1,627 results match your criteria Annual Review of Microbiology [Journal]


Cyclic di-AMP Signaling in Bacteria.

Annu Rev Microbiol 2020 Jun 30. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of General Microbiology, Göttingen Center for Molecular Biosciences (GZMB), Georg-August-University Göttingen, 37077 Göttingen, Germany; email:

The second messenger molecule cyclic di-AMP (c-di-AMP) is formed by many bacteria and archaea. In many species that produce c-di-AMP, this second messenger is essential for viability on rich medium. Recent research has demonstrated that c-di-AMP binds to a large number of proteins and riboswitches, which are often involved in potassium and osmotic homeostasis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-micro-020518-115943DOI Listing

Assembly and Dynamics of the Bacterial Flagellum.

Annu Rev Microbiol 2020 Jun 30. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Physics, University of Oxford, OX1 3PQ, UK; email:

The bacterial flagellar motor is the most complex structure in the bacterial cell, driving the ion-driven rotation of the helical flagellum. The ordered expression of the regulon and the assembly of the series of interacting protein rings, spanning the inner and outer membranes to form the ∼45-50-nm protein complex, have made investigation of the structure and mechanism a major challenge since its recognition as a rotating nanomachine about 40 years ago. Painstaking molecular genetics, biochemistry, and electron microscopy revealed a tiny electric motor spinning in the bacterial membrane. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-micro-090816-093411DOI Listing

What Is Metagenomics Teaching Us, and What Is Missed?

Annu Rev Microbiol 2020 Jun 30. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Meinig School of Biomedical Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA.

Shotgun metagenomic sequencing has revolutionized our ability to detect and characterize the diversity and function of complex microbial communities. In this review, we highlight the benefits of using metagenomics as well as the breadth of conclusions that can be made using currently available analytical tools, such as greater resolution of species and strains across phyla and functional content, while highlighting challenges of metagenomic data analysis. Major challenges remain in annotating function, given the dearth of functional databases for environmental bacteria compared to model organisms, and the technical difficulties of metagenome assembly and phasing in heterogeneous environmental samples. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-micro-012520-072314DOI Listing

The Plant Microbiome: From Ecology to Reductionism and Beyond.

Annu Rev Microbiol 2020 Jun 12. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Department of Biology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA; email:

Methodological advances over the past two decades have propelled plant microbiome research, allowing the field to comprehensively test ideas proposed over a century ago and generate many new hypotheses. Studying the distribution of microbial taxa and genes across plant habitats has revealed the importance of various ecological and evolutionary forces shaping plant microbiota. In particular, selection imposed by plant habitats strongly shapes the diversity and composition of microbiota and leads to microbial adaptation associated with navigating the plant immune system and utilizing plant-derived resources. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-micro-022620-014327DOI Listing

Archaeal DNA Replication.

Annu Rev Microbiol 2020 Jun 5. Epub 2020 Jun 5.

Biology Department, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47405, USA; email:

It is now well recognized that the information processing machineries of archaea are far more closely related to those of eukaryotes than to those of their prokaryotic cousins, the bacteria. Extensive studies have been performed on the structure and function of the archaeal DNA replication origins, the proteins that define them, and the macromolecular assemblies that drive DNA unwinding and nascent strand synthesis. The results from various archaeal organisms across the archaeal domain of life show surprising levels of diversity at many levels-ranging from cell cycle organization to chromosome ploidy to replication mode and nature of the replicative polymerases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-micro-020518-115443DOI Listing

Structures and Strategies of Anti-CRISPR-Mediated Immune Suppression.

Annu Rev Microbiol 2020 Jun 5. Epub 2020 Jun 5.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Montana State University, Bozeman, Montana 59717, USA; email:

More than 50 protein families have been identified that inhibit CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)-Cas-mediated adaptive immune systems. Here, we analyze the available anti-CRISPR (Acr) structures and describe common themes and unique mechanisms of stoichiometric and enzymatic suppressors of CRISPR-Cas. Stoichiometric inhibitors often function as molecular decoys of protein-binding partners or nucleic acid targets, while enzymatic suppressors covalently modify Cas ribonucleoprotein complexes or degrade immune signaling molecules. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-micro-020518-120107DOI Listing

A Tale of Good Fortune in the Era of DNA.

Authors:
Jeffrey Roberts

Annu Rev Microbiol 2020 May 26. Epub 2020 May 26.

Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA; email:

Two strains of good fortune in my career were to stumble upon the Watson-Gilbert laboratory at Harvard when I entered graduate school in 1964, and to study gene regulation in bacteriophage λ when I was there. λ was almost entirely a genetic item a few years before, awaiting biochemical incarnation. Throughout my career I was a relentless consumer of the work of previous and current generations of λ geneticists. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-micro-012520-073029DOI Listing

Signaling Cascades Governing Entry into and Exit from Host Cells by .

Annu Rev Microbiol 2019 09;73:579-599

Département de Microbiologie et Médecine Moléculaire, Centre Médical Universitaire, Université de Genève, 1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland; email:

The Apicomplexa phylum includes a large group of obligate intracellular protozoan parasites responsible for important diseases in humans and animals. is a widespread parasite with considerable versatility, and it is capable of infecting virtually any warm-blooded animal, including humans. This outstanding success can be attributed at least in part to an efficient and continuous sensing of the environment, with a ready-to-adapt strategy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-micro-020518-120235DOI Listing
September 2019

Chromatic Acclimation in Cyanobacteria: A Diverse and Widespread Process for Optimizing Photosynthesis.

Annu Rev Microbiol 2019 09;73:407-433

Department of Biology, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47405, USA; email:

Chromatic acclimation (CA) encompasses a diverse set of molecular processes that involve the ability of cyanobacterial cells to sense ambient light colors and use this information to optimize photosynthetic light harvesting. The six known types of CA, which we propose naming CA1 through CA6, use a range of molecular mechanisms that likely evolved independently in distantly related lineages of the phylum. Together, these processes sense and respond to the majority of the photosynthetically relevant solar spectrum, suggesting that CA provides fitness advantages across a broad range of light color niches. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-micro-020518-115738DOI Listing
September 2019

Coordination of the Cell Cycle in Trypanosomes.

Annu Rev Microbiol 2019 09;73:133-154

Department of Biological and Medical Sciences, Oxford Brookes University, Oxford OX3 0BP, United Kingdom; email:

Trypanosomes have complex life cycles within which there are both proliferative and differentiation cell divisions. The coordination of the cell cycle to achieve these different divisions is critical for the parasite to infect both host and vector. From studying the regulation of the proliferative cell cycle of the procyclic life cycle stage, three subcycles emerge that control the duplication and segregation of () the nucleus, () the kinetoplast, and () a set of cytoskeletal structures. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-micro-020518-115617DOI Listing
September 2019

Multiple Roles of c-di-GMP Signaling in Bacterial Pathogenesis.

Annu Rev Microbiol 2019 09;73:387-406

MRC Centre for Molecular Microbiology and Infection, Department of Life Sciences, Imperial College London, SW7 2AZ London, United Kingdom; email:

The intracellular signaling molecule cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) regulates the lifestyle of bacteria and controls many key functions and mechanisms. In the case of bacterial pathogens, a wide variety of virulence lifestyle factors have been shown to be regulated by c-di-GMP. Evidence of the importance of this molecule for bacterial pathogenesis has become so great that new antimicrobial agents are tested for their capacity of targeting c-di-GMP signaling. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-micro-020518-115555DOI Listing
September 2019

Diversity, Genomics, and Distribution of Phytoplankton-Cyanobacterium Single-Cell Symbiotic Associations.

Annu Rev Microbiol 2019 09;73:435-456

Department of Ocean Sciences, University of California, Santa Cruz, California 95064, USA; email:

Cyanobacteria are common in symbiotic relationships with diverse multicellular organisms (animals, plants, fungi) in terrestrial environments and with single-celled heterotrophic, mixotrophic, and autotrophic protists in aquatic environments. In the sunlit zones of aquatic environments, diverse cyanobacterial symbioses exist with autotrophic taxa in phytoplankton, including dinoflagellates, diatoms, and haptophytes (prymnesiophytes). Phototrophic unicellular cyanobacteria related to and are associated with a number of groups. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-micro-090817-062650DOI Listing
September 2019

The Way It Was.

Authors:
M J Osborn

Annu Rev Microbiol 2019 09;73:1-15

Department of Molecular Biology and Biophysics, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, Connecticut 06032, USA; email:

Mary Osborn was a native Californian. She was an undergraduate at the University of California, Berkeley, where she worked in the laboratory of I.L. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-micro-020518-115834DOI Listing
September 2019

Introduction: Remembering Olaf Schneewind.

Authors:
Susan Gottesman

Annu Rev Microbiol 2019 09;73:v-vi

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-mi-73-080619-100001DOI Listing
September 2019

Bacterial Persisters and Infection: Past, Present, and Progressing.

Annu Rev Microbiol 2019 09;73:359-385

Section of Microbiology, Medical Research Council Centre for Molecular Bacteriology and Infection, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ, United Kingdom; email:

Persisters are nongrowing, transiently antibiotic-tolerant bacteria within a clonal population of otherwise susceptible cells. Their formation is triggered by environmental cues and involves the main bacterial stress response pathways that allow persisters to survive many harsh conditions, including antibiotic exposure. During infection, bacterial pathogens are exposed to a vast array of stresses in the host and form nongrowing persisters that survive both antibiotics and host immune responses, thereby most likely contributing to the relapse of many infections. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-micro-020518-115650DOI Listing
September 2019
2 Reads

Metabolic Basis of Pathogenesis and Host Adaptation in Rice Blast.

Annu Rev Microbiol 2019 09 5;73:601-619. Epub 2019 Jul 5.

Temasek Life Sciences Laboratory and the Department of Biological Sciences, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117604; email:

The blast disease, caused by the ascomycete , poses a great threat to rice production worldwide. Increasing use of fungicides and/or blast-resistant varieties of rice () has proved to be ineffective in long-term control of blast disease under field conditions. To develop effective and durable resistance to blast, it is important to understand the cellular mechanisms underlying pathogenic development in . Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-micro-020518-115810DOI Listing
September 2019

Paleomicrobiology: Diagnosis and Evolution of Ancient Pathogens.

Annu Rev Microbiol 2019 09 5;73:639-666. Epub 2019 Jul 5.

Department of Archaeogenetics, Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, 07745 Jena, Germany; email:

The last century has witnessed progress in the study of ancient infectious disease from purely medical descriptions of past ailments to dynamic interpretations of past population health that draw upon multiple perspectives. The recent adoption of high-throughput DNA sequencing has led to an expanded understanding of pathogen presence, evolution, and ecology across the globe. This genomic revolution has led to the identification of disease-causing microbes in both expected and unexpected contexts, while also providing for the genomic characterization of ancient pathogens previously believed to be unattainable by available methods. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-micro-090817-062436DOI Listing
September 2019
14 Reads

Two-Component Sensing and Regulation: How Do Histidine Kinases Talk with Response Regulators at the Molecular Level?

Annu Rev Microbiol 2019 09 21;73:507-528. Epub 2019 Jun 21.

Laboratory of Molecular and Structural Microbiology, Institut Pasteur de Montevideo, Montevideo 11400, Uruguay; email:

Perceiving environmental and internal information and reacting in adaptive ways are essential attributes of living organisms. Two-component systems are relevant protein machineries from prokaryotes and lower eukaryotes that enable cells to sense and process signals. Implicating sensory histidine kinases and response regulator proteins, both components take advantage of protein phosphorylation and flexibility to switch conformations in a signal-dependent way. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-micro-091018-054627DOI Listing
September 2019
6 Reads

Defense and Counterdefense During Plant-Pathogenic Oomycete Infection.

Annu Rev Microbiol 2019 09 21;73:667-696. Epub 2019 Jun 21.

Department of Plant Pathology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China; email:

Plant-pathogenic oomycetes include numerous species that are ongoing threats to agriculture and natural ecosystems. Understanding the molecular dialogs between oomycetes and plants is instrumental for sustaining effective disease control. Plants respond to oomycete infection by multiple defense actions including strengthening of physical barriers, production of antimicrobial molecules, and programmed cell death. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-micro-020518-120022DOI Listing
September 2019
19 Reads

Small Is Mighty-Chemical Communication Systems in .

Annu Rev Microbiol 2019 09 21;73:559-578. Epub 2019 Jun 21.

Guangdong Province Key Laboratory of Microbial Signals and Disease Control, Integrative Microbiology Research Center, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China; email:

is an opportunistic pathogen that causes a variety of acute and chronic infections. Usually a commensal on the host body, is capable of transforming into a virulent pathogen upon sensing favorable changes in the host immune system or stress cues. infections are hard to eradicate, because this pathogen has developed strong resistance to most conventional antibiotics; in addition, in chronic infections it commonly forms a biofilm matrix, which provides bacterial cells a protected environment to withstand various stresses including antibiotics. Read More

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https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/10.1146/annurev-micro-0205
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-micro-020518-120044DOI Listing
September 2019
23 Reads

Human Coronavirus: Host-Pathogen Interaction.

Annu Rev Microbiol 2019 09 21;73:529-557. Epub 2019 Jun 21.

Guangdong Province Key Laboratory of Microbial Signals and Disease Control and Integrative Microbiology Research Centre, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, Guangdong, People's Republic of China; email:

Human coronavirus (HCoV) infection causes respiratory diseases with mild to severe outcomes. In the last 15 years, we have witnessed the emergence of two zoonotic, highly pathogenic HCoVs: severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Replication of HCoV is regulated by a diversity of host factors and induces drastic alterations in cellular structure and physiology. Read More

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https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/10.1146/annurev-micro-0205
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-micro-020518-115759DOI Listing
September 2019
13 Reads

Assembly and Subcellular Localization of Bacterial Type VI Secretion Systems.

Annu Rev Microbiol 2019 09 21;73:621-638. Epub 2019 Jun 21.

Biozentrum, University of Basel, CH 4056 Basel, Switzerland; email:

Bacteria need to deliver large molecules out of the cytosol to the extracellular space or even across membranes of neighboring cells to influence their environment, prevent predation, defeat competitors, or communicate. A variety of protein-secretion systems have evolved to make this process highly regulated and efficient. The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is one of the largest dynamic assemblies in gram-negative bacteria and allows for delivery of toxins into both bacterial and eukaryotic cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-micro-020518-115420DOI Listing
September 2019
1 Read

: Envelope Determinants That Control Drug Resistance, Virulence, and Surface Variability.

Annu Rev Microbiol 2019 09 14;73:481-506. Epub 2019 Jun 14.

Department of Molecular Biology and Microbiology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02111, USA; email:

has emerged as an important nosocomial pathogen, particularly for patients in intensive care units and with invasive indwelling devices. The most recent clinical isolates are resistant to several classes of clinically important antibiotics, greatly restricting the ability to effectively treat critically ill patients. The bacterial envelope is an important driver of disease, both at the level of battling against antibiotic therapy and at the level of protecting from host innate immune function. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-micro-020518-115714DOI Listing
September 2019
12 Reads

Bent Bacteria: A Comparison of Cell Shape Mechanisms in .

Annu Rev Microbiol 2019 09 14;73:457-480. Epub 2019 Jun 14.

Department of Microbiology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA; email:

Helical cell shape appears throughout the bacterial phylogenetic tree. Recent exciting work characterizing cell shape mutants in a number of curved and helical is beginning to suggest possible mechanisms and provide tools to assess functional significance. We focus here on , , , and , organisms from three classes of that live in diverse environments, from freshwater and saltwater to distinct compartments within the gastrointestinal tract of humans and birds. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-micro-020518-115919DOI Listing
September 2019
15 Reads

Phage Therapy in the Twenty-First Century: Facing the Decline of the Antibiotic Era; Is It Finally Time for the Age of the Phage?

Annu Rev Microbiol 2019 09 11;73:155-174. Epub 2019 Jun 11.

Laboratory of Molecular Biology, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA; email:

Burgeoning problems of antimicrobial resistance dictate that new solutions be developed to combat old foes. Use of lytic bacteriophages (phages) for the treatment of drug-resistant bacterial infections is one approach that has gained significant traction in recent years. Fueled by reports of experimental phage therapy cases with very positive patient outcomes, several early-stage clinical trials of therapeutic phage products have been launched in the United States. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-micro-090817-062535DOI Listing
September 2019
12 Reads

The Ultimate Guide to Bacterial Swarming: An Experimental Model to Study the Evolution of Cooperative Behavior.

Annu Rev Microbiol 2019 09 10;73:293-312. Epub 2019 Jun 10.

Program for Computational and Systems Biology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065, USA; email:

Cooperation has fascinated biologists since Darwin. How did cooperative behaviors evolve despite the fitness cost to the cooperator? Bacteria have cooperative behaviors that make excellent models to take on this age-old problem from both proximate (molecular) and ultimate (evolutionary) angles. We delve into swarming, a phenomenon where billions of bacteria move cooperatively across distances of centimeters in a matter of a few hours. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-micro-020518-120033DOI Listing
September 2019
18 Reads

Responses of Microorganisms to Osmotic Stress.

Annu Rev Microbiol 2019 09 10;73:313-334. Epub 2019 Jun 10.

Institute of Biochemistry, University of Cologne, 50674 Cologne, Germany; email:

The cytoplasm of bacterial cells is a highly crowded cellular compartment that possesses considerable osmotic potential. As a result, and owing to the semipermeable nature of the cytoplasmic membrane and the semielastic properties of the cell wall, osmotically driven water influx will generate turgor, a hydrostatic pressure considered critical for growth and viability. Both increases and decreases in the external osmolarity inevitably trigger water fluxes across the cytoplasmic membrane, thus impinging on the degree of cellular hydration, molecular crowding, magnitude of turgor, and cellular integrity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-micro-020518-115504DOI Listing
September 2019
1 Read

Biogeography of the Oral Microbiome: The Site-Specialist Hypothesis.

Annu Rev Microbiol 2019 09 10;73:335-358. Epub 2019 Jun 10.

The Forsyth Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA; email:

Microbial communities are complex and dynamic, composed of hundreds of taxa interacting across multiple spatial scales. Advances in sequencing and imaging technology have led to great strides in understanding both the composition and the spatial organization of these complex communities. In the human mouth, sequencing results indicate that distinct sites host microbial communities that not only are distinguishable but to a meaningful degree are composed of entirely different microbes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-micro-090817-062503DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7153577PMC
September 2019
14 Reads

Algal Sex Determination and the Evolution of Anisogamy.

Annu Rev Microbiol 2019 09 31;73:267-291. Epub 2019 May 31.

Algal Genetics Group, Integrative Biology of Marine Models, Station Biologique de Roscoff, Sorbonne Université, UPMC Université Paris 06, CNRS, CS 90074, F-29688 Roscoff, France; email:

Algae are photosynthetic eukaryotes whose taxonomic breadth covers a range of life histories, degrees of cellular and developmental complexity, and diverse patterns of sexual reproduction. These patterns include haploid- and diploid-phase sex determination, isogamous mating systems, and dimorphic sexes. Despite the ubiquity of sexual reproduction in algae, their mating-type-determination and sex-determination mechanisms have been investigated in only a limited number of representatives. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-micro-020518-120011DOI Listing
September 2019
13 Reads

Tc Toxin Complexes: Assembly, Membrane Permeation, and Protein Translocation.

Annu Rev Microbiol 2019 09 29;73:247-265. Epub 2019 May 29.

Department of Structural Biochemistry, Max Planck Institute of Molecular Physiology, 44227 Dortmund, Germany; email:

Tc toxin complexes are virulence factors of many bacteria, including insect and human pathogens. Tc toxins are composed of three subunits that act together to perforate the host membrane, similar to a syringe, and translocate toxic enzymes into the host cell. The reactions of the toxic enzymes lead to deterioration and ultimately death of the cell. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-micro-102215-095531DOI Listing
September 2019
9 Reads

Functional Regulators of Bacterial Flagella.

Annu Rev Microbiol 2019 09 28;73:225-246. Epub 2019 May 28.

Department of Biology, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47405, USA; email:

Bacteria move by a variety of mechanisms, but the best understood types of motility are powered by flagella (72). Flagella are complex machines embedded in the cell envelope that rotate a long extracellular helical filament like a propeller to push cells through the environment. The flagellum is one of relatively few biological machines that experience continuous 360° rotation, and it is driven by one of the most powerful motors, relative to its size, on earth. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-micro-020518-115725DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7110939PMC
September 2019
1 Read

Multikinase Networks: Two-Component Signaling Networks Integrating Multiple Stimuli.

Annu Rev Microbiol 2019 09 21;73:199-223. Epub 2019 May 21.

Biosciences, College of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Exeter, Exeter EX4 4QD, United Kingdom; email:

Bacteria depend on two-component systems to detect and respond to threats. Simple pathways comprise a single sensor kinase (SK) that detects a signal and activates a response regulator protein to mediate an appropriate output. These simple pathways with only a single SK are not well suited to making complex decisions where multiple different stimuli need to be evaluated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-micro-020518-115846DOI Listing
September 2019
1 Read

Structural Basis of Response Regulator Function.

Annu Rev Microbiol 2019 09 17;73:175-197. Epub 2019 May 17.

Center for Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Rutgers-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854, USA; email:

Response regulators function as the output components of two-component systems, which couple the sensing of environmental stimuli to adaptive responses. Response regulators typically contain conserved receiver (REC) domains that function as phosphorylation-regulated switches to control the activities of effector domains that elicit output responses. This modular design is extremely versatile, enabling different regulatory strategies tuned to the needs of individual signaling systems. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-micro-020518-115931DOI Listing
September 2019
2 Reads

Posttranscription Initiation Control of Gene Expression Mediated by Bacterial RNA-Binding Proteins.

Annu Rev Microbiol 2019 09 17;73:43-67. Epub 2019 May 17.

Department of Microbiology and Cell Science, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611, USA; email:

RNA-binding proteins play vital roles in regulating gene expression and cellular physiology in all organisms. Bacterial RNA-binding proteins can regulate transcription termination via attenuation or antitermination mechanisms, while others can repress or activate translation initiation by affecting ribosome binding. The RNA targets for these proteins include short repeated sequences, longer single-stranded sequences, RNA secondary or tertiary structure, and a combination of these features. Read More

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https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/10.1146/annurev-micro-0205
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-micro-020518-115907DOI Listing
September 2019
12 Reads

Protein Acetylation in Bacteria.

Annu Rev Microbiol 2019 09 15;73:111-132. Epub 2019 May 15.

Department of Microbiology, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602, USA; email:

Acetylation is a posttranslational modification conserved in all domains of life that is carried out by -acetyltransferases. While acetylation can occur on -amino groups, this review will focus on -acetylation of lysyl residues and how the posttranslational modification changes the cellular physiology of bacteria. Up until the late 1990s, acetylation was studied in eukaryotes in the context of chromatin maintenance and gene expression. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-micro-020518-115526DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6736716PMC
September 2019
5 Reads

Cellular Functions and Mechanisms of Action of Small Heat Shock Proteins.

Annu Rev Microbiol 2019 09 15;73:89-110. Epub 2019 May 15.

Center for Molecular Biology of the University of Heidelberg and German Cancer Research Center, DKFZ-ZMBH Alliance, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany; email:

Small heat shock proteins (sHsps) constitute a diverse chaperone family that shares the α-crystallin domain, which is flanked by variable, disordered N- and C-terminal extensions. sHsps act as the first line of cellular defense against protein unfolding stress. They form dynamic, large oligomers that represent inactive storage forms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-micro-020518-115515DOI Listing
September 2019
3 Reads

Ecology and Evolution of Plant Microbiomes.

Annu Rev Microbiol 2019 09 15;73:69-88. Epub 2019 May 15.

Department of Microbial Ecology, Netherlands Institute of Ecology, 6708 PB Wageningen, The Netherlands; email:

Microorganisms colonizing plant surfaces and internal tissues provide a number of life-support functions for their host. Despite increasing recognition of the vast functional capabilities of the plant microbiome, our understanding of the ecology and evolution of the taxonomically hyperdiverse microbial communities is limited. Here, we review current knowledge of plant genotypic and phenotypic traits as well as allogenic and autogenic factors that shape microbiome composition and functions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-micro-090817-062524DOI Listing
September 2019
4 Reads

Life Cycle of .

Annu Rev Microbiol 2019 09 13;73:17-42. Epub 2019 May 13.

Department of Microbiology, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602; email:

is a ubiquitous environmental fungus and an opportunistic pathogen that causes fatal cryptococcal meningitis. Advances in genomics, genetics, and cellular and molecular biology of have dramatically improved our understanding of this important pathogen, rendering it a model organism to study eukaryotic biology and microbial pathogenesis. In light of recent progress, we describe in this review the life cycle of with a special emphasis on the regulation of the yeast-to-hypha transition and different modes of sexual reproduction, in addition to the impacts of the life cycle on cryptococcal populations and pathogenesis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-micro-020518-120210DOI Listing
September 2019
1 Read

Transcriptional Responses to ppGpp and DksA.

Annu Rev Microbiol 2018 Sep;72:163-184

Department of Bacteriology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA; email: , , , , ,

The stringent response to nutrient deprivation is a stress response found throughout the bacterial domain of life. Although first described in proteobacteria for matching ribosome synthesis to the cell's translation status and for preventing formation of defective ribosomal particles, the response is actually much broader, regulating many hundreds of genes-some positively, some negatively. Utilization of the signaling molecules ppGpp and pppGpp for this purpose is ubiquitous in bacterial evolution, although the mechanisms employed vary. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-micro-090817-062444DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6586590PMC
September 2018
4 Reads

The Promise of a Malaria Vaccine-Are We Closer?

Annu Rev Microbiol 2018 09;72:273-292

Department of Pediatrics, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore 21201, Maryland, USA; email:

Malaria vaccine development has rapidly advanced in the past decade. The very first phase 3 clinical trial of the RTS,S vaccine was completed with over 15,000 African infants and children, and pilot implementation studies are underway. Next-generation candidate vaccines using novel antigens, platforms, or approaches targeting different and/or multiple stages of the Plasmodium life cycle are being tested. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-micro-090817-062427DOI Listing
September 2018
3 Reads

A New Lens for RNA Localization: Liquid-Liquid Phase Separation.

Annu Rev Microbiol 2018 Sep;72:255-271

Department of Biology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA; email:

RNA localization mechanisms have been intensively studied and include localized protection of mRNA from degradation, diffusion-coupled local entrapment of mRNA, and directed transport of mRNAs along the cytoskeleton. While it is well understood how cells utilize these three mechanisms to organize mRNAs within the cytoplasm, a newly appreciated mechanism of RNA localization has emerged in recent years in which mRNAs phase-separate and form liquid-like droplets. mRNAs both contribute to condensation of proteins into liquid-like structures and are themselves regulated by being incorporated into membraneless organelles. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-micro-090817-062814DOI Listing
September 2018
5 Reads

Detection of Microbial Infections Through Innate Immune Sensing of Nucleic Acids.

Annu Rev Microbiol 2018 Sep;72:447-478

Department of Molecular Biology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390-9148, USA; email: , , , ,

Microbial infections are recognized by the innate immune system through germline-encoded pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). As most microbial pathogens contain DNA and/or RNA during their life cycle, nucleic acid sensing has evolved as an essential strategy for host innate immune defense. Pathogen-derived nucleic acids with distinct features are recognized by specific host PRRs localized in endolysosomes and the cytosol. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-micro-102215-095605DOI Listing
September 2018
8 Reads
12.182 Impact Factor

The Outer Membrane Took Center Stage.

Authors:
Volkmar Braun

Annu Rev Microbiol 2018 09;72:1-24

Department of Protein Evolution, Max Planck Institute for Developmental Biology, 72076 Tübingen, Germany; email:

My interest in membranes was piqued during a lecture series given by one of the founders of molecular biology, Max Delbrück, at Caltech, where I spent a postdoctoral year to learn more about protein chemistry. That general interest was further refined to my ultimate research focal point-the outer membrane of Escherichia coli-through the influence of the work of Wolfhard Weidel, who discovered the murein (peptidoglycan) layer and biochemically characterized the first phage receptors of this bacterium. The discovery of lipoprotein bound to murein was completely unexpected and demonstrated that the protein composition of the outer membrane and the structure and function of proteins could be unraveled at a time when nothing was known about outer membrane proteins. Read More

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https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/10.1146/annurev-micro-0908
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-micro-090817-062156DOI Listing
September 2018
40 Reads

The Glyoxylate Shunt, 60 Years On.

Annu Rev Microbiol 2018 Sep;72:309-330

Department of Biochemistry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1QW, United Kingdom; email: ,

2017 marks the 60th anniversary of Krebs' seminal paper on the glyoxylate shunt (and coincidentally, also the 80th anniversary of his discovery of the citric acid cycle). Sixty years on, we have witnessed substantial developments in our understanding of how flux is partitioned between the glyoxylate shunt and the oxidative decarboxylation steps of the citric acid cycle. The last decade has shown us that the beautifully elegant textbook mechanism that regulates carbon flux through the shunt in E. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-micro-090817-062257DOI Listing
September 2018
4 Reads

Ebola: Lessons on Vaccine Development.

Annu Rev Microbiol 2018 Sep;72:423-446

Laboratory of Virology, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, Montana 59840, USA; email:

The West African Ebola virus (EBOV) epidemic has fast-tracked countermeasures for this rare, emerging zoonotic pathogen. Until 2013-2014, most EBOV vaccine candidates were stalled between the preclinical and clinical milestones on the path to licensure, because of funding problems, lack of interest from pharmaceutical companies, and competing priorities in public health. The unprecedented and devastating epidemic propelled vaccine candidates toward clinical trials that were initiated near the end of the active response to the outbreak. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-micro-090817-062414DOI Listing
September 2018
30 Reads

Antibiotic-Induced Genetic Variation: How It Arises and How It Can Be Prevented.

Annu Rev Microbiol 2018 Sep;72:209-230

Faculté de Médecine Paris Descartes, INSERM 1001, CNRS, Université Paris-Descartes-Sorbonne Paris Cité, 75014 Paris, France; email:

By targeting essential cellular processes, antibiotics provoke metabolic perturbations and induce stress responses and genetic variation in bacteria. Here we review current knowledge of the mechanisms by which these molecules generate genetic instability. They include production of reactive oxygen species, as well as induction of the stress response regulons, which lead to enhancement of mutation and recombination rates and modulation of horizontal gene transfer. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-micro-090817-062139DOI Listing
September 2018
4 Reads

Pneumococcal Vaccines: Host Interactions, Population Dynamics, and Design Principles.

Annu Rev Microbiol 2018 09;72:521-549

Infection Genomics Programme, Wellcome Sanger Institute, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SA, United Kingdom; email:

Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) is a nasopharyngeal commensal and respiratory pathogen. Most isolates express a capsule, the species-wide diversity of which has been immunologically classified into ∼100 serotypes. Capsule polysaccharides have been combined into multivalent vaccines widely used in adults, but the T cell independence of the antibody response means they are not protective in infants. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-micro-090817-062338DOI Listing
September 2018
3 Reads

Broadening the Definition of Bacterial Small RNAs: Characteristics and Mechanisms of Action.

Annu Rev Microbiol 2018 Sep;72:141-161

RNA Group, Department of Biochemistry, University of Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec J1H 5N4, Canada; email: , ,

The first report of trans-acting RNA-based regulation in bacterial cells dates back to 1984. Subsequent studies in diverse bacteria unraveled shared properties of trans-acting small regulatory RNAs, forming a clear definition of these molecules. These shared characteristics have been used extensively to identify new small RNAs (sRNAs) and their interactomes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-micro-090817-062607DOI Listing
September 2018
5 Reads

Introduction.

Authors:
Susan Gottesman

Annu Rev Microbiol 2018 Sep;72:i-ii

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-mi-72-070918-100001DOI Listing
September 2018
4 Reads

Using Cryo-EM to Investigate Bacterial Secretion Systems.

Annu Rev Microbiol 2018 Sep 13;72:231-254. Epub 2018 Jul 13.

Structure et Fonction des Nanomachines Bactériennes, Institut Européen de Chimie et Biologie, 33607 Pessac, France; email: ,

Bacterial secretion systems are responsible for releasing macromolecules to the extracellular milieu or directly into other cells. These membrane complexes are associated with pathogenicity and bacterial fitness. Understanding of these large assemblies has exponentially increased in the last few years thanks to electron microscopy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-micro-090817-062702DOI Listing
September 2018
7 Reads