326 results match your criteria Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry[Journal]

Mass Spectrometry Measurements of Neuropeptides: From Identification to Quantitation.

Annu Rev Anal Chem (Palo Alto Calif) 2022 Feb 24. Epub 2022 Feb 24.

Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois, USA; email:

Neuropeptides (NPs), a unique class of neuronal signaling molecules, participate in a variety of physiological processes and diseases. Quantitative measurements of NPs provide valuable information regarding how these molecules are differentially regulated in a multitude of neurological, metabolic, and mental disorders. Mass spectrometry (MS) has evolved to become a powerful technique for measuring trace levels of NPs in complex biological tissues and individual cells using both targeted and exploratory approaches. Read More

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February 2022

Label-Free Super-Resolution Imaging Techniques.

Annu Rev Anal Chem (Palo Alto Calif) 2022 Feb 22. Epub 2022 Feb 22.

Department of Chemistry, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA; email:

Biological and material samples contain nanoscale heterogeneities that are unresolvable with conventional microscopy techniques. Super-resolution fluorescence methods can break the optical diffraction limit to observe these features, but they require samples to be fluorescently labeled. Over the past decade, progress has been made toward developing super-resolution techniques that do not require the use of labels. Read More

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February 2022

Analysis of Mitochondria by Single-Organelle Resolution.

Annu Rev Anal Chem (Palo Alto Calif) 2022 Feb 18. Epub 2022 Feb 18.

Institute of Molecular Immunology and Experimental Oncology, TUM School of Medicine, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany; email:

Cellular organelles are highly specialized compartments with distinct functions. With the increasing resolution of detection methods, it is becoming clearer that same organelles may have different functions or properties not only within different cell populations of a tissue but also within the same cell. Dysfunction or altered function affects the organelle itself and may also lead to malignancies or undesirable cell death. Read More

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February 2022

Analytical Chemistry Throughout This Solar System.

Annu Rev Anal Chem (Palo Alto Calif) 2022 Feb 17. Epub 2022 Feb 17.

School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia, USA; email:

One of the greatest and most long-lived scientific pursuits of humankind has been to discover and study the planetary objects comprising our solar system. Information gained from solar system observations, via both remote sensing and in situ measurements, is inherently constrained by the analytical (often chemical) techniques we employ in these endeavors. The past 50 years of planetary science missions have resulted in immense discoveries within and beyond our solar system, enabled by state-of-the-art analytical chemical instrument suites on board these missions. Read More

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February 2022

Developing FRET Networks for Sensing.

Annu Rev Anal Chem (Palo Alto Calif) 2022 Feb 17. Epub 2022 Feb 17.

Department of Chemistry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada; email:

Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) is a widely used fluorescence-based sensing mechanism. To date, most implementations of FRET sensors have relied on a discrete donor-acceptor pair for detection of each analytical target. FRET networks are an emerging concept in which target recognition perturbs a set of interconnected FRET pathways between multiple emitters. Read More

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February 2022

Quantitative Stimulated Raman Scattering Microscopy: Promises and Pitfalls.

Annu Rev Anal Chem (Palo Alto Calif) 2022 Feb 17. Epub 2022 Feb 17.

Department of Chemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA; email:

Since its first demonstration, stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy has become a powerful chemical imaging tool that shows promise in numerous biological and biomedical applications. The spectroscopic capability of SRS enables identification and tracking of specific molecules or classes of molecules, often without labeling. SRS microscopy also has the hallmark advantage of signal strength that is directly proportional to molecular concentration, allowing for in situ quantitative analysis of chemical composition of heterogeneous samples with submicron spatial resolution and subminute temporal resolution. Read More

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February 2022

Probing and Visualizing Interfacial Charge at Surfaces in Aqueous Solution.

Annu Rev Anal Chem (Palo Alto Calif) 2022 Feb 8. Epub 2022 Feb 8.

Institute of Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, Ulm University, Ulm, Germany; email:

Surface charge density and distribution play an important role in almost all interfacial processes, influencing, for example, adsorption, colloidal stability, functional material activity, electrochemical processes, corrosion, nanoparticle toxicity, and cellular processes such as signaling, absorption, and adhesion. Understanding the heterogeneity in, and distribution of, surface and interfacial charge is key to elucidating the mechanisms underlying reactivity, the stability of materials, and biophysical processes. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning ion conductance microscopy (SICM) are highly suitable for probing the material/electrolyte interface at the nanoscale through recent advances in probe design, significant instrumental (hardware and software) developments, and the evolution of multifunctional imaging protocols. Read More

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February 2022

Overcoming Major Barriers to Developing Successful Sensors for Practical Applications Using Functional Nucleic Acids.

Annu Rev Anal Chem (Palo Alto Calif) 2022 Feb 25. Epub 2022 Feb 25.

Department of Chemistry, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas, USA; email:

For many years, numerous efforts have been focused on the development of sensitive, selective, and practical sensors for environmental monitoring, food safety, and medical diagnostic applications. However, the transition from innovative research to commercial success is relatively sparse. In this review, we identify several barriers to developing successful sensors for practical applications, including the lack of general methods to () generate receptors for a wide range of targets, () improve sensor selectivity to overcome interferences, () transduce the selective binding to different optical, electrochemical, and other signals, and () tune dynamic range to match thresholds of detection required for different targets. Read More

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February 2022

Technologies for Frugal and Sensitive Point-of-Care Immunoassays.

Annu Rev Anal Chem (Palo Alto Calif) 2022 Feb 25. Epub 2022 Feb 25.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Pratt School of Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, USA; email:

Immunoassays are a powerful tool for sensitive and quantitative analysis of a wide range of biomolecular analytes in the clinic and in research laboratories. However, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-the gold-standard assay-requires significant user intervention, time, and clinical resources, making its deployment at the point-of-care (POC) impractical. Researchers have made great strides toward democratizing access to clinical quality immunoassays at the POC and at an affordable price. Read More

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February 2022

Emerging Optical Microscopy Techniques for Electrochemistry.

Annu Rev Anal Chem (Palo Alto Calif) 2022 Feb 25. Epub 2022 Feb 25.

Université de Paris, ITODYS, CNRS, Paris, France; email:

An optical microscope is probably the most intuitive, simple, and commonly used instrument to observe objects and discuss behaviors through images. Although the idea of imaging electrochemical processes operando by optical microscopy was initiated 40 years ago, it was not until significant progress was made in the last two decades in advanced optical microscopy or plasmonics that it could become a mainstream electroanalytical strategy. This review illustrates the potential of different optical microscopies to visualize and quantify local electrochemical processes with unprecedented temporal and spatial resolution (below the diffraction limit), up to the single object level with subnanoparticle or single-molecule sensitivity. Read More

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February 2022

Surface Analysis Techniques in Forensic Science: Successes, Challenges, and Opportunities for Operational Deployment.

Annu Rev Anal Chem (Palo Alto Calif) 2022 Feb 15. Epub 2022 Feb 15.

Dipartimento di Giurisprudenza, Università degli Studi di Bergamo, Bergamo, Italy.

Surface analysis techniques have rapidly evolved in the last decade. Some of these are already routinely used in forensics, such as for the detection of gunshot residue or for glass analysis. Some surface analysis approaches are attractive for their portability to the crime scene. Read More

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February 2022

Current Challenges and Recent Developments in Mass Spectrometry-Based Metabolomics.

Annu Rev Anal Chem (Palo Alto Calif) 2021 07 27;14(1):467-487. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA; email:

High-resolution mass spectrometry (MS) has advanced the study of metabolism in living systems by allowing many metabolites to be measured in a single experiment. Although improvements in mass detector sensitivity have facilitated the detection of greater numbers of analytes, compound identification strategies, feature reduction software, and data sharing have not kept up with the influx of MS data. Here, we discuss the ongoing challenges with MS-based metabolomics, including de novo metabolite identification from mass spectra, differentiation of metabolites from environmental contamination, chromatographic separation of isomers, and incomplete MS databases. Read More

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Electrochemical Affinity Assays/Sensors: Brief History and Current Status.

Annu Rev Anal Chem (Palo Alto Calif) 2021 07 27;14(1):109-131. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Chemistry, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio 45221-0172, USA; email:

The advent of electrochemical affinity assays and sensors evolved from pioneering efforts in the 1970s to broaden the field of analytes accessible to the selective and sensitive performance of electrochemical detection. The foundation of electrochemical affinity assays/sensors is the specific capture of an analyte by an affinity element and the subsequent transduction of this event into a measurable signal. This review briefly covers the early development of affinity assays and then focuses on advances in the past decade. Read More

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Glycan Labeling and Analysis in Cells and In Vivo.

Annu Rev Anal Chem (Palo Alto Calif) 2021 07 27;14(1):363-387. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China; email:

As one of the major types of biomacromolecules in the cell, glycans play essential functional roles in various biological processes. Compared with proteins and nucleic acids, the analysis of glycans in situ has been more challenging. Herein we review recent advances in the development of methods and strategies for labeling, imaging, and profiling of glycans in cells and in vivo. Read More

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Noncontact Nanoscale Imaging of Cells.

Annu Rev Anal Chem (Palo Alto Calif) 2021 07 27;14(1):347-361. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Imperial College Faculty of Medicine, London Centre for Nanotechnology, London W12 0NN, United Kingdom.

The reduction in ion current as a fine pipette approaches a cell surface allows the cell surface topography to be imaged, with nanoscale resolution, without contact with the delicate cell surface. A variety of different methods have been developed and refined to scan the topography of the dynamic cell surface at high resolution and speed. Measurement of cell topography can be complemented by performing local probing or mapping of the cell surface using the same pipette. Read More

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Real-Time Visualization and Monitoring of Physiological Dynamics by Aggregation-Induced Emission Luminogens (AIEgens).

Annu Rev Anal Chem (Palo Alto Calif) 2021 07 27;14(1):413-435. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Chemistry, The Hong Kong Branch of Chinese National Engineering Research Centre for Tissue Restoration and Reconstruction, Institute for Advanced Study, Division of Life Science and State Key Laboratory of Molecular Neuroscience, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong 999077, China; email:

Physiological dynamics in living cells and tissues are crucial for maintenance and regulation of their normal activities and functionalities. Tiny fluctuations in physiological microenvironments can leverage significant influences on cell growth, metabolism, differentiation, and apoptosis as well as disease evolution. Fluorescence imaging based on aggregation-induced emission luminogens (AIEgens) exhibits superior advantages in real-time sensing and monitoring of the physiological dynamics in living systems, including its unique properties such as high sensitivity and rapid response, flexible molecular design, and versatile nano- to mesostructural fabrication. Read More

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Protein Dynamics by Two-Dimensional Infrared Spectroscopy.

Annu Rev Anal Chem (Palo Alto Calif) 2021 07 27;14(1):299-321. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Chemistry, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47401, USA; email:

Proteins function as ensembles of interconverting structures. The motions span from picosecond bond rotations to millisecond and longer subunit displacements. Characterization of functional dynamics on all spatial and temporal scales remains challenging experimentally. Read More

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Recent Progress in the Analytical Chemistry of Champagne and Sparkling Wines.

Annu Rev Anal Chem (Palo Alto Calif) 2021 07 27;14(1):21-46. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Equipe Effervescence Champagne et Applications, Groupe de Spectrométrie Moléculaire et Atmosphérique (GSMA), CNRS UMR 7331, UFR Sciences Exactes et Naturelles, BP 1039, Université de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, 51687 Reims CEDEX 2, France; email:

The strong interplay between the various parameters at play in a bottle and in a glass of champagne or sparkling wine has been the subject of study for about two decades. After a brief overview of the history of champagne and sparkling wines, this article presents the key steps involved in the traditional method leading to the production of premium modern-day sparkling wines, with a specific focus on quantification of the dissolved CO found in the sealed bottles and in a glass. Moreover, a review of the literature on the various chemical and instrumental approaches used in the analysis of dissolved and gaseous CO, effervescence, foam, and volatile organic compounds is reported. Read More

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Active Flow Control and Dynamic Analysis in Droplet Microfluidics.

Annu Rev Anal Chem (Palo Alto Calif) 2021 07 27;14(1):133-153. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama 36849, USA; email:

Droplet-based microfluidics has emerged as an important subfield within the microfluidic and general analytical communities. Indeed, several unique applications such as digital assay readout and single-cell sequencing now have commercial systems based on droplet microfluidics. Yet there remains room for this research area to grow. Read More

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Developments and Ongoing Challenges for Analysis of Surface-Bound Proteins.

Annu Rev Anal Chem (Palo Alto Calif) 2021 07 27;14(1):389-412. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

National ESCA and Surface Analysis Center for Biomedical Problems, Departments of Bioengineering and Chemical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA; email:

Proteins at surfaces and interfaces play important roles in the function and performance of materials in applications ranging from diagnostic assays to biomedical devices. To improve the performance of these materials, detailed molecular structure (conformation and orientation) along with the identity and concentrations of the surface-bound proteins on those materials must be determined. This article describes radiolabeling, surface plasmon resonance, quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry, sum frequency generation spectroscopy, and computational techniques along with the information each technique provides for characterizing protein films. Read More

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Clinical Chemistry for Developing Countries: Mass Spectrometry.

Annu Rev Anal Chem (Palo Alto Calif) 2021 07 27;14(1):437-465. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA; email:

Early disease diagnosis is necessary to enable timely interventions. Implementation of this vital task in the developing world is challenging owing to limited resources. Diagnostic approaches developed for resource-limited settings have often involved colorimetric tests (based on immunoassays) due to their low cost. Read More

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3D Printed Electrochemical Sensors.

Annu Rev Anal Chem (Palo Alto Calif) 2021 07 27;14(1):47-63. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Centre for Stress and Age-Related Disease, University of Brighton, Brighton BN2 4GJ, United Kingdom; email:

Three-dimensional (3D) printing has recently emerged as a novel approach in the development of electrochemical sensors. This approach to fabrication has provided a tremendous opportunity to make complex geometries of electrodes at high precision. The most widely used approach for fabrication is fused deposition modeling; however, other approaches facilitate making smaller geometries or expanding the range of materials that can be printed. Read More

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Environmental Toxicology Assays Using Organ-on-Chip.

Annu Rev Anal Chem (Palo Alto Calif) 2021 07 27;14(1):155-183. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721, USA; email:

Adverse effects of environmental toxicants to human health have traditionally been assayed using in vitro assays. Organ-on-chip (OOC) is a new platform that can bridge the gaps between in vitro assays (or 3D cell culture) and animal tests. Microenvironments, physical and biochemical stimuli, and adequate sensing and biosensing systems can be integrated into OOC devices to better recapitulate the in vivo tissue and organ behavior and metabolism. Read More

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Analytical Technologies for Liquid Biopsy of Subcellular Materials.

Annu Rev Anal Chem (Palo Alto Calif) 2021 07 27;14(1):207-229. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Bioengineering Program, University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas 66045, USA; email:

Liquid biopsy markers, which can be secured from a simple blood draw or other biological samples, are used to manage a variety of diseases and even monitor for bacterial or viral infections. Although there are several different types of liquid biopsy markers, the subcellular ones, including cell-free DNA, microRNA, extracellular vesicles, and viral particles, are evolving in terms of their utility. A challenge with liquid biopsy markers is that they must be enriched from the biological sample prior to analysis because they are a vast minority in a mixed population, and potential interferences may be present in the sample matrix that can inhibit profiling the molecular cargo from the subcellular marker. Read More

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Aqueous Two-Phase Systems and Microfluidics for Microscale Assays and Analytical Measurements.

Annu Rev Anal Chem (Palo Alto Calif) 2021 07 27;14(1):231-255. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Walter H. Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology and Emory School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia 30332, USA; email:

Phase separation is a common occurrence in nature. Synthetic and natural polymers, salts, ionic liquids, surfactants, and biomacromolecules phase separate in water, resulting in an aqueous two-phase system (ATPS). This review discusses the properties, handling, and uses of ATPSs. Read More

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In Situ X-Ray Techniques for Electrochemical Interfaces.

Annu Rev Anal Chem (Palo Alto Calif) 2021 07 27;14(1):87-107. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Oliver Lodge Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZE, United Kingdom; email:

This article reviews progress in the study of materials using X-ray-based techniques from an electrochemistry perspective. We focus on in situ/in operando surface X-ray scattering, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and the combination of both methods. The background of these techniques together with key concepts is introduced. Read More

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Environmental Aspects of Oxide Nanoparticles: Probing Oxide Nanoparticle Surface Processes Under Different Environmental Conditions.

Annu Rev Anal Chem (Palo Alto Calif) 2021 07 27;14(1):489-514. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Nanoengineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA; email:

Surface chemistry affects the physiochemical properties of nanoparticles in a variety of ways. Therefore, there is great interest in understanding how nanoparticle surfaces evolve under different environmental conditions of pH and temperature. Here, we discuss the use of vibrational spectroscopy as a tool that allows for in situ observations of oxide nanoparticle surfaces and their evolution due to different surface processes. Read More

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Bipolar (Bio)electroanalysis.

Annu Rev Anal Chem (Palo Alto Calif) 2021 07 27;14(1):65-86. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Bordeaux INP, Institute of Molecular Science, and CNRS UMR 5255, University of Bordeaux, 33607 Pessac, France; email:

This contribution reviews a selection of the most recent studies on the use of bipolar electrochemistry in the framework of analytical chemistry. Despite the fact that the concept is not new, with several important studies dating back to the middle of the last century, completely novel and very original approaches have emerged over the last decade. This current revival illustrates that scientists still (re)discover some exciting virtues of this approach, which are useful in many different areas, especially for tackling analytical challenges in an unconventional way. Read More

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Recent Advances in Microfluidically Spun Microfibers for Tissue Engineering and Drug Delivery Applications.

Annu Rev Anal Chem (Palo Alto Calif) 2021 07 27;14(1):185-205. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011, USA; email:

In recent years, the unique and tunable properties of microfluidically spun microfibers have led to tremendous advancements for the field of biomedical engineering, which have been applied to areas such as tissue engineering, wound dressing, and drug delivery, as well as cell encapsulation and cell seeding. In this article, we analyze the most recent advances in microfluidics and microfluidically spun microfibers, with an emphasis on biomedical applications. We explore in detail these new and innovative experiments, how microfibers are made, the experimental purpose of making microfibers, and the future work that can be done as a result of these new types of microfibers. Read More

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AI in Measurement Science.

Chao Liu Jiashu Sun

Annu Rev Anal Chem (Palo Alto Calif) 2021 07 27;14(1):1-19. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

CAS Key Laboratory of Standardization and Measurement for Nanotechnology, CAS Center for Excellence in Nanoscience, National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, Beijing 100190, China; email:

Measurement of biological systems containing biomolecules and bioparticles is a key task in the fields of analytical chemistry, biology, and medicine. Driven by the complex nature of biological systems and unprecedented amounts of measurement data, artificial intelligence (AI) in measurement science has rapidly advanced from the use of silicon-based machine learning (ML) for data mining to the development of molecular computing with improved sensitivity and accuracy. This review presents an overview of fundamental ML methodologies and discusses their applications in disease diagnostics, biomarker discovery, and imaging analysis. Read More

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