115 results match your criteria Annual Review Of Vision Science[Journal]


Rethinking Space: A Review of Perception, Attention, and Memory in Scene Processing.

Annu Rev Vis Sci 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Department of Psychology, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario K7L 3N6, Canada; email:

Scene processing is fundamentally influenced and constrained by spatial layout and spatial associations with objects. However, semantic information has played a vital role in propelling our understanding of real-world scene perception forward. In this article, we review recent advances in assessing how spatial layout and spatial relations influence scene processing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-vision-121219-081745DOI Listing

Can We See with Melanopsin?

Annu Rev Vis Sci 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Centre for Biological Timing and Division of Neuroscience and Experimental Psychology, Faculty of Biology Medicine and Health, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PT, United Kingdom; email:

A small fraction of mammalian retinal ganglion cells are directly photoreceptive thanks to their expression of the photopigment melanopsin. These intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) have well-established roles in a variety of reflex responses to changes in ambient light intensity, including circadian photoentrainment. In this article, we review the growing evidence, obtained primarily from laboratory mice and humans, that the ability to sense light via melanopsin is also an important component of perceptual and form vision. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-vision-030320-041239DOI Listing

Tuning the Senses: How the Pupil Shapes Vision at the Earliest Stage.

Annu Rev Vis Sci 2020 May 20. Epub 2020 May 20.

Department of Psychology, University of Groningen, 9712TS Groningen, The Netherlands; email:

The pupil responds reflexively to changes in brightness and focal distance to maintain the smallest pupil (and thus the highest visual acuity) that still allows sufficient light to reach the retina. The pupil also responds to a wide variety of cognitive processes, but the functions of these cognitive responses are still poorly understood. In this review, I propose that cognitive pupil responses, like their reflexive counterparts, serve to optimize vision. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-vision-030320-062352DOI Listing

Measuring and Modeling Visual Appearance.

Annu Rev Vis Sci 2020 May 18. Epub 2020 May 18.

Department of Psychology, New York University, New York, New York 10003, USA; email:

In studying visual perception, we seek to develop models of processing that accurately predict perceptual judgments. Much of this work is focused on judgments of discrimination, and there is a large literature concerning models of visual discrimination. There are, however, non-threshold visual judgments, such as judgments of the magnitude of differences between visual stimuli, that provide a means to bridge the gap between threshold and appearance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-vision-030320-041152DOI Listing

Retinal Ganglion Cell Axon Wiring Establishing the Binocular Circuit.

Annu Rev Vis Sci 2020 May 12. Epub 2020 May 12.

Mortimer B. Zuckerman Mind Brain Behavior Institute, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027, USA; email:

Binocular vision depends on retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axon projection either to the same side or to the opposite of the brain. In this article, we review the molecular mechanisms for decussation of RGC axons, with a focus on axon guidance signaling the optic chiasm and ipsi- and contralateral axon organization in the optic tract prior to and during targeting. The spatial and temporal features of RGC neurogenesis that give rise to ipsilateral and contralateral identity are described. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-vision-091517-034306DOI Listing

Reprogramming Müller Glia to Regenerate Retinal Neurons.

Annu Rev Vis Sci 2020 Apr 28. Epub 2020 Apr 28.

Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48105, USA; email:

In humans, various genetic defects or age-related diseases, such as diabetic retinopathies, glaucoma, and macular degeneration, cause the death of retinal neurons and profound vision loss. One approach to treating these diseases is to utilize stem and progenitor cells to replace neurons in situ, with the expectation that new neurons will create new synaptic circuits or integrate into existing ones. Reprogramming non-neuronal cells in vivo into stem or progenitor cells is one strategy for replacing lost neurons. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-vision-121219-081808DOI Listing

Genetic and Environmental Risk Factors for Keratoconus.

Annu Rev Vis Sci 2020 Apr 22. Epub 2020 Apr 22.

Menzies Institute for Medical Research, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania 7001, Australia; email:

Keratoconus, a progressive corneal ectasia, is a complex disease with both genetic and environmental risk factors. The exact etiology is not known and is likely variable between individuals. Conditions such as hay fever and allergy are associated with increased risk, while diabetes may be protective. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-vision-121219-081723DOI Listing

Fifty Years Exploring the Visual System.

Annu Rev Vis Sci 2020 Apr 22. Epub 2020 Apr 22.

Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA; email:

We as a couple spent 50 years working in visual psychophysics of color vision, temporal vision, and luminance adaptation. We sought collaborations with ophthalmologists, anatomists, physiologists, physicists, and psychologists, aiming to relate visual psychophysics to the underlying physiology of the primate retina. This review describes our journey and reflections in exploring the visual system. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-vision-121219-081824DOI Listing

Visual Search: How Do We Find What We Are Looking For?

Authors:
Jeremy M Wolfe

Annu Rev Vis Sci 2020 Apr 22. Epub 2020 Apr 22.

Department of Ophthalmology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA; email:

In visual search tasks, observers look for targets among distractors. In the lab, this often takes the form of multiple searches for a simple shape that may or may not be present among other items scattered at random on a computer screen (e.g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-vision-091718-015048DOI Listing

Topographic Variations in Retinal Encoding of Visual Space.

Annu Rev Vis Sci 2020 Apr 22. Epub 2020 Apr 22.

Department of Neurobiology, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 7610001, Israel; email:

A retina completely devoid of topographic variations would be homogenous, encoding any given feature uniformly across the visual field. In a naive view, such homogeneity would appear advantageous. However, it is now clear that retinal topographic variations exist across mammalian species in a variety of forms and patterns. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-vision-121219-081831DOI Listing

The Zebrafish Visual System: From Circuits to Behavior.

Annu Rev Vis Sci 2019 09;5:269-293

Developmental Biology, Institute of Biology I, Faculty of Biology, and Bernstein Center Freiburg, University of Freiburg, 79104 Freiburg, Germany; email:

Visual stimuli can evoke complex behavioral responses, but the underlying streams of neural activity in mammalian brains are difficult to follow because of their size. Here, I review the visual system of zebrafish larvae, highlighting where recent experimental evidence has localized the functional steps of visuomotor transformations to specific brain areas. The retina of a larva encodes behaviorally relevant visual information in neural activity distributed across feature-selective ganglion cells such that signals representing distinct stimulus properties arrive in different areas or layers of the brain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-vision-091718-014723DOI Listing
September 2019
1 Read

Fuchs Endothelial Corneal Dystrophy: Clinical, Genetic, Pathophysiologic, and Therapeutic Aspects.

Annu Rev Vis Sci 2019 09;5:151-175

Wilmer Eye Institute, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, Maryland 21287, USA; email:

Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD) is a bilateral corneal endothelial disorder and the most common cause of corneal transplantation worldwide. Professor Ernst Fuchs described the first 13 cases of FECD more than 100 years ago. Since then, we have seen far-reaching progress in its diagnosis and treatment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-vision-091718-014852DOI Listing
September 2019
1 Read

Image Forensics.

Authors:
Hany Farid

Annu Rev Vis Sci 2019 09;5:549-573

Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science and School of Information, University of California, Berkeley, California 94705, USA; email:

From mainstream media outlets to social media and everything in between, doctored photographs are appearing with growing frequency and sophistication. The resulting lack of trust is impacting law enforcement, national security, the media, e-commerce, and more. While some types of manipulations can be detected with a careful visual examination, our visual system seems unable to reliably detect other types of manipulations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-vision-091718-014827DOI Listing
September 2019

The Visual Cortex in Context.

Annu Rev Vis Sci 2019 09;5:317-339

Department of Neuroscience, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA; email:

In this article, we review the anatomical inputs and outputs to the mouse primary visual cortex, area V1. Our survey of data from the Allen Institute Mouse Connectivity project indicates that mouse V1 is highly interconnected with both cortical and subcortical brain areas. This pattern of innervation allows for computations that depend on the state of the animal and on behavioral goals, which contrasts with simple feedforward, hierarchical models of visual processing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-vision-091517-034407DOI Listing
September 2019
2 Reads

Imaging Retinal Activity in the Living Eye.

Annu Rev Vis Sci 2019 09;5:15-45

Flaum Eye Institute and Center for Visual Science, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14604, USA; email:

Retinal function has long been studied with psychophysical methods in humans, whereas detailed functional studies of vision have been conducted mostly in animals owing to the invasive nature of physiological approaches. There are exceptions to this generalization, for example, the electroretinogram. This review examines exciting recent advances using in vivo retinal imaging to understand the function of retinal neurons. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-vision-091517-034239DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7001891PMC
September 2019

Origins of Refractive Errors: Environmental and Genetic Factors.

Annu Rev Vis Sci 2019 09;5:47-72

School of Optometry, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA; email:

Refractive errors are the product of a mismatch between the axial length of the eye and its optical power, creating blurred vision. Uncorrected refractive errors are the second leading cause of worldwide blindness. One refractive error currently attracting significant scientific interest is myopia, mostly owing to the recent rise in its prevalence worldwide and associated ocular disease burden. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-vision-091718-015027DOI Listing
September 2019

The Importance of the Interaction Between Ocular Motor Function and Vision During Human Infancy.

Authors:
T Rowan Candy

Annu Rev Vis Sci 2019 09;5:201-221

Optometry & Vision Science, School of Optometry; Psychological & Brain Sciences; and Neuroscience and Cognitive Science, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47401, USA; email:

Numerous studies have demonstrated the impact of imposed abnormal visual experience on the postnatal development of the visual system. These studies have provided fundamental insights into the mechanisms underlying neuroplasticity and its role in clinical care. However, the ocular motor responses of postnatal human infants largely define their visual experience in dynamic three-dimensional environments. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-vision-091718-014741DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7133444PMC
September 2019

Biology of Inherited Cataracts and Opportunities for Treatment.

Annu Rev Vis Sci 2019 09;5:123-149

Ophthalmic Genetics and Visual Function Branch, National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892-1860, USA; email:

Cataract, the clinical correlate of opacity or light scattering in the eye lens, is usually caused by the presence of high-molecular-weight (HMW) protein aggregates or disruption of the lens microarchitecture. In general, genes involved in inherited cataracts reflect important processes and pathways in the lens including lens crystallins, connexins, growth factors, membrane proteins, intermediate filament proteins, and chaperones. Usually, mutations causing severe damage to proteins cause congenital cataracts, while milder variants increasing susceptibility to environmental insults are associated with age-related cataracts. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-vision-091517-034346DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6791712PMC
September 2019
3 Reads

Deep Learning: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly.

Authors:
Thomas Serre

Annu Rev Vis Sci 2019 09 8;5:399-426. Epub 2019 Aug 8.

Department of Cognitive Linguistic and Psychological Sciences, Carney Institute for Brain Science, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02818, USA; email:

Artificial vision has often been described as one of the key remaining challenges to be solved before machines can act intelligently. Recent developments in a branch of machine learning known as deep learning have catalyzed impressive gains in machine vision-giving a sense that the problem of vision is getting closer to being solved. The goal of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of recent deep learning developments and to critically assess actual progress toward achieving human-level visual intelligence. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-vision-091718-014951DOI Listing
September 2019

Data-Driven Approaches to Understanding Visual Neuron Activity.

Authors:
Daniel A Butts

Annu Rev Vis Sci 2019 09 6;5:451-477. Epub 2019 Aug 6.

Department of Biology and Program in Neuroscience and Cognitive Science, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, USA; email:

With modern neurophysiological methods able to record neural activity throughout the visual pathway in the context of arbitrarily complex visual stimulation, our understanding of visual system function is becoming limited by the available models of visual neurons that can be directly related to such data. Different forms of statistical models are now being used to probe the cellular and circuit mechanisms shaping neural activity, understand how neural selectivity to complex visual features is computed, and derive the ways in which neurons contribute to systems-level visual processing. However, models that are able to more accurately reproduce observed neural activity often defy simple interpretations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-vision-091718-014731DOI Listing
September 2019

Role of the Vermal Cerebellum in Visually Guided Eye Movements and Visual Motion Perception.

Annu Rev Vis Sci 2019 09 12;5:247-268. Epub 2019 Jul 12.

Department of Cognitive Neurology, Hertie Institute for Clinical Brain Research, University of Tübingen, 72076 Tübingen, Germany; email:

The cerebellar cortex is a crystal-like structure consisting of an almost endless repetition of a canonical microcircuit that applies the same computational principle to different inputs. The output of this transformation is broadcasted to extracerebellar structures by way of the deep cerebellar nuclei. Visually guided eye movements are accommodated by different parts of the cerebellum. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-vision-091718-015000DOI Listing
September 2019
2 Reads

How Sleep Shapes Thalamocortical Circuit Function in the Visual System.

Annu Rev Vis Sci 2019 09 5;5:295-315. Epub 2019 Jul 5.

Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA; email:

Recent data have shown that sleep plays a beneficial role for cognitive functions such as declarative memory consolidation and perceptual learning. In this article, we review recent findings on the role of sleep in promoting adaptive visual response changes in the lateral geniculate nucleus and primary visual cortex following novel visual experiences. We discuss these findings in the context of what is currently known about how sleep affects the activity and function of thalamocortical circuits and current hypotheses regarding how sleep facilitates synaptic plasticity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-vision-091718-014715DOI Listing
September 2019

Predictive Smooth Pursuit Eye Movements.

Annu Rev Vis Sci 2019 09 5;5:223-246. Epub 2019 Jul 5.

Department of Psychology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854, USA; email:

Smooth pursuit eye movements maintain the line of sight on smoothly moving targets. Although often studied as a response to sensory motion, pursuit anticipates changes in motion trajectories, thus reducing harmful consequences due to sensorimotor processing delays. Evidence for predictive pursuit includes () anticipatory smooth eye movements (ASEM) in the direction of expected future target motion that can be evoked by perceptual cues or by memory for recent motion, () pursuit during periods of target occlusion, and () improved accuracy of pursuit with self-generated or biologically realistic target motions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-vision-091718-014901DOI Listing
September 2019

The Science Behind Virtual Reality Displays.

Annu Rev Vis Sci 2019 09 5;5:529-547. Epub 2019 Jul 5.

School of Psychology and Clinical Language Sciences, University of Reading, Reading RG6 7BE, United Kingdom; email:

Virtual reality (VR) is becoming an increasingly important way to investigate sensory processing. The converse is also true: in order to build good VR technologies, one needs an intimate understanding of how our brain processes sensory information. One of the key advantages of studying perception with VR is that it allows an experimenter to probe perceptual processing in a more naturalistic way than has been possible previously. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-vision-091718-014942DOI Listing
September 2019
1 Read

A Conversation with Jacob Nachmias.

Annu Rev Vis Sci 2019 09 5;5:1-13. Epub 2019 Jul 5.

Department of Psychology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA; email:

We are sad to report that Professor Jacob (Jack) Nachmias passed away on March 2, 2019. Nachmias was born in Athens, Greece, on June 9, 1928. To escape the Nazis, he and his family came to the United States in 1939. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-vision-011019-111539DOI Listing
September 2019

Coding Principles in Adaptation.

Annu Rev Vis Sci 2019 09 5;5:427-449. Epub 2019 Jul 5.

Department of Physiology and Biophysics and Computational Neuroscience Center, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA; email:

Adaptation is a common principle that recurs throughout the nervous system at all stages of processing. This principle manifests in a variety of phenomena, from spike frequency adaptation, to apparent changes in receptive fields with changes in stimulus statistics, to enhanced responses to unexpected stimuli. The ubiquity of adaptation leads naturally to the question: What purpose do these different types of adaptation serve? A diverse set of theories, often highly overlapping, has been proposed to explain the functional role of adaptive phenomena. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-vision-091718-014818DOI Listing
September 2019

Light: Toward a Transdisciplinary Science of Appearance and Atmosphere.

Authors:
Sylvia C Pont

Annu Rev Vis Sci 2019 09 21;5:503-527. Epub 2019 Jun 21.

Perceptual Intelligence Lab, Department of Industrial Design Engineering, Delft University of Technology, 2628CE Delft, Netherlands; email:

To understand the processes behind seeing light, we need to integrate knowledge about the incoming optical structure, its perception, and how light interacts with material, shape, and space-objectively and subjectively. To that end, we need a novel approach to the science of light, namely, a transdisciplinary science of appearance, integrating optical, perceptual, and design knowledge and methods. In this article, I review existing literature as a basis for such a synthesis, which should discuss light in its full complexity, including its spatial properties and interactions with materials, shape, and space. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-vision-091718-014934DOI Listing
September 2019
8 Reads

Protein Sorting in Healthy and Diseased Photoreceptors.

Annu Rev Vis Sci 2019 09 21;5:73-98. Epub 2019 Jun 21.

Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106, USA; email:

Rods and cones are retinal photoreceptor neurons required for our visual sensation. Because of their highly polarized structures and well-characterized processes of G protein-coupled receptor-mediated phototransduction signaling, these photoreceptors have been excellent models for studying the compartmentalization and sorting of proteins. Rods and cones have a modified ciliary compartment called the outer segment (OS) as well as non-OS compartments. Read More

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https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/10.1146/annurev-vision-091
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-vision-091718-014843DOI Listing
September 2019
7 Reads

Vascular Inflammation Risk Factors in Retinal Disease.

Annu Rev Vis Sci 2019 09 21;5:99-122. Epub 2019 Jun 21.

The Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbor, Maine 04609, USA; email:

Inflammation of the blood vessels that serve the central nervous system has been increasingly identified as an early and possibly initiating event among neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer's disease and related dementias. However, the causal relevance of vascular inflammation to major retinal degenerative diseases is unresolved. Here, we describe how genetics, aging-associated changes, and environmental factors contribute to vascular inflammation in age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and glaucoma. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-vision-091517-034416DOI Listing
September 2019
5 Reads

Methods for Assessing Quantity and Quality of Illumination.

Annu Rev Vis Sci 2019 09 21;5:479-502. Epub 2019 Jun 21.

Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver BC V6T 1Z1, Canada; email:

Human vision provides useful information about the shape and color of the objects around us. It works well in many, but not all, lighting conditions. Since the advent of human-made light sources, it has been important to understand how illumination affects vision quality, but this has been surprisingly difficult. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-vision-091718-015018DOI Listing
September 2019
10 Reads

Scene Perception in the Human Brain.

Annu Rev Vis Sci 2019 09 21;5:373-397. Epub 2019 Jun 21.

Section on Learning and Plasticity, Laboratory of Brain and Cognition, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA; email:

Humans are remarkably adept at perceiving and understanding complex real-world scenes. Uncovering the neural basis of this ability is an important goal of vision science. Neuroimaging studies have identified three cortical regions that respond selectively to scenes: parahippocampal place area, retrosplenial complex/medial place area, and occipital place area. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-vision-091718-014809DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6989029PMC
September 2019
9 Reads

Universal Mechanisms and the Development of the Face Network: What You See Is What You Get.

Annu Rev Vis Sci 2019 09 21;5:341-372. Epub 2019 Jun 21.

Department of Neurobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA; email:

Our assignment was to review the development of the face-processing network, an assignment that carries the presupposition that a face-specific developmental program exists. We hope to cast some doubt on this assumption and instead argue that the development of face processing is guided by the same ubiquitous rules that guide the development of cortex in general. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-vision-091718-014917DOI Listing
September 2019
5 Reads

The Retinal Basis of Vertebrate Color Vision.

Authors:
T Baden D Osorio

Annu Rev Vis Sci 2019 09 21;5:177-200. Epub 2019 Jun 21.

School of Life Sciences, University of Sussex, BN1 9QG Brighton, United Kingdom; email:

The jawless fish that were ancestral to all living vertebrates had four spectral cone types that were probably served by chromatic-opponent retinal circuits. Subsequent evolution of photoreceptor spectral sensitivities is documented for many vertebrate lineages, giving insight into the ecological adaptation of color vision. Beyond the photoreceptors, retinal color processing is best understood in mammals, especially the blue system, which opposes short- against long-wavelength receptor responses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-vision-091718-014926DOI Listing
September 2019
9 Reads

Geometry of Pictorial Relief.

Annu Rev Vis Sci 2018 09;4:451-474

Laboratory of Experimental Psychology, University of Leuven (KU Leuven), 3000 Leuven, Belgium; email:

Pictorial relief is a quality of visual awareness that happens when one looks into (as opposed to at) a picture. It has no physical counterpart of a geometrical nature. It takes account of cues, mentally identified in the tonal gradients of the physical picture-pigments distributed over a planar substrate. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-vision-091517-034250DOI Listing
September 2018
3 Reads

Vision During Saccadic Eye Movements.

Annu Rev Vis Sci 2018 09;4:193-213

Department of Translational Research on New Technologies in Medicine and Surgery, University of Pisa, 56123 Pisa, Italy; email: ,

The perceptual consequences of eye movements are manifold: Each large saccade is accompanied by a drop of sensitivity to luminance-contrast, low-frequency stimuli, impacting both conscious vision and involuntary responses, including pupillary constrictions. They also produce transient distortions of space, time, and number, which cannot be attributed to the mere motion on the retinae. All these are signs that the visual system evokes active processes to predict and counteract the consequences of saccades. Read More

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https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/10.1146/annurev-vision-091
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-vision-091517-034317DOI Listing
September 2018
8 Reads

Retinal Vasculature in Development and Diseases.

Annu Rev Vis Sci 2018 09;4:101-122

Department of Ophthalmology, Harvard Medical School, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA; email:

The retina is one of the most metabolically active tissues in the body, consuming high levels of oxygen and nutrients. A well-organized ocular vascular system adapts to meet the metabolic requirements of the retina to ensure visual function. Pathological conditions affect growth of the blood vessels in the eye. Read More

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https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/10.1146/annurev-vision-091
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-vision-091517-034018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6326083PMC
September 2018
6 Reads

Corollary Discharge Contributions to Perceptual Continuity Across Saccades.

Authors:
Robert H Wurtz

Annu Rev Vis Sci 2018 09;4:215-237

Laboratory of Sensorimotor Research, National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892-4435, USA; email:

Our vision depends upon shifting our high-resolution fovea to objects of interest in the visual field. Each saccade displaces the image on the retina, which should produce a chaotic scene with jerks occurring several times per second. It does not. Read More

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https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/10.1146/annurev-vision-102
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-vision-102016-061207DOI Listing
September 2018
33 Reads

A Life in Vision.

Authors:
John E Dowling

Annu Rev Vis Sci 2018 09;4:1-23

Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA; email:

I was drawn into research in George Wald's laboratory at Harvard, where as an undergraduate and graduate student, I studied vitamin A deficiency and dark adaptation. A chance observation while an assistant professor at Harvard led to the major research of my career-to understand the functional organization of vertebrate retinas. I started with a retinal circuit analysis of the primate retina with Brian Boycott and intracellular retinal cell recordings in mudpuppies with Frank Werblin. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-vision-091517-034222DOI Listing
September 2018
3 Reads

Shape from Contour: Computation and Representation.

Authors:
James H Elder

Annu Rev Vis Sci 2018 09;4:423-450

Centre for Vision Research, York University, Toronto, Ontario M3J 1P3, Canada; email:

The human visual system reliably extracts shape information from complex natural scenes in spite of noise and fragmentation caused by clutter and occlusions. A fast, feedforward sweep through ventral stream involving mechanisms tuned for orientation, curvature, and local Gestalt principles produces partial shape representations sufficient for simpler discriminative tasks. More complete shape representations may involve recurrent processes that integrate local and global cues. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-vision-091517-034110DOI Listing
September 2018
8 Reads

Neural Mechanisms of Motion Processing in the Mammalian Retina.

Authors:
Wei Wei

Annu Rev Vis Sci 2018 09 10;4:165-192. Epub 2018 Aug 10.

Department of Neurobiology, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA; email:

Visual motion on the retina activates a cohort of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). This population activity encodes multiple streams of information extracted by parallel retinal circuits. Motion processing in the retina is best studied in the direction-selective circuit. Read More

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https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/10.1146/annurev-vision-091
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-vision-091517-034048DOI Listing
September 2018
12 Reads

The Organization and Operation of Inferior Temporal Cortex.

Authors:
Bevil R Conway

Annu Rev Vis Sci 2018 09 30;4:381-402. Epub 2018 Jul 30.

Laboratory of Sensorimotor Research, National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 28092, USA; email:

Inferior temporal cortex (IT) is a key part of the ventral visual pathway implicated in object, face, and scene perception. But how does IT work? Here, I describe an organizational scheme that marries form and function and provides a framework for future research. The scheme consists of a series of stages arranged along the posterior-anterior axis of IT, defined by anatomical connections and functional responses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-vision-091517-034202DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6404234PMC
September 2018
37 Reads

Motion Perception: From Detection to Interpretation.

Annu Rev Vis Sci 2018 09 27;4:501-523. Epub 2018 Jul 27.

NTT Communication Science Labs, Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation, Atsugi, Kanagawa 243-0198, Japan; email: , , ,

Visual motion processing can be conceptually divided into two levels. In the lower level, local motion signals are detected by spatiotemporal-frequency-selective sensors and then integrated into a motion vector flow. Although the model based on V1-MT physiology provides a good computational framework for this level of processing, it needs to be updated to fully explain psychophysical findings about motion perception, including complex motion signal interactions in the spatiotemporal-frequency and space domains. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-vision-091517-034328DOI Listing
September 2018
29 Reads

Invariant Recognition Shapes Neural Representations of Visual Input.

Annu Rev Vis Sci 2018 09 27;4:403-422. Epub 2018 Jul 27.

Center for Brains, Minds and Machines, MIT, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA; email: , ,

Recognizing the people, objects, and actions in the world around us is a crucial aspect of human perception that allows us to plan and act in our environment. Remarkably, our proficiency in recognizing semantic categories from visual input is unhindered by transformations that substantially alter their appearance (e.g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-vision-091517-034103DOI Listing
September 2018
9 Reads

Color Perception: Objects, Constancy, and Categories.

Annu Rev Vis Sci 2018 09 13;4:475-499. Epub 2018 Jul 13.

Department of Psychology, University of Giessen, 35394 Giessen, Germany; email: ,

Color has been scientifically investigated by linking color appearance to colorimetric measurements of the light that enters the eye. However, the main purpose of color perception is not to determine the properties of incident light, but to aid the visual perception of objects and materials in our environment. We review the state of the art on object colors, color constancy, and color categories to gain insight into the functional aspects of color perception. Read More

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https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/10.1146/annurev-vision-091
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-vision-091517-034231DOI Listing
September 2018
29 Reads

Linking V1 Activity to Behavior.

Annu Rev Vis Sci 2018 09 5;4:287-310. Epub 2018 Jul 5.

Center for Perceptual Systems, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712, USA; email: ,

A long-term goal of visual neuroscience is to develop and test quantitative models that account for the moment-by-moment relationship between neural responses in early visual cortex and human performance in natural visual tasks. This review focuses on efforts to address this goal by measuring and perturbing the activity of primary visual cortex (V1) neurons while nonhuman primates perform demanding, well-controlled visual tasks. We start by describing a conceptual approach-the decoder linking model (DLM) framework-in which candidate decoding models take neural responses as input and generate predicted behavior as output. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-vision-102016-061324DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6141357PMC
September 2018
1 Read

Blindness and Human Brain Plasticity.

Annu Rev Vis Sci 2018 09 5;4:337-356. Epub 2018 Jul 5.

Department of Psychology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA; email:

Early blindness causes fundamental alterations of neural function across more than 25% of cortex-changes that span the gamut from metabolism to behavior and collectively represent one of the most dramatic examples of plasticity in the human brain. The goal of this review is to describe how the remarkable behavioral and neuroanatomical compensations demonstrated by blind individuals provide insights into the extent, mechanisms, and limits of human brain plasticity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-vision-102016-061241DOI Listing
September 2018
1 Read

Elementary Motion Detection in Drosophila: Algorithms and Mechanisms.

Annu Rev Vis Sci 2018 09 27;4:143-163. Epub 2018 Jun 27.

Department of Neurobiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA; email:

Motion in the visual world provides critical information to guide the behavior of sighted animals. Furthermore, as visual motion estimation requires comparisons of signals across inputs and over time, it represents a paradigmatic and generalizable neural computation. Focusing on the Drosophila visual system, where an explosion of technological advances has recently accelerated experimental progress, we review our understanding of how, algorithmically and mechanistically, motion signals are first computed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-vision-091517-034153DOI Listing
September 2018
16 Reads

A Tale of Two Visual Systems: Invariant and Adaptive Visual Information Representations in the Primate Brain.

Authors:
Yaoda Xu

Annu Rev Vis Sci 2018 09 27;4:311-336. Epub 2018 Jun 27.

Visual Sciences Laboratory, Psychology Department, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA; email:

Visual information processing contains two opposite needs. There is both a need to comprehend the richness of the visual world and a need to extract only pertinent visual information to guide thoughts and behavior at a given moment. I argue that these two aspects of visual processing are mediated by two complementary visual systems in the primate brain-specifically, the occipitotemporal cortex (OTC) and the posterior parietal cortex (PPC). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-vision-091517-033954DOI Listing
September 2018
2 Reads

How Visual Cortical Organization Is Altered by Ophthalmologic and Neurologic Disorders.

Annu Rev Vis Sci 2018 09 11;4:357-379. Epub 2018 Jun 11.

Spinoza Centre for Neuroimaging, 1105 BK Amsterdam, Netherlands; email:

Receptive fields are a core property of cortical organization. Modern neuroimaging allows routine access to visual population receptive fields (pRFs), enabling investigations of clinical disorders. Yet how the underlying neural circuitry operates is controversial. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-vision-091517-033948DOI Listing
September 2018
2 Reads

MicroRNAs in Retinal Development.

Annu Rev Vis Sci 2018 09 11;4:25-44. Epub 2018 Jun 11.

Centre for Developmental Neurobiology, MRC Centre for Neurodevelopmental Disorders, King's College London, London SE1 1UL, United Kingdom; email:

The small RNA regulatory molecules called microRNAs (miRNAs) play key roles in the development of most organisms. The expression of many different miRNAs has been described in the developing and mature vertebrate retina. The ability of miRNAs to regulate a diversity of messenger RNA targets allows them to have effects on many different developmental processes, but the functions of only a few miRNAs have been documented to date. Read More

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https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/10.1146/annurev-vision-091
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-vision-091517-034357DOI Listing
September 2018
9 Reads