1,589 results match your criteria Annual Review of Microbiology [Journal]


Transcriptional Responses to ppGpp and DksA.

Annu Rev Microbiol 2018 Sep;72:163-184

Department of Bacteriology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA; email: , , , , ,

The stringent response to nutrient deprivation is a stress response found throughout the bacterial domain of life. Although first described in proteobacteria for matching ribosome synthesis to the cell's translation status and for preventing formation of defective ribosomal particles, the response is actually much broader, regulating many hundreds of genes-some positively, some negatively. Utilization of the signaling molecules ppGpp and pppGpp for this purpose is ubiquitous in bacterial evolution, although the mechanisms employed vary. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-micro-090817-062444DOI Listing
September 2018
1 Read

The Promise of a Malaria Vaccine-Are We Closer?

Annu Rev Microbiol 2018 Sep;72:273-292

Department of Pediatrics, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore 21201, Maryland, USA; email:

Malaria vaccine development has rapidly advanced in the past decade. The very first phase 3 clinical trial of the RTS,S vaccine was completed with over 15,000 African infants and children, and pilot implementation studies are underway. Next-generation candidate vaccines using novel antigens, platforms, or approaches targeting different and/or multiple stages of the Plasmodium life cycle are being tested. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-micro-090817-062427DOI Listing
September 2018
1 Read

A New Lens for RNA Localization: Liquid-Liquid Phase Separation.

Annu Rev Microbiol 2018 Sep;72:255-271

Department of Biology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA; email:

RNA localization mechanisms have been intensively studied and include localized protection of mRNA from degradation, diffusion-coupled local entrapment of mRNA, and directed transport of mRNAs along the cytoskeleton. While it is well understood how cells utilize these three mechanisms to organize mRNAs within the cytoplasm, a newly appreciated mechanism of RNA localization has emerged in recent years in which mRNAs phase-separate and form liquid-like droplets. mRNAs both contribute to condensation of proteins into liquid-like structures and are themselves regulated by being incorporated into membraneless organelles. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-micro-090817-062814DOI Listing
September 2018
3 Reads

Detection of Microbial Infections Through Innate Immune Sensing of Nucleic Acids.

Annu Rev Microbiol 2018 Sep;72:447-478

Department of Molecular Biology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390-9148, USA; email: , , , ,

Microbial infections are recognized by the innate immune system through germline-encoded pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). As most microbial pathogens contain DNA and/or RNA during their life cycle, nucleic acid sensing has evolved as an essential strategy for host innate immune defense. Pathogen-derived nucleic acids with distinct features are recognized by specific host PRRs localized in endolysosomes and the cytosol. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-micro-102215-095605DOI Listing
September 2018
5 Reads
12.182 Impact Factor

The Outer Membrane Took Center Stage.

Authors:
Volkmar Braun

Annu Rev Microbiol 2018 Sep;72:1-24

Department of Protein Evolution, Max Planck Institute for Developmental Biology, 72076 Tübingen, Germany; email:

My interest in membranes was piqued during a lecture series given by one of the founders of molecular biology, Max Delbrück, at Caltech, where I spent a postdoctoral year to learn more about protein chemistry. That general interest was further refined to my ultimate research focal point-the outer membrane of Escherichia coli-through the influence of the work of Wolfhard Weidel, who discovered the murein (peptidoglycan) layer and biochemically characterized the first phage receptors of this bacterium. The discovery of lipoprotein bound to murein was completely unexpected and demonstrated that the protein composition of the outer membrane and the structure and function of proteins could be unraveled at a time when nothing was known about outer membrane proteins. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-micro-090817-062156DOI Listing
September 2018
24 Reads

The Glyoxylate Shunt, 60 Years On.

Annu Rev Microbiol 2018 Sep;72:309-330

Department of Biochemistry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1QW, United Kingdom; email: ,

2017 marks the 60th anniversary of Krebs' seminal paper on the glyoxylate shunt (and coincidentally, also the 80th anniversary of his discovery of the citric acid cycle). Sixty years on, we have witnessed substantial developments in our understanding of how flux is partitioned between the glyoxylate shunt and the oxidative decarboxylation steps of the citric acid cycle. The last decade has shown us that the beautifully elegant textbook mechanism that regulates carbon flux through the shunt in E. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-micro-090817-062257DOI Listing
September 2018
2 Reads

Ebola: Lessons on Vaccine Development.

Annu Rev Microbiol 2018 Sep;72:423-446

Laboratory of Virology, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, Montana 59840, USA; email:

The West African Ebola virus (EBOV) epidemic has fast-tracked countermeasures for this rare, emerging zoonotic pathogen. Until 2013-2014, most EBOV vaccine candidates were stalled between the preclinical and clinical milestones on the path to licensure, because of funding problems, lack of interest from pharmaceutical companies, and competing priorities in public health. The unprecedented and devastating epidemic propelled vaccine candidates toward clinical trials that were initiated near the end of the active response to the outbreak. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-micro-090817-062414DOI Listing
September 2018
16 Reads

Antibiotic-Induced Genetic Variation: How It Arises and How It Can Be Prevented.

Annu Rev Microbiol 2018 Sep;72:209-230

Faculté de Médecine Paris Descartes, INSERM 1001, CNRS, Université Paris-Descartes-Sorbonne Paris Cité, 75014 Paris, France; email:

By targeting essential cellular processes, antibiotics provoke metabolic perturbations and induce stress responses and genetic variation in bacteria. Here we review current knowledge of the mechanisms by which these molecules generate genetic instability. They include production of reactive oxygen species, as well as induction of the stress response regulons, which lead to enhancement of mutation and recombination rates and modulation of horizontal gene transfer. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-micro-090817-062139DOI Listing
September 2018
2 Reads

Pneumococcal Vaccines: Host Interactions, Population Dynamics, and Design Principles.

Annu Rev Microbiol 2018 Sep;72:521-549

Infection Genomics Programme, Wellcome Sanger Institute, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SA, United Kingdom; email:

Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) is a nasopharyngeal commensal and respiratory pathogen. Most isolates express a capsule, the species-wide diversity of which has been immunologically classified into ∼100 serotypes. Capsule polysaccharides have been combined into multivalent vaccines widely used in adults, but the T cell independence of the antibody response means they are not protective in infants. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-micro-090817-062338DOI Listing
September 2018
2 Reads

Broadening the Definition of Bacterial Small RNAs: Characteristics and Mechanisms of Action.

Annu Rev Microbiol 2018 Sep;72:141-161

RNA Group, Department of Biochemistry, University of Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec J1H 5N4, Canada; email: , ,

The first report of trans-acting RNA-based regulation in bacterial cells dates back to 1984. Subsequent studies in diverse bacteria unraveled shared properties of trans-acting small regulatory RNAs, forming a clear definition of these molecules. These shared characteristics have been used extensively to identify new small RNAs (sRNAs) and their interactomes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-micro-090817-062607DOI Listing
September 2018
2 Reads

Introduction.

Authors:
Susan Gottesman

Annu Rev Microbiol 2018 Sep;72:i-ii

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-mi-72-070918-100001DOI Listing
September 2018
1 Read

Using Cryo-EM to Investigate Bacterial Secretion Systems.

Annu Rev Microbiol 2018 Sep 13;72:231-254. Epub 2018 Jul 13.

Structure et Fonction des Nanomachines Bactériennes, Institut Européen de Chimie et Biologie, 33607 Pessac, France; email: ,

Bacterial secretion systems are responsible for releasing macromolecules to the extracellular milieu or directly into other cells. These membrane complexes are associated with pathogenicity and bacterial fitness. Understanding of these large assemblies has exponentially increased in the last few years thanks to electron microscopy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-micro-090817-062702DOI Listing
September 2018
5 Reads

Regulation of Sexual Commitment and Gametocytogenesis in Malaria Parasites.

Annu Rev Microbiol 2018 Sep 5;72:501-519. Epub 2018 Jul 5.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA; email:

Sexual differentiation of malaria parasites from the asexual blood stage into gametocytes is an essential part of the life cycle, as gametocytes are the form that is taken up by the mosquito host. Because of the essentiality of this process for transmission to the mosquito, gametocytogenesis is an extremely attractive target for therapeutic interventions. The subject of this review is the considerable progress that has been made in recent years in elucidating the molecular mechanisms governing this important differentiation process. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-micro-090817-062712DOI Listing
September 2018
4 Reads

The Epigenome, Cell Cycle, and Development in Toxoplasma.

Authors:
Kami Kim

Annu Rev Microbiol 2018 Sep 22;72:479-499. Epub 2018 Jun 22.

Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases and International Medicine, Morsani College of Medicine, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida 33612, USA.

Toxoplasma gondii is a common veterinary and human pathogen that persists as latent bradyzoite forms within infected hosts. The ability of the parasite to interconvert between tachyzoite and bradyzoite is key for pathogenesis of toxoplasmosis, particularly in immunocompromised individuals. The transition between tachyzoites and bradyzoites is epigenetically regulated and coupled to the cell cycle. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-micro-090817-062741DOI Listing
September 2018
5 Reads

Interspecific Gene Exchange as a Driver of Adaptive Evolution in Fungi.

Annu Rev Microbiol 2018 Sep 21;72:377-398. Epub 2018 Jun 21.

Environmental Genomics, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Biology, 24306 Plön, Germany; email: ,

Throughout evolutionary history in the kingdom Fungi, taxa have exchanged genetic information among species, as revealed in particular by analyses of genome sequences. In fungi, hybridization can occur by sexual mating or by fusion of vegetative structures giving rise to new species or leaving traces of introgression in the genome. Furthermore, gene exchange can occur by horizontal gene transfer between species and can even include organisms outside the kingdom Fungi. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-micro-090817-062753DOI Listing
September 2018
12 Reads

Communication Between the Microbiota and Mammalian Immunity.

Annu Rev Microbiol 2018 Sep 21;72:399-422. Epub 2018 Jun 21.

Department of Pathology, Division of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Utah School of Medicine, Utah 84211, USA; email:

Mammalian immune systems evolved within a diverse world dominated by microbes, making interactions between these two life-forms inevitable. Adaptive immunity protects against microbes through antigen-specific responses. In classical studies, these responses were investigated in the context of pathogenicity; however, we now know that they have significant effects on our resident microbes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-micro-090817-062307DOI Listing
September 2018
6 Reads

Epigenetic Variation and Regulation in Malaria Parasites.

Annu Rev Microbiol 2018 Sep 21;72:355-375. Epub 2018 Jun 21.

Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA; email: ,

Eukaryotic pathogens must survive in different hosts, respond to changing environments, and exploit specialized niches to propagate. Plasmodium parasites cause human malaria during bloodstream infections, where they must persist long enough to be transmitted. Parasites have evolved diverse strategies of variant gene expression that control critical biological processes of blood-stage infections, including antigenic variation, erythrocyte invasion, innate immune evasion, and nutrient acquisition, as well as life-cycle transitions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-micro-090817-062722DOI Listing
September 2018
25 Reads

Electron Bifurcation: A Long-Hidden Energy-Coupling Mechanism.

Annu Rev Microbiol 2018 Sep 20;72:331-353. Epub 2018 Jun 20.

Department of Molecular Microbiology and Bioenergetics, Institute of Molecular Biosciences, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University Frankfurt/Main, 60438 Frankfurt, Germany; email:

A decade ago, a novel mechanism to drive thermodynamically unfavorable redox reactions was discovered that is used in prokaryotes to drive endergonic electron transfer reactions by a direct coupling to an exergonic redox reaction in one soluble enzyme complex. This process is referred to as flavin-based electron bifurcation, or FBEB. An important function of FBEB is that it allows the generation of reduced low-potential ferredoxin (Fd) from comparably high-potential electron donors such as NADH or molecular hydrogen (H). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-micro-090816-093440DOI Listing
September 2018
4 Reads

Spo11-Independent Meiosis in Social Amoebae.

Annu Rev Microbiol 2018 Sep 20;72:293-307. Epub 2018 Jun 20.

MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge CB2 0QH, UK; email:

Sex in social amoebae (or dictyostelids) has a number of striking features. Dictyostelid zygotes do not proliferate but grow to a large size by feeding on other cells of the same species, each zygote ultimately forming a walled structure called a macrocyst. The diploid macrocyst nucleus undergoes meiosis, after which a single meiotic product survives to restart haploid vegetative growth. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-micro-090817-062232DOI Listing
September 2018
3 Reads

Context-Specific Action of Ribosomal Antibiotics.

Annu Rev Microbiol 2018 Sep 15;72:185-207. Epub 2018 Jun 15.

Center for Biomolecular Sciences, University of Illinois, Chicago, Illinois 60607, USA; email: ,

The ribosome is a major antibiotic target. Many types of inhibitors can stop cells from growing by binding at functional centers of the ribosome and interfering with its ability to synthesize proteins. These antibiotics were usually viewed as general protein synthesis inhibitors, which indiscriminately stop translation at every codon of every mRNA, preventing the ribosome from making any protein. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-micro-090817-062329DOI Listing
September 2018
7 Reads

The Complex Rcs Regulatory Cascade.

Annu Rev Microbiol 2018 Sep 13;72:111-139. Epub 2018 Jun 13.

Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA; emails: , ,

RcsB, a response regulator of the FixJ/NarL family, is at the center of a complex network of regulatory inputs and outputs. Cell surface stress is sensed by an outer membrane lipoprotein, RcsF, which regulates interactions of the inner membrane protein IgaA, lifting negative regulation of a phosphorelay. In vivo evidence supports a pathway in which histidine kinase RcsC transfers phosphate to phosphotransfer protein RcsD, resulting in phosphorylation of RcsB. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-micro-090817-062640DOI Listing
September 2018
3 Reads

Eco-evolutionary Dynamics Linked to Horizontal Gene Transfer in Vibrios.

Annu Rev Microbiol 2018 Sep 13;72:89-110. Epub 2018 Jun 13.

Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology, Global Health Institute, School of Life Sciences, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland; email:

Vibrio is a genus of ubiquitous heterotrophic bacteria found in aquatic environments. Although they are a small percentage of the bacteria in these environments, vibrios can predominate during blooms. Vibrios also play important roles in the degradation of polymeric substances, such as chitin, and in other biogeochemical processes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-micro-090817-062148DOI Listing
September 2018
5 Reads

The Clash of Macromolecular Titans: Replication-Transcription Conflicts in Bacteria.

Annu Rev Microbiol 2018 Sep 1;72:71-88. Epub 2018 Jun 1.

Department of Microbiology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA; email:

Within the last decade, it has become clear that DNA replication and transcription are routinely in conflict with each other in growing cells. Much of the seminal work on this topic has been carried out in bacteria, specifically, Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis; therefore, studies of conflicts in these species deserve special attention. Collectively, the recent findings on conflicts have fundamentally changed the way we think about DNA replication in vivo. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-micro-090817-062514DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6233710PMC
September 2018
5 Reads

Above and Beyond Watson and Crick: Guanine Quadruplex Structures and Microbes.

Authors:
H Steven Seifert

Annu Rev Microbiol 2018 Sep 31;72:49-69. Epub 2018 May 31.

Department of Microbiology-Immunology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois 60611, USA; email:

Advances in understanding mechanisms of nucleic acids have revolutionized molecular biology and medicine, but understanding of nontraditional nucleic acid conformations is less developed. The guanine quadruplex (G4) alternative DNA structure was first described in the 1960s, but the existence of G4 structures (G4-S) and their participation in myriads of biological functions are still underappreciated. Despite many tools to study G4s and many examples of roles for G4s in eukaryotic molecular processes and issues with uncontrolled G4-S formation, there is relatively little knowledge about the roles of G4-S in viral or prokaryotic systems. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-micro-090817-062629DOI Listing
September 2018
8 Reads

Control of Specialized Metabolism by Signaling and Transcriptional Regulation: Opportunities for New Platforms for Drug Discovery?

Annu Rev Microbiol 2018 Sep 23;72:25-48. Epub 2018 May 23.

Department of Biochemistry, University of Toronto, Ontario M5G 1M1, Canada; email:

Specialized metabolites are bacterially produced small molecules that have an extraordinary diversity of important biological activities. They are useful as biochemical probes of living systems, and they have been adapted for use as drugs for human afflictions ranging from infectious diseases to cancer. The biosynthetic genes for these molecules are controlled by a dense network of regulatory mechanisms: Cell-cell signaling and nutrient sensing are conspicuous features of this network. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-micro-022618-042458DOI Listing
September 2018
3 Reads

Predator Versus Pathogen: How Does Predatory Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus Interface with the Challenges of Killing Gram-Negative Pathogens in a Host Setting?

Annu Rev Microbiol 2017 09;71:441-457

School of Life Science, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2UH, United Kingdom; email: , , , , ,

Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus is a small deltaproteobacterial predator that has evolved to invade, reseal, kill, and digest other gram-negative bacteria in soils and water environments. It has a broad host range and kills many antibiotic-resistant, clinical pathogens in vitro, a potentially useful capability if it could be translated to a clinical setting. We review relevant mechanisms of B. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-micro-090816-093618DOI Listing
September 2017
90 Reads

Regulating Bacterial Virulence with RNA.

Annu Rev Microbiol 2017 09;71:263-280

Institut Pasteur, Unité des Interactions Bactéries-Cellules, Paris F-75015, France; email: ,

Noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) regulating virulence have been identified in most pathogens. This review discusses RNA-mediated mechanisms exploited by bacterial pathogens to successfully infect and colonize their hosts. It discusses the most representative RNA-mediated regulatory mechanisms employed by two intracellular [Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-micro-030117-020335DOI Listing
September 2017
11 Reads

"Fleaing" the Plague: Adaptations of Yersinia pestis to Its Insect Vector That Lead to Transmission.

Annu Rev Microbiol 2017 09;71:215-232

Laboratory of Zoonotic Pathogens, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, Montana 59840; email:

Interest in arthropod-borne pathogens focuses primarily on how they cause disease in humans. How they produce a transmissible infection in their arthropod host is just as critical to their life cycle, however. Yersinia pestis adopts a unique life stage in the digestive tract of its flea vector, characterized by rapid formation of a bacterial biofilm that is enveloped in a complex extracellular polymeric substance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-micro-090816-093521DOI Listing
September 2017
23 Reads

A Life in Bacillus subtilis Signal Transduction.

Authors:
James A Hoch

Annu Rev Microbiol 2017 09;71:1-19

Department of Molecular Medicine, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037; email:

This is a tale of how technology drove the discovery of the molecular basis for signal transduction in the initiation of sporulation in Bacillus subtilis and in bacterial two-component systems. It progresses from genetics to cloning and sequencing to biochemistry to structural biology to an understanding of how proteins evolve interaction specificity and to identification of interaction surfaces by statistical physics. This is about how the people in my laboratory accomplished this feat; without them little would have been done. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-micro-030117-020355DOI Listing
September 2017
7 Reads

Bacterial Cell Size: Multifactorial and Multifaceted.

Annu Rev Microbiol 2017 09;71:499-517

Department of Biology, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri 63130; email: ,

How cells establish, maintain, and modulate size has always been an area of great interest and fascination. Until recently, technical limitations curtailed our ability to understand the molecular basis of bacterial cell size control. In the past decade, advances in microfluidics, imaging, and high-throughput single-cell analysis, however, have led to a flurry of work revealing size to be a highly complex trait involving the integration of three core aspects of bacterial physiology: metabolism, growth, and cell cycle progression. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-micro-090816-093803DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6018054PMC
September 2017
29 Reads

Elongation Factor P and the Control of Translation Elongation.

Annu Rev Microbiol 2017 09 22;71:117-131. Epub 2017 May 22.

Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology Program and Center for RNA Biology, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210; email:

Elongation factor P (EF-P) binds to ribosomes requiring assistance with the formation of oligo-prolines. In order for EF-P to associate with paused ribosomes, certain tRNAs with specific d-arm residues must be present in the peptidyl site, e.g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-micro-090816-093629DOI Listing
September 2017
8 Reads

Neisseria gonorrhoeae: Drug Resistance, Mouse Models, and Vaccine Development.

Annu Rev Microbiol 2017 09;71:665-686

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, F. Edward Hébert School of Medicine, Uniformed Services University, Bethesda, Maryland 20814-4799; email:

Gonorrhea, an obligate human infection, is on the rise worldwide and gonococcal strains resistant to many antibiotics are emerging. Appropriate antimicrobial treatment and prevention, including effective vaccines, are urgently needed. To guide investigation, an experimental model of genital tract infection has been developed in female mice to study mechanisms by which Neisseria gonorrhoeae evades host-derived antimicrobial factors and to identify protective and immunosuppressive pathways. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-micro-090816-093530DOI Listing
September 2017
13 Reads
5 Citations
12.180 Impact Factor

Copper Acquisition and Utilization in Fungi.

Annu Rev Microbiol 2017 09;71:597-623

Department of Pharmacology and Cancer Biology.

Fungal cells colonize and proliferate in distinct niches, from soil and plants to diverse tissues in human hosts. Consequently, fungi are challenged with the goal of obtaining nutrients while simultaneously elaborating robust regulatory mechanisms to cope with a range of availability of nutrients, from scarcity to excess. Copper is essential for life but also potentially toxic. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-micro-030117-020444DOI Listing
September 2017
34 Reads

Molecular Evolution of Antifungal Drug Resistance.

Annu Rev Microbiol 2017 09;71:753-775

Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1M1, Canada; email: , ,

The fungal pathogens Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, and Aspergillus fumigatus have transitioned from a rare curiosity to a leading cause of human mortality. The management of infections caused by these organisms is intimately dependent on the efficacy of antifungal agents; however, fungi that are resistant to these treatments are regularly isolated in the clinic, impeding our ability to control infections. Given the significant impact fungal pathogens have on human health, it is imperative to understand the molecular mechanisms that govern antifungal drug resistance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-micro-030117-020345DOI Listing
September 2017
19 Reads

Outer Membrane Biogenesis.

Annu Rev Microbiol 2017 09;71:539-556

Department of Molecular Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544; email:

The hallmark of gram-negative bacteria and organelles such as mitochondria and chloroplasts is the presence of an outer membrane. In bacteria such as Escherichia coli, the outer membrane is a unique asymmetric lipid bilayer with lipopolysaccharide in the outer leaflet. Integral transmembrane proteins assume a β-barrel structure, and their assembly is catalyzed by the heteropentameric Bam complex containing the outer membrane protein BamA and four lipoproteins, BamB-E. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-micro-090816-093754DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5778897PMC
September 2017
27 Reads

Microbial Expansins.

Annu Rev Microbiol 2017 09;71:479-497

Department of Biology, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802; email:

Expansins are small proteins that loosen plant cell walls and cellulosic materials without lytic activity. First discovered in plants, expansin genes are found in the genomes of numerous bacteria and fungi that interact with plants in pathogenic and mutualistic patterns, as well as in microbes that feed on plant debris. Horizontal gene transfer from plants to microbes and between microbes accounts for expansins' irregular taxonomic distribution. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-micro-090816-093315DOI Listing
September 2017
26 Reads

Introduction.

Authors:
Susan Gottesman

Annu Rev Microbiol 2017 09;71:i-ii

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-mi-71-082617-100001DOI Listing
September 2017
7 Reads

The Colorful World of Extracellular Electron Shuttles.

Annu Rev Microbiol 2017 09 21;71:731-751. Epub 2017 Jul 21.

Division of Biology and Biological Engineering, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125; email: , ,

Descriptions of the changeable, striking colors associated with secreted natural products date back well over a century. These molecules can serve as extracellular electron shuttles (EESs) that permit microbes to access substrates at a distance. In this review, we argue that the colorful world of EESs has been too long neglected. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-micro-090816-093913DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5679407PMC
September 2017
16 Reads

Present and Future of Culturing Bacteria.

Annu Rev Microbiol 2017 09 21;71:711-730. Epub 2017 Jul 21.

Leibniz-Institute DSMZ-German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures, 38124 Braunschweig, Germany; email:

The cultivation of bacteria is highly biased toward a few phylogenetic groups. Many of the currently underexplored bacterial lineages likely have novel biosynthetic pathways and unknown biochemical features. New cultivation concepts have been developed based on an improved understanding of the ecology of previously not-cultured bacteria. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-micro-090816-093449DOI Listing
September 2017
44 Reads

Rho Protein: Roles and Mechanisms.

Annu Rev Microbiol 2017 09 21;71:687-709. Epub 2017 Jul 21.

Laboratory of Transcription, Center for DNA Fingerprinting and Diagnostics, Nampally, Hyderabad-500001, India; email: , , ,

At the end of the multistep transcription process, the elongating RNA polymerase (RNAP) is dislodged from the DNA template either at specific DNA sequences, called the terminators, or by a nascent RNA-dependent helicase, Rho. In Escherichia coli, about half of the transcription events are terminated by the Rho protein. Rho utilizes its RNA-dependent ATPase activities to translocate along the mRNA and eventually dislodges the RNAP via an unknown mechanism. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-micro-030117-020432DOI Listing
September 2017
16 Reads

Genetics and Epigenetics of Mating Type Determination in Paramecium and Tetrahymena.

Annu Rev Microbiol 2017 09 17;71:133-156. Epub 2017 Jul 17.

Institut de Biologie de l'Ecole Normale Supérieure (IBENS), CNRS, Inserm, PSL Research University, F-75005 Paris, France; email:

While sex is an ancient and highly conserved eukaryotic invention, self-incompatibility systems such as mating types or sexes appear to be derived limitations that show considerable evolutionary plasticity. Within a single class of ciliates, Paramecium and Tetrahymena species have long been known to present a wide variety of mating type numbers and modes of inheritance, but only recently have the genes involved been identified. Although similar transmembrane proteins mediate self/nonself recognition in both ciliates, the mechanisms of mating type determination differ widely, ranging from Mendelian systems to developmental nuclear differentiation, either stochastic or maternally inherited. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-micro-090816-093342DOI Listing
September 2017
9 Reads

Histone Methylation by SET Domain Proteins in Fungi.

Authors:
Michael Freitag

Annu Rev Microbiol 2017 09 17;71:413-439. Epub 2017 Jul 17.

Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon 97331; email:

Histone-modifying enzymes are responsible for regulating transcription, recombination, DNA repair, DNA replication, chromatid cohesion, and chromosome segregation. Fungi are ideally suited for comparative chromatin biology because sequencing of numerous genomes from many clades is coupled to existing rich methodology that allows truly holistic approaches, integrating evolutionary biology with mechanistic molecular biology and ecology, promising applications in medicine or plant pathology. While genome information is rich, mechanistic studies on histone modifications are largely restricted to two yeasts, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe, and one filamentous fungus, Neurospora crassa-three species that arguably are not representative of this diverse kingdom. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-micro-102215-095757DOI Listing
September 2017
31 Reads

The Cell Wall of the Human Fungal Pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus: Biosynthesis, Organization, Immune Response, and Virulence.

Annu Rev Microbiol 2017 09 12;71:99-116. Epub 2017 Jul 12.

Department of Clinical Microbiology and Microbial Pathogenesis, University of Crete, Heraklion, Crete 74100, Greece.

More than 90% of the cell wall of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus comprises polysaccharides. Biosynthesis of the cell wall polysaccharides is under the control of three types of enzymes: transmembrane synthases, which are anchored to the plasma membrane and use nucleotide sugars as substrates, and cell wall-associated transglycosidases and glycosyl hydrolases, which are responsible for remodeling the de novo synthesized polysaccharides and establishing the three-dimensional structure of the cell wall. For years, the cell wall was considered an inert exoskeleton of the fungal cell. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-micro-030117-020406DOI Listing
September 2017
8 Reads

Bacterial Membranes: Structure, Domains, and Function.

Annu Rev Microbiol 2017 09 11;71:519-538. Epub 2017 Jul 11.

Centre for Bacterial Cell Biology, Institute for Cell and Molecular Biosciences, Newcastle University, Newcastle Upon Tyne, NE2 4AX United Kingdom; email: ,

The bacterial cytoplasmic membrane is composed of roughly equal proportions of lipids and proteins. The main lipid components are phospholipids, which vary in acyl chain length, saturation, and branching and carry head groups that vary in size and charge. Phospholipid variants determine membrane properties such as fluidity and charge that in turn modulate interactions with membrane-associated proteins. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-micro-102215-095630DOI Listing
September 2017
19 Reads

Germination of Spores of the Orders Bacillales and Clostridiales.

Annu Rev Microbiol 2017 09 11;71:459-477. Epub 2017 Jul 11.

Department of Physics, East Carolina University, Greenville, North Carolina 27858-4353; email:

Dormant Bacillales and Clostridiales spores begin to grow when small molecules (germinants) trigger germination, potentially leading to food spoilage or disease. Germination-specific proteins sense germinants, transport small molecules, and hydrolyze specific bonds in cortex peptidoglycan and specific proteins. Major events in germination include (a) germinant sensing; (b) commitment to germinate; (c) release of spores' depot of dipicolinic acid (DPA); (d) hydrolysis of spores' peptidoglycan cortex; and (e) spore core swelling and water uptake, cell wall peptidoglycan remodeling, and restoration of core protein and inner spore membrane lipid mobility. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-micro-090816-093558DOI Listing
September 2017
40 Reads

Rewriting the Genetic Code.

Annu Rev Microbiol 2017 09 11;71:557-577. Epub 2017 Jul 11.

Department of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06511; email:

The genetic code-the language used by cells to translate their genomes into proteins that perform many cellular functions-is highly conserved throughout natural life. Rewriting the genetic code could lead to new biological functions such as expanding protein chemistries with noncanonical amino acids (ncAAs) and genetically isolating synthetic organisms from natural organisms and viruses. It has long been possible to transiently produce proteins bearing ncAAs, but stabilizing an expanded genetic code for sustained function in vivo requires an integrated approach: creating recoded genomes and introducing new translation machinery that function together without compromising viability or clashing with endogenous pathways. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-micro-090816-093247DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5772603PMC
September 2017
35 Reads

Syntrophy Goes Electric: Direct Interspecies Electron Transfer.

Authors:
Derek R Lovley

Annu Rev Microbiol 2017 09 11;71:643-664. Epub 2017 Jul 11.

Department of Microbiology, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003; email:

Direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) has biogeochemical significance, and practical applications that rely on DIET or DIET-based aspects of microbial physiology are growing. Mechanisms for DIET have primarily been studied in defined cocultures in which Geobacter species are one of the DIET partners. Electrically conductive pili (e-pili) can be an important electrical conduit for DIET. Read More

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http://www.annualreviews.org/doi/10.1146/annurev-micro-03011
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-micro-030117-020420DOI Listing
September 2017
51 Reads

Evolutionary Trajectories to Antibiotic Resistance.

Annu Rev Microbiol 2017 09 11;71:579-596. Epub 2017 Jul 11.

Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology, Uppsala University, 751 23 Uppsala, Sweden; email:

The ability to predict the evolutionary trajectories of antibiotic resistance would be of great value in tailoring dosing regimens of antibiotics so as to maximize the duration of their usefulness. Useful prediction of resistance evolution requires information about (a) the mutation supply rate, (b) the level of resistance conferred by the resistance mechanism, (c) the fitness of the antibiotic-resistant mutant bacteria as a function of drug concentration, and (d) the strength of selective pressures. In addition, processes including epistatic interactions and compensatory evolution, coselection of drug resistances, and population bottlenecks and clonal interference can strongly influence resistance evolution and thereby complicate attempts at prediction. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-micro-090816-093813DOI Listing
September 2017
8 Reads

Bacterial Cell Division: Nonmodels Poised to Take the Spotlight.

Annu Rev Microbiol 2017 09 11;71:393-411. Epub 2017 Jul 11.

Laboratory of Molecular Biology, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892-5132; email:

The last three decades have witnessed an explosion of discoveries about the mechanistic details of binary fission in model bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, and Caulobacter crescentus. This was made possible not only by advances in microscopy that helped answer questions about cell biology but also by clever genetic manipulations that directly and easily tested specific hypotheses. More recently, research using understudied organisms, or nonmodel systems, has revealed several alternate mechanistic strategies that bacteria use to divide and propagate. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-micro-102215-095657DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6291244PMC
September 2017
9 Reads

Variant Gene Expression and Antigenic Variation by Malaria Parasites.

Annu Rev Microbiol 2017 09 11;71:625-641. Epub 2017 Jul 11.

Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Institute for Medical Research Israel-Canada and Kuvin Center for the Study of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem 91120, Israel; email:

Malaria is a significant threat throughout the developing world. Among the most fascinating aspects of the protozoan parasites responsible for this disease are the methods they employ to avoid the immune system and perpetuate chronic infections. Key among these is antigenic variation: By systematically altering antigens that are displayed to the host's immune system, the parasite renders the adaptive immune response ineffective. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-micro-090816-093841DOI Listing
September 2017
36 Reads