700 results match your criteria Annual Review Of Phytopathology[Journal]


Climate Change Effects on Pathogen Emergence: Artificial Intelligence to Translate Big Data for Mitigation.

Annu Rev Phytopathol 2022 Jun 1. Epub 2022 Jun 1.

The Alliance of Bioversity International and the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT), Cali, Colombia.

Plant pathology has developed a wide range of concepts and tools for improving plant disease management, including models for understanding and responding to new risks from climate change. Most of these tools can be improved using new advances in artificial intelligence (AI), such as machine learning to integrate massive data sets in predictive models. There is the potential to develop automated analyses of risk that alert decision-makers, from farm managers to national plant protection organizations, to the likely need for action and provide decision support for targeting responses. Read More

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Mycovirus Diversity and Evolution Revealed/Inferred from Recent Studies.

Annu Rev Phytopathol 2022 May 24. Epub 2022 May 24.

Institute of Plant Science and Resources, Okayama University, Kurashiki, Japan; email:

High-throughput virome analyses with various fungi, from cultured or uncultured sources, have led to the discovery of diverse viruses with unique genome structures and even neo-lifestyles. Examples in the former category include splipalmiviruses and ambiviruses. Splipalmiviruses, related to yeast narnaviruses, have multiple positive-sense (+) single-stranded (ss) RNA genomic segments that separately encode the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase motifs, the hallmark of RNA viruses (members of the kingdom ). Read More

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Exploring Soybean Resistance to Soybean Cyst Nematode.

Authors:
Andrew Bent

Annu Rev Phytopathol 2022 May 19. Epub 2022 May 19.

Department of Plant Pathology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, USA; email:

Resistance to the soybean cyst nematode (SCN) is a topic incorporating multiple mechanisms and multiple types of science. It is also a topic of substantial agricultural importance, as SCN is estimated to cause more yield damage than any other pathogen of soybean, one of the world's main food crops. Both soybean and SCN have experienced jumps in experimental tractability in the past decade, and significant advances have been made. Read More

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Facilitating Reforestation Through the Plant Microbiome: Perspectives from the Phyllosphere.

Annu Rev Phytopathol 2022 May 18. Epub 2022 May 18.

Department of Environmental Systems Science, Institute of Integrative Biology, ETH Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland.

Tree planting and natural regeneration contribute to the ongoing effort to restore Earth's forests. Our review addresses how the plant microbiome can enhance the survival of planted and naturally regenerating seedlings and serve in long-term forest carbon capture and the conservation of biodiversity. We focus on fungal leaf endophytes, ubiquitous defensive symbionts that protect against pathogens. Read More

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Molecular Interactions Between and Species.

Annu Rev Phytopathol 2022 May 16. Epub 2022 May 16.

Saskatoon Research and Development Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada; email:

Canola is an important oilseed crop, providing food, feed, and fuel around the world. However, blackleg disease, caused by the ascomycete , causes significant yield losses annually. With the recent advances in genomic technologies, the understanding of the interaction has rapidly increased, with numerous and genes cloned, setting this system up as a model organism for studying plant-pathogen associations. Read More

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Diversity, Evolution, and Function of Effectoromes.

Annu Rev Phytopathol 2022 May 10. Epub 2022 May 10.

Department of Cell & Systems Biology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; email:

is an evolutionarily diverse bacterial species complex and a preeminent model for the study of plant-pathogen interactions due in part to its remarkably broad host range. A critical feature of virulence is the employment of suites of type III secreted effector (T3SE) proteins, which vary widely in composition and function. These effectors act on a variety of plant intracellular targets to promote pathogenesis but can also be avirulence factors when detected by host immune complexes. Read More

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Exploring the Emergence and Evolution of Plant Pathogenic Microbes Using Historical and Paleontological Sources.

Annu Rev Phytopathol 2022 Apr 28. Epub 2022 Apr 28.

Plant Health Institute of Montpellier, CIRAD, Montpellier, France; email:

Biotechnological advances now permit broad exploration of past microbial communities preserved in diverse substrates. Despite biomolecular degradation, high-throughput sequencing of preserved materials can yield invaluable genomic and metagenomic data from the past. This line of research has expanded from its initial human- and animal-centric foci to include plant-associated microbes (viruses, archaea, bacteria, fungi, and oomycetes), for which historical, archaeological, and paleontological data illuminate past epidemics and evolutionary history. Read More

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Pathogen Adaptation to the Xylem Environment.

Annu Rev Phytopathol 2022 Apr 26. Epub 2022 Apr 26.

Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama, USA; email:

A group of aggressive pathogens have evolved to colonize the plant xylem. In this vascular tissue, where water and nutrients are transported from the roots to the rest of the plant, pathogens must be able to thrive under acropetal xylem sap flow and scarcity of nutrients while having direct contact only with predominantly dead cells. Nevertheless, a few bacteria have adapted to exclusively live in the xylem, and various pathogens may colonize other plant niches without causing symptoms unless they reach the xylem. Read More

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Recognition and Response in Plant-Nematode Interactions.

Annu Rev Phytopathol 2022 Apr 18. Epub 2022 Apr 18.

Department of Plant Pathology, University of California, Davis, California, USA.

Plant-parasitic nematodes spend much of their lives inside or in contact with host tissue and molecular interactions constantly occur and shape the outcome of parasitism. Eggs of these parasites generally hatch in the soil, and the juveniles must locate and infect an appropriate host before their stored energy is exhausted. Components of host exudate are evaluated by the nematode and direct its migration to its infection site. Read More

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Yellow Dwarf Viruses of Cereals: Taxonomy and Molecular Mechanisms.

Annu Rev Phytopathol 2022 Apr 18. Epub 2022 Apr 18.

Department of Plant Pathology and Microbiology, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, USA; email:

Yellow dwarf viruses are the most economically important and widespread viruses of cereal crops. Although they share common biological properties such as phloem limitation and obligate aphid transmission, the replication machinery and associated -acting signals of these viruses fall into two unrelated taxa represented by and . Here, we explain the reclassification of these viruses based on their very different genomes. Read More

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Peptide Effectors in Phytonematode Parasitism and Beyond.

Annu Rev Phytopathol 2022 Apr 6. Epub 2022 Apr 6.

Department of Plant Pathology and Institute of Plant Breeding, Genetics, and Genomics, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, USA; email:

Peptide signaling is an emerging paradigm in molecular plant-microbe interactions with vast implications for our understanding of plant-nematode interactions and beyond. Plant-like peptide hormones, first discovered in cyst nematodes, are now recognized as an important class of peptide effectors mediating several different types of pathogenic and symbiotic interactions. Here, we summarize what has been learned about nematode-secreted CLAVATA3/EMBRYO SURROUNDING REGION-RELATED (CLE) peptide effectors since the last comprehensive review on this topic a decade ago. Read More

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The Phloem as an Arena for Plant Pathogens.

Annu Rev Phytopathol 2022 Apr 6. Epub 2022 Apr 6.

Plant Biology Section, School of Integrative Plant Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, USA; email:

Although the phloem is a highly specialized tissue, certain pathogens, including phytoplasmas, spiroplasmas, and viruses, have evolved to access and live in this sequestered and protected environment, causing substantial economic harm. In particular, Liberibacter spp. are devastating citrus in many parts of the world. Read More

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Rooting Out the Mechanisms of Root-Knot Nematode-Plant Interactions.

Annu Rev Phytopathol 2022 Feb 22. Epub 2022 Feb 22.

Department of Plant Pathology, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington, USA; email:

Root-knot nematodes (RKNs; spp.) engage in complex parasitic interactions with many different host plants around the world, initiating elaborate feeding sites and disrupting host root architecture. Although RKNs have been the focus of research for many decades, new molecular tools have provided useful insights into the biological mechanisms these pests use to infect and manipulate their hosts. Read More

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February 2022

Going Viral: Virus-Based Biological Control Agents for Plant Protection.

Annu Rev Phytopathol 2022 Feb 17. Epub 2022 Feb 17.

Istituto per la Protezione Sostenibile delle Piante, CNR, Torino, Italy; email:

The most economically important biotic stresses in crop production are caused by fungi, oomycetes, insects, viruses, and bacteria. Often chemical control is still the most commonly used method to manage them. However, the development of resistance in the different pathogens/pests, the putative damage on the natural ecosystem, and the toxic residues in the field and thus contamination of the environment have stimulated the search for safer alternatives such as the use of biological control agents (BCAs). Read More

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February 2022

Everything Is Faster: How Do Land-Grant University-Based Plant Diagnostic Laboratories Keep Up with a Rapidly Changing World?

Annu Rev Phytopathol 2021 08;59:333-349

Department of Plant Pathology, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011; email:

Plant diagnostic laboratories (PDLs) are at the heart of land-grant universities (LGUs) and their extension mission to connect citizens with research-based information. Although research and technological advances have led to many modern methods and technologies in plant pathology diagnostics, the pace of adopting those methods into services at PDLs has many complexities we aim to explore in this review. We seek to identify current challenges in plant disease diagnostics, as well as diagnosticians' and administrators'perceptions of PDLs' many roles. Read More

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An Emerging Role for Chloroplasts in Disease and Defense.

Annu Rev Phytopathol 2021 08;59:423-445

School of Life Sciences, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL, UK; email:

Chloroplasts are key players in plant immune signaling, contributing to not only de novo synthesis of defensive phytohormones but also the generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species following activation of pattern recognition receptors or resistance (R) proteins. The local hypersensitive response (HR) elicited by R proteins is underpinned by chloroplast-generated reactive oxygen species. HR-induced lipid peroxidation generates important chloroplast-derived signaling lipids essential to the establishment of systemic immunity. Read More

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Small RNAs in Plant Immunity and Virulence of Filamentous Pathogens.

Annu Rev Phytopathol 2021 08 2;59:265-288. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Department of Microbiology and Plant Pathology, University of California, Riverside, California 92521, USA.

Gene silencing guided by small RNAs governs a broad range of cellular processes in eukaryotes. Small RNAs are important components of plant immunity because they contribute to pathogen-triggered transcription reprogramming and directly target pathogen RNAs. Recent research suggests that silencing of pathogen genes by plant small RNAs occurs not only during viral infection but also in nonviral pathogens through a process termed host-induced gene silencing, which involves -species small RNA trafficking. Read More

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Mycotoxin Production in According to Contemporary Species Concepts.

Annu Rev Phytopathol 2021 08 2;59:373-402. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Institute of Sciences of Food Production, National Research Council of Italy (CNR-ISPA), 70126 Bari, Italy; email:

is one of the most important genera of plant-pathogenic fungi in the world and arguably the world's most important mycotoxin-producing genus. species produce a staggering array of toxic metabolites that contribute to plant disease and mycotoxicoses in humans and other animals. A thorough understanding of the mycotoxin potential of individual species is crucial for assessing the toxicological risks associated with diseases. Read More

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Host Adaptation and Virulence in Heteroecious Rust Fungi.

Annu Rev Phytopathol 2021 08 2;59:403-422. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907, USA; email:

Rust fungi (Pucciniales, Basidiomycota) are obligate biotrophic pathogens that cause rust diseases in plants, inflicting severe damage to agricultural crops. Pucciniales possess the most complex life cycles known in fungi. These include an alternation of generations, the development of up to five different sporulating stages, and, for many species, the requirement of infecting two unrelated host plants during different parts of their life cycle, termed heteroecism. Read More

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: Exploring Molecular Weapons in the Arsenal of a Negative-Sense RNA Virus.

Annu Rev Phytopathol 2021 08 2;59:351-371. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

State Key Laboratory of Rice Biology, Institute of Biotechnology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China; email:

Rice stripe disease caused by (RSV) is one of the most devastating plant viruses of rice and causes enormous losses in production. RSV is transmitted from plant to plant by the small brown planthopper () in a circulative-propagative manner. The recent reemergence of this pathogen in East Asia since 2000 has made RSV one of the most studied plant viruses over the past two decades. Read More

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Harnessing Eco-Evolutionary Dynamics of Xanthomonads on Tomato and Pepper to Tackle New Problems of an Old Disease.

Authors:
Neha Potnis

Annu Rev Phytopathol 2021 08 24;59:289-310. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama 36849, USA; email:

Bacterial spot is an endemic seedborne disease responsible for recurring outbreaks on tomato and pepper around the world. The disease is caused by four diverse species, , , , and There are no commercially available disease-resistant tomato varieties, and the disease is managed by chemical/biological control options, although these have not reduced the incidence of outbreaks. The disease on peppers is managed by disease-resistant cultivars that are effective against but not . Read More

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Genomic Approaches to Plant-Pathogen Epidemiology and Diagnostics.

Annu Rev Phytopathol 2021 08 24;59:311-332. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon 97331, USA; email:

Diseases have a significant cost to agriculture. Findings from analyses of whole-genome sequences show great promise for informing strategies to mitigate risks from diseases caused by phytopathogens. Genomic approaches can be used to dramatically shorten response times to outbreaks and inform disease management in novel ways. Read More

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Regulation of Cell Death and Signaling by Pore-Forming Resistosomes.

Annu Rev Phytopathol 2021 08 6;59:239-263. Epub 2021 May 6.

State Key Laboratory of Plant Genomics, Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Innovation Academy for Seed Design, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China; email:

Nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat receptors (NLRs) are the largest class of immune receptors in plants. They play a key role in the plant surveillance system by monitoring pathogen effectors that are delivered into the plant cell. Recent structural biology and biochemical analyses have uncovered how NLRs are activated to form oligomeric resistosomes upon the recognition of pathogen effectors. Read More

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Interkingdom Signaling Interference: The Effect of Plant-Derived Small Molecules on Quorum Sensing in Plant-Pathogenic Bacteria.

Annu Rev Phytopathol 2021 08 5;59:153-190. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Plant Sciences, Agricultural Research Organization, The Volcani Center, Rishon Lezion, Israel 7528809; email:

In the battle between bacteria and plants, bacteria often use a population density-dependent regulatory system known as quorum sensing (QS) to coordinate virulence gene expression. In response, plants use innate and induced defense mechanisms that include low-molecular-weight compounds, some of which serve as antivirulence agents by interfering with the QS machinery. The best-characterized QS system is driven by the autoinducer -acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL), which is produced by AHL synthases (LuxI homologs) and perceived by response regulators (LuxR homologs). Read More

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Genetic Dissection of the Disease Cycle.

Annu Rev Phytopathol 2021 08 4;59:191-212. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Plant, Soil and Microbial Sciences, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824, USA; email:

Fire blight, caused by the bacterial phytopathogen , is an economically important and mechanistically complex disease that affects apple and pear production in most geographic production hubs worldwide. We compile, assess, and present a genetic outlook on the progression of an infection in the host. We discuss the key aspects of type III secretion-mediated infection and systemic movement, biofilm formation in xylem, and pathogen dispersal via ooze droplets, a concentrated suspension of bacteria and exopolysaccharide components. Read More

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One Hundred Years of Hybrid Necrosis: Hybrid Autoimmunity as a Window into the Mechanisms and Evolution of Plant-Pathogen Interactions.

Annu Rev Phytopathol 2021 08 4;59:213-237. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Molecular Biology, Max Planck Institute for Developmental Biology, 72076 Tübingen, Germany; email:

Hybrid necrosis in plants refers to a genetic autoimmunity syndrome in the progeny of interspecific or intraspecific crosses. Although the phenomenon was first documented in 1920, it has been unequivocally linked to autoimmunity only recently, with the discovery of the underlying genetic and biochemical mechanisms. The most common causal loci encode immune receptors, which are known to differ within and between species. Read More

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Models of Plant Resistance Deployment.

Annu Rev Phytopathol 2021 08 30;59:125-152. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

CSIRO Agriculture and Food, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia; email:

Owing to their evolutionary potential, plant pathogens are able to rapidly adapt to genetically controlled plant resistance, often resulting in resistance breakdown and major epidemics in agricultural crops. Various deployment strategies have been proposed to improve resistance management. Globally, these rely on careful selection of resistance sources and their combination at various spatiotemporal scales (e. Read More

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Emerging Roles of Posttranslational Modifications in Plant-Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria.

Annu Rev Phytopathol 2021 08 28;59:99-124. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology and Provincial Hubei Key Laboratory of Plant Pathology, College of Plant Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China; email:

Posttranslational modifications (PTMs) play crucial roles in regulating protein function and thereby control many cellular processes and biological phenotypes in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Several recent studies illustrate how plant fungal and bacterial pathogens use these PTMs to facilitate development, stress response, and host infection. In this review, we discuss PTMs that have key roles in the biological and infection processes of plant-pathogenic fungi and bacteria. Read More

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Characterization of Effector-Target Interactions in Necrotrophic Pathosystems Reveals Trends and Variation in Host Manipulation.

Annu Rev Phytopathol 2021 08 28;59:77-98. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Edward T. Schafer Agricultural Research Center, USDA-ARS, Fargo, North Dakota 58102, USA; email:

Great strides have been made in defining the details of the plant defense response involving biotrophic fungal and bacterial pathogens. The groundwork for the current model was laid by H.H. Read More

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Damage-Associated Molecular Patterns (DAMPs) in Plant Innate Immunity: Applying the Danger Model and Evolutionary Perspectives.

Annu Rev Phytopathol 2021 08 26;59:53-75. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Departamento de Ingeniería Genética, CINVESTAV, 36821 Irapuato, Guanajuato, México.

Danger signals trigger immune responses upon perception by a complex surveillance system. Such signals can originate from the infectious nonself or the damaged self, the latter termed damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). Here, we apply Matzinger's danger model to plant innate immunity to discuss the adaptive advantages of DAMPs and their integration into preexisting signaling pathways. Read More

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