1,028 results match your criteria Annual Review Of Public Health[Journal]


Advances in Gender-Transformative Approaches to Health Promotion.

Annu Rev Public Health 2022 Apr;43:1-17

Global and Women's Health Unit, School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia; email:

Gender is an important determinant of health, but explicit attention to gender is often missing in health promotion. We build on Pederson and colleagues' gender-transformative framework for health promotion to propose four guiding principles for gender-transformative health promotion. First, health promotion must address gender norms directly if it is to improve health outcomes. Read More

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Advancing Diabetes Prevention and Control in American Indians and Alaska Natives.

Annu Rev Public Health 2022 Apr;43:461-475

Policy Research Center, National Congress of American Indians, Washington, DC, USA; email:

As with many Indigenous populations globally, American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) experience high rates of type 2 diabetes. Prevention efforts, ongoing medical care, patient self-management education, and support to prevent and reduce the risk of long-term complications must be developed to limit the impact of diabetes on individuals, families, and communities. Diabetes prevention and control require both individual- and community-level efforts as well as policies that attempt to mitigate contributing adverse socioeconomic factors. Read More

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Understanding Health Inequalities Through the Lens of Social Epigenetics.

Annu Rev Public Health 2022 Apr;43:235-254

Center for Public Health and Environmental Assessment, US Environmental Protection Agency, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA.

Longstanding racial/ethnic inequalities in morbidity and mortality persist in the United States. Although the determinants of health inequalities are complex, social and structural factors produced by inequitable and racialized systems are recognized as contributing sources. Social epigenetics is an emerging area of research that aims to uncover biological pathways through which social experiences affect health outcomes. Read More

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Shifting the Demand for Vaccines: A Review of Strategies.

Annu Rev Public Health 2022 Apr 26;43:541-557. Epub 2022 Jan 26.

Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA; email:

Vaccines prevent millions of deaths, and yet millions of people die each year from vaccine-preventable diseases. The primary reason for these deaths is that a significant fraction of the population chooses not to vaccinate. Why don't people vaccinate, and what can be done to increase vaccination rates besides providing free and easy access to vaccines? This review presents a conceptual framework, motivated by economic theory, of which factors shift the demand for vaccines. Read More

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The Indian Health Service and American Indian/Alaska Native Health Outcomes.

Annu Rev Public Health 2022 Apr 26;43:559-576. Epub 2022 Jan 26.

Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

The Indian Health Service (IHS) has made huge strides in narrowing health disparities between American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) populations and other racial and ethnic groups. Yet, health disparities experienced by AI/AN people persist, with deep historical roots combined with present-day challenges. Here we review the history of the IHS from colonization to the present-day system, highlight persistent disparities in AI/AN health and health care, and discuss six key present-day challenges: inadequate funding, limited human resources, challenges associated with transitioning services from federal to Tribal control through contracting and compacting, evolving federal and state programs, the need for culturally sensitive services, and the promise and challenges of health technology. Read More

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Social Connection as a Public Health Issue: The Evidence and a Systemic Framework for Prioritizing the "Social" in Social Determinants of Health.

Annu Rev Public Health 2022 Apr 12;43:193-213. Epub 2022 Jan 12.

Department of Psychology, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah, USA; email:

There is growing interest in and renewed support for prioritizing social factors in public health both in the USA and globally. While there are multiple widely recognized social determinants of health, indicators of social connectedness (e.g. Read More

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Eliminating Explicit and Implicit Biases in Health Care: Evidence and Research Needs.

Annu Rev Public Health 2022 Apr 12;43:477-501. Epub 2022 Jan 12.

Department of Medicine and Chicago Center for Diabetes Translation Research, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Health care providers hold negative explicit and implicit biases against marginalized groups of people such as racial and ethnic minoritized populations. These biases permeate the health care system and affect patients via patient-clinician communication, clinical decision making, and institutionalized practices. Addressing bias remains a fundamental professional responsibility of those accountable for the health and wellness of our populations. Read More

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Real-Time Infectious Disease Modeling to Inform Emergency Public Health Decision Making.

Annu Rev Public Health 2022 Apr 7;43:397-418. Epub 2022 Jan 7.

New York University Grossman School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA; email:

Infectious disease transmission is a nonlinear process with complex, sometimes unintuitive dynamics. Modeling can transform information about a disease process and its parameters into quantitative projections that help decision makers compare public health response options. However, modelers face methodologic challenges, data challenges, and communication challenges, which are exacerbated under the time constraints of a public health emergency. Read More

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Transmission of Respiratory Viral Diseases to Health Care Workers: COVID-19 as an Example.

Annu Rev Public Health 2022 Apr 7;43:311-330. Epub 2022 Jan 7.

Department of Family and Preventive Medicine, Spencer Fox Eccles School of Medicine, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA; email:

Health care workers (HCWs) can acquire infectious diseases, including coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), from patients. Herein, COVID-19 is used with the source-pathway-receptor framework as an example to assess evidence for the roles of aerosol transmission and indirect contact transmission in viral respiratory infectious diseases. Evidence for both routes is strong for COVID-19 and other respiratory viruses, but aerosol transmission is likely dominant for COVID-19. Read More

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Social Capital, Black Social Mobility, and Health Disparities.

Annu Rev Public Health 2022 Apr 6;43:173-191. Epub 2022 Jan 6.

Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA; email:

This review aims to delineate the role of structural racism in the formation and accumulation of social capital and to describe how social capital is leveraged and used differently between Black and White people as a response to the conditions created by structural racism. We draw on critical race theory in public health praxis and restorative justice concepts to reimagine a race-conscious social capital agenda. We document how American capitalism has injured Black people and Black communities' unique construction of forms of social capital to combat systemic oppression. Read More

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Environmental Factors Influencing COVID-19 Incidence and Severity.

Annu Rev Public Health 2022 Apr 4;43:271-291. Epub 2022 Jan 4.

Division of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California, USA; email:

Emerging evidence supports a link between environmental factors-including air pollution and chemical exposures, climate, and the built environment-and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) susceptibility and severity. Climate, air pollution, and the built environment have long been recognized to influence viral respiratory infections, and studies have established similar associations with COVID-19 outcomes. More limited evidence links chemical exposures to COVID-19. Read More

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Social Epidemiology: Past, Present, and Future.

Authors:
Ana V Diez Roux

Annu Rev Public Health 2022 Apr 4;43:79-98. Epub 2022 Jan 4.

Dornsife School of Public Health, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA; email:

In a context where epidemiologic research has been heavily influenced by a biomedical and individualistic approach, the naming of "social epidemiology" allowed explicit emphasis on the social production of disease as a powerful explanatory paradigm and as critically important for interventions to improve population health. This review briefly highlights key substantive areas of focus in social epidemiology over the past 30 years, reflects on major advances and insights, and identifies challenges and possible future directions. Future opportunities for social epidemiology include grounding research in theoretically based and systemic conceptual models of the fundamental social drivers of health; implementing a scientifically rigorous yet realistic approach to drawing conclusions about social causes; using complementary methods to generate valid explanations and identify effective actions; leveraging the power of harmonization, replication, and big data; extending interdisciplinarity and diversity; advancing emerging critical approaches to understanding the health impacts of systemic racism and its policy implications; going global; and embracing a broad approach to generating socially useful research. Read More

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Designing for Dissemination and Sustainability to Promote Equitable Impacts on Health.

Annu Rev Public Health 2022 Apr 4;43:331-353. Epub 2022 Jan 4.

Center for Public Health Systems Science, Brown School, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri, USA.

Designing for dissemination and sustainability (D4DS) refers to principles and methods for enhancing the fit between a health program, policy, or practice and the context in which it is intended to be adopted. In this article we first summarize the historical context of D4DS and justify the need to shift traditional health research and dissemination practices. We present a diverse literature according to a D4DS organizing schema and describe a variety of dissemination products, design processes and outcomes, and approaches to messaging, packaging, and distribution. Read More

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Public Health Roles in Addressing Commercial Determinants of Health.

Annu Rev Public Health 2022 Apr 4;43:375-395. Epub 2022 Jan 4.

School of Public Health and Health Policy, City University of New York, New York, NY, USA; email:

The shared challenges posed by the production and distribution of health-harming products have led to growing recognition of the need for policy learning and transfer across problems, populations, and social contexts. The commercial determinants of health (CDoH) can serve as a unifying concept to describe the population health consequences arising from for-profit actors and activities, along with the social structures that sustain them. Strategies to mitigate harms from CDoH have focused on behavioral change, regulation, fiscal policies, consumer and citizen activism, and litigation. Read More

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Qualitative Research Methods in Chronic Disease: Introduction and Opportunities to Promote Health Equity.

Annu Rev Public Health 2022 Apr 22;43:37-57. Epub 2021 Dec 22.

Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts, USA; email:

Public health research that addresses chronic disease has historically underutilized and undervalued qualitative methods. This has limited the field's ability to advance () a more in-depth understanding of the factors and processes that shape health behaviors, () contextualized explanations of interventions' impacts (e.g. Read More

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Barriers and Enablers for Integrating Public Health Cobenefits in Urban Climate Policy.

Annu Rev Public Health 2022 Apr 22;43:255-270. Epub 2021 Dec 22.

Centre for Environmental Policy, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom; email:

Urban climate policy offers a significant opportunity to promote improved public health. The evidence around climate and health cobenefits is growing but has yet to translate into widespread integrated policies. This article presents two systematic reviews: first, looking at quantified cobenefits of urban climate policies, where transportation, land use, and buildings emerge as the most studied sectors; and second, looking at review papers exploring the barriers and enablers for integrating these health cobenefits into urban policies. Read More

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Personal Interventions to Reduce Exposure to Outdoor Air Pollution.

Annu Rev Public Health 2022 Apr 22;43:293-309. Epub 2021 Dec 22.

Marron Institute of Urban Management, New York University, New York, NY, USA.

Unhealthy levels of air pollution are breathed by billions of people worldwide, and air pollution is the leading environmental cause of death and disability globally. Efforts to reduce air pollution at its many sources have had limited success, and in many areas of the world, poor air quality continues to worsen. Personal interventions to reduce exposure to air pollution include avoiding sources, staying indoors, filtering indoor air, using face masks, and limiting physical activity when and where air pollution levels are elevated. Read More

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Roles of Cities in Creating Healthful Food Systems.

Authors:
Nevin Cohen

Annu Rev Public Health 2022 Apr 22;43:419-437. Epub 2021 Dec 22.

Graduate School of Public Health and Health Policy, City University of New York (CUNY), New York, NY, USA; email:

Over the past several decades, cities worldwide have attempted to reconfigure their food systems to improve public health, advance social justice, and promote environmental resilience using diverse municipal policies, often with the support of stakeholder-led governance mechanisms such as food policy councils. This article reviews the roles that cities have played in creating healthful urban food systems and the effects of those policies on public health. It explains that despite wide-ranging policy initiatives, disparities in food insecurity and malnourishment persist. Read More

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A Review of the Quality and Impact of Mobile Health Apps.

Authors:
Quinn Grundy

Annu Rev Public Health 2022 Apr 15;43:117-134. Epub 2021 Dec 15.

Lawrence S. Bloomberg Faculty of Nursing, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; email:

Mobile health applications (apps) have transformed the possibilities for health promotion and disease self-management; however, their promise is not fully realized owing to their reliance on commercial ecosystems for development and distribution. This review provides an overview of the types of mobile health apps and describes key stakeholders in terms of how apps are used, developed, and regulated. I outline key challenges facing consumers, public health professionals, and policy makers in evaluating the quality of health apps and summarize what is known about the impact of apps on health outcomes and health equity. Read More

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Reimagining Rural: Shifting Paradigms About Health and Well-Being in the Rural United States.

Annu Rev Public Health 2022 Apr 15;43:135-154. Epub 2021 Dec 15.

Division of Population Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, United States; email:

Rural health disparities have attracted increased national attention, compelling an expanded focus on rural health research. In this article, we deconstruct the definitions and narratives of "rural" communities and suggest that a paradigm shift is needed that centers the complexity and strength of rural places. We discuss the relevance of health equity frameworks, implementation science, and community-engaged approaches to promote rural well-being. Read More

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Active Aging and Public Health: Evidence, Implications, and Opportunities.

Annu Rev Public Health 2022 Apr 15;43:439-459. Epub 2021 Dec 15.

Centre for Urban Transitions, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, Victoria, Australia.

By 2050, 20% of the world's population will be over the age of 65 years, with projections that 80% of older adults will be living in low- to middle-income countries. Physical inactivity and sedentary time are particularly high in older adults, presenting unique public health challenges. In this article, we first review evidence that points to multiple beneficial outcomes of active aging, including better physical function, cognitive function, mental health, social health, and sleep, and we suggest the need to shift the research focus from chronic disease outcomes to more relevantoutcomes that affect independence and quality of life. Read More

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Health and Health Care Among Transgender Adults in the United States.

Annu Rev Public Health 2022 Apr 9;43:503-523. Epub 2021 Dec 9.

Department of Community Health and Prevention, Dornsife School of Public Health, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

Transgender (trans) communities in the USA and globally have long organized for health and social equity but have only recently gained increased visibility within public health. In this review, we synthesize evidence demonstrating that trans adults in the USA are affected by disparities in physical and mental health and in access to health care, relative to cisgender (nontrans) persons. We draw on theory and data to situate these disparities in their social contexts, explicating the roles of gender affirmation, multilevel and intersectional stigmas, and public policies in reproducing or ameliorating trans health disparities. Read More

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Health-Related Quality of Life Measurement in Public Health.

Annu Rev Public Health 2022 Apr 9;43:355-373. Epub 2021 Dec 9.

Division of General Internal Medicine and Health Services Research, Department of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, California, USA.

Patient-reported outcomes are recognized as essential for the evaluation of medical and public health interventions. Over the last 50 years, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) research has grown exponentially from 0 to more than 17,000 papers published annually. We provide an overview of generic HRQoL measures used widely in epidemiological studies, health services research, population studies, and randomized clinical trials [e. Read More

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Risks and Opportunities to Ensure Equity in the Application of Big Data Research in Public Health.

Annu Rev Public Health 2022 Apr 6;43:59-78. Epub 2021 Dec 6.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California, San Francisco, California, USA; email:

The big data revolution presents an exciting frontier to expand public health research, broadening the scope of research and increasing the precision of answers. Despite these advances, scientists must be vigilant against also advancing potential harms toward marginalized communities. In this review, we provide examples in which big data applications have (unintentionally) perpetuated discriminatory practices, while also highlighting opportunities for big data applications to advance equity in public health. Read More

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Scaling Up Public Health Interventions: Engaging Partners Across Multiple Levels.

Annu Rev Public Health 2022 Apr 1;43:155-171. Epub 2021 Nov 1.

Department of Health Behavior, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA; email:

Advancing the science of intervention scale-up is essential to increasing the impact of effective interventions at the regional and national levels. In contrast with work in high-income countries (HICs), where scale-up research has been limited, researchers in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) have conducted numerous studies on the regional and national scale-up of interventions. In this article, we review the state of the science on intervention scale-up in both HICs and LMICs. Read More

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The Role of Citizen Science in Promoting Health Equity.

Annu Rev Public Health 2022 Apr 1;43:215-234. Epub 2021 Nov 1.

Department of Epidemiology and Population Health and Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, USA; email:

While there are many definitions of citizen science, the term usually refers to the participation of the general public in the scientific process in collaboration with professional scientists. Citizen scientists have been engaged to promote health equity, especially in the areas of environmental contaminant exposures, physical activity, and healthy eating. Citizen scientists commonly come from communities experiencing health inequities and have collected data using a range of strategies and technologies, such as air sensors, water quality kits, and mobile applications. Read More

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Mobile Health (mHealth) in Low- and Middle-Income Countries.

Annu Rev Public Health 2022 Apr 14;43:525-539. Epub 2021 Oct 14.

Nuffield Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.

This article reflects on current trends and proposes new considerations for the future of mobile technologies for health (mHealth). Our focus is predominantly on the value of and concerns with regard to the application of digital health within low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). It is in LMICs and marginalized communities that mHealth (within the wider scope of digital health) could be most useful and valuable. Read More

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Methods to Address Confounding and Other Biases in Meta-Analyses: Review and Recommendations.

Annu Rev Public Health 2022 Apr 17;43:19-35. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Meta-analyses contribute critically to cumulative science, but they can produce misleading conclusions if their constituent primary studies are biased, for example by unmeasured confounding in nonrandomized studies. We provide practical guidance on how meta-analysts can address confounding and other biases that affect studies' internal validity, focusing primarily on sensitivity analyses that help quantify how biased the meta-analysis estimates might be. We review a number of sensitivity analysis methods to do so, especially recent developments that are straightforward to implement and interpret and that use somewhat less stringent statistical assumptions than do earlier methods. Read More

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Improving Access to Care: Telemedicine Across Medical Domains.

Annu Rev Public Health 2021 04;42:463-481

Department of Neurology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York 14642, USA; email:

Over the past 20 years, the use of telemedicine has increased exponentially. Its fundamental aim is to improve access to care. In this review, we assess the extent to which telemedicine has fulfilled this promise across medical domains. Read More

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