Search our Database of Scientific Publications and Authors

I’m looking for a

    811 results match your criteria Annual Review of Nutrition [Journal]

    1 OF 17

    Brain Nutrition: A Life Span Approach.
    Annu Rev Nutr 2018 Jun 1. Epub 2018 Jun 1.
    Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology and Department of Neurology, Washington University School of Medicine, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, USA; email:
    Appraising success in meeting the world's nutritional needs has largely focused on infant mortality and anthropometric measurements with an emphasis on the first 1,000 days (conception to approximately age 2 years). This ignores the unique nutritional needs of the human brain. Although the intrauterine environment and the early postnatal years are important, equally critical periods follow during which the brain's intricate wiring is established for a lifetime of experience-driven remodeling. Read More

    Key Pathways and Regulators of Vitamin K Function and Intermediary Metabolism.
    Annu Rev Nutr 2018 Jun 1. Epub 2018 Jun 1.
    Department of Hygienic Sciences, Kobe Pharmaceutical University, Kobe 658-8558 Japan; email:
    Vitamin K (VK) is an essential cofactor for the post-translational conversion of peptide-bound glutamate to γ-carboxyglutamate. The resultant vitamin K-dependent proteins are known or postulated to possess a variety of biological functions, chiefly in the maintenance of hemostasis. The vitamin K cycle is a cellular pathway that drives γ-carboxylation and recycling of VK via γ-carboxyglutamyl carboxylase (GGCX) and vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKOR), respectively. Read More

    Personalized Dietary Management of Overweight and Obesity Based on Measures of Insulin and Glucose.
    Annu Rev Nutr 2018 Jun 1. Epub 2018 Jun 1.
    Department of Nutrition, Exercise, and Sports, Faculty of Sciences, University of Copenhagen, 1958 Frederiksberg C, Denmark; email: ,
    During the past several decades, numerous trials have compared various diets for the management of overweight and obesity, assuming that a single dietary strategy would be appropriate for all individuals. These studies have failed to provide strong evidence for the efficacy of any particular diet, and it is likely that different people will have different levels of success on different diets. We identified studies investigating pretreatment glycemia or insulinemia status, or both, of the individual as prognostic markers of weight loss during periods in which the composition of a participant's diet was known. Read More

    Nutrition and Inflammation: Are Centenarians Similar to Individuals on Calorie-Restricted Diets?
    Annu Rev Nutr 2018 May 31. Epub 2018 May 31.
    Department of Experimental, Diagnostic, and Specialty Medicine (DIMES) and Interdepartmental Centre "L. Galvani" (CIG), Alma Mater Studiorum, University of Bologna,40126 Bologna, Italy ,
    Individuals capable of reaching the extreme limit of human life such as centenarians are characterized by an exceptionally healthy phenotype-that is, a low number of diseases, low blood pressure, optimal metabolic and endocrine parameters, and increased diversity in the gut microbiota-and they are epigenetically younger than their chronological age. We present data suggesting that such a remarkable phenotype is largely similar to that found in adults following a calorie-restricted diet. Interviews with centenarians and historical data on the nutritional and lifestyle habits of Italians during the twentieth century suggest that as children and into adulthood, centenarians lived in an environment that was nonobesogenic, but at the same time the environment did not produce malnutrition. Read More

    Crossing the Iron Gate: Why and How Transferrin Receptors Mediate Viral Entry.
    Annu Rev Nutr 2018 May 31. Epub 2018 May 31.
    Department of Genetics and Complex Diseases, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA; email:
    Because both the host and pathogen require iron, the innate immune response carefully orchestrates control over iron metabolism to limit its availability during times of infection. Nutritional iron deficiency can impair host immunity, while iron overload can cause oxidative stress to propagate harmful viral mutations. An emerging enigma is that many viruses use the primary gatekeeper of iron metabolism, the transferrin receptor, as a means to enter cells. Read More

    An Overview of Attitudes Toward Genetically Engineered Food.
    Annu Rev Nutr 2018 May 25. Epub 2018 May 25.
    Department of Psychology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104-3604, USA; email:
    Genetically engineered food has had its DNA, RNA, or proteins manipulated by intentional human intervention. We provide an overview of the importance and regulation of genetically engineered food and lay attitudes toward it. We first discuss the pronaturalness context in the United States and Europe that preceded the appearance of genetically engineered food. Read More

    Consumption of Sugars, Sugary Foods, and Sugary Beverages in Relation to Cancer Risk: A Systematic Review of Longitudinal Studies.
    Annu Rev Nutr 2018 May 25. Epub 2018 May 25.
    College of Global Public Health, New York University, New York, NY 10003, USA; email:
    High sugar intake may increase cancer risk by promoting insulin-glucose dysregulation, oxidative stress, inflammation, and body adiposity, but epidemiologic evidence is unclear. Associations between dietary sugars and lifestyle-related cancer risk from longitudinal studies were evaluated. We systematically searched PubMed, Embase, and CINAHL and identified 37 prospective cohort studies (1990-2017) reporting multivariable adjusted risk estimates for dietary sugars in relation to cancer. Read More

    Nutritional Regulation of Intestinal Stem Cells.
    Annu Rev Nutr 2018 May 23. Epub 2018 May 23.
    Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research and Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA; email:
    Dietary composition and calorie intake are major determinants of health and disease. Calorie restriction promotes metabolic changes that favor tissue regeneration and is arguably the most successful and best-conserved antiaging intervention. Obesity, in contrast, impairs tissue homeostasis and is a major risk factor for the development of diseases including cancer. Read More

    Nutritional Influences on One-Carbon Metabolism: Effects on Arsenic Methylation and Toxicity.
    Annu Rev Nutr 2018 May 23. Epub 2018 May 23.
    Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA; email:
    Exposure to inorganic arsenic (InAs) via drinking water and/or food is a considerable worldwide problem. Methylation of InAs generates monomethyl (MMAs)- and dimethyl (DMAs)-arsenical species in a process that facilitates urinary As elimination; however, MMA is considerably more toxic than either InAs or DMAs. Emerging evidence suggests that incomplete methylation of As to DMAs, resulting in increased MMAs, is associated with increased risk for a host of As-related health outcomes. Read More

    Apocarotenoids: Emerging Roles in Mammals.
    Annu Rev Nutr 2018 May 11. Epub 2018 May 11.
    Department of Food Science, Rutgers Center for Lipid Research; and New Jersey Institute for Food, Nutrition, and Health, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey 08901, USA; email:
    Apocarotenoids are cleavage products of C40 isoprenoid pigments, named carotenoids, synthesized exclusively by plants and microorganisms. The colors of flowers and fruits and the photosynthetic process are examples of the biological properties conferred by carotenoids to these organisms. Mammals do not synthesize carotenoids but obtain them from foods of plant origin. Read More

    Intestinal Absorption of Fructose.
    Annu Rev Nutr 2018 May 11. Epub 2018 May 11.
    Independent Drug Safety Consulting, Wilmington, Delaware 19803, USA; email:
    Increased understanding of fructose metabolism, which begins with uptake via the intestine, is important because fructose now constitutes a physiologically significant portion of human diets and is associated with increased incidence of certain cancers and metabolic diseases. New insights in our knowledge of intestinal fructose absorption mediated by the facilitative glucose transporter GLUT5 in the apical membrane and by GLUT2 in the basolateral membrane are reviewed. We begin with studies related to structure as well as ligand binding, then revisit the controversial proposition that apical GLUT2 is the main mediator of intestinal fructose absorption. Read More

    Fibroblast Growth Factor 21: A Versatile Regulator of Metabolic Homeostasis.
    Annu Rev Nutr 2018 May 4. Epub 2018 May 4.
    Department of Pharmacology and Fraternal Order of Eagles Diabetes Research Center, University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA; email:
    Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is an endocrine hormone derived from the liver that exerts pleiotropic effects on the body to maintain overall metabolic homeostasis. During the past decade, there has been an enormous effort made to understand the physiological roles of FGF21 in regulating metabolism and to identify the mechanism for its potent pharmacological effects to reverse diabetes and obesity. Through both human and rodent studies, it is now evident that FGF21 levels are dynamically regulated by nutrient sensing, and consequently FGF21 functions as a critical regulator of nutrient homeostasis. Read More

    The Obesity Paradox in Cancer: How Important Is Muscle?
    Annu Rev Nutr 2018 May 4. Epub 2018 May 4.
    Division of Research, Kaiser Permanente, Oakland, California 94612, USA; email: , ,
    Although higher body mass index (BMI) increases cancer incidence, it is associated with improved survival among patients with existing disease; thus, the relationship of BMI with mortality in cancer patients is often U-shaped, which is termed the obesity paradox. This review discusses possible explanations for the obesity paradox, the prevalence and consequences of low muscle mass in cancer patients, and future research directions. It is unlikely that methodological biases, such as reverse causality or confounding, fully explain the obesity paradox. Read More

    A Life in Food: A Grain of Salt and Some Humble Pie.
    Annu Rev Nutr 2018 Mar 26. Epub 2018 Mar 26.
    Institute of Food and Health, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland; email:
    From my senior school days, I had wanted to pursue a career in food. In quite what capacity I was not too sure. So my starting points were within the fields of animal nutrition before moving for the major part of my career to medical schools to study human nutrition and health. Read More

    Nutrition from the Inside Out.
    Annu Rev Nutr 2017 08;37:1-31
    USDA/ARS Children's Nutrition Research Center, Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030; email:
    Nearly 50 years ago, I set out to investigate the clinical problem of hypoglycemia in children with illnesses that limited their food intake. My goal was to gather accurate and precise measurable data. At the time, I wasn't interested in nutrition as a discipline defined in its more general or popular sense. Read More

    Nature, Nurture, and Cancer Risks: Genetic and Nutritional Contributions to Cancer.
    Annu Rev Nutr 2017 08;37:293-320
    Stanford Prevention Research Center, Departments of Medicine and Health Research and Policy, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305-5411; email:
    It is speculated that genetic variants are associated with differential responses to nutrients (known as gene-diet interactions) and that these variations may be linked to different cancer risks. In this review, we critically evaluate the evidence across 314 meta-analyses of observational studies and randomized controlled trials of dietary risk factors and the five most common cancers (breast, lung, prostate, colorectal, and stomach). We also critically evaluate the evidence across 13 meta-analyses of observational studies of gene-diet interactions for the same cancers. Read More

    Coffee, Caffeine, and Health Outcomes: An Umbrella Review.
    Annu Rev Nutr 2017 08;37:131-156
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02115; email:
    To evaluate the associations between coffee and caffeine consumption and various health outcomes, we performed an umbrella review of the evidence from meta-analyses of observational studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Of the 59 unique outcomes examined in the selected 112 meta-analyses of observational studies, coffee was associated with a probable decreased risk of breast, colorectal, colon, endometrial, and prostate cancers; cardiovascular disease and mortality; Parkinson's disease; and type-2 diabetes. Of the 14 unique outcomes examined in the 20 selected meta-analyses of observational studies, caffeine was associated with a probable decreased risk of Parkinson's disease and type-2 diabetes and an increased risk of pregnancy loss. Read More

    Fatty Acids and NLRP3 Inflammasome-Mediated Inflammation in Metabolic Tissues.
    Annu Rev Nutr 2017 08;37:77-102
    Nutrigenomics Research Group; UCD Conway Institute of Biomolecular and Biomedical Research; School of Public Health, Physiotherapy, and Sports Science; and Institute of Food and Health; University College Dublin, Dublin 4, Ireland; email: , , , ,
    Worldwide obesity rates have reached epidemic proportions and significantly contribute to the growing prevalence of metabolic diseases. Chronic low-grade inflammation, a hallmark of obesity, involves immune cell infiltration into expanding adipose tissue. In turn, obesity-associated inflammation can lead to complications in other metabolic tissues (e. Read More

    β-Hydroxybutyrate: A Signaling Metabolite.
    Annu Rev Nutr 2017 08;37:51-76
    Buck Institute for Research on Aging, Novato, California 94945; email: ,
    Various mechanisms in the mammalian body provide resilience against food deprivation and dietary stress. The ketone body β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) is synthesized in the liver from fatty acids and represents an essential carrier of energy from the liver to peripheral tissues when the supply of glucose is too low for the body's energetic needs, such as during periods of prolonged exercise, starvation, or absence of dietary carbohydrates. In addition to its activity as an energetic metabolite, BHB is increasingly understood to have cellular signaling functions. Read More

    FGF23 and Nutritional Metabolism.
    Annu Rev Nutr 2017 08 17;37:247-268. Epub 2017 Jul 17.
    Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina 27703; email:
    The discovery of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) has provided a more complete understanding of the regulation of phosphate and mineral homeostasis in health and in chronic kidney disease. It has also offered new insights into stratification of risk of cardiovascular events and death among patients with chronic kidney disease and the general population. In this review, we provide an overview of FGF23 biology and physiology, summarize clinical outcomes that have been associated with FGF23, discuss potential mechanisms for these observations and their public health implications, and explore clinical and population health interventions that aim to reduce FGF23 levels and improve public health. Read More

    Metabolic Effects of Intermittent Fasting.
    Annu Rev Nutr 2017 08 17;37:371-393. Epub 2017 Jul 17.
    Moores Cancer Center, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093; email:
    The objective of this review is to provide an overview of intermittent fasting regimens, summarize the evidence on the health benefits of intermittent fasting, and discuss physiological mechanisms by which intermittent fasting might lead to improved health outcomes. A MEDLINE search was performed using PubMed and the terms "intermittent fasting," "fasting," "time-restricted feeding," and "food timing." Modified fasting regimens appear to promote weight loss and may improve metabolic health. Read More

    The Hibernator Microbiome: Host-Bacterial Interactions in an Extreme Nutritional Symbiosis.
    Annu Rev Nutr 2017 08 17;37:477-500. Epub 2017 Jul 17.
    Department of Integrative Biology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706; email:
    Animals that undergo seasonal cycles of feeding and fasting have adaptations that maintain integrity of organ systems when dietary nutrients are lacking. Food deprivation also challenges the gut microbiota, which relies heavily on host diet for metabolic substrates and the gastrointestinal tract, which is influenced by enteral nutrients and microbial activity. Winter fasting in hibernators shifts the microbiota to favor taxa with the capacity to degrade and utilize host-derived substrates and disfavor taxa that prefer complex plant polysaccharides. Read More

    Trimethylamine N-Oxide, the Microbiome, and Heart and Kidney Disease.
    Annu Rev Nutr 2017 08 17;37:157-181. Epub 2017 Jul 17.
    Nutrition Research Institute and Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina, Kannapolis, North Carolina 28081; email:
    Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) is a biologically active molecule and is a putative promoter of chronic diseases including atherosclerosis in humans. Host intestinal bacteria produce its precursor trimethylamine (TMA) from carnitine, choline, or choline-containing compounds. Most of the TMA produced is passively absorbed into portal circulation, and hepatic flavin-dependent monooxygenases (FMOs) efficiently oxidize TMA to TMAO. Read More

    Single-Subject Studies in Translational Nutrition Research.
    Annu Rev Nutr 2017 08 17;37:395-422. Epub 2017 Jul 17.
    J. Craig Venter Institute, La Jolla, California 92037; email:
    There is a great deal of interest in personalized, individualized, or precision interventions for disease and health-risk mitigation. This is as true of nutrition-based intervention and prevention strategies as it is for pharmacotherapies and pharmaceutical-oriented prevention strategies. Essentially, technological breakthroughs have enabled researchers to probe an individual's unique genetic, biochemical, physiological, behavioral, and exposure profile, allowing them to identify very specific and often nuanced factors that an individual might possess, which may make it more or less likely that he or she responds favorably to a particular intervention (e. Read More

    Dietary Fat and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease: Recent Controversies and Advances.
    Annu Rev Nutr 2017 08 23;37:423-446. Epub 2017 Jun 23.
    Department of Nutrition, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02115; email:
    Health effects of dietary fats have been extensively studied for decades. However, controversies exist on the effects of various types of fatty acids, especially saturated fatty acid (SFA), on cardiovascular disease (CVD). Current evidence supports that different types of dietary fatty acids have divergent effects on CVD risk, and the effects also depend strongly on the comparison or replacement macronutrient. Read More

    Long-Term Effects of High-Protein Diets on Renal Function.
    Annu Rev Nutr 2017 08 21;37:347-369. Epub 2017 Jun 21.
    Department of Nephrology, Herlev Hospital, University of Copenhagen, 2730 Copenhagen, Denmark; email:
    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has a prevalence of approximately 13% and is most frequently caused by diabetes and hypertension. In population studies, CKD etiology is often uncertain. Some experimental and observational human studies have suggested that high-protein intake may increase CKD progression and even cause CKD in healthy people. Read More

    Lipocalin 2: An Emerging Player in Iron Homeostasis and Inflammation.
    Annu Rev Nutr 2017 08 19;37:103-130. Epub 2017 Jun 19.
    Department of Nutritional Sciences, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802; email:
    Lipocalin 2 (Lcn2), an innate immune protein, has emerged as a critical iron regulatory protein during physiological and inflammatory conditions. As a bacteriostatic factor, Lcn2 obstructs the siderophore iron-acquiring strategy of bacteria and thus inhibits bacterial growth. As part of host nutritional immunity, Lcn2 facilitates systemic, cellular, and mucosal hypoferremia during inflammation, in addition to stabilizing the siderophore-bound labile iron pool. Read More

    Genetic Risk Factors for Folate-Responsive Neural Tube Defects.
    Annu Rev Nutr 2017 08 19;37:269-291. Epub 2017 Jun 19.
    Medical Genomics and Metabolic Genetics Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute, Bethesda, Maryland 20892; email: ,
    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are the most severe congenital malformations of the central nervous system. The etiology is complex, with both genetic and environmental factors having important contributions. Researchers have known for the past two decades that maternal periconceptional use of the B vitamin folic acid can prevent many NTDs. Read More

    Genetic Basis for Sex Differences in Obesity and Lipid Metabolism.
    Annu Rev Nutr 2017 08 19;37:225-245. Epub 2017 Jun 19.
    Department of Human Genetics, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095; email:
    Men and women exhibit significant differences in obesity, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. To provide better diagnosis and treatment for both sexes, it is important to identify factors that underlie the observed sex differences. Traditionally, sex differences have been attributed to the differential effects of male and female gonadal secretions (commonly referred to as sex hormones), which substantially influence many aspects of metabolism and related diseases. Read More

    Dietary Phosphorus Intake and the Kidney.
    Annu Rev Nutr 2017 08 14;37:321-346. Epub 2017 Jun 14.
    Division of Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093.
    Although phosphorus is an essential nutrient required for multiple physiological functions, recent research raises concerns that high phosphorus intake could have detrimental effects on health. Phosphorus is abundant in the food supply of developed countries, occurring naturally in protein-rich foods and as an additive in processed foods. High phosphorus intake can cause vascular and renal calcification, renal tubular injury, and premature death in multiple animal models. Read More

    The Best of Times.
    Annu Rev Nutr 2017 08 2;37:33-49. Epub 2017 Jun 2.
    Office of Dietary Supplements, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892; email:
    I came of age as a nutrition scientist during the best of times-years that spanned a rapidly changing world of food and nutrition science, politics, and policy that greatly broadened the specialty and its influence on public affairs. I followed the conventional route in academe, working my way up the academic ladder in Boston from a base first in a school of public health and later in a teaching hospital and medical school, interspersed with stints in Washington, DC. Thus I tell a tale of two cities. Read More

    Brain on Fire: Incentive Salience, Hedonic Hot Spots, Dopamine, Obesity, and Other Hunger Games.
    Annu Rev Nutr 2017 08 31;37:183-205. Epub 2017 May 31.
    Healthy Active Living and Obesity (HALO) Research Group, Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Research Institute, Ottawa, Ontario K1H 5B2, Canada; email: , ,
    This review examines human feeding behavior in light of psychological motivational theory and highlights the importance of midbrain dopamine (DA). Prospective evidence of both reward surfeit and reward deficit pathways to increased body weight are evaluated, and we argue that it is more complex than an either/or scenario when examining DA's role in reward sensitivity, eating, and obesity. The Taq1A genotype is a common thread that ties the contrasting models of DA reward and obesity; this genotype related to striatal DA is not associated with obesity class per se but may nevertheless confer an increased risk of weight gain. Read More

    Holocarboxylase Synthetase: A Moonlighting Transcriptional Coregulator of Gene Expression and a Cytosolic Regulator of Biotin Utilization.
    Annu Rev Nutr 2017 08 31;37:207-223. Epub 2017 May 31.
    Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, the University of Calgary and the Alberta Children's Hospital Research Institute for Child and Maternal Health, Calgary, Alberta T2N 4N1, Canada.
    The vitamin biotin is an essential nutrient for the metabolism and survival of all organisms owing to its function as a cofactor of enzymes collectively known as biotin-dependent carboxylases. These enzymes use covalently attached biotin as a vector to transfer a carboxyl group between donor and acceptor molecules during carboxylation reactions. In human cells, biotin-dependent carboxylases catalyze key reactions in gluconeogenesis, fatty acid synthesis, and amino acid catabolism. Read More

    The Nexus Between Nutrition and Early Childhood Development.
    Annu Rev Nutr 2017 08 31;37:447-476. Epub 2017 May 31.
    Community Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720; email:
    This article looks at both nutrition and early childhood stimulation interventions as part of an integrated life cycle approach to development. We build on recent systematic reviews of child development, which are comprehensive in regard to what is currently known about outcomes reported in key studies. We then focus particularly on implementation, scaling, and economic returns, drawing mainly on experience in low- and middle-income countries where undernutrition and poor child development remain significant public health challenges with implications across the life course. Read More

    Lutein and Zeaxanthin Isomers in Eye Health and Disease.
    Annu Rev Nutr 2016 07;36:571-602
    Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53726-2336; email:
    Current evidence suggests lutein and its isomers play important roles in ocular development in utero and throughout the life span, in vision performance in young and later adulthood, and in lowering risk for the development of common age-related eye diseases in older age. These xanthophyll (oxygen-containing) carotenoids are found in a wide variety of vegetables and fruits, and they are present in especially high concentrations in leafy green vegetables. Additionally, egg yolks and human milk appear to be bioavailable sources. Read More

    Nutrient-Gene Interaction in Colon Cancer, from the Membrane to Cellular Physiology.
    Annu Rev Nutr 2016 07;36:543-70
    Program in Integrative Nutrition and Complex Diseases, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77843; email:
    The International Agency for Research on Cancer recently released an assessment classifying red and processed meat as "carcinogenic to humans" on the basis of the positive association between increased consumption and risk for colorectal cancer. Diet, however, can also decrease the risk for colorectal cancer and be used as a chemopreventive strategy. Bioactive dietary molecules, such as n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, curcumin, and fermentable fiber, have been proposed to exert chemoprotective effects, and their molecular mechanisms have been the focus of research in the dietary/chemoprevention field. Read More

    The Perilipins: Major Cytosolic Lipid Droplet-Associated Proteins and Their Roles in Cellular Lipid Storage, Mobilization, and Systemic Homeostasis.
    Annu Rev Nutr 2016 07;36:471-509
    The Geriatric Research Education and Clinical Center, Baltimore Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Baltimore, Maryland 21201.
    The discovery by Dr. Constantine Londos of perilipin 1, the major scaffold protein at the surface of cytosolic lipid droplets in adipocytes, marked a fundamental conceptual change in the understanding of lipolytic regulation. Focus then shifted from the enzymatic activation of lipases to substrate accessibility, mediated by perilipin-dependent protein sequestration and recruitment. Read More

    Formate: The Neglected Member of One-Carbon Metabolism.
    Annu Rev Nutr 2016 07;36:369-88
    Department of Biochemistry, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's, Newfoundland A1B 3X9, Canada; email:
    Formate, the only non-tetrahydrofolate (THF)-linked intermediate in one-carbon metabolism, is produced in mammals from a variety of metabolic sources. It occurs in serum of adults at a concentration of approximately 30 μM. Its principal function lies as a source of one-carbon groups for the synthesis of 10-formyl-THF and other one-carbon intermediates; these are primarily used for purine synthesis, thymidylate synthesis, and the provision of methyl groups for synthetic, regulatory, and epigenetic methylation reactions. Read More

    Homocysteine, B Vitamins, and Cognitive Impairment.
    Annu Rev Nutr 2016 07;36:211-39
    OPTIMA, Department of Pharmacology, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3QT, United Kingdom; email:
    Moderately elevated plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) is a strong modifiable risk factor for vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease. Prospectively, elevated tHcy is associated with cognitive decline, white matter damage, brain atrophy, neurofibrillary tangles, and dementia. Most homocysteine-lowering trials with folate and vitamins B6 and/or B12 tested as protective agents against cognitive decline were poorly designed by including subjects unlikely to benefit during the trial period. Read More

    Nutrient Regulation: Conjugated Linoleic Acid's Inflammatory and Browning Properties in Adipose Tissue.
    Annu Rev Nutr 2016 07;36:183-210
    Department of Nutrition, The University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Greensboro, North Carolina 27402; email: ,
    Obesity is the most widespread nutritional disease in the United States. Developing effective and safe strategies to manage excess body weight is therefore of paramount importance. One potential strategy to reduce obesity is to consume conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplements containing isomers cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12, or trans-10, cis-12 alone. Read More

    Understanding Age-Related Changes in Skeletal Muscle Metabolism: Differences Between Females and Males.
    Annu Rev Nutr 2016 07;36:129-56
    Division of Nutritional Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853; email:
    Skeletal muscle is the largest metabolic organ system in the human body. As such, metabolic dysfunction occurring in skeletal muscle impacts whole-body nutrient homeostasis. Macronutrient metabolism changes within the skeletal muscle with aging, and these changes are associated in part with age-related skeletal muscle remodeling. Read More

    The Macronutrients, Appetite, and Energy Intake.
    Annu Rev Nutr 2016 07;36:73-103
    Department of Nutrition Science, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907; email:
    Each of the macronutrients-carbohydrate, protein, and fat-has a unique set of properties that influences health, but all are a source of energy. The optimal balance of their contribution to the diet has been a long-standing matter of debate. Over the past half century, thinking has progressed regarding the mechanisms by which each macronutrient may contribute to energy balance. Read More

    Endoplasmic Reticulum-Associated Degradation and Lipid Homeostasis.
    Annu Rev Nutr 2016 07 26;36:511-42. Epub 2016 May 26.
    Program in Metabolic Biology, Department of Nutritional Sciences and Toxicology, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720; email:
    The endoplasmic reticulum is the port of entry for proteins into the secretory pathway and the site of synthesis for several important lipids, including cholesterol, triacylglycerol, and phospholipids. Protein production within the endoplasmic reticulum is tightly regulated by a cohort of resident machinery that coordinates the folding, modification, and deployment of secreted and integral membrane proteins. Proteins failing to attain their native conformation are degraded through the endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD) pathway via a series of tightly coupled steps: substrate recognition, dislocation, and ubiquitin-dependent proteasomal destruction. Read More

    Nutritional Ecology and Human Health.
    Annu Rev Nutr 2016 07 1;36:603-26. Epub 2016 Jun 1.
    Charles Perkins Centre and School of Life and Environmental Sciences, The University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales 2006, Australia; email:
    In contrast to the spectacular advances in the first half of the twentieth century with micronutrient-related diseases, human nutrition science has failed to stem the more recent rise of obesity and associated cardiometabolic disease (OACD). This failure has triggered debate on the problems and limitations of the field and what change is needed to address these. We briefly review the two broad historical phases of human nutrition science and then provide an overview of the main problems that have been implicated in the poor progress of the field with solving OACD. Read More

    The Neurobiology of "Food Addiction" and Its Implications for Obesity Treatment and Policy.
    Annu Rev Nutr 2016 07 1;36:105-28. Epub 2016 Jun 1.
    University of Queensland Centre for Clinical Research, University of Queensland, Herston, Queensland 4029 Australia.
    There is a growing view that certain foods, particularly those high in refined sugars and fats, are addictive and that some forms of obesity can usefully be treated as a food addiction. This perspective is supported by a growing body of neuroscience research demonstrating that the chronic consumption of energy-dense foods causes changes in the brain's reward pathway that are central to the development and maintenance of drug addiction. Obese and overweight individuals also display patterns of eating behavior that resemble the ways in which addicted individuals consume drugs. Read More

    Sources and Functions of Extracellular Small RNAs in Human Circulation.
    Annu Rev Nutr 2016 07 13;36:301-36. Epub 2016 May 13.
    Luxembourg Centre for Systems Biomedicine, University of Luxembourg, Campus Belval, L-4367 Belvaux, Luxembourg; email: ,
    Various biotypes of endogenous small RNAs (sRNAs) have been detected in human circulation, including microRNAs, transfer RNAs, ribosomal RNA, and yRNA fragments. These extracellular sRNAs (ex-sRNAs) are packaged and secreted by many different cell types. Ex-sRNAs exhibit differences in abundance in several disease states and have, therefore, been proposed for use as effective biomarkers. Read More

    Cumulative Muscle Protein Synthesis and Protein Intake Requirements.
    Annu Rev Nutr 2016 07 18;36:17-43. Epub 2016 May 18.
    Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77843; email: ,
    Muscle protein synthesis (MPS) fluctuates widely over the course of a day and is influenced by many factors. The time course of MPS responses to exercise and the influence of training and nutrition can only be pieced together from several different investigations and methods, many of which create unnatural experimental conditions. Measurements of cumulative MPS, the sum synthesis over an extended period, using deuterium oxide have been shown to accurately reflect muscle responses and may allow investigations of the response to exercise, total protein intake requirements, and interaction with protein timing in free-living experimental conditions; these factors have yet to be carefully integrated. Read More

    Reward Systems in the Brain and Nutrition.
    Annu Rev Nutr 2016 07 4;36:435-70. Epub 2016 May 4.
    Oxford Centre for Computational Neuroscience, Oxford, United Kingdom; email:
    The taste cortex in the anterior insula provides separate and combined representations of the taste, temperature, and texture of food in the mouth independently of hunger and thus of reward value and pleasantness. One synapse on, in the orbitofrontal cortex, these sensory inputs are combined by associative learning with olfactory and visual inputs for some neurons, and these neurons encode food reward value in that they respond to food only when hunger is present and in that activations correlate linearly with subjective pleasantness. Cognitive factors, including word-level descriptions and selective attention to affective value, modulate the representation of the reward value of taste, olfactory, and flavor stimuli in the orbitofrontal cortex and a region to which it projects, the anterior cingulate cortex. Read More

    Lactation and Maternal Cardio-Metabolic Health.
    Annu Rev Nutr 2016 07 4;36:627-45. Epub 2016 May 4.
    Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30341; email:
    Researchers hypothesize that pregnancy and lactation are part of a continuum, with lactation meant to "reset" the adverse metabolic profile that develops as a part of normal pregnancy, and that when lactation does not occur, women maintain an elevated risk of cardio-metabolic diseases. Several large prospective and retrospective studies, mostly from the United States and other industrialized countries, have examined the associations between lactation and cardio-metabolic outcomes. Less evidence exists regarding an association of lactation with maternal postpartum weight status and dyslipidemia, whereas more evidence exists for an association with diabetes, hypertension, and subclinical and clinical cardiovascular disease. Read More

    Iron Regulation of Pancreatic Beta-Cell Functions and Oxidative Stress.
    Annu Rev Nutr 2016 07 4;36:241-73. Epub 2016 May 4.
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, 2200 Copenhagen N, Denmark; email:
    Dietary advice is the cornerstone in first-line treatment of metabolic diseases. Nutritional interventions directed at these clinical conditions mainly aim to (a) improve insulin resistance by reducing energy-dense macronutrient intake to obtain weight loss and (b) reduce fluctuations in insulin secretion through avoidance of rapidly absorbable carbohydrates. However, even in the majority of motivated patients selected for clinical trials, massive efforts using this approach have failed to achieve lasting efficacy. Read More

    1 OF 17