559 results match your criteria Annual Review Of Plant Biology[Journal]

Improving Crop Nitrogen Use Efficiency Toward Sustainable Green Revolution.

Annu Rev Plant Biol 2022 05;73:523-551

State Key Laboratory of Plant Cell and Chromosome Engineering, Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Innovation Academy for Seed Design, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; email:

The Green Revolution of the 1960s improved crop yields in part through the widespread cultivation of semidwarf plant varieties, which resist lodging but require a high-nitrogen (N) fertilizer input. Because environmentally degrading synthetic fertilizer use underlies current worldwide cereal yields, future agricultural sustainability demands enhanced N use efficiency (NUE). Here, we summarize the current understanding of how plants sense, uptake, and respond to N availability in the model plants that can be used to improve sustainable productivity in agriculture. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Spindle Assembly and Mitosis in Plants.

Annu Rev Plant Biol 2022 05;73:227-254

Department of Plant Biology, University of California, Davis, California, USA; email:

In contrast to well-studied fungal and animal cells, plant cells assemble bipolar spindles that exhibit a great deal of plasticity in the absence of structurally defined microtubule-organizing centers like the centrosome. While plants employ some evolutionarily conserved proteins to regulate spindle morphogenesis and remodeling, many essential spindle assembly factors found in vertebrates are either missing or not required for producing the plant bipolar microtubule array. Plants also produce proteins distantly related to their fungal and animal counterparts to regulate critical events such as the spindle assembly checkpoint. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Into the Shadows and Back into Sunlight: Photosynthesis in Fluctuating Light.

Annu Rev Plant Biol 2022 05;73:617-648

Carl R. Woese Institute for Genomic Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois, USA; email:

Photosynthesis is an important remaining opportunity for further improvement in the genetic yield potential of our major crops. Measurement, analysis, and improvement of leaf CO assimilation () have focused largely on photosynthetic rates under light-saturated steady-state conditions. However, in modern crop canopies of several leaf layers, light is rarely constant, and the majority of leaves experience marked light fluctuations throughout the day. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Parasitic Plants: An Overview of Mechanisms by Which Plants Perceive and Respond to Parasites.

Annu Rev Plant Biol 2022 05 1;73:433-455. Epub 2022 Apr 1.

Department of Plant Biology, University of California, Davis, California, USA; email:

In contrast to most autotrophic plants, which produce carbohydrates from carbon dioxide using photosynthesis, parasitic plants obtain water and nutrients by parasitizing host plants. Many important crop plants are infested by these heterotrophic plants, leading to severe agricultural loss and reduced food security. Understanding how host plants perceive and resist parasitic plants provides insight into underlying defense mechanisms and the potential for agricultural applications. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The Land-Sea Connection: Insights Into the Plant Lineage from a Green Algal Perspective.

Annu Rev Plant Biol 2022 05 8;73:585-616. Epub 2022 Mar 8.

Ocean EcoSystems Biology Unit, GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel, Kiel, Germany.

The colonization of land by plants generated opportunities for the rise of new heterotrophic life forms, including humankind. A unique event underpinned this massive change to earth ecosystems-the advent of eukaryotic green algae. Today, an abundant marine green algal group, the prasinophytes, alongside prasinodermophytes and nonmarine chlorophyte algae, is facilitating insights into plant developments. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Climate Change Risks to Global Forest Health: Emergence of Unexpected Events of Elevated Tree Mortality Worldwide.

Annu Rev Plant Biol 2022 05 1;73:673-702. Epub 2022 Mar 1.

Department of Geography and Environmental Studies, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA.

Recent observations of elevated tree mortality following climate extremes, like heat and drought, raise concerns about climate change risks to global forest health. We currently lack both sufficient data and understanding to identify whether these observations represent a global trend toward increasing tree mortality. Here, we document events of sudden and unexpected elevated tree mortality following heat and drought events in ecosystems that previously were considered tolerant or not at risk of exposure. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Meeting in the Middle: Lessons and Opportunities from Studying C-C Intermediates.

Annu Rev Plant Biol 2022 05 1;73:43-65. Epub 2022 Mar 1.

Department of Crop Sciences, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois, USA; email:

The discovery of C-C intermediate species nearly 50 years ago opened up a new avenue for studying the evolution of photosynthetic pathways. Intermediate species exhibit anatomical, biochemical, and physiological traits that range from C to C. A key feature of C-C intermediates that utilize C photosynthesis is the improvement in photosynthetic efficiency compared with C species. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

H-ATPases in Plant Growth and Stress Responses.

Annu Rev Plant Biol 2022 05 1;73:495-521. Epub 2022 Mar 1.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Crop Genomics and Molecular Breeding, Key Laboratory of Plant Functional Genomics of the Ministry of Education, Jiangsu Co-Innovation Center for Modern Production Technology of Grain Crops, College of Agriculture, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, China.

H-ATPases, including the phosphorylated intermediate-type (P-type) and vacuolar-type (V-type) H-ATPases, are important ATP-driven proton pumps that generate membrane potential and provide proton motive force for secondary active transport. P- and V-type H-ATPases have distinct structures and subcellular localizations and play various roles in growth and stress responses. A P-type H-ATPase is mainly regulated at the posttranslational level by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of residues in its autoinhibitory C terminus. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Evolution and Functions of Plant U-Box Proteins: From Protein Quality Control to Signaling.

Annu Rev Plant Biol 2022 05 28;73:93-121. Epub 2022 Feb 28.

Institute of Biology II, Faculty of Biology, Albert-Ludwigs-University Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany; email:

Posttranslational modifications add complexity and diversity to cellular proteomes. One of the most prevalent modifications across eukaryotes is ubiquitination, which is orchestrated by E3 ubiquitin ligases. U-box-containing E3 ligases have massively expanded in the plant kingdom and have diversified into plant U-box proteins (PUBs). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Cereal Endosperms: Development and Storage Product Accumulation.

Annu Rev Plant Biol 2022 05 28;73:255-291. Epub 2022 Feb 28.

Key Laboratory of Plant Molecular Physiology, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; email:

The persistent triploid endosperms of cereal crops are the most important source of human food and animal feed. The development of cereal endosperms progresses through coenocytic nuclear division, cellularization, aleurone and starchy endosperm differentiation, and storage product accumulation. In the past few decades, the cell biological processes involved in endosperm formation in most cereals have been described. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The Costs and Benefits of Plant-Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Interactions.

Annu Rev Plant Biol 2022 05 25;73:649-672. Epub 2022 Feb 25.

Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology, Jena, Germany; email:

The symbiotic interaction between plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi is often perceived as beneficial for both partners, though a large ecological literature highlights the context dependency of this interaction. Changes in abiotic variables, such as nutrient availability, can drive the interaction along the mutualism-parasitism continuum with variable outcomes for plant growth and fitness. However, AM fungi can benefit plants in more ways than improved phosphorus nutrition and plant growth. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Phloem Loading and Unloading of Sucrose: What a Long, Strange Trip from Source to Sink.

David M Braun

Annu Rev Plant Biol 2022 05 16;73:553-584. Epub 2022 Feb 16.

Division of Plant Science and Technology, Division of Biological Sciences, Interdisciplinary Plant Group, and Missouri Maize Center, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, Missouri, USA; email:

Sucrose is transported from sources (mature leaves) to sinks (importing tissues such as roots, stems, fruits, and seeds) through the phloem tissues in veins. In many herbaceous crop species, sucrose must first be effluxed to the cell wall by a sugar transporter of the SWEET family prior to being taken up into phloem companion cells or sieve elements by a different sugar transporter, called SUT or SUC. The import of sucrose into these cells is termed apoplasmic phloem loading. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Histone Variants in the Specialization of Plant Chromatin.

Annu Rev Plant Biol 2022 05 15;73:149-172. Epub 2022 Feb 15.

Department of Biology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA; email:

The basic unit of chromatin, the nucleosome, is an octamer of four core histone proteins (H2A, H2B, H3, and H4) and serves as a fundamental regulatory unit in all DNA-templated processes. The majority of nucleosome assembly occurs during DNA replication when these core histones are produced en masse to accommodate the nascent genome. In addition, there are a number of nonallelic sequence variants of H2A and H3 in particular, known as histone variants, that can be incorporated into nucleosomes in a targeted and replication-independent manner. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Cell Wall Signaling in Plant Development and Defense.

Sebastian Wolf

Annu Rev Plant Biol 2022 05 15;73:323-353. Epub 2022 Feb 15.

Department of Plant Biochemistry, Center for Plant Molecular Biology (ZMBP), Eberhard-Karls University, Tübingen, Germany; email:

Plant architecture fundamentally differs from that of other multicellular organisms in that individual cells serve as osmotic bricks, defined by the equilibrium between the internal turgor pressure and the mechanical resistance of the surrounding cell wall, which constitutes the interface between plant cells and their environment. The state and integrity of the cell wall are constantly monitored by cell wall surveillance pathways, which relay information to the cell interior. A recent surge of discoveries has led to significant advances in both mechanistic and conceptual insights into a multitude of cell wall response pathways that play diverse roles in the development, defense, stress response, and maintenance of structural integrity of the cell. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Engineering Apomixis: Clonal Seeds Approaching the Fields.

Annu Rev Plant Biol 2022 05 9;73:201-225. Epub 2022 Feb 9.

Department of Chromosome Biology, Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research, Cologne, Germany; email:

Apomixis is a form of reproduction leading to clonal seeds and offspring that are genetically identical to the maternal plant. While apomixis naturally occurs in hundreds of plant species distributed across diverse plant families, it is absent in major crop species. Apomixis has a revolutionary potential in plant breeding, as it could allow the instant fixation and propagation though seeds of any plant genotype, most notably F hybrids. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Plant Proteome Dynamics.

Annu Rev Plant Biol 2022 05 9;73:67-92. Epub 2022 Feb 9.

Chair of Proteomics and Bioanalytics, Technical University of Munich, Freising, Germany; email:

Proteins are intimately involved in executing and controlling virtually all cellular processes. To understand the molecular mechanisms that underlie plant phenotypes, it is essential to investigate protein expression, interactions, and modifications, to name a few. The proteome is highly dynamic in time and space, and a plethora of protein modifications, protein interactions, and network constellations are at play under specific conditions and developmental stages. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Parental and Environmental Control of Seed Dormancy in .

Annu Rev Plant Biol 2022 05 9;73:355-378. Epub 2022 Feb 9.

Department of Botany and Plant Biology, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland; email:

Seed dormancy-the absence of seed germination under favorable germination conditions-is a plant trait that evolved to enhance seedling survival by avoiding germination under unsuitable environmental conditions. In , dormancy levels are influenced by the seed coat composition, while the endosperm is essential to repress seed germination of dormant seeds upon their imbibition. Recent research has shown that the mother plant modulates its progeny seed dormancy in response to seasonal temperature changes by changing specific aspects of seed coat and endosperm development. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

VIGS Goes Viral: How VIGS Transforms Our Understanding of Plant Science.

Annu Rev Plant Biol 2022 05 9;73:703-728. Epub 2022 Feb 9.

Institute of Botany, Justus-Liebig University Gießen, Gießen, Germany; email:

Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) has developed into an indispensable approach to gene function analysis in a wide array of species, many of which are not amenable to stable genetic transformation. VIGS utilizes the posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS) machinery of plants to restrain viral infections systemically and is used to downregulate the plant's endogenous genes. Here, we review the molecular mechanisms of DNA- and RNA-virus-based VIGS, its inherent connection to PTGS, and what is known about the systemic spread of silencing. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Plant GATA Factors: Their Biology, Phylogeny, and Phylogenomics.

Annu Rev Plant Biol 2022 05 7;73:123-148. Epub 2022 Feb 7.

Biology Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York, USA; email:

GATA factors are evolutionarily conserved transcription factors that are found in animals, fungi, and plants. Compared to that of animals, the size of the plant GATA family is increased. In angiosperms, four main GATA classes and seven structural subfamilies can be defined. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Spatial Features and Functional Implications of Plant 3D Genome Organization.

Annu Rev Plant Biol 2022 05 7;73:173-200. Epub 2022 Feb 7.

Institute of Biology, University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart, Germany; email:

The advent of high-throughput sequencing-based methods for chromatin conformation, accessibility, and immunoprecipitation assays has been a turning point in 3D genomics. Altogether, these new tools have been pushing upward the interpretation of pioneer cytogenetic evidence for a higher order in chromatin packing. Here, we review the latest development in our understanding of plant spatial genome structures and different levels of organization and discuss their functional implications. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Adventures in Life and Science, from Light to Rhythms.

Elaine Tobin

Annu Rev Plant Biol 2022 05 7;73:1-16. Epub 2022 Feb 7.

Department of Molecular, Cell and Developmental Biology, University of California, Los Angeles, California, USA; email:

The author describes her life's pathway from her beginnings at a time when women were not well represented in the sciences. Her grandparents were immigrants to the United States. Although her parents were not able to go to college because of the Great Depression, they supported her education and other adventures. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Embryo-Endosperm Interactions.

Annu Rev Plant Biol 2022 05 7;73:293-321. Epub 2022 Feb 7.

Laboratoire Reproduction et Développement des Plantes, ENS de Lyon, CNRS, INRAE, Université de Lyon 1, Lyon, France; email:

In angiosperms, double fertilization triggers the concomitant development of two closely juxtaposed tissues, the embryo and the endosperm. Successful seed development and germination require constant interactions between these tissues, which occur across their common interface. The embryo-endosperm interface is a complex and poorly understood compound apoplast comprising components derived from both tissues, across which nutrients transit to fuel embryo development. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Mountain Pine Beetle Epidemic: An Interplay of Terpenoids in Host Defense and Insect Pheromones.

Annu Rev Plant Biol 2022 05 7;73:475-494. Epub 2022 Feb 7.

Michael Smith Laboratories, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada; email:

The mountain pine beetle epidemic has highlighted the complex interactions of bark beetles with conifer host defenses. In these interactions, oleoresin terpenoids and volatiles, produced and released by the host tree, can be both harmful and beneficial to the beetle's success in colonizing a tree and completing its life cycle. The insect spends almost its entire life, from egg to adult, within the bark and phloem of a pine host, exposed to large quantities of complex mixtures of oleoresin terpenoids. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The Making of Plant Armor: The Periderm.

Annu Rev Plant Biol 2022 05 5;73:405-432. Epub 2022 Jan 5.

Center for Plant Molecular Biology (ZMBP), University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany; email:

The periderm acts as armor protecting the plant's inner tissues from biotic and abiotic stress. It forms during the radial thickening of plant organs such as stems and roots and replaces the function of primary protective tissues such as the epidermis and the endodermis. A wound periderm also forms to heal and protect injured tissues. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Phosphorus Acquisition and Utilization in Plants.

Hans Lambers

Annu Rev Plant Biol 2022 05 15;73:17-42. Epub 2021 Dec 15.

School of Biological Sciences and Institute of Agriculture, University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia, Australia; email:

Tremendous progress has been made on molecular aspects of plant phosphorus (P) nutrition, often without heeding information provided by soil scientists, ecophysiologists, and crop physiologists. This review suggests ways to integrate information from different disciplines. When soil P availability is very low, P-mobilizing strategies are more effective than mycorrhizal strategies. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

When SWEETs Turn Tweens: Updates and Perspectives.

Annu Rev Plant Biol 2022 05 15;73:379-403. Epub 2021 Dec 15.

Department of Plant Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois, USA; email:

Sugar translocation between cells and between subcellular compartments in plants requires either plasmodesmata or a diverse array of sugar transporters. Interactions between plants and associated microorganisms also depend on sugar transporters. The sugars will eventually be exported transporter (SWEET) family is made up of conserved and essential transporters involved in many critical biological processes. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Long-Distance Transported RNAs: From Identity to Function.

Annu Rev Plant Biol 2022 05 15;73:457-474. Epub 2021 Dec 15.

Department II, Max Planck Institute of Molecular Plant Physiology, Potsdam-Golm, Germany; email:

There is now a wealth of data, from different plants and labs and spanning more than two decades, which unequivocally demonstrates that RNAs can be transported over long distances, from the cell where they are transcribed to distal cells in other tissues. Different types of RNA molecules are transported, including micro- and messenger RNAs. Whether these RNAs are selected for transport and, if so, how they are selected and transported remain, in general, open questions. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Pollen-Pistil Interactions as Reproductive Barriers.

Annu Rev Plant Biol 2021 06;72:615-639

Department of Biology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523-1878, USA; email:

Pollen-pistil interactions serve as important prezygotic reproductive barriers that play a critical role in mate selection in plants. Here, we highlight recent progress toward understanding the molecular basis of pollen-pistil interactions as reproductive isolating barriers. These barriers can be active systems of pollen rejection, or they can result from a mismatch of required male and female factors. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Solving the Puzzle of Shape Regulation in Plant Epidermal Pavement Cells.

Annu Rev Plant Biol 2021 06;72:525-550

Umeå Plant Science Centre, Department of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, 90183 Umeå, Sweden; email:

The plant epidermis serves many essential functions, including interactions with the environment, protection, mechanical strength, and regulation of tissue and organ growth. To achieve these functions, specialized epidermal cells develop into particular shapes. These include the intriguing interdigitated jigsaw puzzle shape of cotyledon and leaf pavement cells seen in many species, the precise functions of which remain rather obscure. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Message in a Bubble: Shuttling Small RNAs and Proteins Between Cells and Interacting Organisms Using Extracellular Vesicles.

Annu Rev Plant Biol 2021 06;72:497-524

Department of Microbiology and Plant Pathology and Center for Plant Cell Biology, Institute for Integrative Genome Biology, University of California, Riverside, California 92507, USA; email:

Communication between plant cells and interacting microorganisms requires the secretion and uptake of functional molecules to and from the extracellular environment and is essential for the survival of both plants and their pathogens. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are lipid bilayer-enclosed spheres that deliver RNA, protein, and metabolite cargos from donor to recipient cells and participate in many cellular processes. Emerging evidencehas shown that both plant and microbial EVs play important roles in cross-kingdom molecular exchange between hosts and interacting microbes to modulate host immunity and pathogen virulence. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF