144,609 results match your criteria Annual Review of Nutrition [Journal]


Is China's coastal engineered defences valuable for storm protection?

Sci Total Environ 2018 Nov 28;657:103-107. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia; National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan, ROC.

China has a long history of building hard engineered coastal defences for storm protection, which enables us to examine the economic effects of the hard engineering to mitigate storm damage. Examining historical storm impacts between 1989 and 2016, a significant negative relationship exists between the relative economic damages (i.e. Read More

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November 2018
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Bibliometric analysis of scientific publications in respiratory journals from China and other top-ranking countries between 2007 and 2017.

Clin Respir J 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, 200433, China.

Introduction: Respiratory disease remains one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide.

Objectives: In this study, we aimed to compare the quantity and quality of scientific publications in the field of respirology from the USA, the UK, Germany, Canada and China.

Methods: Articles published in 58 respiratory journals from 2007 to 2017 were screened with Science Citation Index Expanded database. Read More

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December 2018

Effects of the strict control of blood pressure in pediatric renal transplant recipients-ESCORT trial.

Pediatr Transplant 2018 Dec 9:e13329. Epub 2018 Dec 9.

Department of Pediatrics and Transplantation Center, University Hospital Motol, 2nd Medical Faculty Prague, Charles University Prague, Prague, Czech Republic.

Objectives: Strict BP control can retard progression of CKD in children. This prospective 3-year randomized controlled trial is aimed to investigate whether strict BP control can retard progression of chronic allograft dysfunction.

Methods: Twenty-three pediatric patients were randomly selected to the standard BP group (STAND, target 24-hour MAP 50-95th percentile, n = 11) or the intensified BP group (INTENS, target 24-hour MAP <50th percentile, n = 12). Read More

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December 2018

Annual Reviewer Index: Volume 83.

Authors:

J Food Sci 2018 Dec;83(12):2889-2894

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December 2018
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Laryngeal mask airway versus endotracheal tube for percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy in critically ill adults.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2018 Nov 15;11:CD009901. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

Wiesbaden Business School, RheinMain University of Applied Science, Bleichstr. 44, Wiesbaden, Germany, 65183.

Background: Percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy (PDT) is one of the most common bedside surgical procedures performed in critically ill adults, on intensive care units (ICUs), who require long-term ventilation. PDT is associated with relevant life-threatening complications: Cuff rupture or accidental extubation may lead to hypoxia, aspiration or loss of airway. Puncture of the oesophagus, or creating a false passage during dilatation or replacement of the tracheostomy tube, can lead to pneumothorax or emphysema. Read More

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November 2018
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Global wheat production with 1.5 and 2.0°C above pre-industrial warming.

Glob Chang Biol 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Agricultural & Biological Engineering Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA.

Efforts to limit global warming to below 2°C in relation to the pre-industrial level are under way, in accordance with the 2015 Paris Agreement. However, most impact research on agriculture to date has focused on impacts of warming >2°C on mean crop yields, and many previous studies did not focus sufficiently on extreme events and yield interannual variability. Here, with the latest climate scenarios from the Half a degree Additional warming, Prognosis and Projected Impacts (HAPPI) project, we evaluated the impacts of the 2015 Paris Agreement range of global warming (1. Read More

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December 2018
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Does a bounding exercise program prevent hamstring injuries in adult male soccer players? - A cluster -RCT.

Scand J Med Sci Sports 2018 Dec 9. Epub 2018 Dec 9.

Utrecht University, University Medical Center Utrecht, Rudolf Magnus Institute of Neurosciences, Department Rehabilitation, Physical Therapy Science & Sports, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Background: Although the Nordic Hamstring Exercise (NHE) prevents hamstring injury in soccer players effectively, the annual incidence of these injuries still increases. This may be because of poor long-term compliance with the program. Furthermore, the timing and amplitude of gluteal and core muscle activation seem to play an important role in hamstring injury prevention, the NHE program was not designed to improve activation of these muscles. Read More

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December 2018

Fire deficits have increased drought-sensitivity in dry conifer forests; fire frequency and tree-ring carbon isotope evidence from Central Oregon.

Glob Chang Biol 2018 Dec 9. Epub 2018 Dec 9.

Oregon State University, Forest Ecosystems and Society, 321 Richardson Hall, Corvallis, Oregon, United States, 97331-5752.

A century of fire suppression across the Western US has led to more crowded forests and increased competition for resources. Studies of forest thinning or stand conditions after mortality events have provided indirect evidence for how competition can promote drought stress and predispose forests to severe fire and/or bark beetle outbreaks. Here we demonstrate linkages between fire deficits and increasing drought stress through analyses of annually resolved tree-ring growth, fire scars, and carbon isotope discrimination (Δ C) across a dry mixed-conifer forest landscape. Read More

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December 2018

Drier Climatic Conditions Increase Withanolide Content of Withania coagulans Enhancing Its Inhibitory Potential Against Human Prostate Cancer Cells.

Appl Biochem Biotechnol 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Biochemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan.

Prostate cancer is one of the major causes of cancer-related deaths in men and there is a growing interest in identifying natural compounds for its management. We analyzed bioactive withanolides in Withania coagulans from 11 different sites in Pakistan and evaluated the antiprostate cancer activities of leaf extracts from two sites with the greatest amounts. Total withanolide concentration differed by ~ 17-fold between sites, ranging from 1. Read More

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December 2018

Pasture enclosures increase soil carbon dioxide flux rate in Semiarid Rangeland, Kenya.

Carbon Balance Manag 2018 Dec 7;13(1):24. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), 90183, Umea, Sweden.

Background: Pasture enclosures play an important role in rehabilitating the degraded soils and vegetation, and may also influence the emission of key greenhouse gasses (GHGs) from the soil. However, no study in East Africa and in Kenya has conducted direct measurements of GHG fluxes following the restoration of degraded communal grazing lands through the establishment of pasture enclosures. A field experiment was conducted in northwestern Kenya to measure the emission of CO, CH and NO from soil under two pasture restoration systems; grazing dominated enclosure (GDE) and contractual grazing enclosure (CGE), and in the adjacent open grazing rangeland (OGR) as control. Read More

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December 2018
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Effects of steel slag and biochar amendments on CO, CH, and NO flux, and rice productivity in a subtropical Chinese paddy field.

Environ Geochem Health 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

CSIC, Global Ecology Unit CREAF-CSIC-UAB, 08913, Bellaterra, Catalonia, Spain.

Steel slag, a by-product of the steel industry, contains high amounts of active iron oxide and silica which can act as an oxidizing agent in agricultural soils. Biochar is a rich source of carbon, and the combined application of biochar and steel slag is assumed to have positive impacts on soil properties as well as plant growth, which are yet to be validated scientifically. We conducted a field experiment for two rice paddies (early and late paddy) to determine the individual and combined effects of steel slag and biochar amendments on CO, CH, and NO emission, and rice productivity in a subtropical paddy field of China. Read More

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December 2018

Age-related renal function decline in Fabry disease patients on enzyme replacement therapy: a longitudinal cohort study.

Nephrol Dial Transplant 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Medical Endocrinology, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Background: Nephropathy is common in Fabry disease (FD). Prior studies of renal function during enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) have primarily used estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). We studied the attrition of renal function in FD by measured GFR (mGFR) and urine protein excretion, and explored the influence of age. Read More

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December 2018

Spatiotemporal patterns and risk factors for Scrub Typhus from 2007 to 2017 in southern China.

Clin Infect Dis 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

State Key Laboratory of Resources and Environmental Information System, Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

Background: Substantial outbreaks of scrub typhus coupled with the discovery of this vector-borne disease in new areas suggest that the disease remains remarkably neglected. The objectives of this study were to map the contemporary and potential transmission risk zones of the disease and provide novel insights into the health burden imposed by scrub typhus in southern China.

Methods: Based on the assembled data sets of annual scrub typhus cases and maps of environmental and socioeconomic correlates, a boosted regression tree modeling procedure was used to identify the environmental niche of scrub typhus and to predict the potential infection zones of the disease. Read More

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December 2018

Burden of Children Hospitalized With Pertussis in Canada in the Acellular Pertussis Vaccine Era, 1999-2015.

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Vaccine Evaluation Center, BC Children's Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.

Background: Recent increases in pertussis morbidity and mortality rates among young infants have led to a recommendation in some countries for vaccination against pertussis during pregnancy. Having data on the burden of pediatric pertussis in a large population over time is important for establishing the true burden of disease in the acellular pertussis (aP) vaccine era. Here, we describe age-specific epidemiology and morbidity and mortality rates in children hospitalized with pertussis over 17 years across Canada in the aP vaccine era. Read More

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December 2018

[Mortality due to ischemic heart disease in Ecuador 2001- 2016. A time trend study].

Rev Med Chil 2018 Aug;146(8):850-856

Centro de Investigación en Salud Pública y Epidemiología Clínica (CISPEC), Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud Eugenio Espejo, Universidad Tecnológica Equinoccial, Quito, Ecuador.

Background: Ischemic Heart Disease (IHD) is the leading cause of mortality worldwide.

Aim: To analyze the evolution of mortality by IHD in Ecuador, from 2001 to 2016.

Material And Methods: Analysis of Ecuador death registries elaborated by the National Statistics and Census Institute. Read More

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Costs and consequences of chronic pain due to musculoskeletal disorders from a health system perspective in Chile.

Pain Rep 2018 Sep-Oct;3(5):e656. Epub 2018 Sep 10.

Health Technology Assessment Unit, Center of Clinical Research, Faculty of Medicine, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile.

Background: Chronic pain is a prevalent and distressing condition caused by an unceasing pain lasting more than 3 months or a pain that persists beyond the normal healing time. There is evidence of inadequate management partly explained by the unawareness regarding the magnitude of the problem.

Objectives: To estimate the annual expected costs and consequences of chronic pain caused by musculoskeletal diseases from the health system perspective in Chile. Read More

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September 2018

Nuclear Medicine in India: A Historical Journey.

Indian J Nucl Med 2018 Nov;33(Suppl 1):S5-S10

Department of Nuclear Medicine, Kokilaben Dhirubhai Ambani Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.

Evidence-based historical accounts of critical events, which shaped nuclear medicine in India today, are presented in this article. There was parallel activity happening in the northern and western region of India in the early 60s. Radiation Medicine Center (RMC) at Mumbai inaugurated in September 1963 by Dr. Read More

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November 2018

Quality-Adjusted Life Years After Hip and Knee Arthroplasty: Health-Related Quality of Life After 12,782 Joint Replacements.

JB JS Open Access 2018 Sep 15;3(3):e0007. Epub 2018 Aug 15.

Adult Reconstruction & Joint Replacement Division, The Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY.

Background: The quality-adjusted life year (QALY) is the preferred outcome measurement for cost-effectiveness analysis in health care. QALYs measure patient health-related quality of life with use of a value between 0 and 1. Few studies have provided original data delineating QALYs after hip and knee arthroplasty. Read More

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September 2018

A successful treatment of rheumatoid arthritis-related interstitial pneumonia with nintedanib.

Respir Med Case Rep 2019 1;26:50-52. Epub 2018 Nov 1.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Japan.

Rheumatoid arthritis-related interstitial pneumonia with a usual interstitial pneumonia (RA-UIP) has a poor prognosis and a new treatment strategy is required. The antifibrotic agent nintedanib reduces the annual rate of decline in forced vital capacity (FVC) in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) patients. Recently, the potential efficacy of antifibrotic agents against chronic progressive fibrotic diseases including RA-UIP has been attracting attention. Read More

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November 2018

Genetic assessment of a bighorn sheep population expansion in the Silver Bell Mountains, Arizona.

PeerJ 2018 30;6:e5978. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

US Geological Survey, Arizona Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, United States of America.

Background: The isolated population of desert bighorn sheep in the Silver Bell Mountains of southern Arizona underwent an unprecedented expansion in merely four years. We hypothesized that immigration from neighboring bighorn sheep populations could have caused the increase in numbers as detected by Arizona Game and Fish Department annual aerial counts.

Methods: We applied a multilocus genetic approach using mitochondrial DNA and nuclear microsatellite markers for genetic analyses to find evidence of immigration. Read More

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November 2018

Health Locus of Control Beliefs in Health Care Providers in the Pacific Basin.

Hawaii J Med Public Health 2018 Dec;77(12):325-329

Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology & Women's Health, John A. Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawai'i, Honolulu, HI.

As part of the strategic plan to improve preconception care, health care providers are advised to counsel women about developing a reproductive life plan. Women are asked think about whether they want to become pregnant and have children and if so, when they would like to do so. The utility of a reproductive life plan is based on the premise that an individual has control over their own health and reproduction. Read More

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December 2018

Efficacy, adverse events, and inter-drug comparison of mepolizumab and reslizumab anti-IL-5 treatments of severe asthma - a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Eur Clin Respir J 2018 7;5(1):1536097. Epub 2018 Nov 7.

COPSAC, Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood, Herlev and Gentofte Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

: New, complex, and expensive therapies targeting Interleukin-5 (IL-5) to treat severe eosinophilic asthma are emerging. : To assess efficacy, adverse events, and inter-drug comparison of mepolizumab and reslizumab for treating severe eosinophilic asthma. : A systematic review and meta-analysis on randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trials elucidating two critical (exacerbation rate and oral corticosteroid (OCS) use) and six important clinical outcomes on the efficacy and safety of mepolizumab and reslizumab. Read More

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November 2018

Recycling Potentials of Precious Metals from End-of-Life Vehicle Parts by Selective Dismantling.

Environ Sci Technol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Recycling of some minor but essential scarce metals used in vehicles may serve as an important strategy to strengthen sustainable management of natural resources. Accordingly, this study focused on five precious metals (PMs): Au, Ag, Pt, Pd, and Rh, in both end-of-life conventional and next-generation vehicles. To explore their recycling potentials in Japan, we developed substance flow and scenario analyses based on estimations of PM contents per end-of-life vehicle (ELV) and ELV generations. Read More

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December 2018

Evaluation of a staff well-being program in a pediatric oncology, hematology, and palliative care services group.

J Healthc Leadersh 2018 15;10:67-85. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

Oncology Services Group, Queensland Children's Hospital, Brisbane, QLD, Australia,

Purpose: Challenges experienced by staff in the Oncology Services Group at Queensland Children's Hospital led to issues with staff retention, well-being, and stress on team culture. Therefore, a customized program was developed through a needs analysis to improve the well-being and resilience of oncology staff, enabling them to cope with stressors and critical incidents inherent in their everyday work and to flourish. The program included education, on-site counselors, mindfulness sessions, debriefing, well-being resources, and improved engagement, support, and communication. Read More

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November 2018

Budget impact analysis of sarilumab for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis in patients with an inadequate response to conventional synthetic DMARD or TNF inhibitor therapies.

Clinicoecon Outcomes Res 2018 16;10:805-819. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Tarrytown, NY, USA,

Objective: To estimate the 5-year budget impact (BI) on a US health plan of introducing sarilumab - a human immunoglobulin G1 anti-IL-6 receptor α monoclonal antibody - as combination treatment with conventional synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (csDMARDs) or monotherapy in patients with moderate-to-severe rheumatoid arthritis (RA).

Methods: BI analysis was conducted from a commercial payer perspective. Treatment-eligible populations included adult patients with moderate-to-severe RA and inadequate response (IR) to csDMARDs or tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α inhibitors-IR. Read More

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November 2018

The impact of meteorological conditions on the concentration of alder pollen in Sosnowiec (Poland) in the years 1997-2017.

Aerobiologia (Bologna) 2018 12;34(4):469-485. Epub 2018 Jun 12.

2Department of Climatology, Faculty of Earth Sciences, University of Silesia, Będzińska 60, 41-200 Sosnowiec, Poland.

The aim of the work was to compare the alder pollen seasons in the years 1997-2017 in Sosnowiec. The measurements of pollen concentration were taken with the volumetric method using Burkard's apparatus. The impact of atmospheric conditions on the daily alder pollen grain concentration, the annual totals, and the duration of pollen seasons were studied. Read More

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Milestones in Plastic Surgery: Attending Assessment versus Resident Assessment.

Plast Reconstr Surg 2018 Nov 26. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Department of Plastic Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

Background: The Plastic Surgery Milestones Project was jointly conceived by the ACGME and American Board of Plastic Surgery as a tool to improve granularity in resident feedback. Resident self-evaluations were compared to attending clinical competency committee evaluations to gauge resident self-perceptions and understanding of the milestones framework.

Methods: Semi-annual evaluations from June 2014-2017 were analyzed and compared with corresponding resident self-evaluations from the 2015-2017 academic year at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center. Read More

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November 2018

Reduced Awareness of Memory Deficit is Associated With Increased Medicare Home Health Care Use in Dementia.

Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Cognitive Neuroscience Division of the Taub Institute for Research on Alzheimer's Disease and the Aging Brain and the G.H. Sergievsky Center, Columbia University Medical Center.

Objective: The objective of this study was to examine whether reduced awareness of memory deficits in individuals with dementia is associated with more frequent need for Medicare home health care services.

Methods: Cross-sectional analyses were conducted in a multicenter, clinic-based cohort. In total, 192 participants diagnosed with dementia and their informants were independently asked whether or not the participant demonstrated cognitive symptoms of dementia related to memory and word-finding. Read More

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December 2018

The Best of the Old With Promise of the New: The Format of the Annual Meeting of the Society for Neuroscience in Anesthesiology and Critical Care is Changing.

Authors:
Martin Smith

J Neurosurg Anesthesiol 2019 Jan;31(1)

Department of Neuroanesthesia and Neurocritical Care, The National Hospital for Neurosurgery and Neurology, University College London Hospitals, London, UK.

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January 2019

Demographic features of patients with colorectal carcinoma based on 14 years of experience at Jordan University Hospital.

Ann Saudi Med 2018 Nov-Dec;38(6):427-432

Heyam Awad, Department of Histopathology,, Microbiology and Forensic Medicine,, University of Jordan,, Amman 1194, Jordan, T: +962-797801555, ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000.0003-3050-136X.

Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer worldwide. In the West, the incidence has stabilized or decreased. There are only occasional published studies that describe the epidemiology of CRC and its changing trends in Jordan and other Middle Eastern countries. Read More

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December 2018

An Economic Evaluation of Coordinated Specialty Care (CSC) Services for First-Episode Psychosis in the U.S. Public Sector.

J Ment Health Policy Econ 2018 Sep;21(3):123-130

Department of Healthcare Policy and Research, 425 East 61st Street, Suite 301, New York, NY 10065, USA,

Background: Schizophrenia spectrum disorders exert a large and disproportionate economic impact. Early intervention services may be able to alleviate the burden of schizophrenia spectrum disorders on diagnosed individuals, caregivers, and society at large. Economic analyses of observational studies have supported investments in specialized team-based care for early psychosis; however, questions remain regarding the economic viability of first-episode services in the fragmented U. Read More

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September 2018

Trends in Colon and Rectal Cancer Incidence in Australia from 1982 to 2014: Analysis of Data on Over 375,000 Cases.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Cancer Research Division, Cancer Council New South Wales, New South Wales, Australia.

Colorectal cancer is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer in Australia. Emerging evidence from several countries suggests increasing incidence in people aged <50 years. We assessed colon and rectal cancer incidence trends in people aged 20+ in Australia from 1982 to 2014. Read More

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December 2018

Predisposing factors of childhood Henoch-Schnlein purpura in Anhui province, China.

J Investig Med 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Pediatrics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, China.

Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP) is a common autoimmune vasculitis in childhood. The detailed pathogenesis of HSP is still unclear, whereas several types of predisposing factors have been proved to be the initial step. The objectives of present study were to analyze the distribution of predisposing factors, association of the predisposing factors with clinical manifestations and HSP relapse/recurrence. Read More

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December 2018

Prescribing and testing by primary care providers to assess adherence to the Choosing Wisely Canada recommendations: a retrospective cohort study.

CMAJ Open 2018 Oct-Dec;6(4):E603-E610. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Departments of Family Medicine (Singer, Kosowan, Katz, Jolin-Dahel, Appel) and Community Health Sciences (Katz, Lix), Max Rady College of Medicine, Rady Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Manitoba; Manitoba Primary Care Research Network (Singer); Manitoba Centre for Health Policy (Katz), Winnipeg, Man.; Centre Medical Seine (Jolin-Dahel), Ste. Anne, Man.; Seven Oaks Hospital (Appel), Winnipeg, Man.

Background: Choosing Wisely Canada is an initiative to reduce overprescribing and overtesting. This study assessed adherence to 4 Choosing Wisely Canada recommendations for interventions commonly performed in primary care: (a) antibiotic prescriptions for infections that are probably viral in origin, (b) routine vitamin D tests in low-risk adults, (c) annual screening blood tests and (d) prescriptions of antipsychotic medication to treat symptoms of dementia.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of data from the electronic medical records of patients who had an encounter between 2014 and 2016 with a participating Manitoba Primary Care Research Network primary care provider in Manitoba, Canada. Read More

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December 2018

Mobile phone use and incidence of brain tumour histological types, grading or anatomical location: a population-based ecological study.

BMJ Open 2018 Dec 9;8(12):e024489. Epub 2018 Dec 9.

Australian Centre for Electromagnetic Bioeffects Research, Illawarra Health and Medical Research Institute, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia.

Objective: Some studies have reported increasing trends in certain brain tumours and a possible link with mobile phone use has been suggested. We examined the incidence time trends of brain tumour in Australia for three distinct time periods to ascertain the influence of improved diagnostic technologies and increase in mobile phone use on the incidence of brain tumours.

Design: In a population-based ecological study, we examined trends of brain tumour over the periods 1982-1992, 1993-2002 and 2003-2013. Read More

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December 2018

Annual Advertising Index.

Authors:

Am J Health Syst Pharm 2018 Dec;75(24):2039-2040

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December 2018

Mobile Phone, Computer, and Internet Use Among Older Homeless Adults: Results from the HOPE HOME Cohort Study.

JMIR Mhealth Uhealth 2018 Dec 10;6(12):e10049. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Philip R. Lee Institute for Health Policy Studies, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, United States.

Background: The median age of single homeless adults is approximately 50 years. Older homeless adults have poor social support and experience a high prevalence of chronic disease, depression, and substance use disorders. Access to mobile phones and the internet could help lower the barriers to social support, social services, and medical care; however, little is known about access to and use of these by older homeless adults. Read More

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December 2018

Establishing Digital Biomarkers for Occupational Health Assessment in Commercial Salmon Fishermen: Protocol for a Mixed-Methods Study.

JMIR Res Protoc 2018 Dec 10;7(12):e10215. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

RTI International, RTP, NC, United States.

Background: Commercial salmon fishing in Alaska is one of the most dangerous occupations in the United States. Between 1992 and 2008, the average annual industry mortality rate was 128 deaths per 100,000 workers, and despite an increase in industry regulations, there has not been a significant decrease in mortality rate since 2000. Unpredictable fishing openings and fierce competition for limited resources result in periods of intense sleep deprivation and physical strain during the short commercial salmon season in Alaska. Read More

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December 2018

The association between high ambient air pollution exposure and respiratory health of young children: A cross sectional study in Jinan, China.

Sci Total Environ 2018 Nov 29;656:740-749. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Department of Environmental Health, Jinan Municipal Center for Disease Control and Prevention, NO. 2 Weiliu Road, Huaiyin District, Jinan City, Shandong Province 250021, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

There is growing concern about health effects of high air pollution in less-developed countries. Children represent a population at increased risk for air pollution-related respiratory conditions. This study investigated the relationship between high ambient air pollution exposure and respiratory health of young schoolchildren. Read More

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November 2018

Changes in thyroid function of nestling tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) in relation to polycyclic aromatic compounds and other environmental stressors in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region.

Environ Res 2018 Nov 22;169:464-475. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Department of Ecosystem and Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Calgary, 3280 Hospital Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta, Canada T2N 4Z6.

In the Canadian Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR), nestling tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) raised near mining-related activities accumulated greater concentrations of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) that contributed to their poorer condition, growth, and reproductive success. Here, we report changes in thyroid function of the same 14 day old (do) nestlings (N ≤ 68) at these mining-related sites (OS1, OS2) compared to reference nestlings (REF1), and in relation to multiple environmental stressors that influence avian thyroid function. Thyroid function was compromised for OS1 nestlings but generally comparable between OS2 and REF1 chicks. Read More

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November 2018

The involvement of a herbivore-induced acyl-CoA oxidase gene, CsACX1, in the synthesis of jasmonic acid and its expression in flower opening in tea plant (Camellia sinensis).

Plant Physiol Biochem 2018 Dec 1;135:132-140. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

Tea Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hangzhou, 310008, China; Key Laboratory of Tea Biology and Resource Utilization of Ministry of Agriculture, Hangzhou, 310008, China. Electronic address:

The biosynthesis of jasmonic acid (JA) in plant peroxisomes requires the action of acyl-CoA oxidase (ACX; EC 1.3.3. Read More

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December 2018

Projections of water, carbon, and nitrogen dynamics under future climate change in an old-growth Douglas-fir forest in the western Cascade Range using a biogeochemical model.

Sci Total Environ 2018 Nov 27;656:608-624. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Climate Science Center, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409, USA.

Statistically downscaled climate change scenarios from four General Circulation Models for two Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) were applied as inputs to a biogeochemical model, PnET-BGC, to examine potential future dynamics of water, carbon, and nitrogen in an old-growth Douglas-fir forest in the western Cascade Range. Projections show 56% to 77% increases in stomatal conductance throughout the year from 1986-2010 to 2076-2100, and 65% to 104% increases in leaf carbon assimilation between October and June over the same period. However, future dynamics of water and carbon under the RCP scenarios are affected by a 49% to 86% reduction in foliar biomass resulting from severe air temperature and humidity stress to the forest in summer. Read More

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November 2018

Determining groundwater recharge and vapor flow in dune sediments using a weighable precision meteo lysimeter.

Sci Total Environ 2018 Nov 28;656:550-557. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Instituto Geológico y Minero de España, Rios Rosas 23, 28003 Madrid, Spain.

Dune belts are crucial for the recharge of coastal aquifers. In spite of their hydrological relevance for the maintenance of precious natural wetland and wildlife environments and a range of other ecosystem services, only limited knowledge of soil water dynamics in dune belts is currently available. This study presents soil water balance components measured during one hydrological year using a high precision meteo-lysimeter with lower boundary control installed in a coastal dune belt under a dry subhumid climate in southern Spain close to the Atlantic Ocean. Read More

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November 2018

Particulate matter pollution in Chinese cities: Areal-temporal variations and their relationships with meteorological conditions (2015-2017).

Environ Pollut 2018 Dec 1;246:11-18. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

Laboratory of Geospatial Technology for the Middle and Lower Yellow River Regions, Ministry of Education, Henan University, Kaifeng, Henan, 475004, China; Institute of Urban Big Data, College of Environment and Planning, Henan University, Kaifeng, Henan, 475004, China.

As the second largest economy in the world, China experiences severe particulate matter (PM) pollution in many of its cities. Meteorological factors are critical in determining both areal and temporal variations in PM pollution levels; understanding these factors and their interactions is critical for accurate forecasting, comprehensive analysis, and effective reduction of this pollution. This study analyzed areal and temporal variations in concentrations of PM, PM, and PM (PM - PM) and PM to PM ratios (PM/PM) and their relationships with meteorological conditions in 366 Chinese cities from January 1, 2015 to December 31, 2017. Read More

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December 2018

Forest biomass-carbon variation affected by the climatic and topographic factors in Pearl River Delta, South China.

J Environ Manage 2018 Dec 5;232:781-788. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Geography, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.

Subtropical forests function as important carbon sinks for atmospheric CO. Nonetheless, there remain uncertainties about the effects of climate and topography on subtropical forest biomass-carbon stocks. A continuous biomass expansion factor (BEF) method was applied to forest inventory data to estimate biomass-carbon storage and carbon sink rate, and their changes along with abiotic and biotic factors in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) of South China. Read More

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December 2018

Rural-urban differences in the association between disability and body mass index among the oldest-old in China.

Arch Gerontol Geriatr 2018 Dec 4;81:98-104. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, PR China. Electronic address:

Introduction: The issue of disability prevention is considered as a priority for research in geriatrics in modern society, especially for the oldest-old. There are many evidences certificated that obesity is associated with disability in developed countries. However, few studies pay attention to relationship between them in developing countries. Read More

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December 2018

A two-time-scale point process model of water main breaks for infrastructure asset management.

Water Res 2018 Nov 27;150:296-309. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Department of Civil Engineering & Ryerson Institute for Infrastructure Innovation, Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto, ON, M5B 2K3, Canada. Electronic address:

Deterioration modelling has been a bottlenecking step towards risk-informed asset management of municipal water distribution networks. To close the gap, we proposed a two-time-scale (TTS) point process model on a pipe level for modelling and prediction of water main breaks. This paper presents the characterization, statistical parameter estimation, probabilistic features, and application of the model. Read More

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November 2018

A systematic review on costs and cost-effectiveness of screening and prevention of type 2 diabetes in women with prior gestational diabetes: exploring uncharted territory.

Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Pharmaceutical and Pharmacological Sciences, KU Leuven, O&N2 bus 521, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven, Belgium.

Aims: Women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) as compared to women with normoglycemic pregnancies. This study aims to explore the literature on cost(-effectiveness) of screening and prevention of T2DM in women with prior GDM.

Methods: Five databases were systematically searched, inclusion criteria were: (1) women with (prior) GDM; (2) post-partum screening or prevention of T2DM; and (3) health-economic evaluations. Read More

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December 2018