1,222 results match your criteria Annual Review Of Psychology[Journal]


Language as a Social Cue.

Annu Rev Psychol 2021 01;72:241-264

Department of Psychology, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA; email:

Social groups are a pervasive feature of human life. One factor that is often understudied in the literature on person perception and social categorization is language. Yet, someone's language (and accent) provides a tremendous amount of social information to a listener. Read More

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January 2021

Understanding Human Cognitive Uniqueness.

Annu Rev Psychol 2021 01;72:689-716

School of Psychology and Neuroscience, University of St. Andrews, St. Andrews KY16 9JP, United Kingdom.

Humanity has regarded itself as intellectually superior to other species for millennia, yet human cognitive uniqueness remains poorly understood. Here, we evaluate candidate traits plausibly underlying our distinctive cognition (including mental time travel, tool use, problem solving, social cognition, and communication) as well as domain generality, and we consider how human cognitive uniqueness may have evolved. We conclude that there are no traits present in humans and absent in other animals that in isolation explain our species' superior cognitive performance; rather, there are many cognitive domains in which humans possess unusually potent capabilities compared to those found in other species. Read More

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January 2021

Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation and the Understanding of Behavior.

Annu Rev Psychol 2021 01 23;72:97-121. Epub 2020 Oct 23.

Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, University College London, London WC1N 3AR, United Kingdom; email:

The development of the use of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in the study of psychological functions has entered a new phase of sophistication. This is largely due to an increasing physiological knowledge of its effects and to its being used in combination with other experimental techniques. This review presents the current state of our understanding of the mechanisms of TMS in the context of designing and interpreting psychological experiments. Read More

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January 2021

Psychology as a Historical Science.

Annu Rev Psychol 2021 01 13;72:717-749. Epub 2020 Oct 13.

Department of Asian Studies, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z3, Canada; email:

Psychology has traditionally seen itself as the science of universal human cognition, but it has only recently begun seriously grappling with cross-cultural variation. Here we argue that the roots of cross-cultural variation often lie in the past. Therefore, to understand not only how but also why psychology varies, we need to grapple with cross-temporal variation. Read More

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January 2021

Integrating Models of Self-Regulation.

Annu Rev Psychol 2021 01 5;72:319-345. Epub 2020 Oct 5.

Department of Psychology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61820, USA.

Self-regulation is a core aspect of human functioning that helps facilitate the successful pursuit of personal goals. There has been a proliferation of theories and models describing different aspects of self-regulation both within and outside of psychology. All of these models provide insights about self-regulation, but sometimes they talk past each other, make only shallow contributions, or make contributions that are underappreciated by scholars working in adjacent areas. Read More

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January 2021

Experimental Games and Social Decision Making.

Annu Rev Psychol 2021 01 2;72:415-438. Epub 2020 Oct 2.

Department of Psychology, Leiden University, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands; email:

Experimental games model situations in which the future outcomes of individuals and groups depend on their own choices and on those of other (groups of) individuals. Games are a powerful tool to identify the neural and psychological mechanisms underlying interpersonal and group cooperation and coordination. Here we discuss recent developments in how experimental games are used and adapted, with an increased focus on repeated interactions, partner control through sanctioning, and partner (de)selection for future interactions. Read More

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January 2021

Practicing Retrieval Facilitates Learning.

Annu Rev Psychol 2021 01 2;72:609-633. Epub 2020 Oct 2.

Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri 63130, USA; email:

How do we go about learning new information? This article reviews the importance of practicing retrieval of newly experienced information if one wants to be able to retrieve it again in the future. Specifically, practicing retrieval shortly after learning can slow the forgetting process. This benefit can be seen across various material types, and it seems prevalent in all ages and learner abilities and on all types of test. Read More

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January 2021

The Origins and Psychology of Human Cooperation.

Annu Rev Psychol 2021 01 2;72:207-240. Epub 2020 Oct 2.

Department of Psychological and Behavioural Science, London School of Economics and Political Science, London WC2A 2AE, United Kingdom; email:

Humans are an ultrasocial species. This sociality, however, cannot be fully explained by the canonical approaches found in evolutionary biology, psychology, or economics. Understanding our unique social psychology requires accounting not only for the breadth and intensity of human cooperation but also for the variation found across societies, over history, and among behavioral domains. Read More

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January 2021

The Psychology of Reaching: Action Selection, Movement Implementation, and Sensorimotor Learning.

Annu Rev Psychol 2021 01 25;72:61-95. Epub 2020 Sep 25.

Department of Psychology and Helen Wills Neuroscience Institute, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA; email:

The study of motor planning and learning in humans has undergone a dramatic transformation in the 20 years since this journal's last review of this topic. The behavioral analysis of movement, the foundational approach for psychology, has been complemented by ideas from control theory, computer science, statistics, and, most notably, neuroscience. The result of this interdisciplinary approach has been a focus on the computational level of analysis, leading to the development of mechanistic models at the psychological level to explain how humans plan, execute, and consolidate skilled reaching movements. Read More

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January 2021

Intergenerational Economic Mobility for Low-Income Parents and Their Children: A Dual Developmental Science Framework.

Annu Rev Psychol 2021 01 23;72:265-292. Epub 2020 Sep 23.

National Center for Children and Families, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027, USA; email:

In this review we bring a psychological perspective to the issue of intergenerational economic mobility. More specifically, we present a new dual developmental science framework to consider the educational outcomes of parents and children together in order to foster economic mobility. We focus on two key populations: children in early childhood (from birth to age 6) and parents in early adulthood (in their 20s and early 30s). Read More

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January 2021

Memory and Sleep: How Sleep Cognition Can Change the Waking Mind for the Better.

Annu Rev Psychol 2021 01 18;72:123-150. Epub 2020 Sep 18.

Department of Psychology and Cognitive Neuroscience Program, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208, USA; email:

The memories that we retain can serve many functions. They guide our future actions, form a scaffold for constructing the self, and continue to shape both the self and the way we perceive the world. Although most memories we acquire each day are forgotten, those integrated within the structure of multiple prior memories tend to endure. Read More

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January 2021

The Social Neuroscience of Prejudice.

Annu Rev Psychol 2021 01 18;72:439-469. Epub 2020 Sep 18.

Department of Psychology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA.

The social neuroscience approach to prejudice investigates the psychology of intergroup bias by integrating models and methods of neuroscience with the social psychology of prejudice, stereotyping, and discrimination. Here, we review major contemporary lines of inquiry, including current accounts of group-based categorization; formation and updating of prejudice and stereotypes; effects of prejudice on perception, emotion, and decision making; and the self-regulation of prejudice. In each section, we discuss key social neuroscience findings, consider interpretational challenges and connections with the behavioral literature, and highlight how they advance psychological theories of prejudice. Read More

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January 2021

Social Influence and Group Identity.

Authors:
Russell Spears

Annu Rev Psychol 2021 01 15;72:367-390. Epub 2020 Sep 15.

Faculty of Behavioural and Social Sciences, University of Groningen, 9712 TSĀ Groningen, The Netherlands; email:

This chapter reviews research on the group identity explanation of social influence, grounded in self-categorization theory, and contrasts it with other group-based explanations, including normative influence, interdependence, and social network approaches, as well as approaches to persuasion and influence that background group (identity) processes. Although the review primarily discusses recent research, its focus also invites reappraisal of some classic research in order to address basic questions about the scope and power of the group identity explanation. The self-categorization explanation of influence grounded in group norms, moderated by group identification, is compared and contrasted to other normative explanations of influence, notably the concept of injunctive norms and the relation to moral conviction. Read More

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January 2021

The Cultural Foundation of Human Memory.

Authors:
Qi Wang

Annu Rev Psychol 2021 01 14;72:151-179. Epub 2020 Sep 14.

Department of Human Development, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA; email:

Human memory, as a product of the mind and brain, is inherently private and personal. Yet, arising from the interaction between the organism and its ecology in the course of phylogeny and ontogeny, human memory is also profoundly collective and cultural. In this review, I discuss the cultural foundation of human memory. Read More

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January 2021

Prejudice Reduction: Progress and Challenges.

Annu Rev Psychol 2021 01 14;72:533-560. Epub 2020 Sep 14.

Department of Political Science, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027, USA.

The past decade has seen rapid growth in research that evaluates methods for reducing prejudice. This essay reviews 418 experiments reported in 309 manuscripts from 2007 to 2019 to assess which approaches work best and why. Our quantitative assessment uses meta-analysis to estimate average effects. Read More

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January 2021

Active Forgetting: Adaptation of Memory by Prefrontal Control.

Annu Rev Psychol 2021 01 14;72:1-36. Epub 2020 Sep 14.

Psychology Program, Bard College, Annandale-on-Hudson, New York 12504, USA.

Over the past century, psychologists have discussed whether forgetting might arise from active mechanisms that promote memory loss to achieve various functions, such as minimizing errors, facilitating learning, or regulating one's emotional state. The past decade has witnessed a great expansion in knowledge about the brain mechanisms underlying active forgetting in its varying forms. A core discovery concerns the role of the prefrontal cortex in exerting top-down control over mnemonic activity in the hippocampus and other brain structures, often via inhibitory control. Read More

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January 2021

Prejudice and Discrimination Toward Immigrants.

Authors:
Victoria M Esses

Annu Rev Psychol 2021 01 11;72:503-531. Epub 2020 Sep 11.

Department of Psychology, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5C2, Canada; email:

Prejudice and discrimination toward immigrants, and the consequences of these negative attitudes and behavior, are key determinants of the economic, sociocultural, and civic-political future of receiving societies and of the individuals who seek to make these societies their new home. In this article I review and organize the existing literature on the determinants and nature of prejudice and discrimination toward immigrants, summarizing what we know to date and the challenges in attributing effects to immigrant status per se. I also discuss the consequences of discrimination against immigrants for immigrants themselves, their families, and the societies in which they settle. Read More

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January 2021

The Science of Meaning in Life.

Annu Rev Psychol 2021 01 8;72:561-584. Epub 2020 Sep 8.

Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77843, USA; email:

Meaning in life has long been a mystery of human existence. In this review, we seek to demystify this construct. Focusing on the subjective experience of meaning in life, we review how it has been measured and briefly describe its correlates. Read More

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January 2021

"Reports of My Death Were Greatly Exaggerated": Behavior Genetics in the Postgenomic Era.

Authors:
K Paige Harden

Annu Rev Psychol 2021 01 8;72:37-60. Epub 2020 Sep 8.

Department of Psychology, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712, USA; email:

Behavior genetics studies how genetic differences among people contribute to differences in their psychology and behavior. Here, I describe how the conclusions and methods of behavior genetics have evolved in the postgenomic era in which the human genome can be directly measured. First, I revisit the first law of behavioral genetics stating that everything is heritable, and I describe results from large-scale meta-analyses of twin data and new methods for estimating heritability using measured DNA. Read More

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January 2021

Psychological Underpinnings of Brands.

Annu Rev Psychol 2021 01 8;72:585-607. Epub 2020 Sep 8.

Business School, University of Roehampton, London SW15 5SL, United Kingdom; email:

Research in psychology has shown that even routinely experienced everyday objects such as brands can trigger cognitively engaging, emotional, and socially meaningful experiences. In this article, we review three key areas where current advances reside: brands as passive objects with utilitarian and symbolic meanings, brands as relationship partners and regulators of personal relationships, and brands as creators of social identity with social group linking value. Research in these areas is grounded in a number of fundamental perspectives within cognitive, emotional, motivational, personality, interpersonal, and group psychology. Read More

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January 2021

Trade-Offs in Choice.

Annu Rev Psychol 2021 01 8;72:181-206. Epub 2020 Sep 8.

Graduate School of Business, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA; email:

To explain trade-offs in choice, researchers have proposed myriad phenomena and decision rules, each paired with separate theories and idiosyncratic vocabularies. Yet most choice problems are ultimately resolved with one of just two types of solutions: mixed or extreme. For example, people adopt mixed solutions for resolving trade-offs when they allow exercising to license indulgence afterward (balancing between goals), read different literary genres (variety seeking), and order medium-sized coffees (the compromise effect). Read More

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January 2021

Psychology of Transnational Terrorism and Extreme Political Conflict.

Authors:
Scott Atran

Annu Rev Psychol 2021 01 8;72:471-501. Epub 2020 Sep 8.

Changing Character of War Centre and Centre for the Study of Social Cohesion, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 1DW, United Kingdom; email:

Fear of transnational terrorism, along with a revitalization of sectarian nationalism, is sundering social and political consensus across the world. Can psychology help? The focus of this review is on the psychological and related social factors that instigate and sustain violent extremism and polarizing group conflict. I first describe the changing global landscape of transnational terrorism, encompassing mainly violent Islamist revivalism and resurgent racial and ethnic supremacism. Read More

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January 2021

Moral Judgments.

Authors:
Bertram F Malle

Annu Rev Psychol 2021 01 4;72:293-318. Epub 2020 Sep 4.

Department of Cognitive, Linguistic, and Psychological Sciences, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912, USA; email:

Research on morality has increased rapidly over the past 10 years. At the center of this research are moral judgments-evaluative judgments that a perceiver makes in response to a moral norm violation. But there is substantial diversity in what has been called moral judgment. Read More

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January 2021

Stress and Health: A Review of Psychobiological Processes.

Annu Rev Psychol 2021 01 4;72:663-688. Epub 2020 Sep 4.

Division of Primary Care, School of Medicine, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2UH, United Kingdom; email:

The cumulative science linking stress to negative health outcomes is vast. Stress can affect health directly, through autonomic and neuroendocrine responses, but also indirectly, through changes in health behaviors. In this review, we present a brief overview of () why we should be interested in stress in the context of health; () the stress response and allostatic load; () some of the key biological mechanisms through which stress impacts health, such as by influencing hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis regulation and cortisol dynamics, the autonomic nervous system, and gene expression; and () evidence of the clinical relevance of stress, exemplified through the risk of infectious diseases. Read More

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January 2021

The Psychology of Moral Conviction.

Annu Rev Psychol 2021 01 4;72:347-366. Epub 2020 Sep 4.

Department of Psychology, Saint Peter's University, Jersey City, New Jersey 07306, USA; email:

This review covers theory and research on the psychological characteristics and consequences of attitudes that are experienced as moral convictions, that is, attitudes that people perceive as grounded in a fundamental distinction between right and wrong. Morally convicted attitudes represent something psychologically distinct from other constructs (e.g. Read More

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January 2021

Socioeconomic Status and Intimate Relationships.

Annu Rev Psychol 2021 01 4;72:391-414. Epub 2020 Sep 4.

Department of Psychology, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA; email:

The ways that couples form and manage their intimate relationships at higher and lower levels of socioeconomic status (SES) have been diverging steadily over the past several decades. At higher SES levels, couples postpone marriage and childbirth to invest in education and careers, but they eventually marry at high rates and have relatively low risk for divorce. At lower SES levels, couples are more likely to cohabit and give birth prior to marriage and less likely to marry at all. Read More

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January 2021

Life Change, Social Identity, and Health.

Annu Rev Psychol 2021 01 4;72:635-661. Epub 2020 Sep 4.

School of Psychology, The University of Queensland, St. Lucia QLD 4072, Australia; email:

Life change affects health. Research aimed at understanding the consequences of life change has primarily focused on the important roles played by stress, social support, individual differences, and broader socioeconomic factors in shaping health outcomes, most notably mental health decline. In this review we extend these accounts by exploring social identity-based determinants of adjustment to life change. Read More

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January 2021

How Interdisciplinary? Taking Stock of Decision-Making Research at the Intersection of Psychology and Law.

Annu Rev Psychol 2020 01;71:541-561

Department of Psychology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA; email:

Contemporary inquiries in psychology and law increasingly cross disciplinary boundaries for inspiration. Our focus is on whether such research is substantive in both directions and whether interdisciplinary psychology-and-law author teams produce more meaningful interdisciplinary work, specifically in decision-making research conducted between 2004 and 2017. We found that interdisciplinary psychology-and-law author teams () produce publications that show more cross-disciplinary integration in methods than single-discipline teams, () produce publications with more conceptual integration in the introduction and discussion than only law author teams, and () elicit more citations than only law or only psychology author teams. Read More

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January 2020

Dopamine and Addiction.

Annu Rev Psychol 2020 01;71:79-106

Behavioral Genetics Laboratory, McLean Hospital, Belmont, Massachusetts 02478, USA; email:

Addiction is commonly identified with habitual nonmedical self-administration of drugs. It is usually defined by characteristics of intoxication or by characteristics of withdrawal symptoms. Such addictions can also be defined in terms of the brain mechanisms they activate; most addictive drugs cause elevations in extracellular levels of the neurotransmitter dopamine. Read More

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January 2020