82 results match your criteria Annual Review Of Vision Science[Journal]


Geometry of Pictorial Relief.

Annu Rev Vis Sci 2018 09;4:451-474

Laboratory of Experimental Psychology, University of Leuven (KU Leuven), 3000 Leuven, Belgium; email:

Pictorial relief is a quality of visual awareness that happens when one looks into (as opposed to at) a picture. It has no physical counterpart of a geometrical nature. It takes account of cues, mentally identified in the tonal gradients of the physical picture-pigments distributed over a planar substrate. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-vision-091517-034250DOI Listing
September 2018
1 Read

Vision During Saccadic Eye Movements.

Annu Rev Vis Sci 2018 09;4:193-213

Department of Translational Research on New Technologies in Medicine and Surgery, University of Pisa, 56123 Pisa, Italy; email: ,

The perceptual consequences of eye movements are manifold: Each large saccade is accompanied by a drop of sensitivity to luminance-contrast, low-frequency stimuli, impacting both conscious vision and involuntary responses, including pupillary constrictions. They also produce transient distortions of space, time, and number, which cannot be attributed to the mere motion on the retinae. All these are signs that the visual system evokes active processes to predict and counteract the consequences of saccades. Read More

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https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/10.1146/annurev-vision-091
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-vision-091517-034317DOI Listing
September 2018
7 Reads

Retinal Vasculature in Development and Diseases.

Annu Rev Vis Sci 2018 09;4:101-122

Department of Ophthalmology, Harvard Medical School, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA; email:

The retina is one of the most metabolically active tissues in the body, consuming high levels of oxygen and nutrients. A well-organized ocular vascular system adapts to meet the metabolic requirements of the retina to ensure visual function. Pathological conditions affect growth of the blood vessels in the eye. Read More

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https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/10.1146/annurev-vision-091
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-vision-091517-034018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6326083PMC
September 2018
5 Reads

Corollary Discharge Contributions to Perceptual Continuity Across Saccades.

Authors:
Robert H Wurtz

Annu Rev Vis Sci 2018 09;4:215-237

Laboratory of Sensorimotor Research, National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892-4435, USA; email:

Our vision depends upon shifting our high-resolution fovea to objects of interest in the visual field. Each saccade displaces the image on the retina, which should produce a chaotic scene with jerks occurring several times per second. It does not. Read More

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https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/10.1146/annurev-vision-102
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-vision-102016-061207DOI Listing
September 2018
20 Reads

A Life in Vision.

Authors:
John E Dowling

Annu Rev Vis Sci 2018 09;4:1-23

Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA; email:

I was drawn into research in George Wald's laboratory at Harvard, where as an undergraduate and graduate student, I studied vitamin A deficiency and dark adaptation. A chance observation while an assistant professor at Harvard led to the major research of my career-to understand the functional organization of vertebrate retinas. I started with a retinal circuit analysis of the primate retina with Brian Boycott and intracellular retinal cell recordings in mudpuppies with Frank Werblin. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-vision-091517-034222DOI Listing
September 2018
2 Reads

Shape from Contour: Computation and Representation.

Authors:
James H Elder

Annu Rev Vis Sci 2018 09;4:423-450

Centre for Vision Research, York University, Toronto, Ontario M3J 1P3, Canada; email:

The human visual system reliably extracts shape information from complex natural scenes in spite of noise and fragmentation caused by clutter and occlusions. A fast, feedforward sweep through ventral stream involving mechanisms tuned for orientation, curvature, and local Gestalt principles produces partial shape representations sufficient for simpler discriminative tasks. More complete shape representations may involve recurrent processes that integrate local and global cues. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-vision-091517-034110DOI Listing
September 2018
7 Reads

Neural Mechanisms of Motion Processing in the Mammalian Retina.

Authors:
Wei Wei

Annu Rev Vis Sci 2018 09 10;4:165-192. Epub 2018 Aug 10.

Department of Neurobiology, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA; email:

Visual motion on the retina activates a cohort of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). This population activity encodes multiple streams of information extracted by parallel retinal circuits. Motion processing in the retina is best studied in the direction-selective circuit. Read More

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https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/10.1146/annurev-vision-091
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-vision-091517-034048DOI Listing
September 2018
9 Reads

The Organization and Operation of Inferior Temporal Cortex.

Authors:
Bevil R Conway

Annu Rev Vis Sci 2018 09 30;4:381-402. Epub 2018 Jul 30.

Laboratory of Sensorimotor Research, National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 28092, USA; email:

Inferior temporal cortex (IT) is a key part of the ventral visual pathway implicated in object, face, and scene perception. But how does IT work? Here, I describe an organizational scheme that marries form and function and provides a framework for future research. The scheme consists of a series of stages arranged along the posterior-anterior axis of IT, defined by anatomical connections and functional responses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-vision-091517-034202DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6404234PMC
September 2018
12 Reads

Motion Perception: From Detection to Interpretation.

Annu Rev Vis Sci 2018 09 27;4:501-523. Epub 2018 Jul 27.

NTT Communication Science Labs, Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation, Atsugi, Kanagawa 243-0198, Japan; email: , , ,

Visual motion processing can be conceptually divided into two levels. In the lower level, local motion signals are detected by spatiotemporal-frequency-selective sensors and then integrated into a motion vector flow. Although the model based on V1-MT physiology provides a good computational framework for this level of processing, it needs to be updated to fully explain psychophysical findings about motion perception, including complex motion signal interactions in the spatiotemporal-frequency and space domains. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-vision-091517-034328DOI Listing
September 2018
17 Reads

Invariant Recognition Shapes Neural Representations of Visual Input.

Annu Rev Vis Sci 2018 09 27;4:403-422. Epub 2018 Jul 27.

Center for Brains, Minds and Machines, MIT, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA; email: , ,

Recognizing the people, objects, and actions in the world around us is a crucial aspect of human perception that allows us to plan and act in our environment. Remarkably, our proficiency in recognizing semantic categories from visual input is unhindered by transformations that substantially alter their appearance (e.g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-vision-091517-034103DOI Listing
September 2018
1 Read

Color Perception: Objects, Constancy, and Categories.

Annu Rev Vis Sci 2018 09 13;4:475-499. Epub 2018 Jul 13.

Department of Psychology, University of Giessen, 35394 Giessen, Germany; email: ,

Color has been scientifically investigated by linking color appearance to colorimetric measurements of the light that enters the eye. However, the main purpose of color perception is not to determine the properties of incident light, but to aid the visual perception of objects and materials in our environment. We review the state of the art on object colors, color constancy, and color categories to gain insight into the functional aspects of color perception. Read More

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https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/10.1146/annurev-vision-091
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-vision-091517-034231DOI Listing
September 2018
19 Reads

Linking V1 Activity to Behavior.

Annu Rev Vis Sci 2018 09 5;4:287-310. Epub 2018 Jul 5.

Center for Perceptual Systems, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712, USA; email: ,

A long-term goal of visual neuroscience is to develop and test quantitative models that account for the moment-by-moment relationship between neural responses in early visual cortex and human performance in natural visual tasks. This review focuses on efforts to address this goal by measuring and perturbing the activity of primary visual cortex (V1) neurons while nonhuman primates perform demanding, well-controlled visual tasks. We start by describing a conceptual approach-the decoder linking model (DLM) framework-in which candidate decoding models take neural responses as input and generate predicted behavior as output. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-vision-102016-061324DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6141357PMC
September 2018

Blindness and Human Brain Plasticity.

Annu Rev Vis Sci 2018 09 5;4:337-356. Epub 2018 Jul 5.

Department of Psychology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA; email:

Early blindness causes fundamental alterations of neural function across more than 25% of cortex-changes that span the gamut from metabolism to behavior and collectively represent one of the most dramatic examples of plasticity in the human brain. The goal of this review is to describe how the remarkable behavioral and neuroanatomical compensations demonstrated by blind individuals provide insights into the extent, mechanisms, and limits of human brain plasticity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-vision-102016-061241DOI Listing
September 2018

Elementary Motion Detection in Drosophila: Algorithms and Mechanisms.

Annu Rev Vis Sci 2018 09 27;4:143-163. Epub 2018 Jun 27.

Department of Neurobiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA; email:

Motion in the visual world provides critical information to guide the behavior of sighted animals. Furthermore, as visual motion estimation requires comparisons of signals across inputs and over time, it represents a paradigmatic and generalizable neural computation. Focusing on the Drosophila visual system, where an explosion of technological advances has recently accelerated experimental progress, we review our understanding of how, algorithmically and mechanistically, motion signals are first computed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-vision-091517-034153DOI Listing
September 2018
8 Reads

A Tale of Two Visual Systems: Invariant and Adaptive Visual Information Representations in the Primate Brain.

Authors:
Yaoda Xu

Annu Rev Vis Sci 2018 09 27;4:311-336. Epub 2018 Jun 27.

Visual Sciences Laboratory, Psychology Department, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA; email:

Visual information processing contains two opposite needs. There is both a need to comprehend the richness of the visual world and a need to extract only pertinent visual information to guide thoughts and behavior at a given moment. I argue that these two aspects of visual processing are mediated by two complementary visual systems in the primate brain-specifically, the occipitotemporal cortex (OTC) and the posterior parietal cortex (PPC). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-vision-091517-033954DOI Listing
September 2018

How Visual Cortical Organization Is Altered by Ophthalmologic and Neurologic Disorders.

Annu Rev Vis Sci 2018 09 11;4:357-379. Epub 2018 Jun 11.

Spinoza Centre for Neuroimaging, 1105 BK Amsterdam, Netherlands; email:

Receptive fields are a core property of cortical organization. Modern neuroimaging allows routine access to visual population receptive fields (pRFs), enabling investigations of clinical disorders. Yet how the underlying neural circuitry operates is controversial. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-vision-091517-033948DOI Listing
September 2018

MicroRNAs in Retinal Development.

Annu Rev Vis Sci 2018 09 11;4:25-44. Epub 2018 Jun 11.

Centre for Developmental Neurobiology, MRC Centre for Neurodevelopmental Disorders, King's College London, London SE1 1UL, United Kingdom; email:

The small RNA regulatory molecules called microRNAs (miRNAs) play key roles in the development of most organisms. The expression of many different miRNAs has been described in the developing and mature vertebrate retina. The ability of miRNAs to regulate a diversity of messenger RNA targets allows them to have effects on many different developmental processes, but the functions of only a few miRNAs have been documented to date. Read More

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https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/10.1146/annurev-vision-091
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-vision-091517-034357DOI Listing
September 2018
7 Reads

Plasticity of Retinal Gap Junctions: Roles in Synaptic Physiology and Disease.

Annu Rev Vis Sci 2018 09 11;4:79-100. Epub 2018 Jun 11.

Department of Biological and Vision Sciences, State University of New York College of Optometry, New York, NY 10036, USA; email:

Electrical synaptic transmission via gap junctions underlies direct and rapid neuronal communication in the central nervous system. The diversity of functional roles played by electrical synapses is perhaps best exemplified in the vertebrate retina, in which gap junctions are expressed by each of the five major neuronal types. These junctions are highly plastic; they are dynamically regulated by ambient illumination and circadian rhythms acting through light-activated neuromodulators. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-vision-091517-034133DOI Listing
September 2018
12 Reads

Parallel Processing of Rod and Cone Signals: Retinal Function and Human Perception.

Annu Rev Vis Sci 2018 09 8;4:123-141. Epub 2018 Jun 8.

Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA; email:

We know a good deal about the operation of the retina when either rod or cone photoreceptors provide the dominant input (i.e., under very dim or very bright conditions). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-vision-091517-034055DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6153147PMC
September 2018
1 Read

Thalamocortical Circuits and Functional Architecture.

Annu Rev Vis Sci 2018 09 1;4:263-285. Epub 2018 Jun 1.

Department of Biological and Visual Sciences, College of Optometry, State University of New York, New York, NY 10036, USA; email:

The thalamocortical pathway is the main route of communication between the eye and the cerebral cortex. During embryonic development, thalamocortical afferents travel to L4 and are sorted by receptive field position, eye of origin, and contrast polarity (i.e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-vision-091517-034122DOI Listing
September 2018
1 Read

Visual Function, Organization, and Development of the Mouse Superior Colliculus.

Annu Rev Vis Sci 2018 09 31;4:239-262. Epub 2018 May 31.

Department of Biology and Department of Psychology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904, USA; email:

The superior colliculus (SC) is the most prominent visual center in mice. Studies over the past decade have greatly advanced our understanding of the function, organization, and development of the mouse SC, which has rapidly become a popular model in vision research. These studies have described the diverse and cell-type-specific visual response properties in the mouse SC, revealed their laminar and topographic organizations, and linked the mouse SC and downstream pathways with visually guided behaviors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-vision-091517-034142DOI Listing
September 2018

Microglia in the Retina: Roles in Development, Maturity, and Disease.

Annu Rev Vis Sci 2018 09 31;4:45-77. Epub 2018 May 31.

Unit on Neuron-Glia Interactions in Retinal Disease, National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA; email: ,

Microglia, the primary resident immune cell type, constitute a key population of glia in the retina. Recent evidence indicates that microglia play significant functional roles in the retina at different life stages. During development, retinal microglia regulate neuronal survival by exerting trophic influences and influencing programmed cell death. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-vision-091517-034425DOI Listing
September 2018

Vectors and Gene Delivery to the Retina.

Annu Rev Vis Sci 2017 09;3:121-140

Inserm, Institut de la Vision, UMR S968, 75012 Paris, France; email: ,

One of the great advantages of the retina as a target tissue for gene delivery is the wide array of genetic tools that have been developed in the past decade. This includes a variety of vectors for therapeutic gene delivery to most types of retinal neurons and glia, as well as cell type-specific promoters for restricted gene expression in distinct neuronal subtypes. Within the scope of neuroscience applications and for gene therapy, it is now routine to express reporter genes, replacement genes, neuronal activity indicators, and microbial opsins in specific neuronal types in the mouse retina. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-vision-102016-061413DOI Listing
September 2017

International Vision Care: Issues and Approaches.

Annu Rev Vis Sci 2017 09;3:53-68

Allen Foster Community Eye Health Research Centre, Gullapalli Pratibha Rao International Centre for Advancement of Rural Eye Care, L V Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad 500086, India.

Globally, 32.4 million individuals are blind and 191 million have moderate or severe visual impairment (MSVI); 80% of cases of blindness and MSVI are avoidable. However, great efforts are needed to tackle blindness and MSVI, as eye care in most places is delivered in isolation from and without significant integration with general health sectors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-vision-102016-061407DOI Listing
September 2017
7 Reads

Textures as Probes of Visual Processing.

Annu Rev Vis Sci 2017 09;3:275-296

Department of Cognitive Sciences, School of Social Sciences, University of California, Irvine, California 92697.

Visual textures are a class of stimuli with properties that make them well suited for addressing general questions about visual function at the levels of behavior and neural mechanism. They have structure across multiple spatial scales, they put the focus on the inferential nature of visual processing, and they help bridge the gap between stimuli that are analytically convenient and the complex, naturalistic stimuli that have the greatest biological relevance. Key questions that are well suited for analysis via visual textures include the nature and structure of perceptual spaces, modulation of early visual processing by task, and the transformation of sensory stimuli into patterns of population activity that are relevant to perception. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-vision-102016-061316DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5629359PMC
September 2017
2 Reads

Electrical Stimulation of Visual Cortex: Relevance for the Development of Visual Cortical Prosthetics.

Annu Rev Vis Sci 2017 09 28;3:141-166. Epub 2017 Jul 28.

Department of Neurosurgery, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030; email: , ,

Electrical stimulation of the cerebral cortex is a powerful tool for exploring cortical function. Stimulation of early visual cortical areas is easily detected by subjects and produces simple visual percepts known as phosphenes. A device implanted in visual cortex that generates patterns of phosphenes could be used as a substitute for natural vision in blind patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-vision-111815-114525DOI Listing
September 2017
1 Read

Higher-Order Areas of the Mouse Visual Cortex.

Annu Rev Vis Sci 2017 09 26;3:251-273. Epub 2017 Jul 26.

Allen Institute for Brain Science, Seattle, Washington 98109; email:

The brain has evolved to transform sensory information in the environment into neural representations that can be used for perception and action. Higher-order sensory cortical areas, with their increasingly complex receptive fields and integrative properties, are thought to be critical nodes for this function. This is especially true in the primate visual cortex, in which functionally specialized areas are engaged in parallel streams to support diverse computations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-vision-102016-061331DOI Listing
September 2017
1 Read

Probabilistic Computations for Attention, Eye Movements, and Search.

Annu Rev Vis Sci 2017 09 26;3:319-342. Epub 2017 Jul 26.

Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106-9660; email:

The term visual attention immediately evokes the idea of limited resources, serial processing, or a zoom metaphor. But evidence has slowly accumulated that computations that take into account probabilistic relationships among visual forms and the target contribute to optimizing decisions in biological and artificial organisms, even without considering these limited-capacity processes in covert attention or even foveation. The benefits from such computations can be formalized within the framework of an ideal Bayesian observer and can be related to the classic theory of sensory cue combination in vision science and context-driven approaches to object detection in computer vision. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-vision-102016-061220DOI Listing
September 2017
4 Reads

Binocular Mechanisms of 3D Motion Processing.

Annu Rev Vis Sci 2017 09 26;3:297-318. Epub 2017 Jul 26.

The University of Texas at Austin, Texas 78757; email:

The visual system must recover important properties of the external environment if its host is to survive. Because the retinae are effectively two-dimensional but the world is three-dimensional (3D), the patterns of stimulation both within and across the eyes must be used to infer the distal stimulus-the environment-in all three dimensions. Moreover, animals and elements in the environment move, which means the input contains rich temporal information. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-vision-102016-061259DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5956901PMC
September 2017

Neuroprotection in Glaucoma: Animal Models and Clinical Trials.

Annu Rev Vis Sci 2017 09 21;3:91-120. Epub 2017 Jul 21.

Departments of Ophthalmology and Neurology, McGill University, Montreal H4A 3S5, Canada; email:

Glaucoma is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that frequently results in irreversible blindness. Glaucoma causes death of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and their axons in the optic nerve, resulting in visual field deficits and eventual loss of visual acuity. Glaucoma is a complex optic neuropathy, and a successful strategy for its treatment requires not only better management of known risk factors such as elevated intraocular pressure and the development of improved tools for detecting RGC injury but also treatments that address this injury (i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-vision-102016-061422DOI Listing
September 2017
4 Reads

Visual Perceptual Learning and Models.

Annu Rev Vis Sci 2017 09 19;3:343-363. Epub 2017 Jul 19.

Department of Psychology, Center for Cognitive and Brain Sciences, and Center for Cognitive and Behavioral Brain Imaging, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210; email:

Visual perceptual learning through practice or training can significantly improve performance on visual tasks. Originally seen as a manifestation of plasticity in the primary visual cortex, perceptual learning is more readily understood as improvements in the function of brain networks that integrate processes, including sensory representations, decision, attention, and reward, and balance plasticity with system stability. This review considers the primary phenomena of perceptual learning, theories of perceptual learning, and perceptual learning's effect on signal and noise in visual processing and decision. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-vision-102016-061249DOI Listing
September 2017
1 Read

Vision and Action.

Authors:
Mary M Hayhoe

Annu Rev Vis Sci 2017 09 17;3:389-413. Epub 2017 Jul 17.

Center for Perceptual Systems, University of Texas at Austin, Texas 78712; email:

Investigation of natural behavior has contributed a number of insights to our understanding of visual guidance of actions by highlighting the importance of behavioral goals and focusing attention on how vision and action play out in time. In this context, humans make continuous sequences of sensory-motor decisions to satisfy current behavioral goals, and the role of vision is to provide the relevant information for making good decisions in order to achieve those goals. This conceptualization of visually guided actions as a sequence of sensory-motor decisions has been formalized within the framework of statistical decision theory, which structures the problem and provides the context for much recent progress in vision and action. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-vision-102016-061437DOI Listing
September 2017
6 Reads

The Transduction Cascade in Retinal ON-Bipolar Cells: Signal Processing and Disease.

Annu Rev Vis Sci 2017 09 17;3:25-51. Epub 2017 Jul 17.

Jules Stein Eye Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095; email:

Our robust visual experience is based on the reliable transfer of information from our photoreceptor cells, the rods and cones, to higher brain centers. At the very first synapse of the visual system, information is split into two separate pathways, ON and OFF, which encode increments and decrements in light intensity, respectively. The importance of this segregation is borne out in the fact that receptive fields in higher visual centers maintain a separation between ON and OFF regions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-vision-102016-061338DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5778350PMC
September 2017
3 Reads

Visual Decision-Making in an Uncertain and Dynamic World.

Annu Rev Vis Sci 2017 09 17;3:227-250. Epub 2017 Jul 17.

Department of Psychology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104; email:

The right decision today may be the wrong decision tomorrow. We live in a world in which expectations, contingencies, and goals continually evolve and change. Thus, decisions do not occur in isolation but rather are tightly embedded in these streams of temporal dependencies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-vision-111815-114511DOI Listing
September 2017
1 Read

The Functional Neuroanatomy of Human Face Perception.

Annu Rev Vis Sci 2017 09 17;3:167-196. Epub 2017 Jul 17.

Neurosciences Program, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305.

Face perception is critical for normal social functioning and is mediated by a network of regions in the ventral visual stream. In this review, we describe recent neuroimaging findings regarding the macro- and microscopic anatomical features of the ventral face network, the characteristics of white matter connections, and basic computations performed by population receptive fields within face-selective regions composing this network. We emphasize the importance of the neural tissue properties and white matter connections of each region, as these anatomical properties may be tightly linked to the functional characteristics of the ventral face network. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-vision-102016-061214DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6345578PMC
September 2017
7 Reads

EK (DLEK, DSEK, DMEK): New Frontier in Cornea Surgery.

Annu Rev Vis Sci 2017 09 11;3:69-90. Epub 2017 Jul 11.

Price Vision Group, Indianapolis, Indiana 46260; email:

Endothelial keratoplasty (EK) has revolutionized treatment of corneal endothelial dysfunction. Compared with penetrating keratoplasty (PK), EK provides faster and more reliable visual rehabilitation while maintaining the eye's structural integrity. The number of EK procedures is growing annually and surpassed PK in the United States in 2012. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-vision-102016-061400DOI Listing
September 2017
20 Reads

Material Perception.

Authors:
Roland W Fleming

Annu Rev Vis Sci 2017 09 11;3:365-388. Epub 2017 Jul 11.

Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Giessen, 35394 Giessen, Germany; email:

Under typical viewing conditions, human observers effortlessly recognize materials and infer their physical, functional, and multisensory properties at a glance. Without touching materials, we can usually tell whether they would feel hard or soft, rough or smooth, wet or dry. We have vivid visual intuitions about how deformable materials like liquids or textiles respond to external forces and how surfaces like chrome, wax, or leather change appearance when formed into different shapes or viewed under different lighting. Read More

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http://www.annualreviews.org/doi/10.1146/annurev-vision-1020
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-vision-102016-061429DOI Listing
September 2017
2 Reads

Circuits for Action and Cognition: A View from the Superior Colliculus.

Annu Rev Vis Sci 2017 09 15;3:197-226. Epub 2017 Jun 15.

Department of Neurobiology and Anatomical Sciences, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, Mississippi 39216.

The superior colliculus is one of the most well-studied structures in the brain, and with each new report, its proposed role in behavior seems to increase in complexity. Forty years of evidence show that the colliculus is critical for reorienting an organism toward objects of interest. In monkeys, this involves saccadic eye movements. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-vision-102016-061234DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5752317PMC
September 2017
2 Reads

Inhibitory Interneurons in the Retina: Types, Circuitry, and Function.

Annu Rev Vis Sci 2017 09 15;3:1-24. Epub 2017 Jun 15.

Synaptic Physiology Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892-3701; email:

Visual signals in the vertebrate retina are shaped by feedback and feedforward inhibition in two synaptic layers. In one, horizontal cells establish fundamental center-surround receptive-field properties via morphologically and physiologically complex synapses with photoreceptors and bipolar cells. In the other, a panoply of amacrine cells imbue ganglion cell responses with spatiotemporally complex information about the visual world. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-vision-102016-061345DOI Listing
September 2017

Evolution of Concepts and Technologies in Ophthalmic Laser Therapy.

Authors:
Daniel Palanker

Annu Rev Vis Sci 2016 10;2:295-319

Department of Ophthalmology and Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305; email:

Ophthalmology was the first medical specialty to adopt lasers right after their invention more than 50 years ago, and they gradually revolutionized ocular imaging, diagnostics, therapy, and surgery. Challenging precision, safety, and selectivity requirements for ocular therapeutic and surgical procedures keep advancing the laser technologies, which in turn continue enabling novel applications for the preservation and restoration of sight. Modern lasers can provide single-cell-layer selectivity in therapy, submicrometer precision in three-dimensional image-guided surgery, and nondamaging retinal therapy under optoacoustic temperature control. Read More

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http://www.annualreviews.org/doi/10.1146/annurev-vision-1118
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-vision-111815-114358DOI Listing
October 2016
4 Reads

Early Visual Cortex as a Multiscale Cognitive Blackboard.

Annu Rev Vis Sci 2016 10 18;2:131-151. Epub 2016 Jul 18.

Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behavior, Radboud University, 6525 EN Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Neurons in early visual cortical areas not only represent incoming visual information but are also engaged by higher level cognitive processes, including attention, working memory, imagery, and decision-making. Are these cognitive effects an epiphenomenon or are they functionally relevant for these mental operations? We review evidence supporting the hypothesis that the modulation of activity in early visual areas has a causal role in cognition. The modulatory influences allow the early visual cortex to act as a multiscale cognitive blackboard for read and write operations by higher visual areas, which can thereby efficiently exchange information. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-vision-111815-114443DOI Listing
October 2016
32 Reads

Mechanisms of Orientation Selectivity in the Primary Visual Cortex.

Annu Rev Vis Sci 2016 10;2:85-107

Center for Learning and Memory, Center for Perceptual Systems, Department of Neuroscience, College of Natural Sciences, University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712; email:

The mechanisms underlying the emergence of orientation selectivity in the visual cortex have been, and continue to be, the subjects of intense scrutiny. Orientation selectivity reflects a dramatic change in the representation of the visual world: Whereas afferent thalamic neurons are generally orientation insensitive, neurons in the primary visual cortex (V1) are extremely sensitive to stimulus orientation. This profound change in the receptive field structure along the visual pathway has positioned V1 as a model system for studying the circuitry that underlies neural computations across the neocortex. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-vision-111815-114456DOI Listing
October 2016
3 Reads

Electrical Stimulation of the Retina to Produce Artificial Vision.

Annu Rev Vis Sci 2016 10;2:273-294

Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90007; email:

Retinal prostheses aim to restore vision to blind individuals suffering from retinal diseases such as retinitis pigmentosa and age-related macular degeneration. These devices function by electrically stimulating surviving retinal neurons, whose activation is interpreted by the brain as a visual percept. Many prostheses are currently under development. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-vision-111815-114425DOI Listing
October 2016
2 Reads

The Human Brain in Depth: How We See in 3D.

Annu Rev Vis Sci 2016 10 22;2:345-376. Epub 2016 Jul 22.

Department of Psychology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EB, United Kingdom; email:

Human perception is remarkably flexible: We experience vivid three-dimensional (3D) structure under diverse conditions, from the seemingly random magic-eye stereograms to the aesthetically beautiful, but obviously flat, canvases of the Old Masters. How does the brain achieve this apparently effortless robustness? Using brain imaging we are beginning to discover how different parts of the visual cortex support 3D perception by tracing different computations in the dorsal and ventral pathways. This review concentrates on studies of binocular disparity and its combination with other depth cues. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-vision-111815-114605DOI Listing
October 2016
24 Reads

Visual Confidence.

Authors:
Pascal Mamassian

Annu Rev Vis Sci 2016 10 3;2:459-481. Epub 2016 Aug 3.

Laboratoire des Systèmes Perceptifs, CNRS UMR 8248, 75005 Paris, France.

Visual confidence refers to an observer's ability to judge the accuracy of her perceptual decisions. Even though confidence judgments have been recorded since the early days of psychophysics, only recently have they been recognized as essential for a deeper understanding of visual perception. The reluctance to study visual confidence may have come in part from obtaining convincing experimental evidence in favor of metacognitive abilities rather than just perceptual sensitivity. Read More

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http://www.annualreviews.org/doi/10.1146/annurev-vision-1118
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-vision-111815-114630DOI Listing
October 2016
17 Reads

Experience-Dependent Structural Plasticity in the Visual System.

Annu Rev Vis Sci 2016 10;2:17-35

Picower Institute for Learning and Memory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139; email:

During development, the environment exerts a profound influence on the wiring of brain circuits. Due to the limited resolution of studies in fixed tissue, this experience-dependent structural plasticity was once thought to be restricted to a specific developmental time window. The recent introduction of two-photon microscopy for in vivo imaging has opened the door to repeated monitoring of individual neurons and the study of structural plasticity mechanisms at a very fine scale. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-vision-111815-114638DOI Listing
October 2016
12 Reads

Visual Object Recognition: Do We (Finally) Know More Now Than We Did?

Annu Rev Vis Sci 2016 10 3;2:377-396. Epub 2016 Aug 3.

Department of Psychology, Center for the Neural Basis of Cognition, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213.

How do we recognize objects despite changes in their appearance? The past three decades have been witness to intense debates regarding both whether objects are encoded invariantly with respect to viewing conditions and whether specialized, separable mechanisms are used for the recognition of different object categories. We argue that such dichotomous debates ask the wrong question. Much more important is the nature of object representations: What are features that enable invariance or differential processing between categories? Although the nature of object features is still an unanswered question, new methods for connecting data to models show significant potential for helping us to better understand neural codes for objects. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-vision-111815-114621DOI Listing
October 2016
7 Reads

Probing Human Visual Deficits with Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

Annu Rev Vis Sci 2016 10;2:171-195

Department of Neurology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115.

Much remains to be understood about visual system malfunction following injury. The resulting deficits range from dense, visual field scotomas to mild dysfunction of visual perception. Despite the predictive value of anatomical localization studies, much patient-to-patient variability remains regarding (a) perceptual abilities following injury and (b) the capacity of individual patients for visual rehabilitation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-vision-111815-114535DOI Listing
October 2016

Vision and Aging.

Authors:
Cynthia Owsley

Annu Rev Vis Sci 2016 10;2:255-271

Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Alabama 35294; email:

Research on aging and vision has increased dramatically over the past few decades. Changes in our visual capacities in later adulthood have the potential to impact our ability to perform common everyday visual tasks such as recognizing objects, reading, engaging in mobility activities, and driving, thus influencing the quality of our life and well-being. Here, we discuss several common visual problems in older adults that cause performance problems in the visual tasks of everyday living and when exacerbated are related to the development of common eye conditions and diseases of aging. Read More

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http://www.annualreviews.org/doi/10.1146/annurev-vision-1118
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-vision-111815-114550DOI Listing
October 2016
2 Reads

The Road to Certainty and Back.

Annu Rev Vis Sci 2016 10;2:1-15

Division of Neurobiology, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720; email:

The author relates his intellectual journey from eye-testing clinician to experimental vision scientist. Starting with the quest for underpinning in physics and physiology of vague clinical propositions and of psychology's acceptance of thresholds as "fuzzy-edged," and a long career pursuing a reductionist agenda in empirical vision science, his journey led to the realization that the full understanding of human vision cannot proceed without factoring in an observer's awareness, with its attendant uncertainty and open-endedness. He finds support in the loss of completeness, finality, and certainty revealed in fundamental twentieth-century formulations of mathematics and physics. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-vision-111815-114655DOI Listing
October 2016