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    582 results match your criteria Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology [Journal]

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    Centriole Biogenesis: From Identifying the Characters to Understanding the Plot.
    Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 2017 Aug 16. Epub 2017 Aug 16.
    Swiss Institute for Experimental Cancer Research (ISREC), School of Life Sciences, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL), CH-1015, Lausanne, Switzerland; email:
    The centriole is a beautiful microtubule-based organelle that is critical for the proper execution of many fundamental cellular processes, including polarity, motility, and division. Centriole biogenesis, the making of this miniature architectural wonder, has emerged as an exemplary model to dissect the mechanisms governing the assembly of a eukaryotic organelle. Centriole biogenesis relies on a set of core proteins whose contributions to the assembly process have begun to be elucidated. Read More

    How Single-Cell Genomics Is Changing Evolutionary and Developmental Biology.
    Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 2017 Aug 16. Epub 2017 Aug 16.
    Developmental Biology Unit, EMBL, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany; email:
    The recent flood of single-cell data not only boosts our knowledge of cells and cell types, but also provides new insight into development and evolution from a cellular perspective. For example, assaying the genomes of multiple cells during development reveals developmental lineage trees-the kinship lineage-whereas cellular transcriptomes inform us about the regulatory state of cells and their gradual restriction in potency-the Waddington lineage. Beyond that, the comparison of single-cell data across species allows evolutionary changes to be tracked at all stages of development from the zygote, via different kinds of stem cells, to the differentiating cells. Read More

    Lessons from Interspecies Mammalian Chimeras.
    Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 2017 Aug 14. Epub 2017 Aug 14.
    Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305; email:
    As chimeras transform from beasts of Greek mythology into tools of contemporary bioscience, secrets of developmental biology and evolutionary divergence are being revealed. Recent advances in stem cell biology and interspecies chimerism have generated new models with extensive basic and translational applications, including generation of transplantable, patient-specific organs. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology Volume 33 is October 6, 2017. Read More

    The Inherent Asymmetry of DNA Replication.
    Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 2017 Aug 11. Epub 2017 Aug 11.
    Department of Biology, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218; email: , ,
    Semiconservative DNA replication has provided an elegant solution to the fundamental problem of how life is able to proliferate in a way that allows cells, organisms, and populations to survive and replicate many times over. Somewhat lost, however, in our admiration for this elegant mechanism is an appreciation for the asymmetries that occur in the process of DNA replication. As we discuss in this review, these asymmetries arise as a consequence of the structure of the DNA molecule and the enzymatic mechanism of DNA synthesis. Read More

    Lipid Droplet Biogenesis.
    Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 2017 Aug 9. Epub 2017 Aug 9.
    Department of Genetics and Complex Diseases, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02115; email: ,
    Lipid droplets (LDs) are ubiquitous organelles that store neutral lipids for energy or membrane synthesis and act as hubs for metabolic processes. Cells generate LDs de novo, converting cells to emulsions with LDs constituting the dispersed oil phase in the aqueous cytoplasm. Here we review our current view of LD biogenesis. Read More

    Excitable Signal Transduction Networks in Directed Cell Migration.
    Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 2017 Aug 9. Epub 2017 Aug 9.
    Department of Cell Biology, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205; email:
    Although directed migration of eukaryotic cells may have evolved to escape nutrient depletion, it has been adopted for an extensive range of physiological events during development and in the adult organism. The subversion of these movements results in disease, such as cancer. Mechanisms of propulsion and sensing are extremely diverse, but most eukaryotic cells move by extending actin-filled protrusions termed macropinosomes, pseudopodia, or lamellipodia or by extension of blebs. Read More

    The Three-Dimensional Organization of Mammalian Genomes.
    Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 2017 Aug 7. Epub 2017 Aug 7.
    Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, La Jolla, CA 92093; email:
    Animal development depends on not only the linear genome sequence that embeds millions of cis-regulatory elements, but also the three-dimensional (3D) chromatin architecture that orchestrates the interplay between cisregulatory elements and their target genes. Compared to our knowledge of the cis-regulatory sequences, the understanding of the 3D genome organization in human and other eukaryotes is still limited. Recent advances in technologies to map the 3D genome architecture have greatly accelerated the pace of discovery. Read More

    Cell Polarity in Yeast.
    Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 2017 Aug 7. Epub 2017 Aug 7.
    Department of Pharmacology and Cancer Biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710; email:
    A conserved molecular machinery centered on the Cdc42 GTPase regulates cell polarity in diverse organisms. Here we review findings from budding and fission yeasts that reveal both a conserved core polarity circuit and several adaptations that each organism exploits to fulfill the needs of its lifestyle. The core circuit involves positive feedback by local activation of Cdc42 to generate a cluster of concentrated GTP-Cdc42 at the membrane. Read More

    In Search of Lost Small Peptides.
    Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 2017 Jul 31. Epub 2017 Jul 31.
    Centre de Biologie du Développement, Centre de Biologie Intégrative, Université de Toulouse, CNRS, Université Paul Sabatier, 31062 Toulouse, France; email:
    A large body of evidence indicates that genome annotation pipelines have biased our view of coding sequences because they generally undersample small proteins and peptides. The recent development of genome-wide translation profiling reveals the prevalence of small/short open reading frames (smORFs or sORFs), which are scattered over all classes of transcripts, including both mRNAs and presumptive long noncodingRNAs. Proteomic approaches further confirm an unexpected variety of smORF-encoded peptides (SEPs), representing an overlooked reservoir of bioactive molecules. Read More

    Rethinking m(6)A Readers, Writers, and Erasers.
    Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 2017 Jul 31. Epub 2017 Jul 31.
    Department of Pharmacology, Weill Cornell Medical College, Cornell University, New York, NY 10065; email:
    In recent years, m(6)A has emerged as an abundant and dynamically regulated modification throughout the transcriptome. Recent technological advances have enabled the transcriptome-wide identification of m(6)A residues, which in turn has provided important insights into the biology and regulation of this pervasive regulatory mark. Also central to our current understanding ofm(6)A are the discovery and characterization of m(6)A readers, writers, and erasers. Read More

    Ribosomal Stalling During Translation: Providing Substrates for Ribosome-Associated Protein Quality Control.
    Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 2017 Jul 17. Epub 2017 Jul 17.
    ZMBH, University of Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany; email:
    Cells of all organisms survey problems during translation elongation, which may happen as a consequence of mRNA aberrations, inefficient decoding, or other sources. In eukaryotes, ribosome-associated quality control (RQC) senses elongation-stalled ribosomes and promotes dissociation of ribosomal subunits. This so-called ribosomal rescue releases the mRNA for degradation and allows 40S subunits to be recycled for new rounds of translation. Read More

    Sending and Receiving Hedgehog Signals.
    Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 2017 Jul 10. Epub 2017 Jul 10.
    Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 ; email: ,
    Communication between cells pervades the development and physiology of metazoans. In animals, this process is carried out by a relatively small number of signaling pathways, each consisting of a chain of biochemical events through which extracellular stimuli control the behavior of target cells. One such signaling system is the Hedgehog pathway, which is crucial in embryogenesis and is implicated in many birth defects and cancers. Read More

    The FLC Locus: A Platform for Discoveries in Epigenetics and Adaptation.
    Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 2017 Jul 10. Epub 2017 Jul 10.
    John Innes Centre, Norwich Research Park, Norwich NR4 7UH, United Kingdom; email:
    Our understanding of the detailed molecular mechanisms underpinning adaptation is still poor. One example for which mechanistic understanding of regulation has converged with studies of life history variation is Arabidopsis thaliana FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC). FLC determines the need for plants to overwinter and their ability to respond to prolonged cold in a process termed vernalization. Read More

    Unconventional or Preset αβ T Cells: Evolutionarily Conserved Tissue-Resident T Cells Recognizing Nonpeptidic Ligands.
    Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 2017 Jun 29. Epub 2017 Jun 29.
    Institut Curie, PSL Research University, INSERM, U 932, Paris, 75005, France; email: , ,
    A majority of T cells bearing the αβ T cell receptor (TCR) are specific for peptides bound to polymorphic classical major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules. Smaller subsets of T cells are reactive toward various nonpeptidic ligands associated with nonpolymorphic MHC class-Ib (MHC-Ib) molecules. These cells have been termed unconventional for decades, even though only the composite antigen is different from the one seen by classical T cells. Read More

    Microtubule-Organizing Centers.
    Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 2017 Jun 23. Epub 2017 Jun 23.
    Cell Biology, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Utrecht University, 3584 Utrecht, The Netherlands; email: ,
    The organization of microtubule networks is crucial for controlling chromosome segregation during cell division, positioning, and transport of different organelles and for cell polarity and morphogenesis. The geometry of microtubule arrays strongly depends on the localization and activity of the sites where microtubules are nucleated and where their minus ends are anchored. Such sites are often clustered into structures known as microtubule-organizing centers, which include the centrosomes in animals and spindle pole bodies in fungi. Read More

    Cell Removal: Efferocytosis.
    Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 2017 Jun 14. Epub 2017 Jun 14.
    Department of Pediatrics, National Jewish Health, and Departments of Immunology and Medicine, University of Colorado, Denver, CO 80206; email:
    In metazoa, removal of cells in situ is involved in larval maturation, metamorphosis, and embryonic development. In adults, such cell removal plays a role in the homeostatic maintenance of cell numbers and tissue integrity as well as in the response to cell injury and damage. This removal involves uptake of the whole or fragmented target cells into phagocytes. Read More

    Unconventional Roles of Opsins.
    Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 2017 Jun 9. Epub 2017 Jun 9.
    Neuroscience Research Institute and Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106; email:
    Rhodopsin is the classical light sensor. Although rhodopsin has long been known to be important for image formation in the eye, the requirements for opsins in non-image formation and in extraocular light sensation were revealed much later. Most recent is the demonstration that an opsin in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, is expressed in pacemaker neurons in the brain and functions in light entrainment of circadian rhythms. Read More

    Structural and Mechanistic Insights into Protein Translocation.
    Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 2017 May 31. Epub 2017 May 31.
    The Rockefeller University and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, New York, NY 10065; email:
    Many proteins are translocated across the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane in eukaryotes or the plasma membrane in prokaryotes. These proteins use hydrophobic signal sequences or transmembrane (TM) segments to trigger their translocation through the protein-conducting Sec61/SecY channel. Substrates are first directed to the channel by cytosolic targeting factors, which use hydrophobic pockets to bind diverse signal and TM sequences. Read More

    TCR Signal Strength and T Cell Development.
    Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 2016 Oct;32:327-348
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, and Immunology Program, National University of Singapore, Singapore 11759; email:
    Thymocyte selection involves the positive and negative selection of the repertoire of T cell receptors (TCRs) such that the organism does not suffer autoimmunity, yet has the benefit of the ability to recognize any invading pathogen. The signal transduced through the TCR is translated into a number of different signaling cascades that result in transcription factor activity in the nucleus and changes to the cytoskeleton and motility. Negative selection involves inducing apoptosis in thymocytes that express strongly self-reactive TCRs, whereas positive selection must induce survival and differentiation programs in cells that are more weakly self-reactive. Read More

    Hemodynamic Control of Endothelial Cell Fates in Development.
    Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 2016 Oct;32:633-648
    Program in Developmental and Regenerative Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115; email:
    Biomechanical forces are emerging as critical regulators of embryogenesis, particularly in the developing cardiovascular system. From the onset of blood flow, the embryonic vasculature is continuously exposed to a variety of hemodynamic forces. These biomechanical stimuli are key determinants of vascular cell specification and remodeling and the establishment of vascular homeostasis. Read More

    Phosphoinositides in Control of Membrane Dynamics.
    Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 2016 Oct 15;32:143-171. Epub 2016 Aug 15.
    Centre for Cancer Biomedicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Montebello, N-0379 Oslo, Norway; email: ,
    Most functions of eukaryotic cells are controlled by cellular membranes, which are not static entities but undergo frequent budding, fission, fusion, and sculpting reactions collectively referred to as membrane dynamics. Consequently, regulation of membrane dynamics is crucial for cellular functions. A key mechanism in such regulation is the reversible recruitment of cytosolic proteins or protein complexes to specific membranes at specific time points. Read More

    Regulation of Hematopoiesis and Osteogenesis by Blood Vessel-Derived Signals.
    Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 2016 Oct 17;32:649-675. Epub 2016 Aug 17.
    Department of Tissue Morphogenesis, Max Planck Institute for Molecular Biomedicine, D-48169 Münster, Germany; email:
    In addition to their conventional role as a versatile transport system, blood vessels provide signals controlling organ development, regeneration, and stem cell behavior. In the skeletal system, certain capillaries support perivascular osteoprogenitor cells and thereby control bone formation. Blood vessels are also a critical component of niche microenvironments for hematopoietic stem cells. Read More

    Tissue and Organ Initiation in the Plant Embryo: A First Time for Everything.
    Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 2016 Oct 19;32:47-75. Epub 2016 Aug 19.
    Laboratory of Biochemistry, Wageningen University, 6703 HA Wageningen, The Netherlands; email:
    Land plants can grow to tremendous body sizes, yet even the most complex architectures are the result of iterations of the same developmental processes: organ initiation, growth, and pattern formation. A central question in plant biology is how these processes are regulated and coordinated to allow for the formation of ordered, 3D structures. All these elementary processes first occur in early embryogenesis, during which, from a fertilized egg cell, precursors for all major tissues and stem cells are initiated, followed by tissue growth and patterning. Read More

    Structural Perspectives on Axon Guidance.
    Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 2016 Oct 24;32:577-608. Epub 2016 Aug 24.
    Max Planck Institute of Neurobiology, 82152 Munich-Martinsried, Germany; email:
    Axon guidance relies on a combinatorial code of receptor and ligand interactions that direct adhesive/attractive and repulsive cellular responses. Recent structural data have revealed many of the molecular mechanisms that govern these interactions and enabled the design of sophisticated mutant tools to dissect their biological functions. Here, we discuss the structure/function relationships of four major classes of guidance cues (ephrins, semaphorins, slits, netrins) and examples of morphogens (Wnt, Shh) and of cell adhesion molecules (FLRT). Read More

    Plasticity of Cell Migration In Vivo and In Silico.
    Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 2016 Oct 26;32:491-526. Epub 2016 Aug 26.
    David H. Koch Center for Applied Research of Genitourinary Cancers, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030; email:
    Cell migration results from stepwise mechanical and chemical interactions between cells and their extracellular environment. Mechanistic principles that determine single-cell and collective migration modes and their interconversions depend upon the polarization, adhesion, deformability, contractility, and proteolytic ability of cells. Cellular determinants of cell migration respond to extracellular cues, including tissue composition, topography, alignment, and tissue-associated growth factors and cytokines. Read More

    The Heidelberg Screen for Pattern Mutants of Drosophila: A Personal Account.
    Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 2016 Oct 3;32:1-46. Epub 2016 Aug 3.
    Max-Planck-Institut für Entwicklungsbiologie, 72076 Tübingen, Germany; email:
    In large-scale mutagenesis screens performed in 1979-1980 at the EMBL in Heidelberg, we isolated mutations affecting the pattern or structure of the larval cuticle in Drosophila. The 600 mutants we characterized could be assigned to 120 genes and represent the majority of such genes in the genome. These mutants subsequently provided a rich resource for understanding many fundamental developmental processes, such as the transcriptional hierarchies controlling segmentation, the establishment of cell states by signaling pathways, and the differentiation of epithelial cells. Read More

    Signaling and Polarized Communication Across the T Cell Immunological Synapse.
    Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 2016 Oct 3;32:303-325. Epub 2016 Aug 3.
    Department of Microbiology & Immunology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-5620; email:
    T cells express a somatically recombined antigen receptor (αβTCR) that is calibrated during development to respond to changes in peptides displayed by major histocompatibility complex proteins (pMHC) on the surface of antigen-presenting cells (APC). A key characteristic of pMHC for adaptive immunity is the ability to sample internal states of cells and tissues to sensitively detect changes associated with infection, cell derangement, or tissue injury. Physical T cell-APC contact sets up an axis for polarization of TCR, adhesion molecules, kinases, cytoskeletal elements, and organelles inherent in this mode of juxtacrine signaling. Read More

    The Lysosome as a Regulatory Hub.
    Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 2016 Oct 3;32:223-253. Epub 2016 Aug 3.
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology and Paul F. Glenn Center for Aging Research, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720; email:
    The lysosome has long been viewed as the recycling center of the cell. However, recent discoveries have challenged this simple view and have established a central role of the lysosome in nutrient-dependent signal transduction. The degradative role of the lysosome and its newly discovered signaling functions are not in conflict but rather cooperate extensively to mediate fundamental cellular activities such as nutrient sensing, metabolic adaptation, and quality control of proteins and organelles. Read More

    Genotypes, Networks, Phenotypes: Moving Toward Plant Systems Genetics.
    Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 2016 Oct 3;32:103-126. Epub 2016 Aug 3.
    Gregor Mendel Institute (GMI), Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna Biocenter (VBC), 1030 Vienna, Austria; email:
    One of the central goals in biology is to understand how and how much of the phenotype of an organism is encoded in its genome. Although many genes that are crucial for organismal processes have been identified, much less is known about the genetic bases underlying quantitative phenotypic differences in natural populations. We discuss the fundamental gap between the large body of knowledge generated over the past decades by experimental genetics in the laboratory and what is needed to understand the genotype-to-phenotype problem on a broader scale. Read More

    Focal Adhesion-Independent Cell Migration.
    Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 2016 Oct 4;32:469-490. Epub 2016 Aug 4.
    Institute of Science and Technology Austria (IST Austria), 3400 Klosterneuburg, Austria.
    Cell migration is central to a multitude of physiological processes, including embryonic development, immune surveillance, and wound healing, and deregulated migration is key to cancer dissemination. Decades of investigations have uncovered many of the molecular and physical mechanisms underlying cell migration. Together with protrusion extension and cell body retraction, adhesion to the substrate via specific focal adhesion points has long been considered an essential step in cell migration. Read More

    Transcriptional Control of Developmental Cell Behaviors.
    Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 2016 Oct 8;32:77-101. Epub 2016 Aug 8.
    Center for Developmental Genetics, Department of Biology, New York University , New York, NY 10003; email:
    Tissue-specific transcription regulators emerged as key developmental control genes, which operate in the context of complex gene regulatory networks (GRNs) to coordinate progressive cell fate specification and tissue morphogenesis. We discuss how GRNs control the individual cell behaviors underlying complex morphogenetic events. Cell behaviors classically range from mesenchymal cell motility to cell shape changes in epithelial sheets. Read More

    Cell Competition: Mechanisms and Physiological Roles.
    Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 2016 Oct 8;32:411-439. Epub 2016 Aug 8.
    Cardiovascular Development Program, Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Cardiovasculares (CNIC), Madrid 28029, Spain; email:
    Cell-competitive interactions are widespread in nature and determine the outcome of a vast variety of biological processes. A particular class of competitive interactions takes place when alterations in intrinsic cellular properties are sensed nonautonomously by comparison between neighboring cells, resulting in the selective elimination of one cell population. This type of cell competition was first described four decades ago in developing epithelia of Drosophila. Read More

    Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of MT1-MMP-Dependent Cancer Cell Invasion.
    Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 2016 Oct 8;32:555-576. Epub 2016 Aug 8.
    Institut Curie, Paris, F-75248 France; email:
    Metastasis is responsible for most cancer-associated deaths. Accumulating evidence based on 3D migration models has revealed a diversity of invasive migratory schemes reflecting the plasticity of tumor cells to switch between proteolytic and nonproteolytic modes of invasion. Yet, initial stages of localized regional tumor dissemination require proteolytic remodeling of the extracellular matrix to overcome tissue barriers. Read More

    Metabolism and the Control of Cell Fate Decisions and Stem Cell Renewal.
    Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 2016 Oct 1;32:399-409. Epub 2016 Aug 1.
    Ruth L. and David S. Gottesman Institute for Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine Research, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York 10461; email:
    Although the stem cells of various tissues remain in the quiescent state to maintain their undifferentiated state, they also undergo cell divisions as required, and if necessary, even a single stem cell is able to provide for lifelong tissue homeostasis. Stem cell populations are precisely controlled by the balance between their symmetric and asymmetric divisions, with their division patterns determined by whether the daughter cells involved retain their self-renewal capacities. Recent studies have reported that metabolic pathways and the distribution of mitochondria are regulators of the division balance of stem cells and that metabolic defects can shift division balance toward symmetric commitment, which leads to stem cell exhaustion. Read More

    Emergence and Evolution of Secondary Lymphoid Organs.
    Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 2016 Oct 17;32:693-711. Epub 2016 Jun 17.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland 21201; email:
    For effective adaptive immunity to foreign antigens (Ag), secondary lymphoid organs (SLO) provide the confined environment in which Ag-restricted lymphocytes, with very low precursor frequencies, interact with Ag on Ag-presenting cells (APC). The spleen is the primordial SLO, arising in conjunction with adaptive immunity in early jawed vertebrates. The spleen, especially the spleen's lymphoid compartment, the white pulp (WP), has undergone numerous modifications over evolutionary time. Read More

    Cytoplasmic Streaming in the Drosophila Oocyte.
    Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 2016 Oct 24;32:173-195. Epub 2016 Jun 24.
    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095; email:
    Objects are commonly moved within the cell by either passive diffusion or active directed transport. A third possibility is advection, in which objects within the cytoplasm are moved with the flow of the cytoplasm. Bulk movement of the cytoplasm, or streaming, as required for advection, is more common in large cells than in small cells. Read More

    The Cytoophidium and Its Kind: Filamentation and Compartmentation of Metabolic Enzymes.
    Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 2016 Oct 27;32:349-372. Epub 2016 Jun 27.
    Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PT, United Kingdom; email:
    Compartmentation is essential for the localization of biological processes within a cell. In 2010, three groups independently reported that cytidine triphosphate synthase (CTPS), a metabolic enzyme for de novo synthesis of the nucleotide CTP, is compartmentalized in cytoophidia (Greek for "cellular snakes") in bacteria, yeast, and fruit flies. Subsequent studies demonstrate that CTPS can also form filaments in human cells. Read More

    Neurogenesis and Gliogenesis in Nervous System Plasticity and Repair.
    Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 2016 Oct 1;32:127-141. Epub 2016 Jun 1.
    Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Karolinska Institute, SE-171 77 Stockholm, Sweden; email:
    The brain constantly changes to store memories and adapt to new conditions. One type of plasticity that has gained increasing interest during the last years is the generation of new cells. The generation of both new neurons and glial cells contributes to neural plasticity and to some neural repair. Read More

    Lymphangiogenesis: Origin, Specification, and Cell Fate Determination.
    Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 2016 Oct 1;32:677-691. Epub 2016 Jun 1.
    Center for Vascular & Developmental Biology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois 60611; email:
    The two vascular systems of our body are the blood and the lymphatic vasculature. Our understanding of the genes and molecular mechanisms controlling the development of the lymphatic vasculature network has significantly improved. The availability of novel animal models and better imaging tools led to the identification of lymphatics in tissues and organs previously thought to be devoid of them. Read More

    Endoplasmic Reticulum-Plasma Membrane Associations:Structures and Functions.
    Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 2016 Oct 1;32:279-301. Epub 2016 Jun 1.
    Membrane Traffic in Health & Disease Group (INSERM ERL U950), F-75013 Paris, France; email:
    Inside eukaryotic cells, membrane contact sites (MCSs), regions where two membrane-bound organelles are apposed at less than 30 nm, generate regions of important lipid and calcium exchange. This review principally focuses on the structure and the function of MCSs between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the plasma membrane (PM). Here we describe how tethering structures form and maintain these junctions and, in some instances, participate in their function. Read More

    TFEB and TFE3: Linking Lysosomes to Cellular Adaptation to Stress.
    Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 2016 Oct 1;32:255-278. Epub 2016 Jun 1.
    Cell Biology and Physiology Center, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892; email:
    In recent years, our vision of lysosomes has drastically changed. Formerly considered to be mere degradative compartments, they are now recognized as key players in many cellular processes. The ability of lysosomes to respond to different stimuli revealed a complex and coordinated regulation of lysosomal gene expression. Read More

    Cargo Capture and Bulk Flow in the Early Secretory Pathway.
    Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 2016 Oct 8;32:197-222. Epub 2016 Jun 8.
    Institute of Biochemistry, ETH Zurich, Zurich CH-8093, Switzerland.
    Transport of newly synthesized proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi complex is highly selective. As a general rule, such transport is limited to soluble and membrane-associated secretory proteins that have reached properly folded and assembled conformations. To secure the efficiency, fidelity, and control of this crucial transport step, cells use a combination of mechanisms. Read More

    Chemical Principles in Tissue Clearing and Staining Protocols for Whole-Body Cell Profiling.
    Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 2016 Oct 8;32:713-741. Epub 2016 Jun 8.
    Department of Systems Pharmacology, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan.
    Mammalian bodies have more than a billion cells per cubic centimeter, which makes whole-body cell (WBC) profiling of an organism one of the ultimate challenges in biology and medicine. Recent advances in tissue-clearing technology have enabled rapid and comprehensive cellular analyses in whole organs and in the whole body by a combination of state-of-the-art technologies of optical imaging and image informatics. In this review, we focus mainly on the chemical principles in currently available techniques for tissue clearing and staining to facilitate our understanding of their underlying mechanisms. Read More

    Mechanical Control of Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transitions in Development and Cancer.
    Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 2016 Oct 8;32:527-554. Epub 2016 Jun 8.
    Center for Bioengineering and Tissue Regeneration, Department of Surgery, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143; email:
    Mechanical force modulates development, influences tissue homeostasis, and contributes to disease. Forces sculpt tissue-level behaviors and direct cell fate by engaging mechanoreceptors and by altering organization of the cytoskeleton and actomyosin contractility to stimulate mechanotransduction mechanisms that alter transcription. Nevertheless, how force specifically leverages mechanotransduction pathways to control transcriptional regulation of cell fate remains unclear. Read More

    How Bacteria Subvert Animal Cell Structure and Function.
    Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 2016 Oct 4;32:373-397. Epub 2016 May 4.
    Department of Microbiology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390; email:
    Bacterial pathogens encode a wide variety of effectors and toxins that hijack host cell structure and function. Of particular importance are virulence factors that target actin cytoskeleton dynamics critical for cell shape, stability, motility, phagocytosis, and division. In addition, many bacteria target organelles of the general secretory pathway (e. Read More

    The Role of Adipocytes in Tissue Regeneration and Stem Cell Niches.
    Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 2016 Oct 4;32:609-631. Epub 2016 May 4.
    Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520; email:
    Classically, white adipose tissue (WAT) was considered an inert component of connective tissue but is now appreciated as a major regulator of metabolic physiology and endocrine homeostasis. Recent work defining how WAT develops and expands in vivo emphasizes the importance of specific locations of WAT or depots in metabolic regulation. Interestingly, mature white adipocytes are integrated into several tissues. Read More

    The ins and outs of polarized axonal domains.
    Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 2015 ;31:647-67
    Department of Neuroscience, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030; email:
    Myelinated axons are divided into polarized subdomains including axon initial segments and nodes of Ranvier. These domains initiate and propagate action potentials and regulate the trafficking and localization of somatodendritic and axonal proteins. Formation of axon initial segments and nodes of Ranvier depends on intrinsic (neuronal) and extrinsic (glial) interactions. Read More

    Wnt-Frizzled/planar cell polarity signaling: cellular orientation by facing the wind (Wnt).
    Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 2015 ;31:623-46
    Department of Developmental and Regenerative Biology, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029; email:
    The establishment of planar cell polarity (PCP) in epithelial and mesenchymal cells is a critical, evolutionarily conserved process during development and organogenesis. Analyses in Drosophila and several vertebrate model organisms have contributed a wealth of information on the regulation of PCP. A key conserved pathway regulating PCP, the so-called core Wnt-Frizzled PCP (Fz/PCP) signaling pathway, was initially identified through genetic studies of Drosophila. Read More

    Structure, regulation, and functional diversity of microvilli on the apical domain of epithelial cells.
    Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 2015 ;31:593-621
    Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics and Weill Institute for Molecular and Cell Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853; email:
    Microvilli are actin-based structures found on the apical aspect of many epithelial cells. In this review, we discuss different types of microvilli, as well as comparisons with actin-based sensory stereocilia and filopodia. Much is known about the actin-bundling proteins of these structures; we summarize recent studies that focus on the components of the microvillar membrane. Read More

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