630 results match your criteria Annual Review Of Phytopathology[Journal]


Fusarium graminearum Trichothecene Mycotoxins: Biosynthesis, Regulation, and Management.

Annu Rev Phytopathol 2019 Mar 20. Epub 2019 Mar 20.

State Key Laboratory of Rice Biology, Institute of Biotechnology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China; email:

Fusarium head blight (FHB) of small grain cereals caused by Fusarium graminearum and other Fusarium species is an economically important plant disease worldwide. Fusarium infections not only result in severe yield losses but also contaminate grain with various mycotoxins, especially deoxynivalenol (DON). With the complete genome sequencing of F. Read More

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https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/10.1146/annurev-phyto-0827
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-phyto-082718-100318DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Paving the Way to Tospovirus Infection: Multilined Interplays with Plant Innate Immunity.

Annu Rev Phytopathol 2019 Mar 20. Epub 2019 Mar 20.

Department of Plant Pathology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China; email: email:

Tospoviruses are among the most important plant pathogens and cause serious crop losses worldwide. Tospoviruses have evolved to smartly utilize the host cellular machinery to accomplish their life cycle. Plants mount two layers of defense to combat their invasion. Read More

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https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/10.1146/annurev-phyto-0827
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-phyto-082718-100309DOI Listing
March 2019
22 Reads

Endosymbionts of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes.

Authors:
Amanda M V Brown

Annu Rev Phytopathol 2018 08;56:225-242

Department of Biological Sciences, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79410, USA; email:

Some of the most agriculturally important plant-parasitic nematodes (PPNs) harbor endosymbionts. Extensive work in other systems has shown that endosymbionts can have major effects on host virulence and biology. This review highlights the discovery, development, and diversity of PPN endosymbionts, incorporating inferences from genomic data. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-phyto-080417-045824DOI Listing
August 2018
1 Read

World Management of Geminiviruses.

Annu Rev Phytopathol 2018 08;56:637-677

Department of Plant Pathology, University of California, Davis, California 95616, USA; email: , ,

Management of geminiviruses is a worldwide challenge because of the widespread distribution of economically important diseases caused by these viruses. Regardless of the type of agriculture, management is most effective with an integrated pest management (IPM) approach that involves measures before, during, and after the growing season. This includes starting with resistant cultivars and virus- and vector-free transplants and propagative plants. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-phyto-080615-100327DOI Listing
August 2018
2 Reads

Biology of Fungi and Their Bacterial Endosymbionts.

Annu Rev Phytopathol 2018 08;56:289-309

Department of Life Sciences & Systems Biology, University of Torino, 10125 Torino, Italy.

Heritable symbioses, in which endosymbiotic bacteria (EB) are transmitted vertically between host generations, are an important source of evolutionary novelties. A primary example of such symbioses is the eukaryotic cell with its EB-derived organelles. Recent discoveries suggest that endosymbiosis-related innovations can be also found in associations formed by early divergent fungi in the phylum Mucoromycota with heritable EB from two classes, Betaproteobacteria and Mollicutes. Read More

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https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/10.1146/annurev-phyto-0804
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-phyto-080417-045914DOI Listing
August 2018
14 Reads

The Future of Nanotechnology in Plant Pathology.

Annu Rev Phytopathol 2018 08;56:111-133

Department of Analytical Chemistry, The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, New Haven, Connecticut 06504, USA.

Engineered nanoparticles are materials between 1 and 100 nm and exist as metalloids, metallic oxides, nonmetals, and carbon nanomaterials and as functionalized dendrimers, liposomes, and quantum dots. Their small size, large surface area, and high reactivity have enabled their use as bactericides/ fungicides and nanofertilizers. Nanoparticles can be designed as biosensors for plant disease diagnostics and as delivery vehicles for genetic material, probes, and agrichemicals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-phyto-080417-050108DOI Listing
August 2018
1 Read

Advances in Wheat and Pathogen Genomics: Implications for Disease Control.

Annu Rev Phytopathol 2018 08;56:67-87

Biological and Environmental Science and Engineering Division (BESE), King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Thuwal, 23955-6900, Saudi Arabia; email:

The gene pool of wheat and its wild and domesticated relatives contains a plethora of resistance genes that can be exploited to make wheat more resilient to pathogens. Only a few of these genes have been isolated and studied at the molecular level. In recent years, we have seen a shift from classical breeding to genomics-assisted breeding, which makes use of the enormous advancements in DNA sequencing and high-throughput molecular marker technologies for wheat improvement. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-phyto-080516-035419DOI Listing
August 2018
13 Reads

Hyperspectral Sensors and Imaging Technologies in Phytopathology: State of the Art.

Annu Rev Phytopathol 2018 08;56:535-558

Institute of Agricultural Sciences, ETH Zürich, 8092 Zürich, Switzerland.

Plant disease detection represents a tremendous challenge for research and practical applications. Visual assessment by human raters is time-consuming, expensive, and error prone. Disease rating and plant protection need new and innovative techniques to address forthcoming challenges and trends in agricultural production that require more precision than ever before. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-phyto-080417-050100DOI Listing
August 2018
24 Reads

The Rise and Rise of Nicotiana benthamiana: A Plant for All Reasons.

Annu Rev Phytopathol 2018 08;56:405-426

Centre for Tropical Crops and Biocommodities, Queensland University of Technology, 4001 Brisbane, Queensland, Australia; email:

A decade ago, the value of Nicotiana benthamiana as a tool for plant molecular biologists was beginning to be appreciated. Scientists were using it to study plant-microbe and protein-protein interactions, and it was the species of choice with which to activate plasmid-encoded viruses, screen for gene functions with virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS), and transiently express genes by leaf agroinfiltration. However, little information about the species' origin, diversity, genetics, and genomics was available, and biologists were asking the question of whether N. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-phyto-080417-050141DOI Listing

Multiple-Disease System in Coffee: From Crop Loss Assessment to Sustainable Management.

Annu Rev Phytopathol 2018 08 11;56:611-635. Epub 2018 Jul 11.

UMR AGIR, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA), Université de Toulouse, INPT, INP-EI Purpan, Castanet-Tolosan, France; email: ,

Assessment of crop loss due to multiple diseases and pests (D&P) is a necessary step in designing sustainable crop management systems. Understanding the drivers of D&P development and yield loss helps identify leverage points for crop health management. Crop loss assessment is also necessary for the quantification of D&P regulation service to identify promising systems where ecosystem service provision is optimized. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-phyto-080417-050117DOI Listing
August 2018
1 Read

Network Analysis: A Systems Framework to Address Grand Challenges in Plant Pathology.

Annu Rev Phytopathol 2018 08 6;56:559-580. Epub 2018 Jul 6.

Plant Pathology Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611, USA; email:

Plant pathology must address a number of challenges, most of which are characterized by complexity. Network analysis offers useful tools for addressing complex systems and an opportunity for synthesis within plant pathology and between it and relevant disciplines such as in the social sciences. We discuss applications of network analysis, which ultimately may be integrated together into more synthetic analyses of how to optimize plant disease management systems. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-phyto-080516-035326DOI Listing
August 2018
6 Reads

RNA Interference Mechanisms and Applications in Plant Pathology.

Annu Rev Phytopathol 2018 08 6;56:581-610. Epub 2018 Jul 6.

Department of Plant Pathology, University of California, Davis, California 95616, USA; email:

The origin of RNA interference (RNAi), the cell sentinel system widely shared among eukaryotes that recognizes RNAs and specifically degrades or prevents their translation in cells, is suggested to predate the last eukaryote common ancestor ( 138 ). Of particular relevance to plant pathology is that in plants, but also in some fungi, insects, and lower eukaryotes, RNAi is a primary and effective antiviral defense, and recent studies have revealed that small RNAs (sRNAs) involved in RNAi play important roles in other plant diseases, including those caused by cellular plant pathogens. Because of this, and because RNAi can be manipulated to interfere with the expression of endogenous genes in an intra- or interspecific manner, RNAi has been used as a tool in studies of gene function but also for plant protection. Read More

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https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/10.1146/annurev-phyto-0804
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-phyto-080417-050044DOI Listing
August 2018
40 Reads

Understanding Cytoskeletal Dynamics During the Plant Immune Response.

Annu Rev Phytopathol 2018 08 5;56:513-533. Epub 2018 Jul 5.

Department of Biological Sciences and Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907, USA; email:

The plant cytoskeleton is a dynamic framework of cytoplasmic filaments that rearranges as the needs of the cell change during growth and development. Incessant turnover mechanisms allow these networks to be rapidly redeployed in defense of host cytoplasm against microbial invaders. Both chemical and mechanical stimuli are recognized as danger signals to the plant, and these are perceived and transduced into cytoskeletal dynamics and architecture changes through a collection of well-recognized, previously characterized players. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-phyto-080516-035632DOI Listing
August 2018
16 Reads

Wheat Blast: Past, Present, and Future.

Annu Rev Phytopathol 2018 08 5;56:427-456. Epub 2018 Jul 5.

Embrapa Wheat (Embrapa Trigo), Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation, Passo 99050-970, Fundo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

The devastating wheat blast disease first emerged in Brazil in 1985. The disease was restricted to South America until 2016, when a series of grain imports from Brazil led to a wheat blast outbreak in Bangladesh. Wheat blast is caused by Pyricularia graminis-tritici ( Pygt), a species genetically distinct from the Pyricularia oryzae species that causes rice blast. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-phyto-080417-050036DOI Listing
August 2018
1 Read

CRISPR Crops: Plant Genome Editing Toward Disease Resistance.

Annu Rev Phytopathol 2018 08 5;56:479-512. Epub 2018 Jul 5.

The Sainsbury Laboratory, Norwich Research Park, Norwich, NR4 7UH, United Kingdom; email:

Genome editing by sequence-specific nucleases (SSNs) has revolutionized biology by enabling targeted modifications of genomes. Although routine plant genome editing emerged only a few years ago, we are already witnessing the first applications to improve disease resistance. In particular, CRISPR-Cas9 has democratized the use of genome editing in plants thanks to the ease and robustness of this method. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-phyto-080417-050158DOI Listing
August 2018
1 Read

Lessons from the Incursion of Myrtle Rust in Australia.

Annu Rev Phytopathol 2018 08 5;56:457-478. Epub 2018 Jul 5.

Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, Dutton Park, Queensland 4102, Australia.

Austropuccinia psidii (myrtle rust) is a globally invasive neotropical rust of the Myrtaceae that came into international prominence following extensive damage to exotic Eucalyptus plantations in Brazil in the 1970s and 1980s. In 2005, myrtle rust established in Hawaii (USA), and over the past 12 years has spread from the Americas into Asia, the Pacific, and South Africa. Myrtle rust was detected in Australia in 2010, and the response and ultimately unsuccessful eradication attempt was a lesson to those concerned about the threat of exotic pests and diseases to Australia's environment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-phyto-080516-035256DOI Listing
August 2018
3 Reads

Multifaceted Impacts of Bacteriophages in the Plant Microbiome.

Annu Rev Phytopathol 2018 08 29;56:361-380. Epub 2018 Jun 29.

The Milner Centre for Evolution and Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY, United Kingdom; email:

Plant-associated bacteria face multiple selection pressures within their environments and have evolved countless adaptations that both depend on and shape bacterial phenotype and their interaction with plant hosts. Explaining bacterial adaptation and evolution therefore requires considering each of these forces independently as well as their interactions. In this review, we examine how bacteriophage viruses (phages) can alter the ecology and evolution of plant-associated bacterial populations and communities. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-phyto-080417-045858DOI Listing
August 2018
1 Read

The Changing Face of Bacterial Soft-Rot Diseases.

Authors:
Amy O Charkowski

Annu Rev Phytopathol 2018 08 29;56:269-288. Epub 2018 Jun 29.

Department of Bioagricultural Sciences and Pest Management, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523-1177, USA; email:

Bacterial soft rot is a disease complex caused by multiple genera of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, with Dickeya and Pectobacterium being the most widely studied soft-rot bacterial pathogens. In addition to soft rot, these bacteria also cause blackleg of potato, foot rot of rice, and bleeding canker of pear. Multiple Dickeya and Pectobacterium species cause the same symptoms on potato, complicating epidemiology and disease resistance studies. Read More

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https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/10.1146/annurev-phyto-0804
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-phyto-080417-045906DOI Listing
August 2018
2 Reads

Fitness Penalties in the Evolution of Fungicide Resistance.

Annu Rev Phytopathol 2018 08 29;56:339-360. Epub 2018 Jun 29.

Biointeractions and Crop Protection Department, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Hertfordshire, AL5 2JQ, United Kingdom; email:

The evolution of resistance poses an ongoing threat to crop protection. Fungicide resistance provides a selective advantage under fungicide selection, but resistance-conferring mutations may also result in fitness penalties, resulting in an evolutionary trade-off. These penalties may result from the functional constraints of an evolving target site or from the resource allocation costs of overexpression or active transport. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-phyto-080417-050012DOI Listing
August 2018
1 Read

Sclerotinia sclerotiorum: An Evaluation of Virulence Theories.

Annu Rev Phytopathol 2018 08 29;56:311-338. Epub 2018 Jun 29.

Grain Legume Genetics and Physiology Research Unit, US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164, USA.

Oxalic acid production in Sclerotinia sclerotiorum has long been associated with virulence. Research involving UV-induced, genetically undefined mutants that concomitantly lost oxalate accumulation, sclerotial formation, and pathogenicity supported the conclusion that oxalate is an essential pathogenicity determinant of S. sclerotiorum. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-phyto-080417-050052DOI Listing
August 2018
17 Reads

Plant-Parasitic Nematodes and Food Security in Sub-Saharan Africa.

Annu Rev Phytopathol 2018 08 29;56:381-403. Epub 2018 Jun 29.

Department of Agricultural Production, School of Agricultural Sciences, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda.

Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is a region beset with challenges, not least its ability to feed itself. Low agricultural productivity, exploding populations, and escalating urbanization have led to declining per capita food availability. In order to reverse this trend, crop production systems must intensify, which brings with it an elevated threat from pests and diseases, including plant-parasitic nematodes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-phyto-080417-045833DOI Listing
August 2018
2 Reads

Structural, Functional, and Genomic Diversity of Plant NLR Proteins: An Evolved Resource for Rational Engineering of Plant Immunity.

Annu Rev Phytopathol 2018 08 27;56:243-267. Epub 2018 Jun 27.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523-1870; email:

Plants employ a diverse intracellular system of NLR (nucleotide binding-leucine-rich repeat) innate immune receptors to detect pathogens of all types. These receptors represent valuable agronomic traits that plant breeders rely on to maximize yield in the face of devastating pathogens. Despite their importance, the mechanistic underpinnings of NLR-based disease resistance remain obscure. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-phyto-080417-045817DOI Listing
August 2018
32 Reads

Xylella fastidiosa: Insights into an Emerging Plant Pathogen.

Annu Rev Phytopathol 2018 08 11;56:181-202. Epub 2018 Jun 11.

Department of Environmental Science, Policy and Management, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA; email:

The bacterium Xylella fastidiosa re-emerged as a plant pathogen of global importance in 2013 when it was first associated with an olive tree disease epidemic in Italy. The current threat to Europe and the Mediterranean basin, as well as other world regions, has increased as multiple X. fastidiosa genotypes have now been detected in Italy, France, and Spain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-phyto-080417-045849DOI Listing
August 2018
2 Reads

The Barberry Eradication Program in Minnesota for Stem Rust Control: A Case Study.

Authors:
Paul D Peterson

Annu Rev Phytopathol 2018 08 11;56:203-223. Epub 2018 Jun 11.

Clemson University, Pee Dee Research & Education Center, Florence, South Carolina, 29506, USA; email:

The Barberry Eradication Program was an unprecedented federal and state cooperative plant disease control campaign between 1918 and the late 1970s to remove common barberry ( Berberis vulgaris), the alternate host of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, from the major centers of wheat production in the United States. Read More

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https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/10.1146/annurev-phyto-0804
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-phyto-080417-050133DOI Listing
August 2018
1 Read

Mechanisms Underlying Establishment of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbioses.

Annu Rev Phytopathol 2018 08 1;56:135-160. Epub 2018 Jun 1.

Department of Plant Sciences, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EA, United Kingdom; email:

Most land plants engage in mutually beneficial interactions with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, the fungus providing phosphate and nitrogen in exchange for fixed carbon. During presymbiosis, both organisms communicate via oligosaccharides and butenolides. The requirement for a rice chitin receptor in symbiosis-induced lateral root development suggests that cell division programs operate in inner root tissues during both AM and nodule symbioses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-phyto-080516-035521DOI Listing
August 2018
2 Reads

Antibiotic Resistance in Plant-Pathogenic Bacteria.

Annu Rev Phytopathol 2018 08 1;56:161-180. Epub 2018 Jun 1.

Citrus Research and Education Center, Department of Microbiology and Cell Science, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Lake Alfred, Florida 33850, USA.

Antibiotics have been used for the management of relatively few bacterial plant diseases and are largely restricted to high-value fruit crops because of the expense involved. Antibiotic resistance in plant-pathogenic bacteria has become a problem in pathosystems where these antibiotics have been used for many years. Where the genetic basis for resistance has been examined, antibiotic resistance in plant pathogens has most often evolved through the acquisition of a resistance determinant via horizontal gene transfer. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-phyto-080417-045946DOI Listing
August 2018
10 Reads

Joining the Crowd: Integrating Plant Virus Proteins into the Larger World of Pathogen Effectors.

Annu Rev Phytopathol 2018 08 31;56:89-110. Epub 2018 May 31.

Division of Plant Sciences, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri 65211, USA; email:

The first bacterial and viral avirulence ( avr) genes were cloned in 1984. Although virus and bacterial avr genes were physically isolated in the same year, the questions associated with their characterization after discovery were very different, and these differences had a profound influence on the narrative of host-pathogen interactions for the past 30 years. Bacterial avr proteins were subsequently shown to suppress host defenses, leading to their reclassification as effectors, whereas research on viral avr proteins centered on their role in the viral infection cycle rather than their effect on host defenses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-phyto-080417-050151DOI Listing

Organic Amendments, Beneficial Microbes, and Soil Microbiota: Toward a Unified Framework for Disease Suppression.

Annu Rev Phytopathol 2018 08 16;56:1-20. Epub 2018 May 16.

Institute for Sustainable Plant Protection, National Research Council (IPSP-CNR), 80055 Portici (NA), Italy.

Organic amendments (OAs) and soilborne biocontrol agents or beneficial microbes (BMs) have been extensively studied and applied worldwide in most agriculturally important plant species. However, poor integration of research and technical approaches has limited the development of effective disease management practices based on the combination of these two bio-based strategies. Insights into the importance of the plant-associated microbiome for crop productivity, which can be modified or modulated by introducing OAs and/or BMs, are providing novel opportunities to achieve the goal of long-term disease control. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-phyto-080615-100046DOI Listing
August 2018
1 Read

The Genome Biology of Effector Gene Evolution in Filamentous Plant Pathogens.

Annu Rev Phytopathol 2018 08 16;56:21-40. Epub 2018 May 16.

Laboratory of Evolutionary Genetics, Institute of Biology, University of Neuchâtel, 2000 Neuchâtel, Switzerland; email:

Filamentous pathogens, including fungi and oomycetes, pose major threats to global food security. Crop pathogens cause damage by secreting effectors that manipulate the host to the pathogen's advantage. Genes encoding such effectors are among the most rapidly evolving genes in pathogen genomes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-phyto-080516-035303DOI Listing
August 2018
38 Reads

Seeing the Light: The Roles of Red- and Blue-Light Sensing in Plant Microbes.

Annu Rev Phytopathol 2018 08 16;56:41-66. Epub 2018 May 16.

Department of Biological Sciences, Southwestern Oklahoma State University, Weatherford, Oklahoma 73096, USA.

Plants collect, concentrate, and conduct light throughout their tissues, thus enhancing light availability to their resident microbes. This review explores the role of photosensing in the biology of plant-associated bacteria and fungi, including the molecular mechanisms of red-light sensing by phytochromes and blue-light sensing by LOV (light-oxygen-voltage) domain proteins in these microbes. Bacteriophytochromes function as major drivers of the bacterial transcriptome and mediate light-regulated suppression of virulence, motility, and conjugation in some phytopathogens and light-regulated induction of the photosynthetic apparatus in a stem-nodulating symbiont. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-phyto-080417-045931DOI Listing
August 2018
2 Reads

Fatty Acid- and Lipid-Mediated Signaling in Plant Defense.

Annu Rev Phytopathol 2017 08;55:505-536

Department of Plant Pathology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40546; email:

Fatty acids and lipids, which are major and essential constituents of all plant cells, not only provide structural integrity and energy for various metabolic processes but can also function as signal transduction mediators. Lipids and fatty acids can act as both intracellular and extracellular signals. In addition, cyclic and acyclic products generated during fatty acid metabolism can also function as important chemical signals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-phyto-080516-035406DOI Listing
August 2017
1 Read

A Career on Both Sides of the Atlantic: Memoirs of a Molecular Plant Pathologist.

Annu Rev Phytopathol 2017 08;55:1-21

Professor Emeritus, Department of Environmental Science, Policy and Management, University of California, Berkeley, California 94619.

This article recounts the experiences that shaped my career as a molecular plant pathologist. It focuses primarily on technical and conceptual developments in molecular phytobacteriology, shares some personal highlights and untold stories that impacted my professional development, and describes the early years of agricultural biotechnology. Writing this article required reflection on events occurring over several decades that were punctuated by a mid-career relocation across the Atlantic. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-phyto-080516-035506DOI Listing
August 2017
1 Read

Karyotype Variability in Plant-Pathogenic Fungi.

Annu Rev Phytopathol 2017 08;55:483-503

Wageningen Plant Research, Wageningen University and Research, 6700AA Wageningen, The Netherlands; email:

Recent advances in genetic and molecular technologies gradually paved the way for the transition from traditional fungal karyotyping to more comprehensive chromosome biology studies. Extensive chromosomal polymorphisms largely resulting from chromosomal rearrangements (CRs) are widely documented in fungal genomes. These extraordinary CRs in fungi generate substantial genome plasticity compared to other eukaryotic organisms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-phyto-080615-095928DOI Listing
August 2017
3 Reads

Adaptation to the Host Environment by Plant-Pathogenic Fungi.

Annu Rev Phytopathol 2017 08 23;55:427-450. Epub 2017 Jun 23.

Molecular Plant Pathology, University of Amsterdam, 1098XH Amsterdam, The Netherlands; email:

Many fungi can live both saprophytically and as endophyte or pathogen inside a living plant. In both environments, complex organic polymers are used as sources of nutrients. Propagation inside a living host also requires the ability to respond to immune responses of the host. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-phyto-080516-035551DOI Listing
August 2017
19 Reads

Interplay Between Innate Immunity and the Plant Microbiota.

Annu Rev Phytopathol 2017 08 23;55:565-589. Epub 2017 Jun 23.

Department of Plant Microbe Interactions, Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research, 50829 Cologne, Germany; email:

The innate immune system of plants recognizes microbial pathogens and terminates their growth. However, recent findings suggest that at least one layer of this system is also engaged in cooperative plant-microbe interactions and influences host colonization by beneficial microbial communities. This immune layer involves sensing of microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that initiate quantitative immune responses to control host-microbial load, whereas diversification of MAMPs and PRRs emerges as a mechanism that locally sculpts microbial assemblages in plant populations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-phyto-080516-035623DOI Listing
August 2017
6 Reads

Evolution of Hormone Signaling Networks in Plant Defense.

Annu Rev Phytopathol 2017 08 23;55:401-425. Epub 2017 Jun 23.

Department of Plant-Microbe Interactions, Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research, 50829 Cologne, Germany; email:

Studies with model plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana have revealed that phytohormones are central regulators of plant defense. The intricate network of phytohormone signaling pathways enables plants to activate appropriate and effective defense responses against pathogens as well as to balance defense and growth. The timing of the evolution of most phytohormone signaling pathways seems to coincide with the colonization of land, a likely requirement for plant adaptations to the more variable terrestrial environments, which included the presence of pathogens. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-phyto-080516-035544DOI Listing
August 2017
11 Reads

What Do We Know About NOD-Like Receptors in Plant Immunity?

Annu Rev Phytopathol 2017 08 22;55:205-229. Epub 2017 May 22.

Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Agriculture and Food, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia; email:

The first plant disease resistance (R) genes were identified and cloned more than two decades ago. Since then, many more R genes have been identified and characterized in numerous plant pathosystems. Most of these encode members of the large family of intracellular NLRs (NOD-like receptors), which also includes animal immune receptors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-phyto-080516-035250DOI Listing
August 2017
7 Reads

Surveillance to Inform Control of Emerging Plant Diseases: An Epidemiological Perspective.

Annu Rev Phytopathol 2017 08 21;55:591-610. Epub 2017 Jun 21.

Department of Plant Sciences, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB2 3EA, United Kingdom.

The rise in emerging pathogens and strains has led to increased calls for more effective surveillance in plant health. We show how epidemiological insights about the dynamics of disease spread can improve the targeting of when and where to sample. We outline some relatively simple but powerful statistical approaches to inform surveillance and describe how they can be adapted to include epidemiological information. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-phyto-080516-035334DOI Listing
August 2017
1 Read

The Candidatus Liberibacter-Host Interface: Insights into Pathogenesis Mechanisms and Disease Control.

Annu Rev Phytopathol 2017 08 21;55:451-482. Epub 2017 Jun 21.

Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Chemistry, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, 05508-000, Brazil.

"Candidatus Liberibacter" species are associated with economically devastating diseases of citrus, potato, and many other crops. The importance of these diseases as well as the proliferation of new diseases on a wider host range is likely to increase as the insects vectoring the "Ca. Liberibacter" species expand their territories worldwide. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-phyto-080516-035513DOI Listing
August 2017
24 Reads

Adapted Biotroph Manipulation of Plant Cell Ploidy.

Annu Rev Phytopathol 2017 08 15;55:537-564. Epub 2017 Jun 15.

Regional Center for Biotechnology, NCR Biotech Science Cluster, Faridabad, India 121001.

Diverse plant biotrophs that establish a sustained site of nutrient acquisition induce localized host endoreduplication. Endoreduplication is a process by which cells successively replicate their genomes without mitosis, resulting in an increase in nuclear DNA ploidy. Elevated ploidy is associated with enhanced cell size, metabolic capacity, and the capacity to differentiate. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-phyto-080516-035458DOI Listing
August 2017
3 Reads

Function, Discovery, and Exploitation of Plant Pattern Recognition Receptors for Broad-Spectrum Disease Resistance.

Annu Rev Phytopathol 2017 08 15;55:257-286. Epub 2017 Jun 15.

The Sainsbury Laboratory, Norwich Research Park, Norwich, NR4 7UH, United Kingdom; email:

Plants are constantly exposed to would-be pathogens and pests, and thus have a sophisticated immune system to ward off these threats, which otherwise can have devastating ecological and economic consequences on ecosystems and agriculture. Plants employ receptor kinases (RKs) and receptor-like proteins (RLPs) as pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) to monitor their apoplastic environment and detect non-self and damaged-self patterns as signs of potential danger. Plant PRRs contribute to both basal and non-host resistances, and treatment with pathogen-/microbe-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs/MAMPs) or damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) recognized by plant PRRs induces both local and systemic immunity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-phyto-080614-120106DOI Listing
August 2017
3 Reads

The Scientific, Economic, and Social Impacts of the New Zealand Outbreak of Bacterial Canker of Kiwifruit (Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae).

Authors:
Joel L Vanneste

Annu Rev Phytopathol 2017 08 14;55:377-399. Epub 2017 Jun 14.

The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited, Hamilton 3214, New Zealand; email:

The introduction of Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa) severely damaged the New Zealand kiwifruit industry, which in 2010 was based on only two cultivars. Despite an extraordinarily quick and strong response by industry, government, and scientists to minimize the economic and social impacts, the economic consequences of this outbreak were severe. Read More

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http://www.annualreviews.org/doi/10.1146/annurev-phyto-08051
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-phyto-080516-035530DOI Listing
August 2017
18 Reads

Iron and Immunity.

Annu Rev Phytopathol 2017 08 9;55:355-375. Epub 2017 Jun 9.

Plant-Microbe Interactions, Institute of Environmental Biology, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Utrecht University, 3508 TB Utrecht, The Netherlands; email:

Iron is an essential nutrient for most life on Earth because it functions as a crucial redox catalyst in many cellular processes. However, when present in excess iron can lead to the formation of harmful hydroxyl radicals. Hence, the cellular iron balance must be tightly controlled. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-phyto-080516-035537DOI Listing
August 2017
23 Reads

Tritrophic Interactions: Microbe-Mediated Plant Effects on Insect Herbivores.

Annu Rev Phytopathol 2017 08 7;55:313-331. Epub 2017 Jun 7.

Department of Entomology and Center for Chemical Ecology, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802; email:

It is becoming abundantly clear that the microbes associated with plants and insects can profoundly influence plant-insect interactions. Here, we focus on recent findings and propose directions for future research that involve microbe-induced changes to plant defenses and nutritive quality as well as the consequences of these changes for the behavior and fitness of insect herbivores. Insect (herbivore and parasitoid)-associated microbes can favor or improve insect fitness by suppressing plant defenses and detoxifying defensive phytochemicals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-phyto-080516-035319DOI Listing
August 2017
3 Reads

Tick Tock: Circadian Regulation of Plant Innate Immunity.

Annu Rev Phytopathol 2017 08 7;55:287-311. Epub 2017 Jun 7.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Maryland-Baltimore County, Baltimore, Maryland 21052; email:

Many living organisms on Earth have evolved the ability to integrate environmental and internal signals to determine time and thereafter adjust appropriately their metabolism, physiology, and behavior. The circadian clock is the endogenous timekeeper critical for multiple biological processes in many organisms. A growing body of evidence supports the importance of the circadian clock for plant health. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-phyto-080516-035451DOI Listing
August 2017
32 Reads

Genome Evolution of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes.

Annu Rev Phytopathol 2017 08 7;55:333-354. Epub 2017 Jun 7.

Cell and Molecular Sciences Group, Dundee Effector Consortium, James Hutton Institute, Invergowrie, Dundee, DD2 5DA, United Kingdom.

Plant parasitism has evolved independently on at least four separate occasions in the phylum Nematoda. The application of next-generation sequencing (NGS) to plant-parasitic nematodes has allowed a wide range of genome- or transcriptome-level comparisons, and these have identified genome adaptations that enable parasitism of plants. Current genome data suggest that horizontal gene transfer, gene family expansions, evolution of new genes that mediate interactions with the host, and parasitism-specific gene regulation are important adaptations that allow nematodes to parasitize plants. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-phyto-080516-035434DOI Listing
August 2017
11 Reads

Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus: Rapidly Increasing Global Distribution, Etiology, Epidemiology, and Management.

Annu Rev Phytopathol 2017 08 7;55:231-256. Epub 2017 Jun 7.

Institute of Agriculture, Faculty of Science, University of Western Australia, Crawley, Western Australia 6009, Australia; email:

Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) was first described in 1935 infecting cucumber, making it one of the first plant viruses to be studied. Its initial distribution occurred out of England to other countries. This was followed by its distribution from England and these other countries to additional countries. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-phyto-080516-035349DOI Listing
August 2017
3 Citations
9.620 Impact Factor

From Chaos to Harmony: Responses and Signaling upon Microbial Pattern Recognition.

Annu Rev Phytopathol 2017 08 19;55:109-137. Epub 2017 May 19.

Department of Plant Pathology and Microbiology and Institute for Plant Genomics and Biotechnology, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77843; email:

Pathogen- or microbe-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs/MAMPs) are detected as nonself by host pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and activate pattern-triggered immunity (PTI). Microbial invasions often trigger the production of host-derived endogenous signals referred to as danger- or damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), which are also perceived by PRRs to modulate PTI responses. Collectively, PTI contributes to host defense against infections by a broad range of pathogens. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-phyto-080516-035649DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6240913PMC
August 2017
12 Reads

Toxin-Antitoxin Systems: Implications for Plant Disease.

Annu Rev Phytopathol 2017 08 19;55:161-179. Epub 2017 May 19.

Department of Plant Pathology and Ecology, The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, New Haven, Connecticut 06511: email:

Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are gene modules that are ubiquitous in free-living prokaryotes. Diverse in structure, cellular function, and fitness roles, TA systems are defined by the presence of a toxin gene that suppresses bacterial growth and a toxin-neutralizing antitoxin gene, usually encoded in a single operon. Originally viewed as DNA maintenance modules, TA systems are now thought to function in many roles, including bacterial stress tolerance, virulence, phage defense, and biofilm formation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-phyto-080516-035559DOI Listing
August 2017
1 Read

Exploiting Genetic Information to Trace Plant Virus Dispersal in Landscapes.

Annu Rev Phytopathol 2017 08 19;55:139-160. Epub 2017 May 19.

UMR BGPI, INRA, Montpellier SupAgro, CIRAD, 34398, Montpellier Cedex 5, France; email:

During the past decade, knowledge of pathogen life history has greatly benefited from the advent and development of molecular epidemiology. This branch of epidemiology uses information on pathogen variation at the molecular level to gain insights into a pathogen's niche and evolution and to characterize pathogen dispersal within and between host populations. Here, we review molecular epidemiology approaches that have been developed to trace plant virus dispersal in landscapes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-phyto-080516-035616DOI Listing
August 2017
15 Reads