142 results match your criteria Annual Review Of Virology[Journal]


The MMR Vaccine and Autism.

Annu Rev Virol 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Immunization Safety Office, Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30329, USA; email:

Autism is a developmental disability that can cause significant social, communication, and behavioral challenges. A report published in 1998, but subsequently retracted by the journal, suggested that measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine causes autism. However, autism is a neurodevelopmental condition that has a strong genetic component with genesis before one year of age, when MMR vaccine is typically administered. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-virology-092818-015515DOI Listing

The Many Faces of a Dynamic Virion: Implications of Viral Breathing on Flavivirus Biology and Immunogenicity.

Annu Rev Virol 2018 09;5(1):185-207

Viral Pathogenesis Section, Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA; email: ,

Flaviviruses are arthropod-borne RNA viruses that are a significant threat to global health due to their widespread distribution, ability to cause severe disease in humans, and capacity for explosive spread following introduction into new regions. Members of this genus include dengue, tick-borne encephalitis, yellow fever, and Zika viruses. Vaccination has been a highly successful means to control flaviviruses, and neutralizing antibodies are an important component of a protective immune response. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-virology-092917-043300DOI Listing
September 2018
11 Reads

Innate Sensing of DNA Virus Genomes.

Annu Rev Virol 2018 09;5(1):341-362

Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center and Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA; email:

DNA viruses are linked to many infectious diseases and contribute significantly to human morbidity and mortality worldwide. Moreover, DNA viral infections are usually lifelong and hard to eradicate. Under certain circumstances, these viruses can cause fatal disease, especially in children and immunocompromised patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-virology-092917-043244DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6443256PMC
September 2018

My Life and Virus Research Journey.

Authors:
Said A Ghabrial

Annu Rev Virol 2018 09;5(1):1-32

Plant Pathology Department, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40546, USA; email:

My long career in virology has been a continuous learning exercise with a very modest start. Virology and related pertinent fields have changed significantly during my lifetime. Sometimes I wish that my career had just started and I could apply all available and state of the art technology to solving problems and explaining intriguing observations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-virology-092917-043507DOI Listing
September 2018
18 Reads

Reductio ad Intellectum.

Annu Rev Virol 2018 09;5(1):ii-iv

Department of Molecular Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544, USA; email:

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https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/10.1146/annurev-vi-05-0726
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-vi-05-072618-100011DOI Listing
September 2018
1 Read

SERINC5 as a New Restriction Factor for Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Murine Leukemia Virus.

Annu Rev Virol 2018 09;5(1):323-340

Centre for Integrative Biology, University of Trento, 38123 Trento, Italy ; email: , , ,

SERINC genes encode for homologous multipass transmembrane proteins with unknown cellular function, despite being highly conserved across eukaryotes. Among the five SERINC genes found in humans, SERINC5 was shown to act as a powerful inhibitor of retroviruses. It is efficiently incorporated into virions and blocks the penetration of the viral core into target cells, by impairing the fusion process with a yet unclear mechanism. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-virology-092917-043308DOI Listing
September 2018
1 Read

Flaviviruses and the Central Nervous System: Revisiting Neuropathological Concepts.

Annu Rev Virol 2018 09;5(1):255-272

Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA; email: ,

Flaviviruses are major emerging human pathogens on a global scale. Some flaviviruses can infect the central nervous system of the host and therefore are regarded as neurotropic. The most clinically relevant classical neurotropic flaviviruses include Japanese encephalitis virus, West Nile virus, and tick-borne encephalitis virus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-virology-092917-043439DOI Listing
September 2018
1 Read

VIPERdb: A Tool for Virus Research.

Annu Rev Virol 2018 09;5(1):477-488

Department of Integrative Structural and Computational Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA; email:

The VIrus Particle ExploreR database (VIPERdb) ( http://viperdb.scripps.edu ) is a database and web portal for primarily icosahedral virus capsid structures that integrates structure-derived information with visualization and analysis tools accessed through a set of web interfaces. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-virology-092917-043405DOI Listing
September 2018
1 Read
5.345 Impact Factor

Antiviral Approaches for the Treatment of Herpes Simplex Virus Infections in Newborn Infants.

Annu Rev Virol 2018 09;5(1):407-425

Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35233, USA; email: ,

Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections in newborns are associated with severe disease and death. Trials conducted by the Collaborative Antiviral Study Group have established the standard of care for the treatment of neonatal HSV disease with marked improvements in morbidity and mortality. We review the studies that have contributed to our understanding of the epidemiology and clinical course of neonatal HSV disease and discuss the landmark trials that have resulted in safe and effective treatment together with improved diagnostics. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-virology-092917-043457DOI Listing
September 2018
16 Reads

Maize Lethal Necrosis: An Emerging, Synergistic Viral Disease.

Annu Rev Virol 2018 09 30;5(1):301-322. Epub 2018 Jul 30.

Department of Plant Pathology, Ohio State University, Wooster, Ohio 44691, USA; email:

Maize lethal necrosis (MLN) is a disease of maize caused by coinfection of maize with maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV) and one of several viruses from the Potyviridae, such as sugarcane mosaic virus, maize dwarf mosaic virus, Johnsongrass mosaic virus or wheat streak mosaic virus. The coinfecting viruses act synergistically to result in frequent plant death or severely reduce or negligible yield. Over the past eight years, MLN has emerged in sub-Saharan East Africa, Southeast Asia, and South America, with large impacts on smallholder farmers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-virology-092917-043413DOI Listing
September 2018

The Human Immunodeficiency Virus Capsid Is More Than Just a Genome Package.

Annu Rev Virol 2018 09 27;5(1):209-225. Epub 2018 Jul 27.

EMBL Australia Node in Single Molecule Science and ARC Centre of Excellence in Advanced Molecular Imaging, School of Medical Sciences, University of New South Wales Sydney, Randwick NSW 2031, Australia; email:

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is one of the most studied of all human pathogens. One strain-HIV-1 group M-is responsible for a global pandemic that has infected >60 million people and killed >20 million. Understanding the stages of HIV infection has led to highly effective therapeutics in the form of antiviral drugs that target the viral enzymes reverse transcriptase, integrase, and protease as well as biotechnological developments in the form of retroviral and lentiviral vectors for the transduction of cells in tissue culture and, potentially, gene therapy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-virology-092917-043430DOI Listing
September 2018
7 Reads

Quis Custodiet Ipsos Custodes? Regulation of Cell-Mediated Immune Responses Following Viral Lung Infections.

Annu Rev Virol 2018 09 27;5(1):363-383. Epub 2018 Jul 27.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15224, USA.

Viral lung infections are leading causes of morbidity and mortality. Effective immune responses to these infections require precise immune regulation to preserve lung function after viral clearance. One component of airway pathophysiology and lung injury associated with acute respiratory virus infection is effector T cells, yet these are the primary cells required for viral clearance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-virology-092917-043515DOI Listing
September 2018
17 Reads

How Host Specific Are Herpesviruses? Lessons from Herpesviruses Infecting Wild and Endangered Mammals.

Annu Rev Virol 2018 09 27;5(1):53-68. Epub 2018 Jul 27.

Institut für Virologie, Zentrum für Infektionsmedizin, Freie Universität Berlin, 14163 Berlin, Germany; email:

Herpesviruses are ubiquitous and can cause disease in all classes of vertebrates but also in animals of lower taxa, including molluscs. It is generally accepted that herpesviruses are primarily species specific, although a species can be infected by different herpesviruses. Species specificity is thought to result from host-virus coevolutionary processes over the long term. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-virology-092917-043227DOI Listing
September 2018

The Role of Viruses in the Phytobiome.

Annu Rev Virol 2018 09 26;5(1):93-111. Epub 2018 Jul 26.

Corn, Soybean and Wheat Quality Research Unit, United States Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS), Wooster, Ohio 44691, USA; email:

Viruses are an important but sequence-diverse and often understudied component of the phytobiome. We succinctly review current information on how plant viruses directly affect plant health and physiology and consequently have the capacity to modulate plant interactions with their biotic and abiotic environments. Virus interactions with other biota in the phytobiome, including arthropods, fungi, and nematodes, may also impact plant health. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-virology-092917-043421DOI Listing
September 2018
1 Read

Mechanisms and Concepts in RNA Virus Population Dynamics and Evolution.

Annu Rev Virol 2018 09 26;5(1):69-92. Epub 2018 Jul 26.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143, USA; email:

RNA viruses are unique in their evolutionary capacity, exhibiting high mutation rates and frequent recombination. They rapidly adapt to environmental changes, such as shifts in immune pressure or pharmacological challenge. The evolution of RNA viruses has been brought into new focus with the recent developments of genetic and experimental tools to explore and manipulate the evolutionary dynamics of viral populations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-virology-101416-041718DOI Listing
September 2018
1 Read

Multiple, Switchable Protein:RNA Interactions Regulate Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Assembly.

Annu Rev Virol 2018 09 26;5(1):165-183. Epub 2018 Jul 26.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA; email:

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) particle assembly requires several protein:RNA interactions that vary widely in their character, from specific recognition of highly conserved and structured viral RNA elements to less specific interactions with variable RNA sequences. Genetic, biochemical, biophysical, and structural studies have illuminated how virion morphogenesis is accompanied by dramatic changes in the interactions among the protein and RNA virion components. The 5' leader RNA element drives RNA recognition by Gag upon initiation of HIV-1 assembly and can assume variable conformations that influence translation, dimerization, and Gag recognition. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-virology-092917-043448DOI Listing
September 2018
5 Reads

Congenital Viral Infection: Traversing the Uterine-Placental Interface.

Authors:
Lenore Pereira

Annu Rev Virol 2018 09 26;5(1):273-299. Epub 2018 Jul 26.

Department of Cell and Tissue Biology, School of Dentistry, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143, USA; email:

Why certain viruses cross the physical barrier of the human placenta but others do not is incompletely understood. Over the past 20 years, we have gained deeper knowledge of intrauterine infection and routes of viral transmission. This review focuses on human viruses that replicate in the placenta, infect the fetus, and cause birth defects, including rubella virus, varicella-zoster virus, parvovirus B19, human cytomegalovirus (CMV), Zika virus (ZIKV), and hepatitis E virus type 1. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-virology-092917-043236DOI Listing
September 2018
3 Reads

The Good, the Bad, and the Shocking: The Multiple Roles of Dengue Virus Nonstructural Protein 1 in Protection and Pathogenesis.

Annu Rev Virol 2018 09 25;5(1):227-253. Epub 2018 Jul 25.

Division of Infectious Diseases and Vaccinology, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720-3370, USA; email: , , ,

Dengue virus (DENV) is the most prevalent medically important mosquito-borne virus in the world. Upon DENV infection of a host cell, DENV nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) can be found intracellularly as a monomer, associated with the cell surface as a dimer, and secreted as a hexamer into the bloodstream. NS1 plays a variety of roles in the viral life cycle, particularly in RNA replication and immune evasion of the complement pathway. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-virology-101416-041848DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6311996PMC
September 2018
2 Reads

Baculovirus Entry and Egress from Insect Cells.

Annu Rev Virol 2018 09 13;5(1):113-139. Epub 2018 Jul 13.

Summerland Research and Development Center, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Summerland, British Columbia V0H 1Z0, Canada; email:

Baculoviruses are large DNA viruses of insects that are highly pathogenic in many hosts. In the infection cycle, baculoviruses produce two types of virions. These virion phenotypes are physically and functionally distinct, and each serves a critical role in the biology of the virus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-virology-092917-043356DOI Listing
September 2018

Breaking the Last Chains of Poliovirus Transmission: Progress and Challenges in Global Polio Eradication.

Annu Rev Virol 2018 09 12;5(1):427-451. Epub 2018 Jul 12.

Division of Viral Diseases, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30329, USA; email: ,

Since the launch of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI), paralytic cases associated with wild poliovirus (WPV) have fallen from ∼350,000 in 1988 to 22 in 2017. WPV type 2 (WPV2) was last detected in 1999, WPV3 in 2012, and WPV1 appeared to be localized to Pakistan and Afghanistan in 2017. Through continuous refinement, the GPEI has overcome operational and biological challenges far more complex and daunting than originally envisioned. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-virology-101416-041749DOI Listing
September 2018
10 Reads

Phage-Based Applications in Synthetic Biology.

Annu Rev Virol 2018 09 12;5(1):453-476. Epub 2018 Jul 12.

Research Laboratory of Electronics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA; email:

Bacteriophage research has been instrumental to advancing many fields of biology, such as genetics, molecular biology, and synthetic biology. Many phage-derived technologies have been adapted for building gene circuits to program biological systems. Phages also exhibit significant medical potential as antibacterial agents and bacterial diagnostics due to their extreme specificity for their host, and our growing ability to engineer them further enhances this potential. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-virology-092917-043544DOI Listing
September 2018
10 Reads

Virus DNA Replication and the Host DNA Damage Response.

Annu Rev Virol 2018 09 11;5(1):141-164. Epub 2018 Jul 11.

Department of Molecular Biology, Medical Biochemistry, and Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Université Laval, Québec G1V 0A6, Canada; email:

Viral DNA genomes have limited coding capacity and therefore harness cellular factors to facilitate replication of their genomes and generate progeny virions. Studies of viruses and how they interact with cellular processes have historically provided seminal insights into basic biology and disease mechanisms. The replicative life cycles of many DNA viruses have been shown to engage components of the host DNA damage and repair machinery. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-virology-092917-043534DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6462412PMC
September 2018
1 Read

The Discovery of the Antiviral Resistance Gene Mx: A Story of Great Ideas, Great Failures, and Some Success.

Annu Rev Virol 2018 09 29;5(1):33-51. Epub 2018 Jun 29.

Institute of Virology, Medical Center University of Freiburg, D-79104 Freiburg, Germany; email:

The discovery of the Mx gene-dependent, innate resistance of mice against influenza virus was a matter of pure chance. Although the subsequent analysis of this antiviral resistance was guided by straightforward logic, it nevertheless led us into many blind alleys and was full of surprising turns and twists. Unexpectedly, this research resulted in the identification of one of the first interferon-stimulated genes and provided a new view of interferon action. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-virology-092917-043525DOI Listing
September 2018
2 Reads

TRIM Proteins and Their Roles in Antiviral Host Defenses.

Annu Rev Virol 2018 09 27;5(1):385-405. Epub 2018 Jun 27.

Department of Microbiology, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA; email: , ,

Tripartite motif (TRIM) proteins are a versatile family of ubiquitin E3 ligases involved in a multitude of cellular processes. Studies in recent years have demonstrated that many TRIM proteins play central roles in the host defense against viral infection. While some TRIM proteins directly antagonize distinct steps in the viral life cycle, others regulate signal transduction pathways induced by innate immune sensors, thereby modulating antiviral cytokine responses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-virology-092917-043323DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6186430PMC
September 2018
3 Reads

The Good That Viruses Do.

Annu Rev Virol 2017 09;4(1):iii-v

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611; email:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-vi-04-071217-100011DOI Listing
September 2017
1 Read

Making Sense of Multifunctional Proteins: Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Accessory and Regulatory Proteins and Connections to Transcription.

Annu Rev Virol 2017 09;4(1):241-260

Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California, San Francisco, California 94158; email: ,

Viruses are completely dependent upon cellular machinery to support replication and have therefore developed strategies to co-opt cellular processes to optimize infection and counter host immune defenses. Many viruses, including human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), encode a relatively small number of genes. Viruses with limited genetic content often encode multifunctional proteins that function at multiple stages of the viral replication cycle. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-virology-101416-041654DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5750048PMC
September 2017
1 Read

Phage Tail-Like Bacteriocins.

Authors:
Dean Scholl

Annu Rev Virol 2017 09;4(1):453-467

AvidBiotics Corp., South San Francisco, California 94080; email: ,

Many dsDNA bacterial viruses (bacteriophages/phages) have long tail structures that serve as organelles for DNA delivery to host targets. These structures, particularly those of Myoviridae and Siphoviridae phages, have an evolutionary relationship with other cellular biological entities that share the common function of penetrating the bacterial envelope. Among these are type VI secretion systems, insecticidal protein complexes, and bacteriocins. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-virology-101416-041632DOI Listing
September 2017
6 Reads

The Bridges and Blockades to Evolutionary Convergence on the Road to Predicting Chikungunya Virus Evolution.

Annu Rev Virol 2017 09;4(1):181-200

Biosecurity Research Institute and Department of Diagnostic Medicine and Pathobiology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas 66506; email:

Chikungunya virus, first isolated in the 1950s, has since reemerged to cause several epidemics and millions of infections throughout the world. What was once blurred and confused with dengue virus in both diagnosis and name has since become one of the best-characterized arboviral diseases. In this review, we cover the history of this virus, its evolution into distinct genotypes and lineages, and, most notably, the convergent evolution observed in recent years. Read More

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September 2017
24 Reads

Overcoming the Host Immune Response to Adeno-Associated Virus Gene Delivery Vectors: The Race Between Clearance, Tolerance, Neutralization, and Escape.

Annu Rev Virol 2017 09;4(1):511-534

Spark Therapeutics, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104; email:

Immune responses in gene therapy with adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors have been the object of almost two decades of study. Although preclinical models helped to define and predict certain aspects of interactions between the vector and the host immune system, most of our current knowledge has come from clinical trials. These studies have allowed development of effective interventions for modulating immunotoxicities associated with vector administration, resulting in therapeutic advances. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-virology-101416-041936DOI Listing
September 2017
2 Reads

Viruses in Soil Ecosystems: An Unknown Quantity Within an Unexplored Territory.

Annu Rev Virol 2017 09;4(1):201-219

Biosystems Engineering and Soil Science Department, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996.

Viral abundance in soils can range from below detection limits in hot deserts to over 1 billion per gram in wetlands. Abundance appears to be strongly influenced by water availability and temperature, but a lack of informational standards creates difficulties for cross-study analysis. Soil viral diversity is severely underestimated and undersampled, although current measures of viral richness are higher for soils than for aquatic ecosystems. Read More

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September 2017
1 Read

Introduction.

Annu Rev Virol 2017 09;4(1):i-ii

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-vi-04-071217-100001DOI Listing
September 2017
2 Reads

Fate-Regulating Circuits in Viruses: From Discovery to New Therapy Targets.

Annu Rev Virol 2017 09 11;4(1):469-490. Epub 2017 Aug 11.

Gladstone Institute of Virology and Immunology, San Francisco, California 94158; email:

Current antivirals effectively target diverse viruses at various stages of their life cycles. Nevertheless, curative therapy has remained elusive for important pathogens, such as human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and herpesviruses, in large part due to viral latency and the evolution of resistance to existing therapies. Here, we review the discovery of viral master circuits: virus-encoded autoregulatory gene networks that autonomously control viral expression programs (i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-virology-110615-035606DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5940329PMC
September 2017
1 Read

Symbiosis: Viruses as Intimate Partners.

Annu Rev Virol 2017 09 8;4(1):123-139. Epub 2017 Aug 8.

Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics, Department of Plant Pathology and Environmental Microbiology, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802; email:

Viruses must establish an intimate relationship with their hosts and vectors in order to infect, replicate, and disseminate; hence, viruses can be considered as symbionts with their hosts. Symbiotic relationships encompass different lifestyles, including antagonistic (or pathogenic, the most well-studied lifestyle for viruses), commensal (probably the most common lifestyle), and mutualistic (important beneficial partners). Symbiotic relationships can shape the evolution of the partners in a holobiont, and placing viruses in this context provides an important framework for understanding virus-host relationships and virus ecology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-virology-110615-042323DOI Listing
September 2017
2 Reads

The Distribution, Evolution, and Roles of Gene Transfer Agents in Prokaryotic Genetic Exchange.

Annu Rev Virol 2017 09 7;4(1):87-104. Epub 2017 Aug 7.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, V6T 1Z3, Canada.

Diverse prokaryotes produce gene transfer agents (GTAs), which are bacteriophage-like particles that exclusively package pieces of the producing cell's genome and transfer them to other cells. There are clear evolutionary connections between GTAs and phages, but GTAs have properties that lead us to suggest they are more than simply defective phages and instead provide a selective advantage for the producing organisms. The five types of currently known GTAs are genetically distinct, indicating multiple instances of convergent evolution. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-virology-101416-041624DOI Listing
September 2017
2 Reads

Giant Viruses of Amoebae: A Journey Through Innovative Research and Paradigm Changes.

Annu Rev Virol 2017 09 31;4(1):61-85. Epub 2017 Jul 31.

Unité de Recherche sur les Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales Emergentes (URMITE), Aix Marseille Université, UM63, CNRS 7278, IRD 198, INSERM 1095, Institut Hospitalo-Universitaire (IHU) Méditerranée Infection, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Marseille (AP-HM), 13005 Marseille, France; email:

Giant viruses of amoebae were discovered serendipitously in 2003; they are visible via optical microscopy, making them bona fide microbes. Their lifestyle, structure, and genomes break the mold of classical viruses. Giant viruses of amoebae are complex microorganisms. Read More

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September 2017
9 Reads

The Discovery, Mechanisms, and Evolutionary Impact of Anti-CRISPRs.

Annu Rev Virol 2017 09 27;4(1):37-59. Epub 2017 Jul 27.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of California, San Francisco, California 94158; email:

Bacteria and archaea use CRISPR-Cas adaptive immune systems to defend themselves from infection by bacteriophages (phages). These RNA-guided nucleases are powerful weapons in the fight against foreign DNA, such as phages and plasmids, as well as a revolutionary gene editing tool. Phages are not passive bystanders in their interactions with CRISPR-Cas systems, however; recent discoveries have described phage genes that inhibit CRISPR-Cas function. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-virology-101416-041616DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6039114PMC
September 2017
6 Reads

Humanized Mouse Models for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection.

Annu Rev Virol 2017 09 26;4(1):393-412. Epub 2017 Jul 26.

Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology and Oncology, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095; email:

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remains a significant source of morbidity and mortality worldwide. No effective vaccine is available to prevent HIV transmission, and although antiretroviral therapy can prevent disease progression, it does not cure HIV infection. Substantial effort is therefore currently directed toward basic research on HIV pathogenesis and persistence and developing methods to stop the spread of the HIV epidemic and cure those individuals already infected with HIV. Read More

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http://www.annualreviews.org/doi/10.1146/annurev-virology-10
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-virology-101416-041703DOI Listing
September 2017
6 Reads

Astrovirus Biology and Pathogenesis.

Annu Rev Virol 2017 09 17;4(1):327-348. Epub 2017 Jul 17.

Department of Infectious Diseases, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105; email: , , , , ,

Astroviruses are nonenveloped, positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses that cause gastrointestinal illness. Although a leading cause of pediatric diarrhea, human astroviruses are among the least characterized enteric RNA viruses. However, by using in vitro methods and animal models to characterize virus-host interactions, researchers have discovered several important properties of astroviruses, including the ability of the astrovirus capsid to act as an enterotoxin, disrupting the gut epithelial barrier. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-virology-101416-041742DOI Listing
September 2017
4 Reads

Viruses with Circular Single-Stranded DNA Genomes Are Everywhere!

Annu Rev Virol 2017 09 17;4(1):159-180. Epub 2017 Jul 17.

Division of Avian Diseases, Kimron Veterinary Institute, Bet Dagan, 50250, Israel; email:

Circular single-stranded DNA viruses infect archaea, bacteria, and eukaryotic organisms. The relatively recent emergence of single-stranded DNA viruses, such as chicken anemia virus (CAV) and porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2), as serious pathogens of eukaryotes is due more to growing awareness than to the appearance of new pathogens or alteration of existing pathogens. In the case of the ubiquitous human circular single-stranded DNA virus family Anelloviridae, there is still no convincing direct causal relation to any specific disease. Read More

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http://www.annualreviews.org/doi/10.1146/annurev-virology-10
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-virology-101416-041953DOI Listing
September 2017
7 Reads

Electron Cryomicroscopy of Viruses at Near-Atomic Resolutions.

Annu Rev Virol 2017 09 17;4(1):287-308. Epub 2017 Jul 17.

Department of Molecular Virology and Microbiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030.

Recently, dozens of virus structures have been solved to resolutions between 2.5 and 5.0 Å by means of electron cryomicroscopy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-virology-101416-041921DOI Listing
September 2017
3 Reads

The Molecular Basis for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Latency.

Annu Rev Virol 2017 09 17;4(1):261-285. Epub 2017 Jul 17.

Department of Molecular Biology and Microbiology, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio 44106; email:

Although potent combination antiretroviral therapy can effectively block viral replication in the host, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) persists due to the existence of latent but replication-competent proviruses residing primarily in a very small population of resting memory CD4 T cells. Viral latency is established when the expression of the autoregulatory viral trans-activating factor Tat is reduced to subthreshold levels. The absence of Tat reduces HIV transcription and protein production to levels that make the host cell invisible to the immune system and refractory to antiretroviral treatment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-virology-101416-041646DOI Listing
September 2017
30 Reads

Defensins in Viral Infection and Pathogenesis.

Annu Rev Virol 2017 09 17;4(1):369-391. Epub 2017 Jul 17.

Department of Microbiology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195; email:

α, β, and θ defensins are effectors of the innate immune system with potent antibacterial, antiviral, and antifungal activity. Defensins have direct antiviral activity in cell culture, with varied mechanisms for individual viruses, although some common themes have emerged. In addition, defensins have potent immunomodulatory activity that can alter innate and adaptive immune responses to viral infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-virology-101416-041734DOI Listing
September 2017
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A Consensus View of ESCRT-Mediated Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Abscission.

Annu Rev Virol 2017 09 17;4(1):309-325. Epub 2017 Jul 17.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Denver, Denver, Colorado 80210; email:

The strong dependence of retroviruses, such as human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), on host cell factors is no more apparent than when the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery is purposely disengaged. The resulting potent inhibition of retrovirus release underscores the importance of understanding fundamental structure-function relationships at the ESCRT-HIV-1 interface. Recent studies utilizing advanced imaging technologies have helped clarify these relationships, overcoming hurdles to provide a range of potential models for ESCRT-mediated virus abscission. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-virology-101416-041840DOI Listing
September 2017

Engineered Expression of Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies Against Human Immunodeficiency Virus.

Annu Rev Virol 2017 09 23;4(1):491-510. Epub 2017 Jun 23.

Limelight Bio, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19146; email: ,

This review discusses recent progress made in developing a vaccine and novel treatments for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). It highlights the shortcomings of the RV144 vaccination trial [ALVAC-HIV (vCP1521) and AIDSVAX B/E] and the current standard of care and proposes that engineered expression of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) against HIV-1 could overcome these shortcomings. Current developments in three major lines of research on HIV prevention and treatment using bNAbs are reviewed: firstly, the use of sequential immunogens to activate B cells to express bNAbs; secondly, the delivery of novel and extremely potent bNAbs through passive administration; and finally, the use of gene transfer using adeno-associated viral vectors to deliver bNAbs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-virology-101416-041929DOI Listing
September 2017

Cassava Mosaic and Brown Streak Diseases: Current Perspectives and Beyond.

Annu Rev Virol 2017 09 23;4(1):429-452. Epub 2017 Jun 23.

AgroBioChem Department, Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech, University of Liège, 5030 Gembloux, Belgium; email:

Cassava is the fourth largest source of calories in the world but is subject to economically important yield losses due to viral diseases, including cassava brown streak disease and cassava mosaic disease. Cassava mosaic disease occurs in sub-Saharan Africa and the Asian subcontinent and is associated with nine begomovirus species, whereas cassava brown streak disease has to date been reported only in sub-Saharan Africa and is caused by two distinct ipomovirus species. We present an overview of key milestones and their significance in the understanding and characterization of these two major diseases as well as their associated viruses and whitefly vector. Read More

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http://www.annualreviews.org/doi/10.1146/annurev-virology-10
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-virology-101416-041913DOI Listing
September 2017
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New World Arenavirus Biology.

Annu Rev Virol 2017 09 23;4(1):141-158. Epub 2017 Jun 23.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Illinois College of Medicine at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60612; email: ,

Hemorrhagic fevers caused by viruses were identified in the late 1950s in South America. These viruses have existed in their hosts, the New World rodents, for millions of years. Their emergence as infectious agents in humans coincided with changes in the environment and farming practices that caused explosions in their host rodent populations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-virology-101416-042001DOI Listing
September 2017
7 Reads

Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy: Endemic Viruses and Lethal Brain Disease.

Annu Rev Virol 2017 09 21;4(1):349-367. Epub 2017 Jun 21.

Department of Molecular Biology, Cell Biology, and Biochemistry, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912; email: ,

In 1971, the first human polyomavirus was isolated from the brain of a patient who died from a rapidly progressing demyelinating disease known as progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The virus was named JC virus after the initials of the patient. In that same year a second human polyomavirus was discovered in the urine of a kidney transplant patient and named BK virus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-virology-101416-041439DOI Listing
September 2017

Immunopathology of Chikungunya Virus Infection: Lessons Learned from Patients and Animal Models.

Authors:
Lisa F P Ng

Annu Rev Virol 2017 09 21;4(1):413-427. Epub 2017 Jun 21.

Singapore Immunology Network (SIgN), Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR), Singapore 138648; email:

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthropod-borne alphavirus that causes acute and chronic arthritis. The virus reemerged in the Indian Ocean islands in 2005-2006 and is responsible for outbreaks in the Caribbean islands and the Americas since late 2013. Despite the wealth of research over the past 10 years, there are no commercially available antiviral drugs or vaccines. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-virology-101416-041808DOI Listing
September 2017
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Enzymes and Enzyme Activity Encoded by Nonenveloped Viruses.

Annu Rev Virol 2017 09 21;4(1):221-240. Epub 2017 Jun 21.

Department of Integrative Structural and Computational Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037; email:

Viruses are obligate intracellular parasites that rely on host cell machineries for their replication and survival. Although viruses tend to make optimal use of the host cell protein repertoire, they need to encode essential enzymatic or effector functions that may not be available or accessible in the host cellular milieu. The enzymes encoded by nonenveloped viruses-a group of viruses that lack any lipid coating or envelope-play vital roles in all the stages of the viral life cycle. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-virology-101416-041944DOI Listing
September 2017
2 Reads