524 results match your criteria Annual Review Of Plant Biology[Journal]

Reproduction Multitasking: The Male Gametophyte.

Annu Rev Plant Biol 2021 Jun 26;72:581-614. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Laboratory of Pollen Biology, Institute of Experimental Botany of the Czech Academy of Sciences, 165 02 Prague 6, Czech Republic; email:

The gametophyte represents the sexual phase in the alternation of generations in plants; the other, nonsexual phase is the sporophyte. Here, we review the evolutionary origins of the male gametophyte among land plants and, in particular, its ontogenesis in flowering plants. The highly reduced male gametophyte of angiosperm plants is a two- or three-celled pollen grain. Read More

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Evolutionary History of Plant Metabolism.

Annu Rev Plant Biol 2021 Jun 13;72:185-216. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Max-Planck-Institut für Molekulare Pflanzenphysiologie, 14476 Potsdam-Golm, Germany; email:

Tremendous chemical diversity is the hallmark of plants and is supported by highly complex biochemical machinery. Plant metabolic enzymes originated and were transferred from eukaryotic and prokaryotic ancestors and further diversified by the unprecedented rates of gene duplication and functionalization experienced in land plants. Unlike microbes, which have frequent horizontal gene transfer events and multiple inputs of energy and organic carbon, land plants predominantly rely on organic carbon generated from CO and have experienced very few, if any, gene transfers during their recent evolutionary history. Read More

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Plant Pan-Genomics Comes of Age.

Annu Rev Plant Biol 2021 Jun 13;72:411-435. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

DOE Joint Genome Institute, Berkeley, California 94720, USA; email:

A pan-genome is the nonredundant collection of genes and/or DNA sequences in a species. Numerous studies have shown that plant pan-genomes are typically much larger than the genome of any individual and that a sizable fraction of the genes in any individual are present in only some genomes. The construction and interpretation of plant pan-genomes are challenging due to the large size and repetitive content of plant genomes. Read More

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Engineering of Crassulacean Acid Metabolism.

Annu Rev Plant Biol 2021 Jun 13;72:77-103. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Computational Biology, Faculty of Biology, CeBiTec, Bielefeld University, 33615 Bielefeld, Germany; email:

Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) has evolved from a C ground state to increase water use efficiency of photosynthesis. During CAM evolution, selective pressures altered the abundance and expression patterns of C genes and their regulators to enable the trait. The circadian pattern of CO fixation and the stomatal opening pattern observed in CAM can be explained largely with a regulatory architecture already present in C plants. Read More

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Tuber and Tuberous Root Development.

Annu Rev Plant Biol 2021 Jun 31;72:551-580. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Division of Biochemistry, Department of Biology, Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg, 91058 Erlangen, Germany; email:

Root and tuber crops have been an important part of human nutrition since the early days of humanity, providing us with essential carbohydrates, proteins, and vitamins. Today, they are especially important in tropical and subtropical regions of the world, where they help to feed an ever-growing population. Early induction and storage organ size are important agricultural traits, as they determine yield over time. Read More

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Next-Generation Mass Spectrometry Metabolomics Revives the Functional Analysis of Plant Metabolic Diversity.

Annu Rev Plant Biol 2021 Jun 29;72:867-891. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Institut de Biologie Moléculaire des Plantes du CNRS, Université de Strasbourg, 67084 Strasbourg, France; email:

The remarkable diversity of specialized metabolites produced by plants has inspired several decades of research and nucleated a long list of theories to guide empirical ecological studies. However, analytical constraints and the lack of untargeted processing workflows have long precluded comprehensive metabolite profiling and, consequently, the collection of the critical currencies to test theory predictions for the ecological functions of plant metabolic diversity. Developments in mass spectrometry (MS) metabolomics have revolutionized the large-scale inventory and annotation of chemicals from biospecimens. Read More

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Salicylic Acid: Biosynthesis and Signaling.

Annu Rev Plant Biol 2021 Jun 23;72:761-791. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Botany, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z4, Canada; email:

Salicylic acid (SA) is an essential plant defense hormone that promotes immunity against biotrophic and semibiotrophic pathogens. It plays crucial roles in basal defense and the amplification of local immune responses, as well as the establishment of systemic acquired resistance. During the past three decades, immense progress has been made in understanding the biosynthesis, homeostasis, perception, and functions of SA. Read More

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Phytochrome Signaling Networks.

Annu Rev Plant Biol 2021 Jun 23;72:217-244. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Molecular Biosciences, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712, USA; email:

The perception of light signals by the phytochrome family of photoreceptors has a crucial influence on almost all aspects of growth and development throughout a plant's life cycle. The holistic regulatory networks orchestrated by phytochromes, including conformational switching, subcellular localization, direct protein-protein interactions, transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulations, and translational and posttranslational controls to promote photomorphogenesis, are highly coordinated and regulated at multiple levels. During the past decade, advances using innovative approaches have substantially broadened our understanding of the sophisticated mechanisms underlying the phytochrome-mediated light signaling pathways. Read More

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Long Noncoding RNAs in Plants.

Annu Rev Plant Biol 2021 Jun 22;72:245-271. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences, 02-106 Warsaw, Poland; email:

Plants have an extraordinary diversity of transcription machineries, including five nuclear DNA-dependent RNA polymerases. Four of these enzymes are dedicated to the production of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), which are ribonucleic acids with functions independent of their protein-coding potential. lncRNAs display a broad range of lengths and structures, but they are distinct from the small RNA guides of RNA interference (RNAi) pathways. Read More

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Advances and Opportunities in Single-Cell Transcriptomics for Plant Research.

Annu Rev Plant Biol 2021 Jun 17;72:847-866. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Department of Plant Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, Ghent University, 9052 Ghent, Belgium; email:

Single-cell approaches are quickly changing our view on biological systems by increasing the spatiotemporal resolution of our analyses to the level of the individual cell. The field of plant biology has fully embraced single-cell transcriptomics and is rapidly expanding the portfolio of available technologies and applications. In this review, we give an overview of the main advances in plant single-cell transcriptomics over the past few years and provide the reader with an accessible guideline covering all steps, from sample preparation to data analysis. Read More

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Regulation of the Plant Cell Cycle in Response to Hormones and the Environment.

Annu Rev Plant Biol 2021 Jun 9;72:273-296. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Graduate School of Science and Technology, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, Nara 630-0192, Japan; email:

Developmental and environmental signals converge on cell cycle machinery to achieve proper and flexible organogenesis under changing environments. Studies on the plant cell cycle began 30 years ago, and accumulated research has revealed many links between internal and external factors and the cell cycle. In this review, we focus on how phytohormones and environmental signals regulate the cell cycle to enable plants to cope with a fluctuating environment. Read More

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A Comparative Overview of the Intracellular Guardians of Plants and Animals: NLRs in Innate Immunity and Beyond.

Annu Rev Plant Biol 2021 Jun 9;72:155-184. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

The Sainsbury Laboratory, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7UH, United Kingdom.

Nucleotide-binding domain leucine-rich repeat receptors (NLRs) play important roles in the innate immune systems of both plants and animals. Recent breakthroughs in NLR biochemistry and biophysics have revolutionized our understanding of how NLR proteins function in plant immunity. In this review, we summarize the latest findings in plant NLR biology and draw direct comparisons to NLRs of animals. Read More

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Development and Molecular Genetics of .

Annu Rev Plant Biol 2021 Jun 8;72:677-702. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Graduate School of Biostudies, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502, Japan; email:

Bryophytes occupy a basal position in the monophyletic evolution of land plants and have a life cycle in which the gametophyte generation dominates over the sporophyte generation, offering a significant advantage in conducting genetics. Owing to its low genetic redundancy and the availability of an array of versatile molecular tools, including efficient genome editing, the liverwort has become a model organism of choice that provides clues to the mechanisms underlying eco-evo-devo biology in plants. Recent analyses of developmental mutants have revealed that key genes in developmental processes are functionally well conserved in plants, despite their morphological differences, and that lineage-specific evolution occurred by neo/subfunctionalization of common ancestral genes. Read More

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Patterns and Processes of Diploidization in Land Plants.

Annu Rev Plant Biol 2021 Jun 8;72:387-410. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721, USA; email:

Most land plants are now known to be ancient polyploids that have rediploidized. Diploidization involves many changes in genome organization that ultimately restore bivalent chromosome pairing and disomic inheritance, and resolve dosage and other issues caused by genome duplication. In this review, we discuss the nature of polyploidy and its impact on chromosome pairing behavior. Read More

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Biological Phase Separation and Biomolecular Condensates in Plants.

Annu Rev Plant Biol 2021 Jun 8;72:17-46. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Center for Science and Engineering of Living Systems, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri 63130, USA.

A surge in research focused on understanding the physical principles governing the formation, properties, and function of membraneless compartments has occurred over the past decade. Compartments such as the nucleolus, stress granules, and nuclear speckles have been designated as biomolecular condensates to describe their shared property of spatially concentrating biomolecules. Although this research has historically been carried out in animal and fungal systems, recent work has begun to explore whether these same principles are relevant in plants. Read More

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Time-Based Systems Biology Approaches to Capture and Model Dynamic Gene Regulatory Networks.

Annu Rev Plant Biol 2021 Jun 5;72:105-131. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Center for Genomics and Systems Biology, Department of Biology, New York University, New York, NY 10003, USA; email:

All aspects of transcription and its regulation involve dynamic events. However, capturing these dynamic events in gene regulatory networks (GRNs) offers both a promise and a challenge. The promise is that capturing and modeling the dynamic changes in GRNs will allow us to understand how organisms adapt to a changing environment. Read More

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Perception and Signaling of Ultraviolet-B Radiation in Plants.

Annu Rev Plant Biol 2021 Jun 26;72:793-822. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Department of Botany and Plant Biology, Section of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Geneva, 1211 Geneva, Switzerland; email:

Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation is an intrinsic fraction of sunlight that plants perceive through the UVR8 photoreceptor. UVR8 is a homodimer in its ground state that monomerizes upon UV-B photon absorption via distinct tryptophan residues. Monomeric UVR8 competitively binds to the substrate binding site of COP1, thus inhibiting its E3 ubiquitin ligase activity against target proteins, which include transcriptional regulators such as HY5. Read More

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Comparative Embryogenesis in Angiosperms: Activation and Patterning of Embryonic Cell Lineages.

Annu Rev Plant Biol 2021 Jun 19;72:641-676. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Department of Cell Biology, Max Planck Institute for Developmental Biology, D-72076 Tübingen, Germany.

Following fertilization in flowering plants (angiosperms), egg and sperm cells unite to form the zygote, which generates an entire new organism through a process called embryogenesis. In this review, we provide a comparative perspective on early zygotic embryogenesis in flowering plants by using the Poaceae maize and rice as monocot grass and crop models as well as as a eudicot model of the Brassicaceae family. Beginning with the activation of the egg cell, we summarize and discuss the process of maternal-to-zygotic transition in plants, also taking recent work on parthenogenesis and haploid induction into consideration. Read More

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Adaptable and Multifunctional Ion-Conducting Aquaporins.

Annu Rev Plant Biol 2021 Jun 12;72:703-736. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

ARC Centre of Excellence for Translational Photosynthesis, Division of Plant Sciences, Research School of Biology, Australian National University, Acton, Australian Capital Territory 0200, Australia; email:

Aquaporins function as water and neutral solute channels, signaling hubs, disease virulence factors, and metabolon components. We consider plant aquaporins that transport ions compared to some animal counterparts. These are candidates for important, as yet unidentified, cation and anion channels in plasma, tonoplast, and symbiotic membranes. Read More

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Natural Variation in Crops: Realized Understanding, Continuing Promise.

Annu Rev Plant Biol 2021 Jun 22;72:357-385. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

State Key Laboratory of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, National Maize Improvement Center, Key Laboratory of Biology and Genetic Improvement of Maize (MOA), Beijing Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China; email:

Crops feed the world's population and shape human civilization. The improvement of crop productivity has been ongoing for almost 10,000 years and has evolved from an experience-based to a knowledge-driven practice over the past three decades. Natural alleles and their reshuffling are long-standing genetic changes that affect how crops respond to various environmental conditions and agricultural practices. Read More

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On the Origin of Carnivory: Molecular Physiology and Evolution of Plants on an Animal Diet.

Annu Rev Plant Biol 2021 Jun 12;72:133-153. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

Institute for Molecular Plant Physiology and Biophysics, University of Würzburg, 97082 Würzburg, Germany; email:

Charles Darwin recognized that carnivorous plants thrive in nutrient-poor soil by capturing animals. Although the concept of botanical carnivory has been known for nearly 150 years, its molecular mechanisms and evolutionary origins have not been well understood until recently. In the last decade, technical advances have fueled the genome and transcriptome sequencings of active and passive hunters, leading to a better understanding of the traits associated with the carnivorous syndrome, from trap leaf development and prey digestion to nutrient absorption, exemplified, for example, by the Venus flytrap (), pitcher plant (), and bladderwort (). Read More

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Recent Advances and Future Perspectives in Cotton Research.

Annu Rev Plant Biol 2021 Jun 11;72:437-462. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Institute for Advanced Studies, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China; email:

Cotton is not only the world's most important natural fiber crop, but it is also an ideal system in which to study genome evolution, polyploidization, and cell elongation. With the assembly of five different cotton genomes, a cotton-specific whole-genome duplication with an allopolyploidization process that combined the A- and D-genomes became evident. All existing A-genomes seemed to originate from the A-genome as a common ancestor, and several transposable element bursts contributed to A-genome size expansion and speciation. Read More

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Recent Advances in the Physiology of Ion Channels in Plants.

Omar Pantoja

Annu Rev Plant Biol 2021 Jun 11;72:463-495. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Instituto de Biotecnología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Cuernavaca 62210, México; email:

Our knowledge of plant ion channels was significantly enhanced by the first application of the patch-clamp technique to isolated guard cell protoplasts over 35 years ago. Since then, research has demonstrated the importance of ion channels in the control of gas exchange in guard cells, their role in nutrient uptake in roots, and the participation of calcium-permeable cation channels in the regulation of cell signaling affected by the intracellular concentrations of this second messenger. In recent years, through the employment of reverse genetics, mutant proteins, and heterologous expression systems, research on ion channels has identified mechanisms that modify their activity through protein-protein interactions or that result in activation and/or deactivation of ion channels through posttranslational modifications. Read More

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The Role of Trehalose 6-Phosphate (Tre6P) in Plant Metabolism and Development.

Annu Rev Plant Biol 2021 Jun 11;72:737-760. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Max Planck Institute of Molecular Plant Physiology, 14476 Potsdam-Golm, Germany; email:

Trehalose 6-phosphate (Tre6P) has a dual function as a signal and homeostatic regulator of sucrose levels in plants. In source leaves, Tre6P regulates the production of sucrose to balance supply with demand for sucrose from growing sink organs. As a signal of sucrose availability, Tre6P influences developmental decisions that will affect future demand for sucrose, such as flowering, embryogenesis, and shoot branching, and links the growth of sink organs to sucrose supply. Read More

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Redox Homeostasis and Signaling in a Higher-CO World.

Annu Rev Plant Biol 2020 04;71:157-182

Université Paris-Saclay, CNRS, INRAE, Université d'Evry, Institute of Plant Sciences Paris-Saclay (IPS2), 91405 Orsay, France; email:

Rising CO concentrations and their effects on plant productivity present challenging issues. Effects on the photosynthesis/photorespiration balance and changes in primary metabolism are known, caused by the competitive interaction of CO and O at the active site of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase. However, impacts on stress resistance are less clear. Read More

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Functions of Anionic Lipids in Plants.

Annu Rev Plant Biol 2020 04;71:71-102

Laboratoire Reproduction et Développement des Plantes, Université de Lyon, École Normale Supérieure (ENS) de Lyon, L'Université Claude Bernard (UCB) Lyon 1, CNRS, INRAE, 69342 Lyon, France; email:

Anionic phospholipids, which include phosphatidic acid, phosphatidylserine, and phosphoinositides, represent a small percentage of membrane lipids. They are able to modulate the physical properties of membranes, such as their surface charges, curvature, or clustering of proteins. Moreover, by mediating interactions with numerous membrane-associated proteins, they are key components in the establishment of organelle identity and dynamics. Read More

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The Small GTPase Superfamily in Plants: A Conserved Regulatory Module with Novel Functions.

Erik Nielsen

Annu Rev Plant Biol 2020 04;71:247-272

Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA; email:

Small GTP-binding proteins represent a highly conserved signaling module in eukaryotes that regulates diverse cellular processes such as signal transduction, cytoskeletal organization and cell polarity, cell proliferation and differentiation, intracellular membrane trafficking and transport vesicle formation, and nucleocytoplasmic transport. These proteins function as molecular switches that cycle between active and inactive states, and this cycle is linked to GTP binding and hydrolysis. In this review, the roles of the plant complement of small GTP-binding proteins in these cellular processes are described, as well as accessory proteins that control their activity, and current understanding of the functions of individual members of these families in plants-with a focus on the model organism -is presented. Read More

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Reproductive Multitasking: The Female Gametophyte.

Annu Rev Plant Biol 2020 04;71:517-546

Centre for Biomolecular Interactions, University of Bremen, 28359 Bremen, Germany; email:

Fertilization of flowering plants requires the organization of complex tasks, many of which become integrated by the female gametophyte (FG). The FG is a few-celled haploid structure that orchestrates division of labor to coordinate successful interaction with the sperm cells and their transport vehicle, the pollen tube. As reproductive outcome is directly coupled to evolutionary success, the underlying mechanisms are under robust molecular control, including integrity check and repair mechanisms. Read More

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Developmental Mechanisms of Fleshy Fruit Diversity in Rosaceae.

Annu Rev Plant Biol 2020 04;71:547-573

Department of Cell Biology and Molecular Genetics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, USA; email:

Rosaceae (the rose family) is an economically important family that includes species prized for high-value fruits and ornamentals. The family also exhibits diverse fruit types, including drupe (peach), pome (apple), drupetum (raspberry), and achenetum (strawberry). Phylogenetic analysis and ancestral fruit-type reconstruction suggest independent evolutionary paths of multiple fleshy fruit types from dry fruits. Read More

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A Bridge to the World.

Zhi-Hong Xu

Annu Rev Plant Biol 2020 04 20;71:1-38. Epub 2020 Mar 20.

School of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China; email:

Zhi-Hong Xu is a plant physiologist who studied botany at Peking University (1959-1965). He joined the Shanghai Institute of Plant Physiology (SIPP), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), as a graduate student in 1965. He recalls what has happened for the institute, during the Cultural Revolution, and he witnessed the spring of science eventually coming to China. Read More

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