936 results match your criteria Annual Review of Immunology[Journal]


Tissue-Resident T Cells and Other Resident Leukocytes.

Annu Rev Immunol 2019 Jun 2. Epub 2019 Jun 2.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Center for Immunology, University of Minnesota 55455, USA; email: ,

Resident memory T (Trm) cells stably occupy tissues and cannot be sampled in superficial venous blood. Trm cells are heterogeneous but collectively constitute the most abundant memory T cell subset. Trm cells form an integral part of the immune sensing network, monitor for local perturbations in homeostasis throughout the body, participate in protection from infection and cancer, and likely promote autoimmunity, allergy, and inflammatory diseases and impede successful transplantation. Read More

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https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/10.1146/annurev-immunol-04
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-immunol-042617-053214DOI Listing
June 2019
16 Reads

Using T Cell Receptor Repertoires to Understand the Principles of Adaptive Immune Recognition.

Annu Rev Immunol 2019 Jan 30. Epub 2019 Jan 30.

Department of Immunology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA; email:

Adaptive immune recognition is mediated by antigen receptors on B and T cells generated by somatic recombination during lineage development. The high level of diversity resulting from this process posed technical limitations that previously limited the comprehensive analysis of adaptive immune recognition. Advances over the last ten years have produced data and approaches allowing insights into how T cells develop, evolutionary signatures of recombination and selection, and the features of T cell receptors that mediate epitope-specific binding and T cell activation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-immunol-042718-041757DOI Listing
January 2019

CRISPR-Based Tools in Immunity.

Annu Rev Immunol 2019 Jan 30. Epub 2019 Jan 30.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143, USA; email:

CRISPR technology has opened a new era of genome interrogation and genome engineering. Discovered in bacteria, where it protects against bacteriophage by cleaving foreign nucleic acid sequences, the CRISPR system has been repurposed as an adaptable tool for genome editing and multiple other applications. CRISPR's ease of use, precision, and versatility have led to its widespread adoption, accelerating biomedical research and discovery in human cells and model organisms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-immunol-042718-041522DOI Listing
January 2019

CD8 T Cell Exhaustion During Chronic Viral Infection and Cancer.

Annu Rev Immunol 2019 Jan 24. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

Department of Systems Pharmacology and Translational Therapeutics, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA; email:

Exhausted CD8 T (Tex) cells are a distinct cell lineage that arise during chronic infections and cancers in animal models and humans. Tex cells are characterized by progressive loss of effector functions, high and sustained inhibitory receptor expression, metabolic dysregulation, poor memory recall and homeostatic self-renewal, and distinct transcriptional and epigenetic programs. The ability to reinvigorate Tex cells through inhibitory receptor blockade, such as αPD-1, highlights the therapeutic potential of targeting this population. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-immunol-041015-055318DOI Listing
January 2019
15 Reads

Purine Release, Metabolism, and Signaling in the Inflammatory Response.

Annu Rev Immunol 2019 Jan 24. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, Florida 33136, USA; email:

ATP, NAD, and nucleic acids are abundant purines that, in addition to having critical intracellular functions, have evolved extracellular roles as danger signals released in response to cell lysis, apoptosis, degranulation, or membrane pore formation. In general ATP and NAD have excitatory and adenosine has anti-inflammatory effects on immune cells. This review focuses on recent advances in our understanding of purine release mechanisms, ectoenzymes that metabolize purines (CD38, CD39, CD73, ENPP1, and ENPP2/autotaxin), and signaling by key P2 purinergic receptors (P2X7, P2Y2, and P2Y12). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-immunol-051116-052406DOI Listing
January 2019
18 Reads

Double-Stranded RNA Sensors and Modulators in Innate Immunity.

Authors:
Sun Hur

Annu Rev Immunol 2019 Jan 23. Epub 2019 Jan 23.

Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA; email:

Detection of double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) is a central mechanism of innate immune defense in many organisms. We here discuss several families of dsRNA-binding proteins involved in mammalian antiviral innate immunity. These include RIG-I-like receptors, protein kinase R, oligoadenylate synthases, adenosine deaminases acting on RNA, RNA interference systems, and other proteins containing dsRNA-binding domains and helicase domains. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-immunol-042718-041356DOI Listing
January 2019

Disease Tolerance as an Inherent Component of Immunity.

Annu Rev Immunol 2019 Jan 23. Epub 2019 Jan 23.

Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciência, Rua da Quinta Grande, 6, 2780-156 Oeiras, Portugal; email:

Pathogenic organisms exert a negative impact on host health, revealed by the clinical signs of infectious diseases. Immunity limits the severity of infectious diseases through resistance mechanisms that sense and target pathogens for containment, killing, or expulsion. These resistance mechanisms are viewed as the prevailing function of immunity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-immunol-042718-041739DOI Listing
January 2019

Fine-Tuning Cytokine Signals.

Annu Rev Immunol 2019 Jan 16. Epub 2019 Jan 16.

Laboratory of Molecular Immunology and the Immunology Center, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892-1674, USA; email: ,

Cytokines are secreted or otherwise released polypeptide factors that exert autocrine and/or paracrine actions, with most cytokines acting in the immune and/or hematopoietic system. They are typically pleiotropic, controlling development, cell growth, survival, and/or differentiation. Correspondingly, cytokines are clinically important, and augmenting or attenuating cytokine signals can have deleterious or therapeutic effects. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-immunol-042718-041447DOI Listing
January 2019
16 Reads

The Myeloid Cell Compartment-Cell by Cell.

Annu Rev Immunol 2019 Jan 16. Epub 2019 Jan 16.

Department for Genomics and Immunoregulation, Life and Medical Sciences (LIMES) Institute, University of Bonn, 53115 Bonn, Germany; email: , , , ,

Myeloid cells are a major cellular compartment of the immune system comprising monocytes, dendritic cells, tissue macrophages, and granulocytes. Models of cellular ontogeny, activation, differentiation, and tissue-specific functions of myeloid cells have been revisited during the last years with surprising results; for example, most tissue macrophages are yolk sac derived, monocytes and macrophages follow a multidimensional model of activation, and tissue signals have a significant impact on the functionality of all these cells. While these exciting results have brought these cells back to center stage, their enormous plasticity and heterogeneity, during both homeostasis and disease, are far from understood. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-immunol-042718-041728DOI Listing
January 2019
14 Reads

Self-Awareness: Nucleic Acid-Driven Inflammation and the Type I Interferonopathies.

Annu Rev Immunol 2019 Jan 11. Epub 2019 Jan 11.

Centre for Genomic and Experimental Medicine, MRC Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH4 2XU, United Kingdom; email:

Recognition of foreign nucleic acids is the primary mechanism by which a type I interferon-mediated antiviral response is triggered. Given that human cells are replete with DNA and RNA, this evolutionary strategy poses an inherent biological challenge, i.e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-immunol-042718-041257DOI Listing
January 2019
10 Reads

Origin, Organization, Dynamics, and Function of Actin and Actomyosin Networks at the T Cell Immunological Synapse.

Annu Rev Immunol 2018 Dec 21. Epub 2018 Dec 21.

Cell Biology and Physiology Center, National Heart Lung and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA; email:

The engagement of aTcell with an antigen-presenting cell (APC) or activating surface results in the formation within the T cell of several distinct actin and actomyosin networks. These networks reside largely within a narrow zone immediately under the T cell's plasma membrane at its site of contact with the APC or activating surface, i.e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-immunol-042718-041341DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read
39.327 Impact Factor

The Antibody Response to Plasmodium falciparum: Cues for Vaccine Design and the Discovery of Receptor-Based Antibodies.

Annu Rev Immunol 2018 Dec 19. Epub 2018 Dec 19.

Institute for Research in Biomedicine, Università della Svizzera italiana, 6500 Bellinzona, Switzerland; email:

Plasmodium falciparum remains a serious public health problem and a continuous challenge for the immune system due to the complexity and diversity of the pathogen. Recent advances from several laboratories in the characterization of the antibody response to the parasite have led to the identification of critical targets for protection and revealed a new mechanism of diversification based on the insertion of host receptors into immunoglobulin genes, leading to the production of receptor-based antibodies. These advances have opened new possibilities for vaccine design and passive antibody therapies to provide sterilizing immunity and control blood-stage parasites. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-immunol-042617-053301DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Cancer Neoantigens.

Annu Rev Immunol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Division of Molecular Oncology and Immunology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, 1066 CX Amsterdam, The Netherlands; email: ,

Malignant transformation of cells depends on accumulation of DNA damage. Over the past years we have learned that the T cell-based immune system frequently responds to the neoantigens that arise as a consequence of this DNA damage. Furthermore, recognition of neoantigens appears an important driver of the clinical activity of both T cell checkpoint blockade and adoptive T cell therapy as cancer immunotherapies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-immunol-042617-053402DOI Listing
December 2018
19 Reads

Emerging Cellular Therapies for Cancer.

Annu Rev Immunol 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Center for Cellular Immunotherapies, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA; email:

Genetically engineered T cells are powerful new medicines, offering hope for curative responses in patients with cancer. Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells were recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration and are poised to enter the practice of medicine for leukemia and lymphoma, demonstrating that engineered immune cells can serve as a powerful new class of cancer therapeutics. The emergence of synthetic biology approaches for cellular engineering provides a broadly expanded set of tools for programming immune cells for enhanced function. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-immunol-042718-041407DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read
39.327 Impact Factor

The Platelet Napoleon Complex-Small Cells, but Big Immune Regulatory Functions.

Annu Rev Immunol 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Aab Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of Rochester School of Medicine, Rochester, New York 14642, USA; email:

Platelets have dual physiologic roles as both cellular mediators of thrombosis and immune modulatory cells. Historically, the thrombotic function of platelets has received significant research and clinical attention, but emerging research indicates that the immune regulatory roles of platelets may be just as important. We now know that in addition to their role in the acute thrombotic event at the time of myocardial infarction, platelets initiate and accelerate inflammatory processes that are part of the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction expansion. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-immunol-042718-041607DOI Listing
November 2018
10 Reads

Neuro-Immune Cell Units: A New Paradigm in Physiology.

Annu Rev Immunol 2018 Oct 31. Epub 2018 Oct 31.

Champalimaud Research, Champalimaud Centre for the Unknown, 1400-038 Lisboa, Portugal; email: , ,

The interplay between the immune and nervous systems has been acknowledged in the past, but only more recent studies have started to unravel the cellular and molecular players of such interactions. Mounting evidence indicates that environmental signals are sensed by discrete neuro-immune cell units (NICUs), which represent defined anatomical locations in which immune and neuronal cells colocalize and functionally interact to steer tissue physiology and protection. These units have now been described in multiple tissues throughout the body, including lymphoid organs, adipose tissue, and mucosal barriers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-immunol-042718-041812DOI Listing
October 2018
2 Reads

Sixty Years of Discovery.

Authors:
David Baltimore

Annu Rev Immunol 2018 Oct 31. Epub 2018 Oct 31.

Division of Biology and Biological Engineering, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91106, USA; email:

Each of us is a story. Mine is a story of doing science for 60 years, and I am honored to be asked to tell it. Even though this autobiography was written for the Annual Review of Immunology, I have chosen to describe my whole career in science because the segment that was immunology is so intertwined with all else I was doing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-immunol-042718-041210DOI Listing
October 2018
1 Read

Tuft Cells-Systemically Dispersed Sensory Epithelia Integrating Immune and Neural Circuitry.

Annu Rev Immunol 2018 Oct 31. Epub 2018 Oct 31.

Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143, USA; email: , ,

Tuft cells-rare solitary chemosensory cells in mucosal epithelia-are undergoing intense scientific scrutiny fueled by recent discovery of unsuspected connections to type 2 immunity. These cells constitute a conduit by which ligands from the external space are sensed via taste-like signaling pathways to generate outputs unique among epithelial cells: the cytokine IL-25, eicosanoids associated with allergic immunity, and the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. The classic type II taste cell transcription factor POU2F3 is lineage defining, suggesting a conceptualization of these cells as widely distributed environmental sensors with effector functions interfacing type 2 immunity and neural circuits. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-immunol-042718-041505DOI Listing
October 2018
14 Reads

RIG-I and Other RNA Sensors in Antiviral Immunity.

Annu Rev Immunol 2018 04;36:667-694

Center for Innate Immunity and Immune Disease and Department of Immunology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98109, USA; email: , ,

Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) survey intra- and extracellular spaces for pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) within microbial products of infection. Recognition and binding to cognate PAMP ligand by specific PRRs initiates signaling cascades that culminate in a coordinated intracellular innate immune response designed to control infection. In particular, our immune system has evolved specialized PRRs to discriminate viral nucleic acid from host. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-immunol-042617-053309DOI Listing
April 2018
6 Reads

Unfinished Business: Evolution of the MHC and the Adaptive Immune System of Jawed Vertebrates.

Authors:
Jim Kaufman

Annu Rev Immunol 2018 04;36:383-409

Department of Pathology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1QP, United Kingdom.

The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a large genetic region with many genes, including the highly polymorphic classical class I and II genes that play crucial roles in adaptive as well as innate immune responses. The organization of the MHC varies enormously among jawed vertebrates, but class I and II genes have not been found in other animals. How did the MHC arise, and are there underlying principles that can help us to understand the evolution of the MHC? This review considers what it means to be an MHC and the potential importance of genome-wide duplication, gene linkage, and gene coevolution for the emergence and evolution of an adaptive immune system. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-immunol-051116-052450DOI Listing
April 2018
6 Reads

Systems Immunology: Learning the Rules of the Immune System.

Annu Rev Immunol 2018 04;36:813-842

Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA.

Given the many cell types and molecular components of the human immune system, along with vast variations across individuals, how should we go about developing causal and predictive explanations of immunity? A central strategy in human studies is to leverage natural variation to find relationships among variables, including DNA variants, epigenetic states, immune phenotypes, clinical descriptors, and others. Here, we focus on how natural variation is used to find patterns, infer principles, and develop predictive models for two areas: (a) immune cell activation-how single-cell profiling boosts our ability to discover immune cell types and states-and (b) antigen presentation and recognition-how models can be generated to predict presentation of antigens on MHC molecules and their detection by T cell receptors. These are two examples of a shift in how we find the drivers and targets of immunity, especially in the human system in the context of health and disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-immunol-042617-053035DOI Listing
April 2018
10 Reads

CD4 Helper and CD8 Cytotoxic T Cell Differentiation.

Authors:
Ichiro Taniuchi

Annu Rev Immunol 2018 04;36:579-601

Laboratory for Transcriptional Regulation, RIKEN Center for Integrative Medical Sciences, Yokohama, Kanagawa 230-0045, Japan; email:

A fundamental question in developmental immunology is how bipotential thymocyte precursors generate both CD4 helper and CD8 cytotoxic T cell lineages. The MHC specificity of αβ T cell receptors (TCRs) on precursors is closely correlated with cell fate-determining processes, prompting studies to characterize how variations in TCR signaling are linked with genetic programs establishing lineage-specific gene expression signatures, such as exclusive CD4 or CD8 expression. The key transcription factors ThPOK and Runx3 have been identified as mediating development of helper and cytotoxic T cell lineages, respectively. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-immunol-042617-053411DOI Listing
April 2018
5 Reads

Molecular and Functional Neuroscience in Immunity.

Annu Rev Immunol 2018 04;36:783-812

Center for Biomedical Science and Center for Bioelectronic Medicine, The Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, Northwell Health, Manhasset, New York 11030, USA; email: , ,

The nervous system regulates immunity and inflammation. The molecular detection of pathogen fragments, cytokines, and other immune molecules by sensory neurons generates immunoregulatory responses through efferent autonomic neuron signaling. The functional organization of this neural control is based on principles of reflex regulation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-immunol-042617-053158DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6057146PMC
April 2018
8 Reads
39.327 Impact Factor

Unraveling the Complex Interplay Between T Cell Metabolism and Function.

Annu Rev Immunol 2018 04;36:461-488

Department of Immunometabolism, Max Planck Institute of Immunobiology and Epigenetics, Freiburg 79108, Germany; email:

Metabolism drives function, on both an organismal and a cellular level. In T cell biology, metabolic remodeling is intrinsically linked to cellular development, activation, function, differentiation, and survival. After naive T cells are activated, increased demands for metabolic currency in the form of ATP, as well as biomass for cell growth, proliferation, and the production of effector molecules, are met by rewiring cellular metabolism. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-immunol-042617-053019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6323527PMC
April 2018
7 Reads

Signaling and Function of Interleukin-2 in T Lymphocytes.

Annu Rev Immunol 2018 04;36:411-433

Division of Cell Signalling and Immunology, School of Life Sciences, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 5EH, Scotland, United Kingdom; email:

The discovery of interleukin-2 (IL-2) changed the molecular understanding of how the immune system is controlled. IL-2 is a pleiotropic cytokine, and dissecting the signaling pathways that allow IL-2 to control the differentiation and homeostasis of both pro- and anti-inflammatory T cells is fundamental to determining the molecular details of immune regulation. The IL-2 receptor couples to JAK tyrosine kinases and activates the STAT5 transcription factors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-immunol-042617-053352DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6472684PMC
April 2018
6 Reads

Translating Immunology into Therapeutic Concepts for Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

Annu Rev Immunol 2018 04;36:755-781

Kennedy Institute of Rheumatology, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7FY, United Kingdom; email:

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) defines a spectrum of complex disorders. Understanding how environmental risk factors, alterations of the intestinal microbiota, and polygenetic and epigenetic susceptibility impact on immune pathways is key for developing targeted therapies. Mechanistic understanding of polygenic IBD is complemented by Mendelian disorders that present with IBD, pharmacological interventions that cause colitis, autoimmunity, and multiple animal models. Read More

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April 2018
10 Reads

The Way We Walked with Immunology.

Annu Rev Immunol 2018 04;36:1-18

La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology, La Jolla, California 92037, USA; email:

It has been a little more than 50 years since we discovered IgE, a key molecule for the allergic response and a target for treating allergies and severe asthma. Here, I trace my career, from the kindling of my interest in immunochemistry to groundbreaking discoveries in the biology and chemistry of immunoglobulins. I describe my service to the broader community of immunologists and my role in shaping departments and research institutes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-immunol-010318-102821DOI Listing
April 2018
8 Reads

Complement and the Regulation of T Cell Responses.

Annu Rev Immunol 2018 04;36:309-338

Laboratory of Molecular Immunology and Immunology Center, National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, United States; email: ,

The complement system is an evolutionarily ancient key component of innate immunity required for the detection and removal of invading pathogens. It was discovered more than 100 years ago and was originally defined as a liver-derived, blood-circulating sentinel system that classically mediates the opsonization and lytic killing of dangerous microbes and the initiation of the general inflammatory reaction. More recently, complement has also emerged as a critical player in adaptive immunity via its ability to instruct both B and T cell responses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-immunol-042617-053245DOI Listing
April 2018
6 Reads

Multidomain Control Over TEC Kinase Activation State Tunes the T Cell Response.

Annu Rev Immunol 2018 04;36:549-578

Department of Pathology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts 01655, USA; email: ,

Signaling through the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) activates a series of tyrosine kinases. Directly associated with the TCR, the SRC family kinase LCK and the SYK family kinase ZAP-70 are essential for all downstream responses to TCR stimulation. In contrast, the TEC family kinase ITK is not an obligate component of the TCR cascade. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-immunol-042617-053344DOI Listing
April 2018
10 Reads

The Immune Response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis in HIV-1-Coinfected Persons.

Annu Rev Immunol 2018 04 28;36:603-638. Epub 2018 Feb 28.

Wellcome Centre for Infectious Diseases Research in Africa, Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, and Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town 7925, Republic of South Africa; email:

Globally, about 36.7 million people were living with HIV infection at the end of 2015. The most frequent infection co-occurring with HIV-1 is Mycobacterium tuberculosis-374,000 deaths per annum are attributable to HIV-tuberculosis, 75% of those occurring in Africa. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-immunol-042617-053420DOI Listing
April 2018
11 Reads

Regulation of the Cell Biology of Antigen Cross-Presentation.

Annu Rev Immunol 2018 04 28;36:717-753. Epub 2018 Feb 28.

Jill Roberts Institute for Research in Inflammatory Bowel Disease, Weill Cornell Medicine, Cornell University, New York, NY 10021, USA; email:

Antigen cross-presentation is an adaptation of the cellular process of loading MHC-I molecules with endogenous peptides during their biosynthesis within the endoplasmic reticulum. Cross-presented peptides derive from internalized proteins, microbial pathogens, and transformed or dying cells. The physical separation of internalized cargo from the endoplasmic reticulum, where the machinery for assembling peptide-MHC-I complexes resides, poses a challenge. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-immunol-041015-055523DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6430635PMC
April 2018
6 Reads

Exploiting Nanobodies' Singular Traits.

Annu Rev Immunol 2018 04 28;36:695-715. Epub 2018 Feb 28.

Program in Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Children's Hospital Boston, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA; email:

The unique class of heavy chain-only antibodies, present in Camelidae, can be shrunk to just the variable region of the heavy chain to yield VHHs, also called nanobodies. About one-tenth the size of their full-size counterparts, nanobodies can serve in applications similar to those for conventional antibodies, but they come with a number of signature advantages that find increasing application in biology. They not only function as crystallization chaperones but also can be expressed inside cells as such, or fused to other proteins to perturb the function of their targets, for example, by enforcing their localization or degradation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-immunol-042617-053327DOI Listing
April 2018
11 Reads

Rebooting Human Immunology.

Annu Rev Immunol 2018 04 28;36:843-864. Epub 2018 Feb 28.

Science for Life Laboratory, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Karolinska Institutet, 17121 Solna, Sweden.

Recent progress in both conceptual and technological approaches to human immunology have rejuvenated a field that has long been in the shadow of the inbred mouse model. This is a healthy development both for the clinical relevance of immunology and for the fact that it is a way to gain access to the wealth of phenomenology in the many human diseases that involve the immune system. This is where we are likely to discover new immunological mechanisms and principals, especially those involving genetic heterogeneity or environmental influences that are difficult to model effectively in inbred mice. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-immunol-042617-053206DOI Listing
April 2018
9 Reads

The Formation and Function of Granulomas.

Annu Rev Immunol 2018 04 5;36:639-665. Epub 2018 Feb 5.

Molecular Immunity Unit, Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 0QQ, United Kingdom; email: ,

Granulomas are organized aggregates of macrophages, often with characteristic morphological changes, and other immune cells. These evolutionarily ancient structures form in response to persistent particulate stimuli-infectious or noninfectious-that individual macrophages cannot eradicate. Granulomas evolved as protective responses to destroy or sequester particles but are frequently pathological in the context of foreign bodies, infections, and inflammatory diseases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-immunol-032712-100022DOI Listing
April 2018
6 Reads

Apoptosis and Clearance of Apoptotic Cells.

Authors:
Shigekazu Nagata

Annu Rev Immunol 2018 04 5;36:489-517. Epub 2018 Feb 5.

Laboratory of Biochemistry and Immunology, World Premier International Research Center Initiative Immunology Frontier Research Center, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871, Japan; email:

The human body generates 10-100 billion cells every day, and the same number of cells die to maintain homeostasis in our body. Cells infected by bacteria or viruses also die. The cell death that occurs under physiological conditions mainly proceeds by apoptosis, which is a noninflammatory, or silent, process, while pathogen infection induces necroptosis or pyroptosis, which activates the immune system and causes inflammation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-immunol-042617-053010DOI Listing
April 2018
5 Reads

IgA Function in Relation to the Intestinal Microbiota.

Annu Rev Immunol 2018 04 26;36:359-381. Epub 2018 Jan 26.

Maurice Müller Laboratories (Department of Biomedical Research), University of Bern, 3008 Bern, Switzerland.

IgA is the dominant immunoglobulin isotype produced in mammals, largely secreted across the intestinal mucosal surface. Although induction of IgA has been a hallmark feature of microbiota colonization following colonization in germ-free animals, until recently appreciation of the function of IgA in host-microbial mutualism has depended mainly on indirect evidence of alterations in microbiota composition or penetration of microbes in the absence of somatic mutations in IgA (or compensatory IgM). Highly parallel sequencing techniques that enable high-resolution analysis of either microbial consortia or IgA sequence diversity are now giving us new perspectives on selective targeting of microbial taxa and the trajectory of IgA diversification according to induction mechanisms, between different individuals and over time. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-immunol-042617-053238DOI Listing
April 2018
7 Reads

Antigen Presentation by Extracellular Vesicles from Professional Antigen-Presenting Cells.

Annu Rev Immunol 2018 04 31;36:435-459. Epub 2018 Jan 31.

Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, NL-3508 TD Utrecht, The Netherlands; email:

The initiation and maintenance of adaptive immunity require multifaceted modes of communication between different types of immune cells, including direct intercellular contact, secreted soluble signaling molecules, and extracellular vesicles (EVs). EVs can be formed as microvesicles directly pinched off from the plasma membrane or as exosomes secreted by multivesicular endosomes. Membrane receptors guide EVs to specific target cells, allowing directional transfer of specific and complex signaling cues. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-immunol-041015-055700DOI Listing
April 2018
7 Reads

Genetics of Natural Killer Cells in Human Health, Disease, and Survival.

Annu Rev Immunol 2018 04 2;36:519-548. Epub 2018 Feb 2.

Department of Structural Biology and Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA; email: ,

Natural killer (NK) cells have vital functions in human immunity and reproduction. In the innate and adaptive immune responses to infection, particularly by viruses, NK cells respond by secreting inflammatory cytokines and killing infected cells. In reproduction, NK cells are critical for genesis of the placenta, the organ that controls the supply of oxygen and nutrients to the growing fetus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-immunol-042617-053149DOI Listing
April 2018
8 Reads

Self-Reactive B Cells in the Germinal Center Reaction.

Annu Rev Immunol 2018 04 22;36:339-357. Epub 2018 Jan 22.

Immunology Division, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, Darlinghurst, New South Wales 2010, Australia; email: ,

Maintenance of immunological self-tolerance requires lymphocytes carrying self-reactive antigen receptors to be selectively prevented from mounting destructive or inflammatory effector responses. Classically, self-tolerance is viewed in terms of the removal, editing, or silencing of B and T cells that have formed self-reactive antigen receptors during their early development. However, B cells activated by foreign antigen can enter germinal centers (GCs), where they further modify their antigen receptor by somatic hypermutation (SHM) of their immunoglobulin genes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-immunol-051116-052510DOI Listing
April 2018
6 Reads

Immune Response to Dengue and Zika.

Annu Rev Immunol 2018 04 18;36:279-308. Epub 2018 Jan 18.

Division of Inflammation Biology, La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology, La Jolla, California 92037, USA; email:

Flaviviruses such as dengue (DENV), yellow fever (YFV), West Nile (WNV), and Zika (ZIKV) are human pathogens of global significance. In particular, DENV causes the most prevalent mosquito-borne viral diseases in humans, and ZIKV emerged from obscurity into the spotlight in 2016 as the etiologic agent of congenital Zika syndrome. Owing to the recent emergence of ZIKV as a global pandemic threat, the roles of the immune system during ZIKV infections are as yet unclear. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-immunol-042617-053142DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5910217PMC
April 2018
8 Reads

Immune Responses to Retroviruses.

Annu Rev Immunol 2018 04 12;36:193-220. Epub 2018 Jan 12.

Immunity and Cancer Department, INSERM U932, Institut Curie, PSL Research University, 75005 Paris, France; email:

Retroviruses are genome invaders that have shared a long history of coevolution with vertebrates and their immune system. Found endogenously in genomes as traces of past invasions, retroviruses are also considerable threats to human health when they exist as exogenous viruses such as HIV. The immune response to retroviruses is engaged by germline-encoded sensors of innate immunity that recognize viral components and damage induced by the infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-immunol-051116-052155DOI Listing
April 2018
11 Reads

Connections Between Metabolism and Epigenetics in Programming Cellular Differentiation.

Annu Rev Immunol 2018 04 12;36:221-246. Epub 2018 Jan 12.

Department of Microbiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Alabama 35294, USA; email: ,

Researchers are intensifying efforts to understand the mechanisms by which changes in metabolic states influence differentiation programs. An emerging objective is to define how fluctuations in metabolites influence the epigenetic states that contribute to differentiation programs. This is because metabolites such as S-adenosylmethionine, acetyl-CoA, α-ketoglutarate, 2-hydroxyglutarate, and butyrate are donors, substrates, cofactors, and antagonists for the activities of epigenetic-modifying complexes and for epigenetic modifications. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-immunol-042617-053127DOI Listing
April 2018
7 Reads

Immune Responses in the Liver.

Annu Rev Immunol 2018 04 12;36:247-277. Epub 2018 Jan 12.

Calvin, Phoebe & Joan Snyder Institute for Chronic Diseases, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta T2N 4N1, Canada; email: ,

The liver is a key, frontline immune tissue. Ideally positioned to detect pathogens entering the body via the gut, the liver appears designed to detect, capture, and clear bacteria, viruses, and macromolecules. Containing the largest collection of phagocytic cells in the body, this organ is an important barrier between us and the outside world. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-immunol-051116-052415DOI Listing
April 2018
13 Reads

Cell Biology of T Cell Receptor Expression and Regulation.

Annu Rev Immunol 2018 04 20;36:103-125. Epub 2017 Dec 20.

Lymphocyte Cell Biology Unit, INSERM U1221, Department of Immunology, Institut Pasteur, Paris 75015, France; email: ,

T cell receptors (TCRs) are protein complexes formed by six different polypeptides. In most T cells, TCRs are composed of αβ subunits displaying immunoglobulin-like variable domains that recognize peptide antigens associated with major histocompatibility complex molecules expressed on the surface of antigen-presenting cells. TCRαβ subunits are associated with the CD3 complex formed by the γ, δ, ε, and ζ subunits, which are invariable and ensure signal transduction. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-immunol-042617-053429DOI Listing
April 2018
9 Reads

ZAP-70 in Signaling, Biology, and Disease.

Annu Rev Immunol 2018 04 13;36:127-156. Epub 2017 Dec 13.

Division of Rheumatology, Rosalind Russell and Ephraim P. Engleman Rheumatology Research Center, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143, USA; email: ,

T cells possess an array of functional capabilities important for host defense against pathogens and tumors. T cell effector functions require the T cell antigen receptor (TCR). The TCR has no intrinsic enzymatic activity, and thus signal transduction from the receptor relies on additional signaling molecules. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-immunol-042617-053335DOI Listing
April 2018
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Host Control of Fungal Infections: Lessons from Basic Studies and Human Cohorts.

Annu Rev Immunol 2018 04 13;36:157-191. Epub 2017 Dec 13.

Department of Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts 01655; email:

In the last few decades, the AIDS pandemic and the significant advances in the medical management of individuals with neoplastic and inflammatory conditions have resulted in a dramatic increase in the population of immunosuppressed patients with opportunistic, life-threatening fungal infections. The parallel development of clinically relevant mouse models of fungal disease and the discovery and characterization of several inborn errors of immune-related genes that underlie inherited human susceptibility to opportunistic mycoses have significantly expanded our understanding of the innate and adaptive immune mechanisms that protect against ubiquitous fungal exposures. This review synthesizes immunological knowledge derived from basic mouse studies and from human cohorts and provides an overview of mammalian antifungal host defenses that show promise for informing therapeutic and vaccination strategies for vulnerable patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-immunol-042617-053318DOI Listing
April 2018
11 Reads

Human T Cell Leukemia Virus Type 1: Persistence and Pathogenesis.

Annu Rev Immunol 2018 04 16;36:43-71. Epub 2017 Nov 16.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College, London W2 1PG, United Kingdom; email:

Human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1), also known as human T lymphotropic virus type 1, was the first exogenous human retrovirus discovered. Unlike the distantly related lentivirus HIV-1, HTLV-1 causes disease in only 5-10% of infected people, depending on their ethnic origin. But whereas HIV-1 infection and the consequent diseases can be efficiently contained in most cases by antiretroviral drug treatment, there is no satisfactory treatment for the malignant or inflammatory diseases caused by HTLV-1. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-immunol-042617-053222DOI Listing
April 2018
14 Reads

Evolution of Alternative Adaptive Immune Systems in Vertebrates.

Annu Rev Immunol 2018 04 16;36:19-42. Epub 2017 Nov 16.

Emory Vaccine Center and Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA; email: , ,

Adaptive immunity in jawless fishes is based on antigen recognition by three types of variable lymphocyte receptors (VLRs) composed of variable leucine-rich repeats, which are differentially expressed by two T-like lymphocyte lineages and one B-like lymphocyte lineage. The T-like cells express either VLRAs or VLRCs of yet undefined antigen specificity, whereas the VLRB antibodies secreted by B-like cells bind proteinaceous and carbohydrate antigens. The incomplete VLR germline genes are assembled into functional units by a gene conversion-like mechanism that employs flanking variable leucine-rich repeat sequences as templates in association with lineage-specific expression of cytidine deaminases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-immunol-042617-053028DOI Listing
April 2018
13 Reads

Autophagy and Inflammation.

Annu Rev Immunol 2018 04 16;36:73-101. Epub 2017 Nov 16.

Kimmel Center for Biology and Medicine at the Skirball Institute and.

The cellular degradative pathway of autophagy has a fundamental role in immunity. Here, we review the function of autophagy and autophagy proteins in inflammation. We discuss how the autophagy machinery controls the burden of infectious agents while simultaneously limiting inflammatory pathologies, which often involves processes that are distinct from conventional autophagy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-immunol-042617-053253DOI Listing
April 2018
56 Reads

Synthetic Immunology: Hacking Immune Cells to Expand Their Therapeutic Capabilities.

Annu Rev Immunol 2017 04;35:229-253

Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology, University of California, San Francisco, California 94158; email:

The ability of immune cells to survey tissues and sense pathologic insults and deviations makes them a unique platform for interfacing with the body and disease. With the rapid advancement of synthetic biology, we can now engineer and equip immune cells with new sensors and controllable therapeutic response programs to sense and treat diseases that our natural immune system cannot normally handle. Here we review the current state of engineered immune cell therapeutics and their unique capabilities compared to small molecules and biologics. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-immunol-051116-052302DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5555230PMC
April 2017
14 Reads