketone body β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) is synthesized in the liver from fatty acids and represents an essential carrier of energy from the liver to peripheral tissues when the supply of glucose is too low for the body's energetic needs, such as during periods of prolonged exercise, starvation, or absence of dietary carbohydrates. In addition to its activity as an energetic metabolite, BHB is increasingly understood to have cellular signaling functions. Read More

    FGF23 and Nutritional Metabolism.
    Annu Rev Nutr 2017 Aug 17;37:247-268. Epub 2017 Jul 17.
    Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina 27703; email:
    The discovery of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) has provided a more complete understanding of the regulation of phosphate and mineral homeostasis in health and in chronic kidney disease. It has also offered new insights into stratification of risk of cardiovascular events and death among patients with chronic kidney disease and the general population. In this review, we provide an overview of FGF23 biology and physiology, summarize clinical outcomes that have been associated with FGF23, discuss potential mechanisms for these observations and their public health implications, and explore clinical and population health interventions that aim to reduce FGF23 levels and improve public health. Read More

    Metabolic Effects of Intermittent Fasting.
    Annu Rev Nutr 2017 Aug 17;37:371-393. Epub 2017 Jul 17.
    Moores Cancer Center, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093; email:
    The objective of this review is to provide an overview of intermittent fasting regimens, summarize the evidence on the health benefits of intermittent fasting, and discuss physiological mechanisms by which intermittent fasting might lead to improved health outcomes. A MEDLINE search was performed using PubMed and the terms "intermittent fasting," "fasting," "time-restricted feeding," and "food timing." Modified fasting regimens appear to promote weight loss and may improve metabolic health. Read More

    The Hibernator Microbiome: Host-Bacterial Interactions in an Extreme Nutritional Symbiosis.
    Annu Rev Nutr 2017 Aug 17;37:477-500. Epub 2017 Jul 17.
    Department of Integrative Biology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706; email:
    Animals that undergo seasonal cycles of feeding and fasting have adaptations that maintain integrity of organ systems when dietary nutrients are lacking. Food deprivation also challenges the gut microbiota, which relies heavily on host diet for metabolic substrates and the gastrointestinal tract, which is influenced by enteral nutrients and microbial activity. Winter fasting in hibernators shifts the microbiota to favor taxa with the capacity to degrade and utilize host-derived substrates and disfavor taxa that prefer complex plant polysaccharides. Read More

    Trimethylamine N-Oxide, the Microbiome, and Heart and Kidney Disease.
    Annu Rev Nutr 2017 Aug 17;37:157-181. Epub 2017 Jul 17.
    Nutrition Research Institute and Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina, Kannapolis, North Carolina 28081; email:
    Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) is a biologically active molecule and is a putative promoter of chronic diseases including atherosclerosis in humans. Host intestinal bacteria produce its precursor trimethylamine (TMA) from carnitine, choline, or choline-containing compounds. Most of the TMA produced is passively absorbed into portal circulation, and hepatic flavin-dependent monooxygenases (FMOs) efficiently oxidize TMA to TMAO. Read More

    Single-Subject Studies in Translational Nutrition Research.
    Annu Rev Nutr 2017 Aug 17;37:395-422. Epub 2017 Jul 17.
    J. Craig Venter Institute, La Jolla, California 92037; email:
    There is a great deal of interest in personalized, individualized, or precision interventions for disease and health-risk mitigation. This is as true of nutrition-based intervention and prevention strategies as it is for pharmacotherapies and pharmaceutical-oriented prevention strategies. Essentially, technological breakthroughs have enabled researchers to probe an individual's unique genetic, biochemical, physiological, behavioral, and exposure profile, allowing them to identify very specific and often nuanced factors that an individual might possess, which may make it more or less likely that he or she responds favorably to a particular intervention (e. Read More

    Dietary Fat and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease: Recent Controversies and Advances.
    Annu Rev Nutr 2017 Aug 23;37:423-446. Epub 2017 Jun 23.
    Department of Nutrition, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02115; email:
    Health effects of dietary fats have been extensively studied for decades. However, controversies exist on the effects of various types of fatty acids, especially saturated fatty acid (SFA), on cardiovascular disease (CVD). Current evidence supports that different types of dietary fatty acids have divergent effects on CVD risk, and the effects also depend strongly on the comparison or replacement macronutrient. Read More

    Long-Term Effects of High-Protein Diets on Renal Function.
    Annu Rev Nutr 2017 Aug 21;37:347-369. Epub 2017 Jun 21.
    Department of Nephrology, Herlev Hospital, University of Copenhagen, 2730 Copenhagen, Denmark; email:
    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has a prevalence of approximately 13% and is most frequently caused by diabetes and hypertension. In population studies, CKD etiology is often uncertain. Some experimental and observational human studies have suggested that high-protein intake may increase CKD progression and even cause CKD in healthy people. Read More

    Lipocalin 2: An Emerging Player in Iron Homeostasis and Inflammation.
    Annu Rev Nutr 2017 Aug 19;37:103-130. Epub 2017 Jun 19.
    Department of Nutritional Sciences, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802; email:
    Lipocalin 2 (Lcn2), an innate immune protein, has emerged as a critical iron regulatory protein during physiological and inflammatory conditions. As a bacteriostatic factor, Lcn2 obstructs the siderophore iron-acquiring strategy of bacteria and thus inhibits bacterial growth. As part of host nutritional immunity, Lcn2 facilitates systemic, cellular, and mucosal hypoferremia during inflammation, in addition to stabilizing the siderophore-bound labile iron pool. Read More

    Genetic Risk Factors for Folate-Responsive Neural Tube Defects.
    Annu Rev Nutr 2017 Aug 19;37:269-291. Epub 2017 Jun 19.
    Medical Genomics and Metabolic Genetics Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute, Bethesda, Maryland 20892; email: ,
    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are the most severe congenital malformations of the central nervous system. The etiology is complex, with both genetic and environmental factors having important contributions. Researchers have known for the past two decades that maternal periconceptional use of the B vitamin folic acid can prevent many NTDs. Read More

    Genetic Basis for Sex Differences in Obesity and Lipid Metabolism.
    Annu Rev Nutr 2017 Aug 19;37:225-245. Epub 2017 Jun 19.
    Department of Human Genetics, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095; email:
    Men and women exhibit significant differences in obesity, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. To provide better diagnosis and treatment for both sexes, it is important to identify factors that underlie the observed sex differences. Traditionally, sex differences have been attributed to the differential effects of male and female gonadal secretions (commonly referred to as sex hormones), which substantially influence many aspects of metabolism and related diseases. Read More

    Dietary Phosphorus Intake and the Kidney.
    Annu Rev Nutr 2017 Aug 14;37:321-346. Epub 2017 Jun 14.
    Division of Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093.
    Although phosphorus is an essential nutrient required for multiple physiological functions, recent research raises concerns that high phosphorus intake could have detrimental effects on health. Phosphorus is abundant in the food supply of developed countries, occurring naturally in protein-rich foods and as an additive in processed foods. High phosphorus intake can cause vascular and renal calcification, renal tubular injury, and premature death in multiple animal models. Read More

    The Best of Times.
    Annu Rev Nutr 2017 Aug 2;37:33-49. Epub 2017 Jun 2.
    Office of Dietary Supplements, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892; email:
    I came of age as a nutrition scientist during the best of times-years that spanned a rapidly changing world of food and nutrition science, politics, and policy that greatly broadened the specialty and its influence on public affairs. I followed the conventional route in academe, working my way up the academic ladder in Boston from a base first in a school of public health and later in a teaching hospital and medical school, interspersed with stints in Washington, DC. Thus I tell a tale of two cities. Read More

    Brain on Fire: Incentive Salience, Hedonic Hot Spots, Dopamine, Obesity, and Other Hunger Games.
    Annu Rev Nutr 2017 Aug 31;37:183-205. Epub 2017 May 31.
    Healthy Active Living and Obesity (HALO) Research Group, Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Research Institute, Ottawa, Ontario K1H 5B2, Canada; email: , ,
    This review examines human feeding behavior in light of psychological motivational theory and highlights the importance of midbrain dopamine (DA). Prospective evidence of both reward surfeit and reward deficit pathways to increased body weight are evaluated, and we argue that it is more complex than an either/or scenario when examining DA's role in reward sensitivity, eating, and obesity. The Taq1A genotype is a common thread that ties the contrasting models of DA reward and obesity; this genotype related to striatal DA is not associated with obesity class per se but may nevertheless confer an increased risk of weight gain. Read More

    Holocarboxylase Synthetase: A Moonlighting Transcriptional Coregulator of Gene Expression and a Cytosolic Regulator of Biotin Utilization.
    Annu Rev Nutr 2017 Aug 31;37:207-223. Epub 2017 May 31.
    Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, the University of Calgary and the Alberta Children's Hospital Research Institute for Child and Maternal Health, Calgary, Alberta T2N 4N1, Canada.
    The vitamin biotin is an essential nutrient for the metabolism and survival of all organisms owing to its function as a cofactor of enzymes collectively known as biotin-dependent carboxylases. These enzymes use covalently attached biotin as a vector to transfer a carboxyl group between donor and acceptor molecules during carboxylation reactions. In human cells, biotin-dependent carboxylases catalyze key reactions in gluconeogenesis, fatty acid synthesis, and amino acid catabolism. Read More

    The Nexus Between Nutrition and Early Childhood Development.
    Annu Rev Nutr 2017 Aug 31;37:447-476. Epub 2017 May 31.
    Community Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720; email:
    This article looks at both nutrition and early childhood stimulation interventions as part of an integrated life cycle approach to development. We build on recent systematic reviews of child development, which are comprehensive in regard to what is currently known about outcomes reported in key studies. We then focus particularly on implementation, scaling, and economic returns, drawing mainly on experience in low- and middle-income countries where undernutrition and poor child development remain significant public health challenges with implications across the life course. Read More

    Lutein and Zeaxanthin Isomers in Eye Health and Disease.
    Annu Rev Nutr 2016 Jul;36:571-602
    Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53726-2336; email:
    Current evidence suggests lutein and its isomers play important roles in ocular development in utero and throughout the life span, in vision performance in young and later adulthood, and in lowering risk for the development of common age-related eye diseases in older age. These xanthophyll (oxygen-containing) carotenoids are found in a wide variety of vegetables and fruits, and they are present in especially high concentrations in leafy green vegetables. Additionally, egg yolks and human milk appear to be bioavailable sources. Read More

    Nutrient-Gene Interaction in Colon Cancer, from the Membrane to Cellular Physiology.
    Annu Rev Nutr 2016 Jul;36:543-70
    Program in Integrative Nutrition and Complex Diseases, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77843; email:
    The International Agency for Research on Cancer recently released an assessment classifying red and processed meat as "carcinogenic to humans" on the basis of the positive association between increased consumption and risk for colorectal cancer. Diet, however, can also decrease the risk for colorectal cancer and be used as a chemopreventive strategy. Bioactive dietary molecules, such as n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, curcumin, and fermentable fiber, have been proposed to exert chemoprotective effects, and their molecular mechanisms have been the focus of research in the dietary/chemoprevention field. Read More

    The Perilipins: Major Cytosolic Lipid Droplet-Associated Proteins and Their Roles in Cellular Lipid Storage, Mobilization, and Systemic Homeostasis.
    Annu Rev Nutr 2016 Jul;36:471-509
    The Geriatric Research Education and Clinical Center, Baltimore Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Baltimore, Maryland 21201.
    The discovery by Dr. Constantine Londos of perilipin 1, the major scaffold protein at the surface of cytosolic lipid droplets in adipocytes, marked a fundamental conceptual change in the understanding of lipolytic regulation. Focus then shifted from the enzymatic activation of lipases to substrate accessibility, mediated by perilipin-dependent protein sequestration and recruitment. Read More

    Formate: The Neglected Member of One-Carbon Metabolism.
    Annu Rev Nutr 2016 Jul;36:369-88
    Department of Biochemistry, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's, Newfoundland A1B 3X9, Canada; email:
    Formate, the only non-tetrahydrofolate (THF)-linked intermediate in one-carbon metabolism, is produced in mammals from a variety of metabolic sources. It occurs in serum of adults at a concentration of approximately 30 μM. Its principal function lies as a source of one-carbon groups for the synthesis of 10-formyl-THF and other one-carbon intermediates; these are primarily used for purine synthesis, thymidylate synthesis, and the provision of methyl groups for synthetic, regulatory, and epigenetic methylation reactions. Read More

    Homocysteine, B Vitamins, and Cognitive Impairment.
    Annu Rev Nutr 2016 Jul;36:211-39
    OPTIMA, Department of Pharmacology, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3QT, United Kingdom; email:
    Moderately elevated plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) is a strong modifiable risk factor for vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease. Prospectively, elevated tHcy is associated with cognitive decline, white matter damage, brain atrophy, neurofibrillary tangles, and dementia. Most homocysteine-lowering trials with folate and vitamins B6 and/or B12 tested as protective agents against cognitive decline were poorly designed by including subjects unlikely to benefit during the trial period. Read More

    Nutrient Regulation: Conjugated Linoleic Acid's Inflammatory and Browning Properties in Adipose Tissue.
    Annu Rev Nutr 2016 Jul;36:183-210
    Department of Nutrition, The University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Greensboro, North Carolina 27402; email: ,
    Obesity is the most widespread nutritional disease in the United States. Developing effective and safe strategies to manage excess body weight is therefore of paramount importance. One potential strategy to reduce obesity is to consume conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplements containing isomers cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12, or trans-10, cis-12 alone. Read More

    Understanding Age-Related Changes in Skeletal Muscle Metabolism: Differences Between Females and Males.
    Annu Rev Nutr 2016 Jul;36:129-56
    Division of Nutritional Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853; email:
    Skeletal muscle is the largest metabolic organ system in the human body. As such, metabolic dysfunction occurring in skeletal muscle impacts whole-body nutrient homeostasis. Macronutrient metabolism changes within the skeletal muscle with aging, and these changes are associated in part with age-related skeletal muscle remodeling. Read More

    The Macronutrients, Appetite, and Energy Intake.
    Annu Rev Nutr 2016 Jul;36:73-103
    Department of Nutrition Science, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907; email:
    Each of the macronutrients-carbohydrate, protein, and fat-has a unique set of properties that influences health, but all are a source of energy. The optimal balance of their contribution to the diet has been a long-standing matter of debate. Over the past half century, thinking has progressed regarding the mechanisms by which each macronutrient may contribute to energy balance. Read More

    Endoplasmic Reticulum-Associated Degradation and Lipid Homeostasis.
    Annu Rev Nutr 2016 Jul 26;36:511-42. Epub 2016 May 26.
    Program in Metabolic Biology, Department of Nutritional Sciences and Toxicology, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720; email:
    The endoplasmic reticulum is the port of entry for proteins into the secretory pathway and the site of synthesis for several important lipids, including cholesterol, triacylglycerol, and phospholipids. Protein production within the endoplasmic reticulum is tightly regulated by a cohort of resident machinery that coordinates the folding, modification, and deployment of secreted and integral membrane proteins. Proteins failing to attain their native conformation are degraded through the endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD) pathway via a series of tightly coupled steps: substrate recognition, dislocation, and ubiquitin-dependent proteasomal destruction. Read More

    Nutritional Ecology and Human Health.
    Annu Rev Nutr 2016 Jul 1;36:603-26. Epub 2016 Jun 1.
    Charles Perkins Centre and School of Life and Environmental Sciences, The University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales 2006, Australia; email:
    In contrast to the spectacular advances in the first half of the twentieth century with micronutrient-related diseases, human nutrition science has failed to stem the more recent rise of obesity and associated cardiometabolic disease (OACD). This failure has triggered debate on the problems and limitations of the field and what change is needed to address these. We briefly review the two broad historical phases of human nutrition science and then provide an overview of the main problems that have been implicated in the poor progress of the field with solving OACD. Read More

    The Neurobiology of "Food Addiction" and Its Implications for Obesity Treatment and Policy.
    Annu Rev Nutr 2016 Jul 1;36:105-28. Epub 2016 Jun 1.
    University of Queensland Centre for Clinical Research, University of Queensland, Herston, Queensland 4029 Australia.
    There is a growing view that certain foods, particularly those high in refined sugars and fats, are addictive and that some forms of obesity can usefully be treated as a food addiction. This perspective is supported by a growing body of neuroscience research demonstrating that the chronic consumption of energy-dense foods causes changes in the brain's reward pathway that are central to the development and maintenance of drug addiction. Obese and overweight individuals also display patterns of eating behavior that resemble the ways in which addicted individuals consume drugs. Read More

    Sources and Functions of Extracellular Small RNAs in Human Circulation.
    Annu Rev Nutr 2016 Jul 13;36:301-36. Epub 2016 May 13.
    Luxembourg Centre for Systems Biomedicine, University of Luxembourg, Campus Belval, L-4367 Belvaux, Luxembourg; email: ,
    Various biotypes of endogenous small RNAs (sRNAs) have been detected in human circulation, including microRNAs, transfer RNAs, ribosomal RNA, and yRNA fragments. These extracellular sRNAs (ex-sRNAs) are packaged and secreted by many different cell types. Ex-sRNAs exhibit differences in abundance in several disease states and have, therefore, been proposed for use as effective biomarkers. Read More

    Cumulative Muscle Protein Synthesis and Protein Intake Requirements.
    Annu Rev Nutr 2016 Jul 18;36:17-43. Epub 2016 May 18.
    Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77843; email: ,
    Muscle protein synthesis (MPS) fluctuates widely over the course of a day and is influenced by many factors. The time course of MPS responses to exercise and the influence of training and nutrition can only be pieced together from several different investigations and methods, many of which create unnatural experimental conditions. Measurements of cumulative MPS, the sum synthesis over an extended period, using deuterium oxide have been shown to accurately reflect muscle responses and may allow investigations of the response to exercise, total protein intake requirements, and interaction with protein timing in free-living experimental conditions; these factors have yet to be carefully integrated. Read More

    Reward Systems in the Brain and Nutrition.
    Annu Rev Nutr 2016 Jul 4;36:435-70. Epub 2016 May 4.
    Oxford Centre for Computational Neuroscience, Oxford, United Kingdom; email:
    The taste cortex in the anterior insula provides separate and combined representations of the taste, temperature, and texture of food in the mouth independently of hunger and thus of reward value and pleasantness. One synapse on, in the orbitofrontal cortex, these sensory inputs are combined by associative learning with olfactory and visual inputs for some neurons, and these neurons encode food reward value in that they respond to food only when hunger is present and in that activations correlate linearly with subjective pleasantness. Cognitive factors, including word-level descriptions and selective attention to affective value, modulate the representation of the reward value of taste, olfactory, and flavor stimuli in the orbitofrontal cortex and a region to which it projects, the anterior cingulate cortex. Read More

    Lactation and Maternal Cardio-Metabolic Health.
    Annu Rev Nutr 2016 Jul 4;36:627-45. Epub 2016 May 4.
    Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30341; email:
    Researchers hypothesize that pregnancy and lactation are part of a continuum, with lactation meant to "reset" the adverse metabolic profile that develops as a part of normal pregnancy, and that when lactation does not occur, women maintain an elevated risk of cardio-metabolic diseases. Several large prospective and retrospective studies, mostly from the United States and other industrialized countries, have examined the associations between lactation and cardio-metabolic outcomes. Less evidence exists regarding an association of lactation with maternal postpartum weight status and dyslipidemia, whereas more evidence exists for an association with diabetes, hypertension, and subclinical and clinical cardiovascular disease. Read More

    Iron Regulation of Pancreatic Beta-Cell Functions and Oxidative Stress.
    Annu Rev Nutr 2016 Jul 4;36:241-73. Epub 2016 May 4.
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, 2200 Copenhagen N, Denmark; email:
    Dietary advice is the cornerstone in first-line treatment of metabolic diseases. Nutritional interventions directed at these clinical conditions mainly aim to (a) improve insulin resistance by reducing energy-dense macronutrient intake to obtain weight loss and (b) reduce fluctuations in insulin secretion through avoidance of rapidly absorbable carbohydrates. However, even in the majority of motivated patients selected for clinical trials, massive efforts using this approach have failed to achieve lasting efficacy. Read More

    Citrus Flavonoids as Regulators of Lipoprotein Metabolism and Atherosclerosis.
    Annu Rev Nutr 2016 Jul 4;36:275-99. Epub 2016 May 4.
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada N6A 5B7; email: ;
    Citrus flavonoids are polyphenolic compounds with significant biological properties. This review summarizes recent advances in understanding the ability of citrus flavonoids to modulate lipid metabolism, other metabolic parameters related to the metabolic syndrome, and atherosclerosis. Citrus flavonoids, including naringenin, hesperitin, nobiletin, and tangeretin, have emerged as potential therapeutics for the treatment of metabolic dysregulation. Read More

    Hormonal and Metabolite Regulation of Hepatic Glucokinase.
    Annu Rev Nutr 2016 Jul 4;36:389-415. Epub 2016 May 4.
    Institutes of Cellular Medicine and Ageing and Health, Medical School, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE2 4HH United Kingdom; email:
    Liver glucose metabolism is dependent on glucokinase activity. Glucokinase expression is transcriptionally regulated by hormones and metabolites of glucose, and glucokinase activity is dependent on reversible binding of glucokinase to a specific inhibitor protein, glucokinase regulatory protein (GKRP), and to other binding proteins such as 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose 2,6-bisphosphatase (PFK2/FBP2), which functions as an activator. Glucokinase is inhibited in the postabsorptive state by sequestration in the nucleus bound to GKRP, and it is activated postprandially by portal hyperglycemia and fructose through dissociation from GKRP, translocation to the cytoplasm, and binding to PFK2/FBP2. Read More

    Regulation of Hepcidin by Erythropoiesis: The Story So Far.
    Annu Rev Nutr 2016 Jul 4;36:417-34. Epub 2016 May 4.
    Medical Research Council (MRC) Human Immunology Unit, MRC Weatherall Institute for Molecular Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 9DS, United Kingdom; email:
    Hepcidin is the master regulator of systemic iron homeostasis, facilitating iron balance by controlling intestinal iron absorption and recycling. Hepcidin levels are suppressed when erythropoiesis is stimulated, for example following acute blood loss, appropriately enhancing cellular iron export to the plasma to support production of new red blood cells. However, persistent increased and ineffective erythropoiesis, for example in thalassemia, results in sustained elevations in iron absorption, which cause iron overload with associated organ toxicities. Read More

    Alterations of Mitochondrial Function and Insulin Sensitivity in Human Obesity and Diabetes Mellitus.
    Annu Rev Nutr 2016 Jul 4;36:337-67. Epub 2016 May 4.
    Department of Endocrinology and Diabetology, Medical Faculty, Heinrich Heine University, Düsseldorf 40225, Germany.
    Mitochondrial function refers to a broad spectrum of features such as resting mitochondrial activity, (sub)maximal oxidative phosphorylation capacity (OXPHOS), and mitochondrial dynamics, turnover, and plasticity. The interaction between mitochondria and insulin sensitivity is bidirectional and varies depending on tissue, experimental model, methodological approach, and features of mitochondrial function tested. In human skeletal muscle, mitochondrial abnormalities may be inherited (e. Read More

    Disallowed and Allowed Gene Expression: Two Faces of Mature Islet Beta Cells.
    Annu Rev Nutr 2016 Jul 4;36:45-71. Epub 2016 May 4.
    Gene Expression Unit, Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, KU Leuven, Leuven B3000, Belgium; email: , ,
    Glucose homeostasis greatly depends on the match between fluctuating insulin demands and adjusted rates of insulin secretion, which is the function of pancreatic beta cells. Emerging evidence suggests that when neonatal beta cells mature, they acquire two faces of differentiated function: an expected "visible face" that depends on specific beta cell proteins needed for regulated insulin release, but also a "hidden face" that represses ubiquitous proteins to prevent inappropriate beta cell function such as elevated basal hormone secretion or insulin release triggered by exercise. This review highlights this novel concept, and we first propose that hidden faces may also be relevant for other specialized tissue functions, such as ketogenesis in the liver. Read More

    Driving Along the Zinc Road.
    Annu Rev Nutr 2016 Jul 18;36:1-15. Epub 2016 Apr 18.
    Center for Nutritional Sciences, Food Science and Human Nutrition Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611-2710; email:
    After having written hundreds of research articles, reviews, and book chapters, I find it awkward to pen an autobiography. I still do use a pen. As stated by others in the nutrition field who have written of their own experiences in a perspective article for the Annual Review of Nutrition, my course through this field of science has been serendipitous. Read More

    Variation in the Ability to Taste Bitter Thiourea Compounds: Implications for Food Acceptance, Dietary Intake, and Obesity Risk in Children.
    Annu Rev Nutr 2016 Jul 6;36:157-82. Epub 2016 Apr 6.
    Department of Nutritional Sciences, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802; email:
    The ability to taste bitter thiourea compounds, such as phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) and 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP), is inherited. Polymorphisms in the bitter-taste receptor TAS2R38 explain the majority of phenotypic variation in the PROP phenotype. It has been hypothesized that the PROP phenotype is a marker for perception of a variety of chemosensory experiences. Read More

    Behavioral Nutrition Interventions Using e- and m-Health Communication Technologies: A Narrative Review.
    Annu Rev Nutr 2016 Jul 21;36:647-64. Epub 2016 Mar 21.
    Division of Nutritional Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853; email:
    e- and m-Health communication technologies are now common approaches to improving population health. The efficacy of behavioral nutrition interventions using e-health technologies to decrease fat intake and increase fruit and vegetable intake was demonstrated in studies conducted from 2005 to 2009, with approximately 75% of trials showing positive effects. By 2010, an increasing number of behavioral nutrition interventions were focusing on body weight. Read More

    Diet, Nutrition, and Cancer Epigenetics.
    Annu Rev Nutr 2016 Jul 23;36:665-81. Epub 2016 Mar 23.
    Department of Medicine, Lewis Katz School of Medicine, Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19140; email:
    The search for a connection between diet and human cancer has a long history in cancer research, as has interest in the mechanisms by which dietary factors might increase or decrease cancer risk. The realization that altering diet can alter the epigenetic state of genes and that these epigenetic alterations might increase or decrease cancer risk is a more modern notion, driven largely by studies in animal models. The connections between diet and epigenetic alterations, on the one hand, and between epigenetic alterations and cancer, on the other, are supported by both observational studies in humans as well as animal models. Read More

    Saturated Fats Versus Polyunsaturated Fats Versus Carbohydrates for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention and Treatment.
    Annu Rev Nutr 2015 ;35:517-43
    Atherosclerosis Research Program, Children's Hospital Oakland Research Institute, Oakland, California 94609; email: ,
    The effects of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk are modulated by the nutrients that replace them and their food matrices. Replacement of SFAs with polyunsaturated fatty acids has been associated with reduced CVD risk, although there is heterogeneity in both fatty acid categories. In contrast, replacement of SFAs with carbohydrates, particularly sugar, has been associated with no improvement or even a worsening of CVD risk, at least in part through effects on atherogenic dyslipidemia, a cluster of traits including small, dense low-density lipoprotein particles. Read More

    The Roles of mTOR Complexes in Lipid Metabolism.
    Annu Rev Nutr 2015 ;35:321-48
    Centre de recherche de l'Institut universitaire de cardiologie et de pneumologie de Québec (CRIUCPQ), Faculté de Médecine, Université Laval, Québec, Canada, G1V 4G5; email:
    The synthesis of lipids in response to food intake represents a key advantage that allows organisms to survive when energy availability is limited. In mammals, circulating levels of insulin and nutrients, which fluctuate between fasting and feeding, dictate whether lipids are synthesized or catabolized by tissues. The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR), a kinase that is activated by anabolic signals, plays fundamental roles in regulating lipid biosynthesis and metabolism in response to nutrition. Read More

    Dietary Fatty Acids and Their Potential for Controlling Metabolic Diseases Through Activation of FFA4/GPR120.
    Annu Rev Nutr 2015 ;35:239-63
    Department of Physics, Chemistry and Pharmacy, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5230 Odense M, Denmark; email:
    It is well known that the amount and type of ingested fat impacts the development of obesity and metabolic diseases, but the potential for beneficial effects from fat has received less attention. It is becoming clear that the composition of the individual fatty acids in diet is important. Besides acting as precursors of potent signaling molecules, dietary fatty acids act directly on intracellular and cell surface receptors. Read More

    Vitamin E: A Role in Signal Transduction.
    Annu Rev Nutr 2015 ;35:135-73
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Miami, Miami, Florida 33136-6129; email:
    Vitamin E modulates the activity of several signal transduction enzymes with consequent alterations of gene expression. At the molecular level, vitamin E may directly bind to these enzymes and compete with their substrates, or it may change their activity by redox regulation. The translocation of several of these enzymes to the plasma membrane is regulated by vitamin E, suggesting the modulation of protein-membrane interactions as a common mechanism for vitamin E action. Read More

    Why Obesity?
    Annu Rev Nutr 2015 ;35:1-31
    Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70808; email:
    As Erwin Chargaff observed, "Scientific autobiography belongs to a most awkward literary genre," and mine is no exception. In reviewing my scientific life, I contrast the nutritional influences that would have existed had I been born 100 or 200 years earlier than I actually was. With this background, I trace the influences on my formative years in science beginning in high school and ending as a postdoctoral fellow in Professor E. Read More

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