841 results match your criteria Annual Review of Nutrition [Journal]


Nutritional Aspects of Spermidine.

Annu Rev Nutr 2020 Jul 7. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Equipe Labellisée par la Ligue Contre le Cancer, Université de Paris, Sorbonne Université, INSERM U1138, Centre de Recherche des Cordeliers, 75006 Paris, France; email:

Natural polyamines (spermidine and spermine) are small, positively charged molecules that are ubiquitously found within organisms and cells. They exert numerous (intra)cellular functions and have been implicated to protect against several age-related diseases. Although polyamine levels decline in a complex age-dependent, tissue-, and cell type-specific manner, they are maintained in healthy nonagenarians and centenarians. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-nutr-120419-015419DOI Listing

Nutrient Control of mRNA Translation.

Annu Rev Nutr 2020 Jul 6. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Division of Nutritional Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA; email:

The emergence of genome-wide analyses to interrogate cellular DNA, RNA, and protein content has revolutionized the study of control networks that mediate cellular homeostasis. mRNA translation represents the last step of genetic flow and primarily defines the proteome. Translational regulation is thus critical for gene expression, in particular under nutrient excess or deficiency. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-nutr-120919-041411DOI Listing

Short Bowel Syndrome: A Paradigm for Intestinal Adaptation to Nutrition?

Annu Rev Nutr 2020 07 6. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Centre de Recherche sur l'Inflammation, INSERM UMRS-1149, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Université de Paris, 75018 Paris, France; email:

Short bowel syndrome (SBS) is a rare disease that results from extensive resection of the intestine. When the remaining absorption surface of the intestine cannot absorb enough macronutrients, micronutrients, and water, SBS results in intestinal failure (IF). Patients with SBS who suffer from IF require parenteral nutrition for survival, but long-term parenteral nutrition may lead to complications such as catheter sepsis and metabolic diseases. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-nutr-011720-122203DOI Listing

Impacts and Echoes: The Lasting Influence of the White House Conference on Food, Nutrition, and Health.

Annu Rev Nutr 2020 Jul 6. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Social and Decision Analytics, Biocomplexity Institute, University of Virginia, Arlington, Virginia 22209, USA; email:

The 1969 White House Conference on Food, Nutrition, and Health had a significant influence on the direction of food and nutrition policy in the United States. The conference produced recommendations leading to federal legislation and programs to alleviate hunger and malnutrition, improve consumers' nutrition knowledge through education and labeling, and monitor the nutritional status of the population. Fifty years later, its legacy was revisited at a conference convened by Harvard University and Tufts University. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-nutr-121619-045319DOI Listing

Calorie Restriction and Aging in Humans.

Annu Rev Nutr 2020 Jun 19. Epub 2020 Jun 19.

Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70808, USA; email:

Calorie restriction (CR), the reduction of dietary intake below energy requirements while maintaining optimal nutrition, is the only known nutritional intervention with the potential to attenuate aging. Evidence from observational, preclinical, and clinical trials suggests the ability to increase life span by 1-5 years with an improvement in health span and quality of life lived. CR moderates intrinsic processes of aging through cellular and metabolic adaptations and reducing risk for the development of many cardiometabolic diseases. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-nutr-122319-034601DOI Listing

The Role of Diet in Cancer Prevention and Chemotherapy Efficacy.

Annu Rev Nutr 2020 Jun 16. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), Children's Discovery and Innovation Institute, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA; email:

Despite great advances in treatment, cancer remains a leading cause of death worldwide. Diet can greatly impact health, while caloric restriction and fasting have putative benefits for disease prevention and longevity. Strong epidemiological associations exist between obesity and cancer, whereas healthy diets can reduce cancer risk. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-nutr-013120-041149DOI Listing

Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Adipose Tissue: Inflammation and Browning.

Annu Rev Nutr 2020 Jun 16. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Department of Nutritional Sciences and Obesity Research Institute, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409-1270, USA; email:

White adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) are involved in whole-body energy homeostasis and metabolic regulation. Changes to mass and function of these tissues impact glucose homeostasis and whole-body energy balance during development of obesity, weight loss, and subsequent weight regain. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs), which have known hypotriglyceridemic and cardioprotective effects, can also impact WAT and BAT function. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-nutr-122319-034142DOI Listing

Nutritional Requirements for Sustaining Health and Performance During Exposure to Extreme Environments.

Annu Rev Nutr 2020 Jun 12. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Military Nutrition Division, US Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Natick, Massachusetts 01760, USA; email:

Dietary guidelines are formulated to meet minimum nutrient requirements, which prevent deficiencies and maintain health, growth, development, and function. These guidelines can be inadequate and contribute to disrupted homeostasis, lean body mass loss, and deteriorated performance in individuals who are working long, arduous hours with limited access to food in environmentally challenging locations. Environmental extremes can elicit physiological adjustments that alone alter nutrition requirements by upregulating energy expenditure, altering substrate metabolism, and accelerating body water and muscle protein loss. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-nutr-011720-122637DOI Listing

Nutrition Regulates Innate Immunity in Health and Disease.

Annu Rev Nutr 2020 Jun 10. Epub 2020 Jun 10.

Department of Immunology, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 7610001, Israel; email:

Nutrient content and nutrient timing are considered key regulators of human health and a variety of diseases and involve complex interactions with the mucosal immune system. In particular, the innate immune system is emerging as an important signaling hub that modulates the response to nutritional signals, in part via signaling through the gut microbiota. In this review we elucidate emerging evidence that interactions between innate immunity and diet affect human metabolic health and disease, including cardiometabolic disorders, allergic diseases, autoimmune disorders, infections, and cancers. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-nutr-120919-094440DOI Listing

Pancreas-Microbiota Cross Talk in Health and Disease.

Annu Rev Nutr 2019 08;39:249-266

Department of Internal Medicine I (Gastroenterology, Hepatology, Endocrinology and Metabolism), Medical University Innsbruck, Innsbruck 6020, Austria; email:

The pancreas controls metabolism through endocrine and exocrine functions. Pancreatic diseases comprise a spectrum of mild to life-threatening conditions, including acute and chronic pancreatitis, diabetes, and pancreatic cancer, which affect endocrine and exocrine pancreatic function and impose a substantial disease burden on individuals. Increasing experimental evidence demonstrates that the intestinal microbiota has an important impact on pancreatic function and diseases. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/10.1146/annurev-nutr-08201
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-nutr-082018-124306DOI Listing
August 2019
6 Reads

Mitochondrial DNA Mutation, Diseases, and Nutrient-Regulated Mitophagy.

Annu Rev Nutr 2019 08;39:201-226

Division of Nutritional Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA; email:

A wide spectrum of human diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and metabolic disorders, have been shown to be associated with mitochondrial dysfunction through multiple molecular mechanisms. Mitochondria are particularly susceptible to nutrient deficiencies, and nutritional intervention is an essential way to maintain mitochondrial homeostasis. Recent advances in genetic manipulation and next-generation sequencing reveal the crucial roles of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in various pathophysiological conditions. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-nutr-082018-124643DOI Listing

Evidence Collection and Evaluation for the Development of Dietary Guidelines and Public Policy on Nutrition.

Annu Rev Nutr 2019 08;39:227-247

Department of Health Research Methods, Evidence, and Impact, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4K1, Canada; email:

Dietary guidelines and recommendations, usually developed by government bodies or large authoritative organizations, have major downstream effects on public policy. A growing body of evidence supports the notion that there are serious deficiencies in the methods used to develop dietary guidelines. Such deficiencies include the failure to access or conduct comprehensive systematic reviews, a lack of systematic or rigorous evaluation of the quality of the evidence, a failure to acknowledge the limitations of the evidence base underlying recommendations, and insufficiently stringent management of conflicts of interest. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-nutr-082018-124610DOI Listing
August 2019
9 Reads

and Polymorphisms Modulate Fatty Acid Metabolism and Dietary Impact on Health.

Annu Rev Nutr 2019 08;39:21-44

Dr. von Hauner Children's Hospital, University of Munich Medical Center, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, 80337 Munich, Germany; email:

Variants in the gene cluster modify the activity of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) desaturation and the lipid composition in human blood and tissue. variants have been associated with plasma lipid concentrations, risk of cardiovascular diseases, overweight, eczema, pregnancy outcomes, and cognitive function. Studies on variations in the genecluster provided some of the first examples for marked gene-diet interactions in modulating complex phenotypes, such as eczema, asthma, and cognition. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/10.1146/annurev-nutr-08201
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-nutr-082018-124250DOI Listing
August 2019
5 Reads

The Microbiota and Malnutrition: Impact of Nutritional Status During Early Life.

Annu Rev Nutr 2019 08;39:267-290

Institute of Agrochemistry and Food Technology (IATA-CSIC), National Research Council, 46980 Valencia, Spain; email:

According to the developmental origins of health and disease hypothesis, our health is determined by events experienced in utero and during early infancy. Indeed, both our prenatal and postnatal nutrition conditions have an impact on the initial architecture and activity of our microbiota. Recent evidence has underlined the importance of the composition of the early gut microbiota in relation to malnutrition, whether it be undernutrition or overnutrition, that is, in terms of both stunted and overweight development. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-nutr-082117-051716DOI Listing
August 2019
7 Reads

Time-Restricted Eating to Prevent and Manage Chronic Metabolic Diseases.

Annu Rev Nutr 2019 08 10;39:291-315. Epub 2019 Jun 10.

Regulatory Biology Lab, Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, California 92037, USA; email:

Molecular clocks are present in almost every cell to anticipate daily recurring and predictable changes, such as rhythmic nutrient availability, and to adapt cellular functions accordingly. At the same time, nutrient-sensing pathways can respond to acute nutrient imbalance and modulate and orient metabolism so cells can adapt optimally to a declining or increasing availability of nutrients. Organismal circadian rhythms are coordinated by behavioral rhythms such as activity-rest and feeding-fasting cycles to temporally orchestrate a sequence of physiological processes to optimize metabolism. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-nutr-082018-124320DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6703924PMC
August 2019
23 Reads

Copper Transport and Disease: What Can We Learn from Organoids?

Annu Rev Nutr 2019 08 31;39:75-94. Epub 2019 May 31.

Department of Physiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA; email:

Many metals have biological functions and play important roles in human health. Copper (Cu) is an essential metal that supports normal cellular physiology. Significant research efforts have focused on identifying the molecules and pathways involved in dietary Cu uptake in the digestive tract. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-nutr-082018-124242DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7065453PMC
August 2019
9 Reads

The Role of Brain Barriers in Maintaining Brain Vitamin Levels.

Annu Rev Nutr 2019 08 31;39:147-173. Epub 2019 May 31.

Division of Nutritional Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA; email:

It is increasingly recognized that tissue-specific nutrient deficiencies can exist in the absence of whole-body deficiency and that these deficiencies may result from disease or disease-related physiological processes. Brain and central nervous system tissues require adequate nutrient levels to function. Many nutrients are concentrated in the cerebrospinal fluid relative to the serum in healthy individuals, and other nutrients resist depletion in the presence of whole-body nutrient depletion. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-nutr-082018-124235DOI Listing
August 2019
1 Read

Dietary Fuels in Athletic Performance.

Annu Rev Nutr 2019 08 28;39:45-73. Epub 2019 May 28.

Section of Molecular Physiology, Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, Faculty of Science, University of Copenhagen, 2200 Copenhagen, Denmark; email:

Focusing on daily nutrition is important for athletes to perform and adapt optimally to exercise training. The major roles of an athlete's daily diet are to supply the substrates needed to cover the energy demands for exercise, to ensure quick recovery between exercise bouts, to optimize adaptations to exercise training, and to stay healthy. The major energy substrates for exercising skeletal muscles are carbohydrate and fat stores. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/10.1146/annurev-nutr-08201
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-nutr-082018-124337DOI Listing
August 2019
16 Reads

The Economics of Taxes on Sugar-Sweetened Beverages: A Review of the Effects on Prices, Sales, Cross-Border Shopping, and Consumption.

Annu Rev Nutr 2019 08 22;39:317-338. Epub 2019 May 22.

Department of Economics, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA; email:

During the past decade, dozens of countries, regions, and cities have enacted taxes on sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). They have been primarily motivated by a desire to raise prices, reduce sales and consumption, improve population health, and raise revenue. This review outlines the economic rationale for SSB taxes and illustrates their predicted effects. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-nutr-082018-124603DOI Listing
August 2019
1 Read

The Benefits and Risks of Iron Supplementation in Pregnancy and Childhood.

Annu Rev Nutr 2019 08 15;39:121-146. Epub 2019 May 15.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Minnesota School of Medicine, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55454, USA; email:

Iron deficiency is the most common micronutrient deficiency in the world and disproportionately affects pregnant women and young children. Iron deficiency has negative effects on pregnancy outcomes in women and on immune function and neurodevelopment in children. Iron supplementation programs have been successful in reducing this health burden. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-nutr-082018-124213DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7173188PMC
August 2019
2 Reads

Ocular Carotenoid Status in Health and Disease.

Annu Rev Nutr 2019 08 15;39:95-120. Epub 2019 May 15.

Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, John A. Moran Eye Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84132, USA; email:

Retinal carotenoids are dietary nutrients that uniquely protect the eye from light damage and various retinal pathologies. Their antioxidative properties protect the eye from many retinal diseases, such as age-related macular degeneration. As many retinal diseases are accompanied by low carotenoid levels, accurate noninvasive assessment of carotenoid status can help ophthalmologists identify the patients most likely to benefit from carotenoid supplementation. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/10.1146/annurev-nutr-08201
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-nutr-082018-124555DOI Listing
August 2019
5 Reads
8.359 Impact Factor

Bile Acids as Metabolic Regulators and Nutrient Sensors.

Annu Rev Nutr 2019 08 24;39:175-200. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Department of Integrative Medical Sciences, Northeast Ohio Medical University, Rootstown, Ohio 44272; email:

Bile acids facilitate nutrient absorption and are endogenous ligands for nuclear receptors that regulate lipid and energy metabolism. The brain-gut-liver axis plays an essential role in maintaining overall glucose, bile acid, and immune homeostasis. Fasting and feeding transitions alter nutrient content in the gut, which influences bile acid composition and pool size. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-nutr-082018-124344DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6996089PMC
August 2019
1 Read

Maintaining Balance.

Authors:
Janet C King

Annu Rev Nutr 2019 08 12;39:1-19. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

Department of Nutritional Sciences and Toxicology, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720-3104, USA.

Writing this biography forced me to look back over my career as a scientist, teacher, wife, and mother. To my surprise, a lifelong theme emerged that I was unaware of, that is, the role of maintaining balance between work and family, science and teaching, mentorship and administration, and personal values and challenges. My primary mentor, Dr. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/10.1146/annurev-nutr-08201
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-nutr-082018-124634DOI Listing
August 2019
16 Reads

Iron and Cancer.

Annu Rev Nutr 2018 08;38:97-125

Department of Medicine, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, Connecticut 06030, USA.

This review explores the multifaceted role that iron has in cancer biology. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated an association between excess iron and increased cancer incidence and risk, while experimental studies have implicated iron in cancer initiation, tumor growth, and metastasis. The roles of iron in proliferation, metabolism, and metastasis underpin the association of iron with tumor growth and progression. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/10.1146/annurev-nutr-08211
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-nutr-082117-051732DOI Listing
August 2018
17 Reads

Dietary Nitrate and Physical Performance.

Annu Rev Nutr 2018 08;38:303-328

Department of Sport and Health Sciences, University of Exeter, Exeter EX1 2LU, United Kingdom; email:

Nitric oxide (NO) plays a plethora of important roles in the human body. Insufficient production of NO (for example, during older age and in various disease conditions) can adversely impact health and physical performance. In addition to its endogenous production through the oxidation of l-arginine, NO can be formed nonenzymatically via the reduction of nitrate and nitrite, and the storage of these anions can be augmented by the consumption of nitrate-rich foodstuffs such as green leafy vegetables. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/10.1146/annurev-nutr-08211
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-nutr-082117-051622DOI Listing
August 2018
72 Reads

Nuclear Folate Metabolism.

Annu Rev Nutr 2018 08;38:219-243

College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77843-2142, USA; email:

Despite unequivocal evidence that folate deficiency increases risk for human pathologies, and that folic acid intake among women of childbearing age markedly decreases risk for birth defects, definitive evidence for a causal biochemical pathway linking folate to disease and birth defect etiology remains elusive. The de novo and salvage pathways for thymidylate synthesis translocate to the nucleus of mammalian cells during S- and G2/M-phases of the cell cycle and associate with the DNA replication and repair machinery, which limits uracil misincorporation into DNA and genome instability. There is increasing evidence that impairments in nuclear de novo thymidylate synthesis occur in many pathologies resulting from impairments in one-carbon metabolism. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/10.1146/annurev-nutr-07171
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-nutr-071714-034441DOI Listing
August 2018
54 Reads

Introduction.

Annu Rev Nutr 2018 08;38

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-nu-38-070218-100001DOI Listing
August 2018
3 Reads

Mechanisms Underlying Muscle Protein Imbalance Induced by Alcohol.

Annu Rev Nutr 2018 08;38:197-217

Department of Cellular and Molecular Physiology, Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, Hershey, Pennsylvania 17033, USA; email: ,

Both acute intoxication and longer-term cumulative ingestion of alcohol negatively impact the metabolic phenotype of both skeletal and cardiac muscle, independent of overt protein calorie malnutrition, resulting in loss of skeletal muscle strength and cardiac contractility. In large part, these alcohol-induced changes are mediated by a decrease in protein synthesis that in turn is governed by impaired activity of a protein kinase, the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR). Herein, we summarize recent advances in understanding mTOR signal transduction, similarities and differences between the effects of alcohol on this central metabolic controller in skeletal muscle and in the heart, and the effects of acute versus chronic alcohol intake. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-nutr-071816-064642DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6377942PMC
August 2018
4 Reads

Bioavailability of Fat-Soluble Vitamins and Phytochemicals in Humans: Effects of Genetic Variation.

Annu Rev Nutr 2018 08;38:69-96

C2VN, INRA, INSERM, Aix Marseille Université, 13005 Marseille, France; email: ,

Recent data have shown that interindividual variability in the bioavailability of vitamins A (β-carotene), D, and E, and carotenoids (lutein and lycopene), as well as that of phytosterols, is modulated by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The identified SNPs are in or near genes involved in intestinal uptake or efflux of these compounds, as well as in genes involved in their metabolism and transport. The phenotypic effect of each SNP is usually low, but combinations of SNPs can explain a significant part of the variability. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-nutr-082117-051628DOI Listing
August 2018
23 Reads

Brain Nutrition: A Life Span Approach.

Annu Rev Nutr 2018 08 1;38:381-399. Epub 2018 Jun 1.

Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology and Department of Neurology, Washington University School of Medicine, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri 63130, USA; email:

Appraising success in meeting the world's nutritional needs has largely focused on infant mortality and anthropometric measurements with an emphasis on the first 1,000 days (conception to approximately age 2 years). This ignores the unique nutritional needs of the human brain. Although the intrauterine environment and the early postnatal years are important, equally critical periods follow during which the brain's intricate wiring is established for a lifetime of experience-driven remodeling. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-nutr-082117-051652DOI Listing
August 2018
11 Reads

Key Pathways and Regulators of Vitamin K Function and Intermediary Metabolism.

Annu Rev Nutr 2018 08 1;38:127-151. Epub 2018 Jun 1.

Department of Hygienic Sciences, Kobe Pharmaceutical University, Kobe 658-8558 Japan; email:

Vitamin K (VK) is an essential cofactor for the post-translational conversion of peptide-bound glutamate to γ-carboxyglutamate. The resultant vitamin K-dependent proteins are known or postulated to possess a variety of biological functions, chiefly in the maintenance of hemostasis. The vitamin K cycle is a cellular pathway that drives γ-carboxylation and recycling of VK via γ-carboxyglutamyl carboxylase (GGCX) and vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKOR), respectively. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-nutr-082117-051741DOI Listing
August 2018
6 Reads

Personalized Dietary Management of Overweight and Obesity Based on Measures of Insulin and Glucose.

Annu Rev Nutr 2018 08 1;38:245-272. Epub 2018 Jun 1.

Department of Nutrition, Exercise, and Sports, Faculty of Sciences, University of Copenhagen, 1958 Frederiksberg C, Denmark; email: ,

During the past several decades, numerous trials have compared various diets for the management of overweight and obesity, assuming that a single dietary strategy would be appropriate for all individuals. These studies have failed to provide strong evidence for the efficacy of any particular diet, and it is likely that different people will have different levels of success on different diets. We identified studies investigating pretreatment glycemia or insulinemia status, or both, of the individual as prognostic markers of weight loss during periods in which the composition of a participant's diet was known. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-nutr-082117-051606DOI Listing
August 2018
9 Reads

Nutrition and Inflammation: Are Centenarians Similar to Individuals on Calorie-Restricted Diets?

Annu Rev Nutr 2018 08 31;38:329-356. Epub 2018 May 31.

Department of Experimental, Diagnostic, and Specialty Medicine (DIMES) and Interdepartmental Centre "L. Galvani" (CIG), Alma Mater Studiorum, University of Bologna, 40126 Bologna, Italy; email: ,

Individuals capable of reaching the extreme limit of human life such as centenarians are characterized by an exceptionally healthy phenotype-that is, a low number of diseases, low blood pressure, optimal metabolic and endocrine parameters, and increased diversity in the gut microbiota-and they are epigenetically younger than their chronological age. We present data suggesting that such a remarkable phenotype is largely similar to that found in adults following a calorie-restricted diet. Interviews with centenarians and historical data on the nutritional and lifestyle habits of Italians during the twentieth century suggest that as children and into adulthood, centenarians lived in an environment that was nonobesogenic, but at the same time the environment did not produce malnutrition. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-nutr-082117-051637DOI Listing
August 2018
7 Reads

Crossing the Iron Gate: Why and How Transferrin Receptors Mediate Viral Entry.

Annu Rev Nutr 2018 08 31;38:431-458. Epub 2018 May 31.

Department of Genetics and Complex Diseases, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA; email:

Because both the host and pathogen require iron, the innate immune response carefully orchestrates control over iron metabolism to limit its availability during times of infection. Nutritional iron deficiency can impair host immunity, while iron overload can cause oxidative stress to propagate harmful viral mutations. An emerging enigma is that many viruses use the primary gatekeeper of iron metabolism, the transferrin receptor, as a means to enter cells. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-nutr-082117-051749DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6743070PMC
August 2018
9 Reads

An Overview of Attitudes Toward Genetically Engineered Food.

Annu Rev Nutr 2018 08 25;38:459-479. Epub 2018 May 25.

Department of Psychology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104-3604, USA.

Genetically engineered food has had its DNA, RNA, or proteins manipulated by intentional human intervention. We provide an overview of the importance and regulation of genetically engineered food and lay attitudes toward it. We first discuss the pronaturalness context in the United States and Europe that preceded the appearance of genetically engineered food. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-nutr-071715-051223DOI Listing
August 2018
7 Reads

Consumption of Sugars, Sugary Foods, and Sugary Beverages in Relation to Cancer Risk: A Systematic Review of Longitudinal Studies.

Annu Rev Nutr 2018 08 25;38:17-39. Epub 2018 May 25.

College of Global Public Health, New York University, New York, NY 10003, USA; email:

High sugar intake may increase cancer risk by promoting insulin-glucose dysregulation, oxidative stress, inflammation, and body adiposity, but epidemiologic evidence is unclear. Associations between dietary sugars and lifestyle-related cancer risk from longitudinal studies were evaluated. We systematically searched PubMed, Embase, and CINAHL and identified 37 prospective cohort studies (1990-2017) reporting multivariable adjusted risk estimates for dietary sugars in relation to cancer. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-nutr-082117-051805DOI Listing
August 2018
8 Reads

Nutritional Regulation of Intestinal Stem Cells.

Annu Rev Nutr 2018 08 23;38:273-301. Epub 2018 May 23.

Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research and Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA; email:

Dietary composition and calorie intake are major determinants of health and disease. Calorie restriction promotes metabolic changes that favor tissue regeneration and is arguably the most successful and best-conserved antiaging intervention. Obesity, in contrast, impairs tissue homeostasis and is a major risk factor for the development of diseases including cancer. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-nutr-082117-051644DOI Listing
August 2018
15 Reads

Nutritional Influences on One-Carbon Metabolism: Effects on Arsenic Methylation and Toxicity.

Annu Rev Nutr 2018 08 23;38:401-429. Epub 2018 May 23.

Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA; email:

Exposure to inorganic arsenic (InAs) via drinking water and/or food is a considerable worldwide problem. Methylation of InAs generates monomethyl (MMAs)- and dimethyl (DMAs)-arsenical species in a process that facilitates urinary As elimination; however, MMAs is considerably more toxic than either InAs or DMAs. Emerging evidence suggests that incomplete methylation of As to DMAs, resulting in increased MMAs, is associated with increased risk for a host of As-related health outcomes. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-nutr-082117-051757DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6441546PMC
August 2018
6 Reads

Apocarotenoids: Emerging Roles in Mammals.

Annu Rev Nutr 2018 08 11;38:153-172. Epub 2018 May 11.

Department of Food Science; Rutgers Center for Lipid Research; and New Jersey Institute for Food, Nutrition, and Health, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey 08901, USA; email:

Apocarotenoids are cleavage products of C40 isoprenoid pigments, named carotenoids, synthesized exclusively by plants and microorganisms. The colors of flowers and fruits and the photosynthetic process are examples of the biological properties conferred by carotenoids to these organisms. Mammals do not synthesize carotenoids but obtain them from foods of plant origin. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/10.1146/annurev-nutr-08211
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-nutr-082117-051841DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6295211PMC
August 2018
8 Reads

Intestinal Absorption of Fructose.

Annu Rev Nutr 2018 08 11;38:41-67. Epub 2018 May 11.

Independent Drug Safety Consulting, Wilmington, Delaware 19803, USA; email:

Increased understanding of fructose metabolism, which begins with uptake via the intestine, is important because fructose now constitutes a physiologically significant portion of human diets and is associated with increased incidence of certain cancers and metabolic diseases. New insights in our knowledge of intestinal fructose absorption mediated by the facilitative glucose transporter GLUT5 in the apical membrane and by GLUT2 in the basolateral membrane are reviewed. We begin with studies related to structure as well as ligand binding, then revisit the controversial proposition that apical GLUT2 is the main mediator of intestinal fructose absorption. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-nutr-082117-051707DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6457363PMC
August 2018
15 Reads
8.360 Impact Factor

Fibroblast Growth Factor 21: A Versatile Regulator of Metabolic Homeostasis.

Annu Rev Nutr 2018 08 4;38:173-196. Epub 2018 May 4.

Department of Pharmacology and Fraternal Order of Eagles Diabetes Research Center, University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA; email:

Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is an endocrine hormone derived from the liver that exerts pleiotropic effects on the body to maintain overall metabolic homeostasis. During the past decade, there has been an enormous effort made to understand the physiological roles of FGF21 in regulating metabolism and to identify the mechanism for its potent pharmacological effects to reverse diabetes and obesity. Through both human and rodent studies, it is now evident that FGF21 levels are dynamically regulated by nutrient sensing, and consequently FGF21 functions as a critical regulator of nutrient homeostasis. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-nutr-071816-064800DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6964258PMC
August 2018
8 Reads

The Obesity Paradox in Cancer: How Important Is Muscle?

Annu Rev Nutr 2018 08 4;38:357-379. Epub 2018 May 4.

Division of Research, Kaiser Permanente, Oakland, California 94612, USA; email: , ,

Although higher body mass index (BMI) increases the incidence of many cancers, BMI can also exhibit a null or U-shaped relationship with survival among patients with existing disease; this association of higher BMI with improved survival is termed the obesity paradox. This review discusses possible explanations for the obesity paradox, the prevalence and consequences of low muscle mass in cancer patients, and future research directions. It is unlikely that methodological biases, such as reverse causality or confounding, fully explain the obesity paradox. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-nutr-082117-051723DOI Listing
August 2018
6 Reads

A Life in Food: A Grain of Salt and Some Humble Pie.

Authors:
Michael J Gibney

Annu Rev Nutr 2018 08 26;38:1-16. Epub 2018 Mar 26.

Institute of Food and Health, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland; email:

From my senior school days, I had wanted to pursue a career in food. In quite what capacity I was not too sure. So my starting points were within the fields of animal nutrition before moving for the major part of my career to medical schools to study human nutrition and health. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-nutr-082117-051816DOI Listing
August 2018
7 Reads

Nutrition from the Inside Out.

Authors:
Dennis M Bier

Annu Rev Nutr 2017 08;37:1-31

USDA/ARS Children's Nutrition Research Center, Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030; email:

Nearly 50 years ago, I set out to investigate the clinical problem of hypoglycemia in children with illnesses that limited their food intake. My goal was to gather accurate and precise measurable data. At the time, I wasn't interested in nutrition as a discipline defined in its more general or popular sense. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-nutr-071715-050801DOI Listing
August 2017
10 Reads

Nature, Nurture, and Cancer Risks: Genetic and Nutritional Contributions to Cancer.

Annu Rev Nutr 2017 08;37:293-320

Stanford Prevention Research Center, Departments of Medicine and Health Research and Policy, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305-5411; email:

It is speculated that genetic variants are associated with differential responses to nutrients (known as gene-diet interactions) and that these variations may be linked to different cancer risks. In this review, we critically evaluate the evidence across 314 meta-analyses of observational studies and randomized controlled trials of dietary risk factors and the five most common cancers (breast, lung, prostate, colorectal, and stomach). We also critically evaluate the evidence across 13 meta-analyses of observational studies of gene-diet interactions for the same cancers. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-nutr-071715-051004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6143166PMC
August 2017
9 Reads

Coffee, Caffeine, and Health Outcomes: An Umbrella Review.

Annu Rev Nutr 2017 08;37:131-156

Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02115; email:

To evaluate the associations between coffee and caffeine consumption and various health outcomes, we performed an umbrella review of the evidence from meta-analyses of observational studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Of the 59 unique outcomes examined in the selected 112 meta-analyses of observational studies, coffee was associated with a probable decreased risk of breast, colorectal, colon, endometrial, and prostate cancers; cardiovascular disease and mortality; Parkinson's disease; and type-2 diabetes. Of the 14 unique outcomes examined in the 20 selected meta-analyses of observational studies, caffeine was associated with a probable decreased risk of Parkinson's disease and type-2 diabetes and an increased risk of pregnancy loss. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-nutr-071816-064941DOI Listing
August 2017
21 Reads

Fatty Acids and NLRP3 Inflammasome-Mediated Inflammation in Metabolic Tissues.

Annu Rev Nutr 2017 08;37:77-102

Nutrigenomics Research Group; UCD Conway Institute of Biomolecular and Biomedical Research; School of Public Health, Physiotherapy, and Sports Science; and Institute of Food and Health; University College Dublin, Dublin 4, Ireland; email: , , , ,

Worldwide obesity rates have reached epidemic proportions and significantly contribute to the growing prevalence of metabolic diseases. Chronic low-grade inflammation, a hallmark of obesity, involves immune cell infiltration into expanding adipose tissue. In turn, obesity-associated inflammation can lead to complications in other metabolic tissues (e. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.annualreviews.org/doi/10.1146/annurev-nutr-071816
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-nutr-071816-064836DOI Listing
August 2017
55 Reads

β-Hydroxybutyrate: A Signaling Metabolite.

Annu Rev Nutr 2017 08;37:51-76

Buck Institute for Research on Aging, Novato, California 94945; email: ,

Various mechanisms in the mammalian body provide resilience against food deprivation and dietary stress. The ketone body β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) is synthesized in the liver from fatty acids and represents an essential carrier of energy from the liver to peripheral tissues when the supply of glucose is too low for the body's energetic needs, such as during periods of prolonged exercise, starvation, or absence of dietary carbohydrates. In addition to its activity as an energetic metabolite, BHB is increasingly understood to have cellular signaling functions. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-nutr-071816-064916DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6640868PMC
August 2017
16 Reads

FGF23 and Nutritional Metabolism.

Annu Rev Nutr 2017 08 17;37:247-268. Epub 2017 Jul 17.

Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina 27703; email:

The discovery of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) has provided a more complete understanding of the regulation of phosphate and mineral homeostasis in health and in chronic kidney disease. It has also offered new insights into stratification of risk of cardiovascular events and death among patients with chronic kidney disease and the general population. In this review, we provide an overview of FGF23 biology and physiology, summarize clinical outcomes that have been associated with FGF23, discuss potential mechanisms for these observations and their public health implications, and explore clinical and population health interventions that aim to reduce FGF23 levels and improve public health. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-nutr-071816-064620DOI Listing
August 2017
16 Reads