972 results match your criteria Annual Review of Immunology[Journal]


Mast Cells in Inflammation and Disease: Recent Progress and Ongoing Concerns.

Annu Rev Immunol 2020 Apr;38:49-77

Department of Pathology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305, USA; email:

Mast cells have existed long before the development of adaptive immunity, although they have been given different names. Thus, in the marine urochordate , they have been designated as test cells. However, based on their morphological characteristics (including prominent cytoplasmic granules) and mediator content (including heparin, histamine, and neutral proteases), test cells are thought to represent members of the lineage known in vertebrates as mast cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-immunol-071719-094903DOI Listing

30 Years of Biotherapeutics Development-What Have We Learned?

Annu Rev Immunol 2020 Apr;38:249-287

Research-Biology, Genentech, South San Francisco, California 94080, USA; email:

Since the birth of biotechnology, hundreds of biotherapeutics have been developed and approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for human use. These novel medicines not only bring significant benefit to patients but also represent precision tools to interrogate human disease biology. Accordingly, much has been learned from the successes and failures of hundreds of high-quality clinical trials. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-immunol-101619-031510DOI Listing

Mechanisms of Natural Killer Cell Evasion Through Viral Adaptation.

Annu Rev Immunol 2020 Apr;38:511-539

Department of Human Genetics, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 0C7, Canada; email:

The continuous interactions between host and pathogens during their coevolution have shaped both the immune system and the countermeasures used by pathogens. Natural killer (NK) cells are innate lymphocytes that are considered central players in the antiviral response. Not only do they express a variety of inhibitory and activating receptors to discriminate and eliminate target cells but they can also produce immunoregulatory cytokines to alert the immune system. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-immunol-082619-124440DOI Listing

Innate Lymphocyte Mechanisms in Skin Diseases.

Annu Rev Immunol 2020 Apr;38:171-202

MRC Human Immunology Unit, MRC Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, Headington, Oxford, OX3 9DS, United Kingdom.

Innate lymphocyte populations are emerging as key effectors in tissue homeostasis, microbial defense, and inflammatory skin disease. The cells are evolutionarily ancient and carry conserved principles of function, which can be achieved through shared or unique specific mechanisms. Recent technological and treatment advances have provided insight into heterogeneity within and between individuals and species. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-immunol-082919-093554DOI Listing

Vaccines and Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies for HIV-1 Prevention.

Annu Rev Immunol 2020 Apr;38:673-703

Center for Virology and Vaccine Research, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA; email:

Development of improved approaches for HIV-1 prevention will likely be required for a durable end to the global AIDS pandemic. Recent advances in preclinical studies and early phase clinical trials offer renewed promise for immunologic strategies for blocking acquisition of HIV-1 infection. Clinical trials are currently underway to evaluate the efficacy of two vaccine candidates and a broadly neutralizing antibody (bNAb) to prevent HIV-1 infection in humans. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-immunol-080219-023629DOI Listing

Meningeal Immunity and Its Function in Maintenance of the Central Nervous System in Health and Disease.

Annu Rev Immunol 2020 Apr;38:597-620

Center for Brain Immunology and Glia (BIG) and Department of Neuroscience, School of Medicine, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908, USA; email:

Neuroimmunology, albeit a relatively established discipline, has recently sparked numerous exciting findings on microglia, the resident macrophages of the central nervous system (CNS). This review addresses meningeal immunity, a less-studied aspect of neuroimmune interactions. The meninges, a triple layer of membranes-the pia mater, arachnoid mater, and dura mater-surround the CNS, encompassing the cerebrospinal fluid produced by the choroid plexus epithelium. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-immunol-102319-103410DOI Listing

The Emerging Role of B Lymphocytes in Cardiovascular Disease.

Annu Rev Immunol 2020 Apr;38:99-121

Center for Cardiovascular Research, Cardiovascular Division, Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, USA; email:

B cells are traditionally known for their ability to produce antibodies in the context of adaptive immune responses. However, over the last decade B cells have been increasingly recognized as modulators of both adaptive and innate immune responses, as well as players in an important role in the pathogenesis of a variety of human diseases. Here, after briefly summarizing our current understanding of B cell biology, we present a systematic review of the literature from both animal models and human studies that highlight the important role that B lymphocytes play in cardiac and vascular disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-immunol-042617-053104DOI Listing

Microbiota Metabolites in Health and Disease.

Annu Rev Immunol 2020 Apr;38:147-170

Molecular and Systems Physiology Laboratory, Gene Expression Laboratory, NOMIS Center for Immunobiology and Microbial Pathogenesis, Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, California 92037, USA; email:

Metabolism is one of the strongest drivers of interkingdom interactions-including those between microorganisms and their multicellular hosts. Traditionally thought to fuel energy requirements and provide building blocks for biosynthetic pathways, metabolism is now appreciated for its role in providing metabolites, small-molecule intermediates generated from metabolic processes, to perform various regulatory functions to mediate symbiotic relationships between microbes and their hosts. Here, we review recent advances in our mechanistic understanding of how microbiota-derived metabolites orchestrate and support physiological responses in the host, including immunity, inflammation, defense against infections, and metabolism. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-immunol-071219-125715DOI Listing

Finding a Way Out: S1P Signaling and Immune Cell Migration.

Annu Rev Immunol 2020 Apr;38:759-784

Skirball Institute of Biomolecular Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA; email:

The signaling lipid sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) plays critical roles in an immune response. Drugs targeting S1P signaling have been remarkably successful in treatment of multiple sclerosis, and they have shown promise in clinical trials for colitis and psoriasis. One mechanism of these drugs is to block lymphocyte exit from lymph nodes, where lymphocytes are initially activated, into circulation, from which lymphocytes can reach sites of inflammation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-immunol-081519-083952DOI Listing

In Vivo CD4 T Cell Differentiation and Function: Revisiting the Th1/Th2 Paradigm.

Annu Rev Immunol 2020 Apr;38:705-725

Department of Immunology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington 98109, USA; email:

The discovery of CD4 T cell subset-defining master transcription factors and framing of the Th1/Th2 paradigm ignited the CD4 T cell field. Advances in in vivo experimental systems, however, have revealed that more complex lineage-defining transcriptional networks direct CD4 T cell differentiation in the lymphoid organs and tissues. This review focuses on the layers of fate decisions that inform CD4 T cell differentiation in vivo. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-immunol-103019-085803DOI Listing

Interaction Between the Microbiota, Epithelia, and Immune Cells in the Intestine.

Annu Rev Immunol 2020 Apr;38:23-48

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan; email:

The gastrointestinal tract harbors numerous commensal bacteria, referred to as the microbiota, that benefit host health by digesting dietary components and eliminating pathogens. The intestinal microbiota maintains epithelial barrier integrity and shapes the mucosal immune system, balancing host defense and oral tolerance with microbial metabolites, components, and attachment to host cells. To avoid aberrant immune responses, epithelial cells segregate the intestinal microbiota from immune cells by constructing chemical and physical barriers, leading to the establishment of host-commensal mutualism. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-immunol-070119-115104DOI Listing

Primary Atopic Disorders.

Authors:
Joshua D Milner

Annu Rev Immunol 2020 Apr 3;38:785-808. Epub 2020 Mar 3.

Department of Pediatrics, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, NY 10032, USA; email:

Primary atopic disorders describes a series of monogenic diseases that have allergy- or atopic effector-related symptoms as a substantial feature. The underlying pathogenic genetic lesions help illustrate fundamental pathways in atopy, opening up diagnostic and therapeutic options for further study in those patients, but ultimately for common allergic diseases as well. Key pathways affected in these disorders include T cell receptor and B cell receptor signaling, cytokine signaling, skin barrier function, and mast cell function, as well as pathways that have not yet been elucidated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-immunol-042718-041553DOI Listing

Immunology in the Era of Single-Cell Technologies.

Annu Rev Immunol 2020 Apr 19;38:727-757. Epub 2020 Feb 19.

Wellcome Sanger Institute, Hinxton, Cambridgeshire CB10 1SA, United Kingdom; email:

Immune cells are characterized by diversity, specificity, plasticity, and adaptability-properties that enable them to contribute to homeostasis and respond specifically and dynamically to the many threats encountered by the body. Single-cell technologies, including the assessment of transcriptomics, genomics, and proteomics at the level of individual cells, are ideally suited to studying these properties of immune cells. In this review we discuss the benefits of adopting single-cell approaches in studying underappreciated qualities of immune cells and highlight examples where these technologies have been critical to advancing our understanding of the immune system in health and disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-immunol-090419-020340DOI Listing

T Cell Epitope Predictions.

Annu Rev Immunol 2020 Apr 11;38:123-145. Epub 2020 Feb 11.

Division of Vaccine Discovery, La Jolla Institute for Immunology, La Jolla, California 92037, USA; email:

Throughout the body, T cells monitor MHC-bound ligands expressed on the surface of essentially all cell types. MHC ligands that trigger a T cell immune response are referred to as T cell epitopes. Identifying such epitopes enables tracking, phenotyping, and stimulating T cells involved in immune responses in infectious disease, allergy, autoimmunity, transplantation, and cancer. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-immunol-082119-124838DOI Listing

Cruel to Be Kind: Epithelial, Microbial, and Immune Cell Interactions in Gastrointestinal Cancers.

Annu Rev Immunol 2020 Apr 10;38:649-671. Epub 2020 Feb 10.

Laboratory of Gene Regulation and Signal Transduction, Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA; email:

A plethora of experimental and epidemiological evidence supports a critical role for inflammation and adaptive immunity in the onset of cancer and in shaping its response to therapy. These data are particularly robust for gastrointestinal (GI) cancers, such as those affecting the GI tract, liver, and pancreas, on which this review is focused. We propose a unifying hypothesis according to which intestinal barrier disruption is the origin of tumor-promoting inflammation that acts in conjunction with tissue-specific cancer-initiating mutations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-immunol-082019-081656DOI Listing

Vitiligo: Mechanisms of Pathogenesis and Treatment.

Annu Rev Immunol 2020 Apr 4;38:621-648. Epub 2020 Feb 4.

University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts 01655, USA; email:

Vitiligo is an autoimmune disease of the skin that targets pigment-producing melanocytes and results in patches of depigmentation that are visible as white spots. Recent research studies have yielded a strong mechanistic understanding of this disease. Autoreactive cytotoxic CD8 T cells engage melanocytes and promote disease progression through the local production of IFN-γ, and IFN-γ-induced chemokines are then secreted from surrounding keratinocytes to further recruit T cells to the skin through a positive-feedback loop. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-immunol-100919-023531DOI Listing

Caspases in Cell Death, Inflammation, and Pyroptosis.

Annu Rev Immunol 2020 Apr 4;38:567-595. Epub 2020 Feb 4.

Department of Immunology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA; email:

Caspases are a family of conserved cysteine proteases that play key roles in programmed cell death and inflammation. In multicellular organisms, caspases are activated via macromolecular signaling complexes that bring inactive procaspases together and promote their proximity-induced autoactivation and proteolytic processing. Activation of caspases ultimately results in programmed execution of cell death, and the nature of this cell death is determined by the specific caspases involved. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-immunol-073119-095439DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7190443PMC

The Innate Biologies of Adaptive Antigen Receptors.

Annu Rev Immunol 2020 Apr 4;38:487-510. Epub 2020 Feb 4.

Peter Gorer Department of Immunobiology, King's College, London, SE1 9RT, United Kingdom; email:

Nonclonal innate immune responses mediated by germ line-encoded receptors, such as Toll-like receptors or natural killer receptors, are commonly contrasted with diverse, clonotypic adaptive responses of lymphocyte antigen receptors generated by somatic recombination. However, the Variable (V) regions of antigen receptors include germ line-encoded motifs unaltered by somatic recombination, and theoretically available to mediate nonclonal, innate responses, that are independent of or largely override clonotypic responses. Recent evidence demonstrates that such responses exist, underpinning the associations of particular γδ T cell receptors (TCRs) with specific anatomical sites. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-immunol-102819-023144DOI Listing

Regulatory T Cells and Human Disease.

Annu Rev Immunol 2020 Apr 4;38:541-566. Epub 2020 Feb 4.

Department of Experimental Immunology, Immunology Frontier Research Center, Osaka University, Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan; email:

Naturally occurring CD4 regulatory T cells (Tregs), which specifically express the transcription factor FoxP3 in the nucleus and CD25 and CTLA-4 on the cell surface, are a functionally distinct T cell subpopulation actively engaged in the maintenance of immunological self-tolerance and homeostasis. Recent studies have facilitated our understanding of the cellular and molecular basis of their generation, function, phenotypic and functional stability, and adaptability. It is under investigation in humans how functional or numerical Treg anomalies, whether genetically determined or environmentally induced, contribute to immunological diseases such as autoimmune diseases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-immunol-042718-041717DOI Listing

Knocking 'em Dead: Pore-Forming Proteins in Immune Defense.

Annu Rev Immunol 2020 Apr 31;38:455-485. Epub 2020 Jan 31.

Program in Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital and Department of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA; email:

Immune cells use a variety of membrane-disrupting proteins [complement, perforin, perforin-2, granulysin, gasdermins, mixed lineage kinase domain-like pseudokinase (MLKL)] to induce different kinds of death of microbes and host cells, some of which cause inflammation. After activation by proteolytic cleavage or phosphorylation, these proteins oligomerize, bind to membrane lipids, and disrupt membrane integrity. These membrane disruptors play a critical role in both innate and adaptive immunity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-immunol-111319-023800DOI Listing

Chromatin-Modifying Enzymes in T Cell Development.

Annu Rev Immunol 2020 Apr 28;38:397-419. Epub 2020 Jan 28.

Department of Immunology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905, USA; email:

T cell development involves stepwise progression through defined stages that give rise to multiple T cell subtypes, and this is accompanied by the establishment of stage-specific gene expression. Changes in chromatin accessibility and chromatin modifications accompany changes in gene expression during T cell development. Chromatin-modifying enzymes that add or reverse covalent modifications to DNA and histones have a critical role in the dynamic regulation of gene expression throughout T cell development. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-immunol-092719-082622DOI Listing

Regulatory T Cell Development.

Annu Rev Immunol 2020 Apr 28;38:421-453. Epub 2020 Jan 28.

Department of Pathology, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA; email:

Foxp3-expressing CD4 regulatory T (Treg) cells play key roles in the prevention of autoimmunity and the maintenance of immune homeostasis and represent a major barrier to the induction of robust antitumor immune responses. Thus, a clear understanding of the mechanisms coordinating Treg cell differentiation is crucial for understanding numerous facets of health and disease and for developing approaches to modulate Treg cells for clinical benefit. Here, we discuss current knowledge of the signals that coordinate Treg cell development, the antigen-presenting cell types that direct Treg cell selection, and the nature of endogenous Treg cell ligands, focusing on evidence from studies in mice. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-immunol-100219-020937DOI Listing

MAIT Cells in Health and Disease.

Annu Rev Immunol 2020 Apr 27;38:203-228. Epub 2019 Jan 27.

Translational Gastroenterology Unit, Nuffield Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Headington, Oxford OX3 9DU, United Kingdom; email:

Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells have been attracting increasing attention over the last few years as a potent unconventional T cell subset. Three factors largely account for this emerging interest. Firstly, these cells are abundant in humans, both in circulation and especially in some tissues such as the liver. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-immunol-080719-015428DOI Listing

Siglecs as Immune Cell Checkpoints in Disease.

Annu Rev Immunol 2020 Apr 27;38:365-395. Epub 2020 Jan 27.

Departments of Molecular Medicine, and Immunology and Microbiology, Scripps Research, La Jolla, California 92037, USA; email:

Sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-type lectins (Siglecs) are expressed on the majority of white blood cells of the immune system and play critical roles in immune cell signaling. Through recognition of sialic acid-containing glycans as ligands, they help the immune system distinguish between self and nonself. Because of their restricted cell type expression and roles as checkpoints in immune cell responses in human diseases such as cancer, asthma, allergy, neurodegeneration, and autoimmune diseases they have gained attention as targets for therapeutic interventions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-immunol-102419-035900DOI Listing

Krebs Cycle Reborn in Macrophage Immunometabolism.

Annu Rev Immunol 2020 Apr 27;38:289-313. Epub 2020 Jan 27.

School of Biochemistry and Immunology and Trinity Biomedical Sciences Institute, Trinity College, Dublin 2, Ireland; email:

A striking change has happened in the field of immunology whereby specific metabolic processes have been shown to be a critical determinant of immune cell activation. Multiple immune receptor types rewire metabolic pathways as a key part of how they promote effector functions. Perhaps surprisingly for immunologists, the Krebs cycle has emerged as the central immunometabolic hub of the macrophage. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-immunol-081619-104850DOI Listing

Age-Associated B Cells.

Authors:
Michael P Cancro

Annu Rev Immunol 2020 Apr 27;38:315-340. Epub 2020 Jan 27.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA; email:

The age-associated B cell subset has been the focus of increasing interest over the last decade. These cells have a unique cell surface phenotype and transcriptional signature, and they rely on TLR7 or TLR9 signals in the context of Th1 cytokines for their formation and activation. Most are antigen-experienced memory B cells that arise during responses to microbial infections and are key to pathogen clearance and control. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-immunol-092419-031130DOI Listing

Hypoxia and Innate Immunity: Keeping Up with the HIFsters.

Annu Rev Immunol 2020 Apr 21;38:341-363. Epub 2020 Jan 21.

UCD Conway Institute, Systems Biology Ireland and School of Medicine, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland.

Recent years have witnessed an emergence of interest in understanding metabolic changes associated with immune responses, termed immunometabolism. As oxygen is central to all aerobic metabolism, hypoxia is now recognized to contribute fundamentally to inflammatory and immune responses. Studies from a number of groups have implicated a prominent role for oxygen metabolism and hypoxia in innate immunity of healthy tissue (physiologic hypoxia) and during active inflammation (inflammatory hypoxia). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-immunol-100819-121537DOI Listing

Neonatal T Cells: A Reinterpretation.

Authors:
Brian D Rudd

Annu Rev Immunol 2020 Apr 13;38:229-247. Epub 2020 Jan 13.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA; email:

Neonatal CD4 and CD8 T cells have historically been characterized as immature or defective. However, recent studies prompt a reinterpretation of the functions of neonatal T cells. Rather than a population of cells always falling short of expectations set by their adult counterparts, neonatal T cells are gaining recognition as a distinct population of lymphocytes well suited for the rapidly changing environment in early life. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-immunol-091319-083608DOI Listing

Innate Immune Response to Cytoplasmic DNA: Mechanisms and Diseases.

Annu Rev Immunol 2020 Apr 4;38:79-98. Epub 2019 Dec 4.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Frontier Science Center for Immunology and Metabolism, Medical Research Institute, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071, China; email:

DNA has been known to be a potent immune stimulus for more than half a century. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of DNA-triggered immune response have remained elusive until recent years. Cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) is a major cytoplasmic DNA sensor in various types of cells that detect either invaded foreign DNA or aberrantly located self-DNA. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-immunol-070119-115052DOI Listing

Obsessive-Compulsive Behavior Isn't Necessarily a Bad Thing.

Authors:
Philippa Marrack

Annu Rev Immunol 2020 Apr 8;38:1-21. Epub 2019 Oct 8.

Department of Biomedical Research, National Jewish Health, Denver, Colorado 80206, USA; email:

It is difficult to believe that in about 1960 practically nothing was known about the thymus and some of its products, T cells bearing αβ receptors for antigen. Thus I was lucky to join the field of T cell biology almost at its beginning, when knowledge about the cells was just getting off the ground and there was so much to discover. This article describes findings about these cells made by others and myself that led us all from ignorance, via complete confusion, to our current state of knowledge. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-immunol-072319-033325DOI Listing

Nonclassical Monocytes in Health and Disease.

Annu Rev Immunol 2019 04;37:439-456

Division of Inflammation Biology, La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology, La Jolla, California 92037, USA; email: , , ,

Monocytes are innate blood cells that maintain vascular homeostasis and are early responders to pathogens in acute infections. There are three well-characterized classes of monocytes: classical (CD14CD16 in humans and Ly6C in mice), intermediate (CD14CD16 in humans and Ly6CTreml4 in mice), and nonclassical (CD14CD16 in humans and Ly6C in mice). Classical monocytes are critical for the initial inflammatory response. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-immunol-042617-053119DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Neuroinflammation During RNA Viral Infections.

Annu Rev Immunol 2019 04;37:73-95

Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, USA; email:

Neurotropic RNA viruses continue to emerge and are increasingly linked to diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) despite viral clearance. Indeed, the overall mortality of viral encephalitis in immunocompetent individuals is low, suggesting efficient mechanisms of virologic control within the CNS. Both immune and neural cells participate in this process, which requires extensive innate immune signaling between resident and infiltrating cells, including microglia and monocytes, that regulate the effector functions of antiviral T and B cells as they gain access to CNS compartments. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-immunol-042718-041417DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6731125PMC
April 2019
24 Reads

New Molecular Insights into Immune Cell Development.

Annu Rev Immunol 2019 04;37:497-519

Unité Lymphopoïèse, Département d'Immunologie, INSERM U1223, Institut Pasteur, 75724 Paris CEDEX 15, France; email: , ,

During development innate lymphoid cells and specialized lymphocyte subsets colonize peripheral tissues, where they contribute to organogenesis and later constitute the first line of protection while maintaining tissue homeostasis. A few of these subsets are produced only during embryonic development and remain in the tissues throughout life. They are generated through a unique developmental program initiated in lympho-myeloid-primed progenitors, which lose myeloid and B cell potential. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-immunol-042718-041319DOI Listing
April 2019
11 Reads

Antigen Receptor Function in the Context of the Nanoscale Organization of the B Cell Membrane.

Annu Rev Immunol 2019 04;37:97-123

BIOSS Centre for Biological Signaling Studies, University of Freiburg, 79104 Freiburg, Germany; email:

The B cell antigen receptor (BCR) plays a central role in the self/nonself selection of B lymphocytes and in their activation by cognate antigen during the clonal selection process. It was long thought that most cell surface receptors, including the BCR, were freely diffusing and randomly distributed. Since the advent of superresolution techniques, it has become clear that the plasma membrane is compartmentalized and highly organized at the nanometer scale. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-immunol-042718-041704DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Gut Microbiota Regulation of T Cells During Inflammation and Autoimmunity.

Annu Rev Immunol 2019 04;37:599-624

Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA; email: ,

The intestinal microbiota plays a crucial role in influencing the development of host immunity, and in turn the immune system also acts to regulate the microbiota through intestinal barrier maintenance and immune exclusion. Normally, these interactions are homeostatic, tightly controlled, and organized by both innate and adaptive immune responses. However, a combination of environmental exposures and genetic defects can result in a break in tolerance and intestinal homeostasis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-immunol-042718-041841DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

The Microbiome and Food Allergy.

Annu Rev Immunol 2019 04;37:377-403

Department of Pathology, Biological Sciences Division, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637-1824, USA; email:

The gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) faces a considerable challenge. It encounters antigens derived from an estimated 10 commensal microbes and greater than 30 kg of food proteins yearly. It must distinguish these harmless antigens from potential pathogens and mount the appropriate host immune response. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-immunol-042718-041621DOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads

Tissue-Resident T Cells and Other Resident Leukocytes.

Annu Rev Immunol 2019 04 6;37:521-546. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Center for Immunology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA; email: ,

Resident memory T (Trm) cells stably occupy tissues and cannot be sampled in superficial venous blood. Trm cells are heterogeneous but collectively constitute the most abundant memory T cell subset. Trm cells form an integral part of the immune sensing network, monitor for local perturbations in homeostasis throughout the body, participate in protection from infection and cancer, and likely promote autoimmunity, allergy, and inflammatory diseases and impede successful transplantation. Read More

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https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/10.1146/annurev-immunol-04
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-immunol-042617-053214DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7175802PMC
April 2019
36 Reads

Using T Cell Receptor Repertoires to Understand the Principles of Adaptive Immune Recognition.

Annu Rev Immunol 2019 04 30;37:547-570. Epub 2019 Jan 30.

Department of Immunology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA; email:

Adaptive immune recognition is mediated by antigen receptors on B and T cells generated by somatic recombination during lineage development. The high level of diversity resulting from this process posed technical limitations that previously limited the comprehensive analysis of adaptive immune recognition. Advances over the last ten years have produced data and approaches allowing insights into how T cells develop, evolutionary signatures of recombination and selection, and the features of T cell receptors that mediate epitope-specific binding and T cell activation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-immunol-042718-041757DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

CRISPR-Based Tools in Immunity.

Annu Rev Immunol 2019 04 30;37:571-597. Epub 2019 Jan 30.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143, USA; email:

CRISPR technology has opened a new era of genome interrogation and genome engineering. Discovered in bacteria, where it protects against bacteriophage by cleaving foreign nucleic acid sequences, the CRISPR system has been repurposed as an adaptable tool for genome editing and multiple other applications. CRISPR's ease of use, precision, and versatility have led to its widespread adoption, accelerating biomedical research and discovery in human cells and model organisms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-immunol-042718-041522DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

CD8 T Cell Exhaustion During Chronic Viral Infection and Cancer.

Annu Rev Immunol 2019 04 24;37:457-495. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

Department of Systems Pharmacology and Translational Therapeutics, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA; email:

Exhausted CD8 T (Tex) cells are a distinct cell lineage that arise during chronic infections and cancers in animal models and humans. Tex cells are characterized by progressive loss of effector functions, high and sustained inhibitory receptor expression, metabolic dysregulation, poor memory recall and homeostatic self-renewal, and distinct transcriptional and epigenetic programs. The ability to reinvigorate Tex cells through inhibitory receptor blockade, such as αPD-1, highlights the therapeutic potential of targeting this population. Read More

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https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/10.1146/annurev-immunol-04
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-immunol-041015-055318DOI Listing
April 2019
35 Reads

Purine Release, Metabolism, and Signaling in the Inflammatory Response.

Annu Rev Immunol 2019 04 24;37:325-347. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, Florida 33136, USA; email:

ATP, NAD, and nucleic acids are abundant purines that, in addition to having critical intracellular functions, have evolved extracellular roles as danger signals released in response to cell lysis, apoptosis, degranulation, or membrane pore formation. In general ATP and NAD have excitatory and adenosine has anti-inflammatory effects on immune cells. This review focuses on recent advances in our understanding of purine release mechanisms, ectoenzymes that metabolize purines (CD38, CD39, CD73, ENPP1, and ENPP2/autotaxin), and signaling by key P2 purinergic receptors (P2X7, P2Y2, and P2Y12). Read More

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https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/10.1146/annurev-immunol-05
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-immunol-051116-052406DOI Listing
April 2019
39 Reads

Double-Stranded RNA Sensors and Modulators in Innate Immunity.

Authors:
Sun Hur

Annu Rev Immunol 2019 04 23;37:349-375. Epub 2019 Jan 23.

Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA; email:

Detection of double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) is a central mechanism of innate immune defense in many organisms. We here discuss several families of dsRNA-binding proteins involved in mammalian antiviral innate immunity. These include RIG-I-like receptors, protein kinase R, oligoadenylate synthases, adenosine deaminases acting on RNA, RNA interference systems, and other proteins containing dsRNA-binding domains and helicase domains. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-immunol-042718-041356DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7136661PMC
April 2019
1 Read

Disease Tolerance as an Inherent Component of Immunity.

Annu Rev Immunol 2019 04 23;37:405-437. Epub 2019 Jan 23.

Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciência, 2780-156 Oeiras, Portugal; email:

Pathogenic organisms exert a negative impact on host health, revealed by the clinical signs of infectious diseases. Immunity limits the severity of infectious diseases through resistance mechanisms that sense and target pathogens for containment, killing, or expulsion. These resistance mechanisms are viewed as the prevailing function of immunity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-immunol-042718-041739DOI Listing
April 2019
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Fine-Tuning Cytokine Signals.

Annu Rev Immunol 2019 04 16;37:295-324. Epub 2019 Jan 16.

Laboratory of Molecular Immunology and the Immunology Center, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892-1674, USA; email: ,

Cytokines are secreted or otherwise released polypeptide factors that exert autocrine and/or paracrine actions, with most cytokines acting in the immune and/or hematopoietic system. They are typically pleiotropic, controlling development, cell growth, survival, and/or differentiation. Correspondingly, cytokines are clinically important, and augmenting or attenuating cytokine signals can have deleterious or therapeutic effects. Read More

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https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/10.1146/annurev-immunol-04
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-immunol-042718-041447DOI Listing
April 2019
36 Reads

The Myeloid Cell Compartment-Cell by Cell.

Annu Rev Immunol 2019 04 16;37:269-293. Epub 2019 Jan 16.

Department for Genomics and Immunoregulation, Life and Medical Sciences (LIMES) Institute, University of Bonn, 53115 Bonn, Germany; email: , , , ,

Myeloid cells are a major cellular compartment of the immune system comprising monocytes, dendritic cells, tissue macrophages, and granulocytes. Models of cellular ontogeny, activation, differentiation, and tissue-specific functions of myeloid cells have been revisited during the last years with surprising results; for example, most tissue macrophages are yolk sac derived, monocytes and macrophages follow a multidimensional model of activation, and tissue signals have a significant impact on the functionality of all these cells. While these exciting results have brought these cells back to center stage, their enormous plasticity and heterogeneity, during both homeostasis and disease, are far from understood. Read More

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https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/10.1146/annurev-immunol-04
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-immunol-042718-041728DOI Listing
April 2019
39 Reads

Self-Awareness: Nucleic Acid-Driven Inflammation and the Type I Interferonopathies.

Annu Rev Immunol 2019 04 11;37:247-267. Epub 2019 Jan 11.

Centre for Genomic and Experimental Medicine, MRC Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH4 2XU, United Kingdom; email:

Recognition of foreign nucleic acids is the primary mechanism by which a type I interferon-mediated antiviral response is triggered. Given that human cells are replete with DNA and RNA, this evolutionary strategy poses an inherent biological challenge, i.e. Read More

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https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/10.1146/annurev-immunol-04
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-immunol-042718-041257DOI Listing
April 2019
26 Reads

Origin, Organization, Dynamics, and Function of Actin and Actomyosin Networks at the T Cell Immunological Synapse.

Annu Rev Immunol 2019 04 21;37:201-224. Epub 2018 Dec 21.

Cell Biology and Physiology Center, National Heart Lung and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA; email:

The engagement of a T cell with an antigen-presenting cell (APC) or activating surface results in the formation within the T cell of several distinct actin and actomyosin networks. These networks reside largely within a narrow zone immediately under the T cell's plasma membrane at its site of contact with the APC or activating surface, i.e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-immunol-042718-041341DOI Listing
April 2019
4 Reads
39.327 Impact Factor

The Antibody Response to : Cues for Vaccine Design and the Discovery of Receptor-Based Antibodies.

Annu Rev Immunol 2019 04 19;37:225-246. Epub 2018 Dec 19.

Institute for Research in Biomedicine, Università della Svizzera italiana, 6500 Bellinzona, Switzerland; email:

remains a serious public health problem and a continuous challenge for the immune system due to the complexity and diversity of the pathogen. Recent advances from several laboratories in the characterization of the antibody response to the parasite have led to the identification of critical targets for protection and revealed a new mechanism of diversification based on the insertion of host receptors into immunoglobulin genes, leading to the production of receptor-based antibodies. These advances have opened new possibilities for vaccine design and passive antibody therapies to provide sterilizing immunity and control blood-stage parasites. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-immunol-042617-053301DOI Listing
April 2019
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Cancer Neoantigens.

Annu Rev Immunol 2019 04 14;37:173-200. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Division of Molecular Oncology and Immunology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, 1066 CX Amsterdam, The Netherlands; email: ,

Malignant transformation of cells depends on accumulation of DNA damage. Over the past years we have learned that the T cell-based immune system frequently responds to the neoantigens that arise as a consequence of this DNA damage. Furthermore, recognition of neoantigens appears an important driver of the clinical activity of both T cell checkpoint blockade and adoptive T cell therapy as cancer immunotherapies. Read More

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https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/10.1146/annurev-immunol-04
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-immunol-042617-053402DOI Listing
April 2019
36 Reads

Emerging Cellular Therapies for Cancer.

Annu Rev Immunol 2019 04 10;37:145-171. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Center for Cellular Immunotherapies, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA; email:

Genetically engineered T cells are powerful new medicines, offering hope for curative responses in patients with cancer. Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells were recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration and are poised to enter the practice of medicine for leukemia and lymphoma, demonstrating that engineered immune cells can serve as a powerful new class of cancer therapeutics. The emergence of synthetic biology approaches for cellular engineering provides a broadly expanded set of tools for programming immune cells for enhanced function. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-immunol-042718-041407DOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads
39.327 Impact Factor