183 results match your criteria Annual Review Of Virology[Journal]


Post-Translation Regulation of Influenza Virus Replication.

Annu Rev Virol 2020 May 26. Epub 2020 May 26.

Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA; email:

Influenza virus exploits cellular factors to complete each step of viral replication. Yet, multiple host proteins actively block replication. Consequently, infection success depends on the relative speed and efficacy at which both the virus and host use their respective effectors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-virology-010320-070410DOI Listing

Viral Hacks of the Plant Vasculature: The Role of Phloem Alterations in Systemic Virus Infection.

Annu Rev Virol 2020 May 26. Epub 2020 May 26.

Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology Research, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, USA; email:

For plant viruses, the ability to load into the vascular phloem and spread systemically within a host is an essential step in establishing a successful infection. However, access to the vascular phloem is highly regulated, representing a significant obstacle to virus loading, movement, and subsequent unloading into distal uninfected tissues. Recent studies indicate that during virus infection, phloem tissues are a source of significant transcriptional and translational alterations, with the number of virus-induced differentially expressed genes being four- to sixfold greater in phloem tissues than in surrounding nonphloem tissues. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-virology-010320-072410DOI Listing

The Potential Role of Endogenous Viral Elements in the Evolution of Bats as Reservoirs for Zoonotic Viruses.

Annu Rev Virol 2020 May 20. Epub 2020 May 20.

Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, OX1 3PS Oxford, United Kingdom; email:

Despite a small genome size, bats have comparable diversity of retroviral and non-retroviral endogenous sequences to other mammals. These include Class I and Class II retroviral sequences, foamy viruses, and deltaretroviruses, as well as filovirus, bornavirus, and parvovirus endogenous viral elements. Some of these endogenous viruses are sufficiently preserved in bat genomes to be expressed, with potential effects for host biology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-virology-092818-015613DOI Listing

Initial Step of Virus Entry: Virion Binding to Cell-Surface Glycans.

Annu Rev Virol 2020 May 12. Epub 2020 May 12.

Louvain Institute of Biomolecular Science and Technology, Université Catholique de Louvain, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium; email:

Virus infection is an intricate process that requires the concerted action of both viral and host cell components. Entry of viruses into cells is initiated by interactions between viral proteins and cell-surface receptors. Various cell-surface glycans function as initial, usually low-affinity attachment factors, providing a first anchor of the virus to the cell surface, and further facilitate high-affinity binding to virus-specific cell-surface receptors, while other glycans function as specific entry receptors themselves. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-virology-122019-070025DOI Listing

Investigating Viruses During the Transformation of Molecular Biology: Part II.

Authors:
Bernard Moss

Annu Rev Virol 2020 May 11. Epub 2020 May 11.

Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA; email:

My scientific career started at an extraordinary time, shortly after the discoveries of the helical structure of DNA, the central dogma of DNA to RNA to protein, and the genetic code. Part I of this series emphasizes my education and early studies highlighted by the isolation and characterization of numerous vaccinia virus enzymes, determination of the cap structure of messenger RNA, and development of poxviruses as gene expression vectors for use as recombinant vaccines. Here I describe a shift in my research focus to combine molecular biology and genetics for a comprehensive understanding of poxvirus biology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-virology-021020-100558DOI Listing

Challenges of Making Effective Influenza Vaccines.

Annu Rev Virol 2020 May 11. Epub 2020 May 11.

Department of Microbiology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA; email:

Seasonal influenza vaccines prevent influenza-related illnesses, hospitalizations, and deaths. However, these vaccines are not as effective as other viral vaccines, and there is clearly room for improvement. Here, we review the history of seasonal influenza vaccines, describe challenges associated with producing influenza vaccine antigens, and discuss the inherent difficulties of updating influenza vaccine strains each influenza season. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-virology-010320-044746DOI Listing

Ecology, Structure, and Evolution of Phages.

Annu Rev Virol 2020 May 11. Epub 2020 May 11.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824, USA.

Numerous bacteriophages-viruses of bacteria, also known as phages-have been described for hundreds of bacterial species. The Gram-negative species are close relatives of , yet relatively few previously described phages appear to exclusively infect this genus. Recent efforts to isolate phages have indicated these viruses are surprisingly abundant in the environment and have distinct genomic and structural properties. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-virology-010320-052547DOI Listing

Introduction: A New Coronavirus Emerges, This Time Causing a Pandemic.

Annu Rev Virol 2020 Apr 21. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Department of Pediatrics, UPMC Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15224, USA; email:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-vi-07-042020-100001DOI Listing

Ethics of Conducting Clinical Research in an Outbreak Setting.

Annu Rev Virol 2020 Mar 25. Epub 2020 Mar 25.

Global Healthcare Consulting, New Delhi 110024, India.

The conduct of clinical trials during the West Africa Ebola outbreak in 2014 highlighted many ethical challenges. How these challenges were addressed, what clinical studies were conducted during that outbreak, and the lessons learned for dealing with future outbreaks were the subject of a National Academy of Medicine committee report titled . This report suggested improvements for research during subsequent emerging or re-emerging outbreaks and is summarized in this review. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-virology-013120-013123DOI Listing

A Rewarding Career Unraveling the Pathogenesis of Viral Infections.

Authors:
Diane E Griffin

Annu Rev Virol 2020 Mar 24. Epub 2020 Mar 24.

W. Harry Feinstone Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA; email:

My great-grandparents were immigrants from Sweden and settled as farmers in Iowa and Illinois. My father, the oldest of six children, was the first in his family to go to college and had careers as a petroleum geologist and an academic. My mother, the youngest of four children, had older siblings in education, and she focused on early childhood education. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-virology-012420-024942DOI Listing

Seasonality of Respiratory Viral Infections.

Annu Rev Virol 2020 Mar 20. Epub 2020 Mar 20.

Department of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA; email:

The seasonal cycle of respiratory viral diseases has been widely recognized for thousands of years, as annual epidemics of the common cold and influenza disease hit the human population like clockwork in the winter season in temperate regions. Moreover, epidemics caused by viruses such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and the newly emerging SARS-CoV-2 occur during the winter months. The mechanisms underlying the seasonal nature of respiratory viral infections have been examined and debated for many years. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-virology-012420-022445DOI Listing

Will Measles Virus or Humanity Win the International "Fitness" Challenge?

Authors:
Ann M Arvin

Annu Rev Virol 2019 09;6(1):iii-vii

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94304, USA; email:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-vi-06-072619-100011DOI Listing
September 2019
2 Reads

Mapping Viral Susceptibility Loci in Mice.

Annu Rev Virol 2019 09;6(1):525-546

Department of Microbiology, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA; email:

Genetic alleles that contribute to enhanced susceptibility or resistance to viral infections and virally induced diseases have often been first identified in mice before humans due to the significant advantages of the murine system for genetic studies. Herein we review multiple discoveries that have revealed significant insights into virus-host interactions, all made using genetic mapping tools in mice. Factors that have been identified include innate and adaptive immunity genes that contribute to host defense against pathogenic viruses such as herpes viruses, flaviviruses, retroviruses, and coronaviruses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-virology-092818-015544DOI Listing
September 2019

Virus Structures by X-Ray Free-Electron Lasers.

Annu Rev Virol 2019 09;6(1):161-176

Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, 22607 Hamburg, Germany; email:

Until recently X-ray crystallography has been the standard technique for virus structure determinations. Available X-ray sources have continuously improved over the decades, leading to the realization of X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs). They provide high-intensity femtosecond X-ray pulses, which allow for new kinds of experiments by making use of the diffraction-before-destruction principle. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-virology-092818-015724DOI Listing
September 2019

Virus Impact on Lipids and Membranes.

Annu Rev Virol 2019 09;6(1):319-340

Department of Microbiology, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA; email:

Viruses manipulate cellular lipids and membranes at each stage of their life cycle. This includes lipid-receptor interactions, the fusion of viral envelopes with cellular membranes during endocytosis, the reorganization of cellular membranes to form replication compartments, and the envelopment and egress of virions. In addition to the physical interactions with cellular membranes, viruses have evolved to manipulate lipid signaling and metabolism to benefit their replication. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-virology-092818-015748DOI Listing
September 2019

From Viruses to Genes to Cells.

Authors:
Peter K Vogt

Annu Rev Virol 2019 09;6(1):31-47

Department of Molecular Medicine, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA; email:

I always loved biology and to do experiments. This passion and a great deal of good fortune and serendipity landed me in the field of retrovirology at the time when it opened to experimental analysis. I became involved in viral replication, genetics, and viral oncogenes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-virology-092818-015828DOI Listing
September 2019

Ebola Virus: Pathogenesis and Countermeasure Development.

Annu Rev Virol 2019 09;6(1):435-458

Laboratory of Virology, Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, Montana 59840, USA; email:

Since its discovery in 1976, Ebola virus (EBOV) has caused numerous outbreaks of fatal hemorrhagic disease in Africa. The biggest outbreak on record is the 2013-2016 epidemic in west Africa with almost 30,000 cases and over 11,000 fatalities, devastatingly affecting Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone. The epidemic highlighted the need for licensed drugs or vaccines to quickly combat the disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-virology-092818-015708DOI Listing
September 2019

Cancers in Humans: A Lifelong Search for Contributions of Infectious Agents, Autobiographic Notes.

Annu Rev Virol 2019 09;6(1):1-28

Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany; email:

This review briefly covers periods of my early life; experiences during World War II; my school education; and my period as a medical student in Bonn, Hamburg, and Düsseldorf. Mainly emphasized is my scientific career after finishing my medical internship and periods as a postdoc at the Institute for Microbiology in Düsseldorf and the Virus Laboratories of the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia and as Senior Research Fellow at the Institute of Virology in Würzburg, Germany. Subsequent appointment as chairman of the newly established Institute of Virology, University of Erlangen-Nürnberg, in a similar position at the University of Freiburg, and then for 20 years as scientific director of the Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Heidelberg, are discussed, covering the scientific developments during these periods. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-virology-092818-015907DOI Listing
September 2019
3 Reads

Introduction.

Annu Rev Virol 2019 09;6(1):i-ii

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-vi-06-072619-100001DOI Listing
September 2019

Portal Protein: The Orchestrator of Capsid Assembly for the dsDNA Tailed Bacteriophages and Herpesviruses.

Annu Rev Virol 2019 09 23;6(1):141-160. Epub 2019 Jul 23.

Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269, USA; email:

Tailed, double-stranded DNA bacteriophages provide a well-characterized model system for the study of viral assembly, especially for herpesviruses and adenoviruses. A wealth of genetic, structural, and biochemical work has allowed for the development of assembly models and an understanding of the DNA packaging process. The portal complex is an essential player in all aspects of bacteriophage and herpesvirus assembly. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-virology-092818-015819DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6947915PMC
September 2019

Physical and Functional Analysis of Viral RNA Genomes by SHAPE.

Annu Rev Virol 2019 09 23;6(1):93-117. Epub 2019 Jul 23.

Department of Chemistry, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599-3290, USA; email:

RNA viruses encode the information required to usurp cellular metabolism and gene regulation and to enable their own replication in two ways: in the linear sequence of their RNA genomes and in higher-order structures that form when the genomic RNA strand folds back on itself. Application of high-resolution SHAPE (selective 2'-hydroxyl acylation analyzed by primer extension) structure probing to viral RNA genomes has identified numerous new regulatory elements, defined new principles by which viral RNAs interact with the cellular host and evade host immune responses, and revealed relationships between virus evolution and RNA structure. This review summarizes our current understanding of genome structure-function interrelationships for RNA viruses, as informed by SHAPE structure probing, and outlines opportunities for future studies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-virology-092917-043315DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6768749PMC
September 2019

The Biological Impact of the Hypervariable N-Terminal Region of Potyviral Genomes.

Annu Rev Virol 2019 09 12;6(1):255-274. Epub 2019 Jul 12.

London Research and Development Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, London, Ontario N5V 4T3, Canada; email:

is the largest family of plant-infecting RNA viruses, encompassing over 30% of known plant viruses. The family is closely related to animal picornaviruses such as enteroviruses and belongs to the picorna-like supergroup. Like all other picorna-like viruses, potyvirids employ polyprotein processing as a gene expression strategy and have single-stranded, positive-sense RNA genomes, most of which are monopartite with a long open reading frame. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-virology-092818-015843DOI Listing
September 2019

Regulation of Viral Infection by the RNA Modification -Methyladenosine.

Annu Rev Virol 2019 09 5;6(1):235-253. Epub 2019 Jul 5.

Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA; email:

In recent years, the RNA modification -methyladenosine (mA) has been found to play a role in the life cycles of numerous viruses and also in the cellular response to viral infection. mA has emerged as a regulator of many fundamental aspects of RNA biology. Here, we highlight recent advances in techniques for the study of mA, as well as advances in our understanding of the cellular machinery that controls the addition, removal, recognition, and functions of mA. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-virology-092818-015559DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6884077PMC
September 2019

Emerging Human Parvoviruses: The Rocky Road to Fame.

Annu Rev Virol 2019 09 5;6(1):71-91. Epub 2019 Jul 5.

Department of Virology, University of Helsinki, 00014 Helsinki, Finland; email:

Parvoviruses are structurally simple viruses with linear single-stranded DNA genomes and nonenveloped icosahedral capsids. They infect a wide range of animals from insects to humans. Parvovirus B19 is a long-known human pathogen, whereas adeno-associated viruses are nonpathogenic. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-virology-092818-015803DOI Listing
September 2019

Hitchhiking of Viral Genomes on Cellular Chromosomes.

Annu Rev Virol 2019 09 5;6(1):275-296. Epub 2019 Jul 5.

Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA; email:

Persistent viral infections require a host cell reservoir that maintains functional copies of the viral genome. To this end, several DNA viruses maintain their genomes as extrachromosomal DNA minichromosomes in actively dividing cells. These viruses typically encode a viral protein that binds specifically to viral DNA genomes and tethers them to host mitotic chromosomes, thus enabling the viral genomes to hitchhike or piggyback into daughter cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-virology-092818-015716DOI Listing
September 2019
1 Read

Global Dimensions of Plant Virus Diseases: Current Status and Future Perspectives.

Annu Rev Virol 2019 09 5;6(1):387-409. Epub 2019 Jul 5.

Department of Plant Pathology, Irrigated Agriculture Research and Extension Center, Washington State University, Prosser, Washington 99350, USA; email:

Viral diseases provide a major challenge to twenty-first century agriculture worldwide. Climate change and human population pressures are driving rapid alterations in agricultural practices and cropping systems that favor destructive viral disease outbreaks. Such outbreaks are strikingly apparent in subsistence agriculture in food-insecure regions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-virology-092818-015606DOI Listing
September 2019

Adenovirus Entry: From Infection to Immunity.

Annu Rev Virol 2019 09 5;6(1):177-197. Epub 2019 Jul 5.

Institute of Biotechnology and Department of Biosciences, University of Helsinki, 00790 Helsinki, Finland; email:

More than 80 different adenovirus (AdV) types infect humans through the respiratory, ocular, or gastrointestinal tracts. They cause acute clinical mani-festations or persist under humoral and cell-based immunity. Immuno-suppressed individuals are at risk of death from an AdV infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-virology-092818-015550DOI Listing
September 2019
1 Read

Recombinant Adeno-Associated Virus Gene Therapy in Light of Luxturna (and Zolgensma and Glybera): Where Are We, and How Did We Get Here?

Annu Rev Virol 2019 09 5;6(1):601-621. Epub 2019 Jul 5.

Horae Gene Therapy Center and Department of Pediatrics, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts 01655, USA; email:

The recent market approvals of recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) gene therapies in Europe and the United States are landmark achievements in the history of modern science. These approvals are also anticipated to herald the emergence of a new class of therapies for monogenic disorders, which had hitherto been considered untreatable. These events can be viewed as stemming from the convergence of several important historical trends: the study of basic virology, the development of genomic technologies, the imperative for translational impact of National Institutes of Health-funded research, and the development of economic models for commercialization of rare disease therapies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-virology-092818-015530DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7123914PMC
September 2019

In Vivo Imaging-Driven Approaches to Study Virus Dissemination and Pathogenesis.

Annu Rev Virol 2019 09 5;6(1):501-524. Epub 2019 Jul 5.

Department of Microbial Pathogenesis, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06510, USA; email:

Viruses are causative agents for many diseases and infect all living organisms on the planet. Development of effective therapies has relied on our ability to isolate and culture viruses in vitro, allowing mechanistic studies and strategic interventions. While this reductionist approach is necessary, testing the relevance of in vitro findings often takes a very long time. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-virology-101416-041429DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7217087PMC
September 2019
1 Read

Host Determinants of Influenza RNA Synthesis.

Annu Rev Virol 2019 09 5;6(1):215-233. Epub 2019 Jul 5.

Department of Medicine, Imperial College London, London W2 1PG, United Kingdom; email:

Influenza viruses are a leading cause of seasonal and pandemic respiratory illness. Influenza is a negative-sense single-stranded RNA virus that encodes its own RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) for nucleic acid synthesis. The RdRp catalyzes mRNA synthesis, as well as replication of the virus genome (viral RNA) through a complementary RNA intermediate. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-virology-092917-043339DOI Listing
September 2019
1 Read

Fusogenic Reoviruses and Their Fusion-Associated Small Transmembrane (FAST) Proteins.

Authors:
Roy Duncan

Annu Rev Virol 2019 09 5;6(1):341-363. Epub 2019 Jul 5.

Department of Microbiology & Immunology, Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, and Department of Pediatrics, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, B3H 4R2; email:

With no limiting membrane surrounding virions, nonenveloped viruses have no need for membrane fusion to gain access to intracellular replication compartments. Consequently, nonenveloped viruses do not encode membrane fusion proteins. The only exception to this dogma is the fusogenic reoviruses that encode fusion-associated small transmembrane (FAST) proteins that induce syncytium formation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-virology-092818-015523DOI Listing
September 2019

Regulation of Latency in the Human T Cell Leukemia Virus, HTLV-1.

Annu Rev Virol 2019 09 5;6(1):365-385. Epub 2019 Jul 5.

Laboratory of Virus Control, Institute for Frontier Life and Medical Sciences, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8507, Japan.

The human T cell leukemia virus persists in vivo in 10 to 10 clones of T lymphocytes that appear to survive for the lifetime of the host. The plus strand of the provirus is typically transcriptionally silent in freshly isolated lymphocytes, but the strong, persistently activated cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response to the viral antigens indicates that the virus is not constantly latent in vivo. There is now evidence that the plus strand is transcribed in intense intermittent bursts that are triggered by cellular stress, modulated by hypoxia and glycolysis, and inhibited by polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-virology-092818-015501DOI Listing
September 2019
2 Reads

Interferon-Stimulated Genes: What Do They All Do?

Authors:
John W Schoggins

Annu Rev Virol 2019 09 5;6(1):567-584. Epub 2019 Jul 5.

Department of Microbiology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390, USA; email:

In the absence of an intact interferon (IFN) response, mammals may be susceptible to lethal viral infection. IFNs are secreted cytokines that activate a signal transduction cascade leading to the induction of hundreds of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs). Remarkably, approximately 10% of the genes in the human genome have the potential to be regulated by IFNs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-virology-092818-015756DOI Listing
September 2019
1 Read

Update on the Animal Models and Underlying Mechanisms for ZIKV-Induced Microcephaly.

Annu Rev Virol 2019 09 14;6(1):459-479. Epub 2019 Jun 14.

State Key Laboratory of Molecular Developmental Biology, CAS Center for Excellence in Brain Science and Intelligence Technology, Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China; email:

The circulation of Zika virus (ZIKV) in nearly 80 countries and territories poses a significant global threat to public health. ZIKV is causally linked to severe developmental defects in the brain, recognized as congenital Zika syndrome (CZS), which includes microcephaly and other serious congenital neurological complications. Since the World Health Organization declared the ZIKV outbreak a public health emergency of international concern, remarkable progress has been made in the generation of different ZIKV infection animal models to gain insight into cellular targets and pathogenesis and to explore the associated underlying mechanisms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-virology-092818-015740DOI Listing
September 2019
16 Reads

Deformed Wing Virus in Honeybees and Other Insects.

Annu Rev Virol 2019 09 11;6(1):49-69. Epub 2019 Jun 11.

Hawkesbury Institute for the Environment, Western Sydney University, Richmond, New South Wales 2751, Australia; email:

Deformed wing virus (DWV) has become the most well-known, widespread, and intensively studied insect pathogen in the world. Although DWV was previously present in honeybee populations, the arrival and global spread of a new vector, the ectoparasitic mite , has dramatically altered DWV epidemiology. DWV is now the most prevalent virus in honeybees, with a minimum average of 55% of colonies/apiaries infected across 32 countries. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-virology-092818-015700DOI Listing
September 2019
27 Reads

Using Macaques to Address Critical Questions in Zika Virus Research.

Annu Rev Virol 2019 09 10;6(1):481-500. Epub 2019 Jun 10.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53711, USA; email:

Zika virus (ZIKV) and nonhuman primates have been inextricably linked since the virus was first discovered in a sentinel rhesus macaque in Uganda in 1947. Soon after ZIKV was epidemiologically associated with birth defects in Brazil late in 2015, researchers capitalized on the fact that rhesus macaques are commonly used to model viral immunity and pathogenesis, quickly establishing macaque models for ZIKV infection. Within months, the susceptibility of pregnant macaques to experimental ZIKV challenge and ZIKV-associated abnormalities in fetuses was confirmed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-virology-092818-015732DOI Listing
September 2019
5 Reads

Life on the Edge: Geminiviruses at the Interface Between Crops and Wild Plant Hosts.

Annu Rev Virol 2019 09 10;6(1):411-433. Epub 2019 Jun 10.

Departamento de Fitopatologia, Instituto de Biotecnologia Aplicada à Agropecuária (BIOAGRO), and National Research Institute for Plant-Pest Interactions, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Viçosa, Minas Gerais 36570-900, Brazil; email:

Viruses constitute the largest group of emerging pathogens, and geminiviruses (plant viruses with circular, single-stranded DNA genomes) are the major group of emerging plant viruses. With their high potential for genetic variation due to mutation and recombination, their efficient spread by vectors, and their wide host range as a group, including both wild and cultivated hosts, geminiviruses are attractive models for the study of the evolutionary and ecological factors driving virus emergence. Studies on the epidemiological features of geminivirus diseases have traditionally focused primarily on crop plants. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-virology-092818-015536DOI Listing
September 2019
25 Reads

Expanding the RNA Virosphere by Unbiased Metagenomics.

Annu Rev Virol 2019 09 17;6(1):119-139. Epub 2019 May 17.

Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center and School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, China; email:

Although viruses comprise the most abundant genetic material in the biosphere, to date only several thousand virus species have been formally defined. Such a limited perspective on virus diversity has in part arisen because viruses were traditionally considered only as etiologic agents of overt disease in humans or economically important species and were often difficult to identify using cell culture. This view has dramatically changed with the rise of metagenomics, which is transforming virus discovery and revealing a remarkable diversity of viruses sampled from diverse cellular organisms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-virology-092818-015851DOI Listing
September 2019
1 Read

Dip-a-Dee-Doo-Dah: Bacteriophage-Mediated Rescoring of a Harmoniously Orchestrated RNA Metabolism.

Annu Rev Virol 2019 09 17;6(1):199-213. Epub 2019 May 17.

Laboratory of Gene Technology, KU Leuven, 3001 Leuven, Belgium; email:

RNA turnover and processing in bacteria are governed by the structurally divergent but functionally convergent RNA degradosome, and the mechanisms have been researched extensively in Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. An emerging research field focuses on how bacterial viruses hijack all aspects of the bacterial metabolism, including the host machinery of RNA metabolism. This review addresses research on phage-based influence on RNA turnover, which can act either indirectly or via dedicated effector molecules that target degradosome assemblies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-virology-092818-015644DOI Listing
September 2019
9 Reads

The Impact of Defective Viruses on Infection and Immunity.

Annu Rev Virol 2019 09 13;6(1):547-566. Epub 2019 May 13.

Department of Pathobiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA; email:

Defective viral genomes (DVGs) are generated during viral replication and are unable to carry out a full replication cycle unless coinfected with a full-length virus. DVGs are produced by many viruses, and their presence correlates with alterations in infection outcomes. Historically, DVGs were studied for their ability to interfere with standard virus replication as well as for their association with viral persistence. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-virology-092818-015652DOI Listing
September 2019
2 Reads

Idiosyncrasies of Viral Noncoding RNAs Provide Insights into Host Cell Biology.

Annu Rev Virol 2019 09 30;6(1):297-317. Epub 2019 Apr 30.

Department of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry, Boyer Center for Molecular Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06536, USA; email:

Like their host cells, many viruses express noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs). Despite the technical challenge of ascribing function to ncRNAs, diverse biological roles for virally expressed ncRNAs have been described, including regulation of viral replication, modulation of host gene expression, host immune evasion, cellular survival, and cellular transformation. Insights into conserved interactions between viral ncRNAs and host cell machinery frequently lead to novel findings concerning host cell biology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-virology-092818-015811DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6768742PMC
September 2019
1 Read

The MMR Vaccine and Autism.

Annu Rev Virol 2019 09 15;6(1):585-600. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Immunization Safety Office, Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30329, USA; email:

Autism is a developmental disability that can cause significant social, communication, and behavioral challenges. A report published in 1998, but subsequently retracted by the journal, suggested that measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine causes autism. However, autism is a neurodevelopmental condition that has a strong genetic component with genesis before one year of age, when MMR vaccine is typically administered. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-virology-092818-015515DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6768751PMC
September 2019
8 Reads

The Many Faces of a Dynamic Virion: Implications of Viral Breathing on Flavivirus Biology and Immunogenicity.

Annu Rev Virol 2018 09;5(1):185-207

Viral Pathogenesis Section, Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA; email: ,

Flaviviruses are arthropod-borne RNA viruses that are a significant threat to global health due to their widespread distribution, ability to cause severe disease in humans, and capacity for explosive spread following introduction into new regions. Members of this genus include dengue, tick-borne encephalitis, yellow fever, and Zika viruses. Vaccination has been a highly successful means to control flaviviruses, and neutralizing antibodies are an important component of a protective immune response. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-virology-092917-043300DOI Listing
September 2018
14 Reads

Innate Sensing of DNA Virus Genomes.

Annu Rev Virol 2018 09;5(1):341-362

Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center and Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA; email:

DNA viruses are linked to many infectious diseases and contribute significantly to human morbidity and mortality worldwide. Moreover, DNA viral infections are usually lifelong and hard to eradicate. Under certain circumstances, these viruses can cause fatal disease, especially in children and immunocompromised patients. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6443256PMC
September 2018
2 Reads

My Life and Virus Research Journey.

Authors:
Said A Ghabrial

Annu Rev Virol 2018 09;5(1):1-32

Plant Pathology Department, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40546, USA; email:

My long career in virology has been a continuous learning exercise with a very modest start. Virology and related pertinent fields have changed significantly during my lifetime. Sometimes I wish that my career had just started and I could apply all available and state of the art technology to solving problems and explaining intriguing observations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-virology-092917-043507DOI Listing
September 2018
25 Reads

Reductio ad Intellectum.

Annu Rev Virol 2018 09;5(1):ii-iv

Department of Molecular Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544, USA; email:

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https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/10.1146/annurev-vi-05-0726
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-vi-05-072618-100011DOI Listing
September 2018
2 Reads

SERINC5 as a New Restriction Factor for Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Murine Leukemia Virus.

Annu Rev Virol 2018 09;5(1):323-340

Centre for Integrative Biology, University of Trento, 38123 Trento, Italy ; email: , , ,

SERINC genes encode for homologous multipass transmembrane proteins with unknown cellular function, despite being highly conserved across eukaryotes. Among the five SERINC genes found in humans, SERINC5 was shown to act as a powerful inhibitor of retroviruses. It is efficiently incorporated into virions and blocks the penetration of the viral core into target cells, by impairing the fusion process with a yet unclear mechanism. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-virology-092917-043308DOI Listing
September 2018
3 Reads

Flaviviruses and the Central Nervous System: Revisiting Neuropathological Concepts.

Annu Rev Virol 2018 09;5(1):255-272

Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA; email: ,

Flaviviruses are major emerging human pathogens on a global scale. Some flaviviruses can infect the central nervous system of the host and therefore are regarded as neurotropic. The most clinically relevant classical neurotropic flaviviruses include Japanese encephalitis virus, West Nile virus, and tick-borne encephalitis virus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-virology-092917-043439DOI Listing
September 2018
2 Reads

VIPERdb: A Tool for Virus Research.

Annu Rev Virol 2018 09;5(1):477-488

Department of Integrative Structural and Computational Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA; email:

The VIrus Particle ExploreR database (VIPERdb) ( http://viperdb.scripps.edu ) is a database and web portal for primarily icosahedral virus capsid structures that integrates structure-derived information with visualization and analysis tools accessed through a set of web interfaces. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-virology-092917-043405DOI Listing
September 2018
7 Reads
5.345 Impact Factor