684 results match your criteria Annual Review Of Phytopathology[Journal]

Small RNAs in Plant Immunity and Virulence of Filamentous Pathogens.

Annu Rev Phytopathol 2021 Jun 2. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Department of Microbiology and Plant Pathology, University of California, Riverside, California 92521, USA.

Gene silencing guided by small RNAs governs a broad range of cellular processes in eukaryotes. Small RNAs are important components of plant immunity because they contribute to pathogen-triggered transcription reprogramming and directly target pathogen RNAs. Recent research suggests that silencing of pathogen genes by plant small RNAs occurs not only during viral infection but also in nonviral pathogens through a process termed host-induced gene silencing, which involves -species small RNA trafficking. Read More

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Mycotoxin Production in According to Contemporary Species Concepts.

Annu Rev Phytopathol 2021 Jun 2. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Institute of Sciences of Food Production, National Research Council of Italy (CNR-ISPA), 70126 Bari, Italy; email:

is one of the most important genera of plant-pathogenic fungi in the world and arguably the world's most important mycotoxin-producing genus. species produce a staggering array of toxic metabolites that contribute to plant disease and mycotoxicoses in humans and other animals. A thorough understanding of the mycotoxin potential of individual species is crucial for assessing the toxicological risks associated with diseases. Read More

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Host Adaptation and Virulence in Heteroecious Rust Fungi.

Annu Rev Phytopathol 2021 Jun 2. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907, USA; email:

Rust fungi (Pucciniales, Basidiomycota) are obligate biotrophic pathogens that cause rust diseases in plants, inflicting severe damage to agricultural crops. Pucciniales possess the most complex life cycles known in fungi. These include an alternation of generations, the development of up to five different sporulating stages, and, for many species, the requirement of infecting two unrelated host plants during different parts of their life cycle, termed heteroecism. Read More

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: Exploring Molecular Weapons in the Arsenal of a Negative-Sense RNA Virus.

Annu Rev Phytopathol 2021 Jun 2. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

State Key Laboratory of Rice Biology, Institute of Biotechnology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China; email:

Rice stripe disease caused by (RSV) is one of the most devastating plant viruses of rice and causes enormous losses in production. RSV is transmitted from plant to plant by the small brown planthopper () in a circulative-propagative manner. The recent reemergence of this pathogen in East Asia since 2000 has made RSV one of the most studied plant viruses over the past two decades. Read More

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Harnessing Eco-Evolutionary Dynamics of Xanthomonads on Tomato and Pepper to Tackle New Problems of an Old Disease.

Neha Potnis

Annu Rev Phytopathol 2021 May 24. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama 36849, USA; email:

Bacterial spot is an endemic seedborne disease responsible for recurring outbreaks on tomato and pepper around the world. The disease is caused by four diverse species, , , , and There are no commercially available disease-resistant tomato varieties, and the disease is managed by chemical/biological control options, although these have not reduced the incidence of outbreaks. The disease on peppers is managed by disease-resistant cultivars that are effective against but not . Read More

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Genomic Approaches to Plant-Pathogen Epidemiology and Diagnostics.

Annu Rev Phytopathol 2021 May 24. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon 97331, USA; email:

Diseases have a significant cost to agriculture. Findings from analyses of whole-genome sequences show great promise for informing strategies to mitigate risks from diseases caused by phytopathogens. Genomic approaches can be used to dramatically shorten response times to outbreaks and inform disease management in novel ways. Read More

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Regulation of Cell Death and Signaling by Pore-Forming Resistosomes.

Annu Rev Phytopathol 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

State Key Laboratory of Plant Genomics, Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Innovation Academy for Seed Design, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China; email:

Nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat receptors (NLRs) are the largest class of immune receptors in plants. They play a key role in the plant surveillance system by monitoring pathogen effectors that are delivered into the plant cell. Recent structural biology and biochemical analyses have uncovered how NLRs are activated to form oligomeric resistosomes upon the recognition of pathogen effectors. Read More

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Interkingdom Signaling Interference: The Effect of Plant-Derived Small Molecules on Quorum Sensing in Plant-Pathogenic Bacteria.

Annu Rev Phytopathol 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Plant Sciences, Agricultural Research Organization, The Volcani Center, Rishon Lezion, Israel 7528809; email:

In the battle between bacteria and plants, bacteria often use a population density-dependent regulatory system known as quorum sensing (QS) to coordinate virulence gene expression. In response, plants use innate and induced defense mechanisms that include low-molecular-weight compounds, some of which serve as antivirulence agents by interfering with the QS machinery. The best-characterized QS system is driven by the autoinducer -acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL), which is produced by AHL synthases (LuxI homologs) and perceived by response regulators (LuxR homologs). Read More

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Genetic Dissection of the Disease Cycle.

Annu Rev Phytopathol 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Plant, Soil and Microbial Sciences, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824, USA; email:

Fire blight, caused by the bacterial phytopathogen , is an economically important and mechanistically complex disease that affects apple and pear production in most geographic production hubs worldwide. We compile, assess, and present a genetic outlook on the progression of an infection in the host. We discuss the key aspects of type III secretion-mediated infection and systemic movement, biofilm formation in xylem, and pathogen dispersal via ooze droplets, a concentrated suspension of bacteria and exopolysaccharide components. Read More

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One Hundred Years of Hybrid Necrosis: Hybrid Autoimmunity as a Window into the Mechanisms and Evolution of Plant-Pathogen Interactions.

Annu Rev Phytopathol 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Molecular Biology, Max Planck Institute for Developmental Biology, 72076 Tübingen, Germany; email:

Hybrid necrosis in plants refers to a genetic autoimmunity syndrome in the progeny of interspecific or intraspecific crosses. Although the phenomenon was first documented in 1920, it has been unequivocally linked to autoimmunity only recently, with the discovery of the underlying genetic and biochemical mechanisms. The most common causal loci encode immune receptors, which are known to differ within and between species. Read More

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Models of Plant Resistance Deployment.

Annu Rev Phytopathol 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

CSIRO Agriculture and Food, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia; email:

Owing to their evolutionary potential, plant pathogens are able to rapidly adapt to genetically controlled plant resistance, often resulting in resistance breakdown and major epidemics in agricultural crops. Various deployment strategies have been proposed to improve resistance management. Globally, these rely on careful selection of resistance sources and their combination at various spatiotemporal scales (e. Read More

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Emerging Roles of Posttranslational Modifications in Plant-Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria.

Annu Rev Phytopathol 2021 Apr 28. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology and Provincial Hubei Key Laboratory of Plant Pathology, College of Plant Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China; email:

Posttranslational modifications (PTMs) play crucial roles in regulating protein function and thereby control many cellular processes and biological phenotypes in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Several recent studies illustrate how plant fungal and bacterial pathogens use these PTMs to facilitate development, stress response, and host infection. In this review, we discuss PTMs that have key roles in the biological and infection processes of plant-pathogenic fungi and bacteria. Read More

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Characterization of Effector-Target Interactions in Necrotrophic Pathosystems Reveals Trends and Variation in Host Manipulation.

Annu Rev Phytopathol 2021 Apr 28. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Edward T. Schafer Agricultural Research Center, USDA-ARS, Fargo, North Dakota 58102, USA; email:

Great strides have been made in defining the details of the plant defense response involving biotrophic fungal and bacterial pathogens. The groundwork for the current model was laid by H.H. Read More

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Damage-Associated Molecular Patterns (DAMPs) in Plant Innate Immunity: Applying the Danger Model and Evolutionary Perspectives.

Annu Rev Phytopathol 2021 Apr 26. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Departamento de Ingeniería Genética, CINVESTAV, 36821 Irapuato, Guanajuato, México.

Danger signals trigger immune responses upon perception by a complex surveillance system. Such signals can originate from the infectious nonself or the damaged self, the latter termed damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). Here, we apply Matzinger's danger model to plant innate immunity to discuss the adaptive advantages of DAMPs and their integration into pre-existing signaling pathways. Read More

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Key Insights and Research Prospects at the Dawn of the Population Genomics Era for .

Annu Rev Phytopathol 2021 Apr 23. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Plant Pathology, University of California, Davis, California 93905, USA; email:

The genomics era has ushered in exciting possibilities to examine the genetic bases that undergird the characteristic features of and other plant pathogens. In this review, we provide historical perspectives on some of the salient biological characteristics of , including its morphology, microsclerotia formation, host range, disease symptoms, vascular niche, reproduction, and population structure. The kaleidoscopic population structure of this pathogen is summarized, including different races of the pathogen, defoliating and nondefoliating phenotypes, vegetative compatibility groupings, and clonal populations. Read More

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Research Advances in Potyviruses: From the Laboratory Bench to the Field.

Annu Rev Phytopathol 2021 Apr 23. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

London Research and Development Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, London, Ontario N5V 4T3, Canada; email:

Potyviruses (viruses in the genus , family ) constitute the largest group of known plant-infecting RNA viruses and include many agriculturally important viruses that cause devastating epidemics and significant yield losses in many crops worldwide. Several potyviruses are recognized as the most economically important viral pathogens. Therefore, potyviruses are more studied than other groups of plant viruses. Read More

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Remote Sensing of Diseases.

Annu Rev Phytopathol 2020 08;58:225-252

INRES, Plant Diseases and Crop Protection, Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn, D-53115 Bonn, Germany; email:

Detection, identification, and quantification of plant diseases by sensor techniques are expected to enable a more precise disease control, as sensors are sensitive, objective, and highly available for disease assessment. Recent progress in sensor technology and data processing is very promising; nevertheless, technical constraints and issues inherent to variability in host-pathogen interactions currently limit the use of sensors in various fields of application. The information from spectral [e. Read More

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Gall-Inducing Parasites: Convergent and Conserved Strategies of Plant Manipulation by Insects and Nematodes.

Annu Rev Phytopathol 2020 08;58:1-22

INRAE, CNRS, Université Côte d'Azur, ISA, F-06600 Sophia-Antipolis, France; email:

Gall-inducing insects and nematodes engage in sophisticated interactions with their host plants. These parasites can induce major morphological and physiological changes in host roots, leaves, and other tissues. Sedentary endoparasitic nematodes, root-knot and cyst nematodes in particular, as well as gall-inducing and leaf-mining insects, manipulate plant development to form unique organs that provide them with food from feeding cells. Read More

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The Geopolitics of Plant Pathology: Frederick Wellman, Coffee Leaf Rust, and Cold War Networks of Science.

Annu Rev Phytopathol 2020 08;58:181-199

American Phytopathological Society, St. Paul, Minnesota 55121, USA.

During the Cold War, coffee became a strategically important crop in the global contest between the United States and the Soviet Union. The economies of many US allies in Latin America depended upon coffee. In the Cold War context, then, the coffee leaf rust () became a geopolitical problem. Read More

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Organic Amendments for Pathogen and Nematode Control.

Annu Rev Phytopathol 2020 08;58:277-311

US Horticultural Research Laboratory, United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Fort Pierce, Florida 34945, USA; email:

The loss of methyl bromide as a soil fumigant and minimal advances in the development and registration of new chemical fumigants has resulted in a resurgence of interest in the application of organic amendments (OAs) for soilborne plant pathogen and plant-parasitic nematode management. Significant progress has been made in the characterization of OAs, application of strategies for their use, and elucidation of mechanisms by which they suppress soilborne pests. Nonetheless, their utility is limited by the variability of disease control, expense, and the logistics of introducing them into crop production systems. Read More

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Social Evolution and Cheating in Plant Pathogens.

Maren L Friesen

Annu Rev Phytopathol 2020 08 29;58:55-75. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Department of Plant Pathology and Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164, USA; email:

Plant pathogens are a critical component of the microbiome that exist as populations undergoing ecological and evolutionary processes within their host. Many aspects of virulence rely on social interactions mediated through multiple forms of public goods, including quorum-sensing signals, exoenzymes, and effectors. Virulence and disease progression involve life-history decisions that have social implications with large effects on both host and microbe fitness, such as the timing of key transitions. Read More

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Managing Crop Diseases Under Water Scarcity.

Annu Rev Phytopathol 2020 08 24;58:387-406. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Department of Plant Pathology, University of California, Davis, California 95616, USA; email:

The significance of water scarcity to crop production and food security has been globally recognized as a pivotal sustainability challenge in the UN Sustainable Development Goals (86). The critical link between water scarcity and sustainability is adaptation. Various changes in water use practices have been employed to alleviate production constraints. Read More

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Developing Public-Private Partnerships in Plant Pathology Extension: Case Studies and Opportunities in the United States.

Annu Rev Phytopathol 2020 08 16;58:161-180. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

The Sainsbury Laboratory, Norwich, NR4 7UH, United Kingdom.

Public-private partnerships (PPPs) can be an effective and advantageous way to accomplish extension and outreach objectives in plant pathology. The greatest opportunities for extension-focused PPPs may be in response to large-scale or emerging disease management concerns or in addressing complex issues that impact agriculture, such as climate change, digital technology, and public perception of science. The most fertile ground for forming PPPs is where the needs and strengths of the public and private sectors are complementary. Read More

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Disease in Invasive Plant Populations.

Annu Rev Phytopathol 2020 08 9;58:97-117. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Agronomy Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611, USA.

Non-native invasive plants can establish in natural areas, where they can be ecologically damaging and costly to manage. Like cultivated plants, invasive plants can experience a relatively disease-free period upon introduction and accumulate pathogens over time. Diseases of invasive plant populations are infrequently studied compared to diseases of agriculture, forestry, and even native plant populations. Read More

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Modeling the Impact of Crop Diseases on Global Food Security.

Annu Rev Phytopathol 2020 08 8;58:313-341. Epub 2020 Jun 8.

INRAE, Université de Toulouse, UMR AGIR, F-31320, Castanet-Tolosan, France; email:

Plant pathology must contribute to improving food security in a safe operating space, which is shrinking as a result of declining natural resources, climate change, and the growing world population. This review analyzes the position of plant pathology in a nexus of relationships, which is mapped and where the coupled dynamics of crop growth, disease, and yield losses are modeled. We derive a hierarchy of pathogens, whereby pathogens reducing radiation interception (RI), radiation use efficiency (RUE), and harvest index increasingly impact crop yields in the approximate proportions: 1:4. Read More

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Deep Roots and Splendid Boughs of the Global Plant Virome.

Annu Rev Phytopathol 2020 08 27;58:23-53. Epub 2020 May 27.

National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20894, USA.

Land plants host a vast and diverse virome that is dominated by RNA viruses, with major additional contributions from reverse-transcribing and single-stranded (ss) DNA viruses. Here, we introduce the recently adopted comprehensive taxonomy of viruses based on phylogenomic analyses, as applied to the plant virome. We further trace the evolutionary ancestry of distinct plant virus lineages to primordial genetic mobile elements. Read More

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Epigenetic Mechanisms in Nematode-Plant Interactions.

Tarek Hewezi

Annu Rev Phytopathol 2020 08 15;58:119-138. Epub 2020 May 15.

Department of Plant Sciences, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996, USA; email:

Epigenetic mechanisms play fundamental roles in regulating numerous biological processes in various developmental and environmental contexts. Three highly interconnected epigenetic control mechanisms, including small noncoding RNAs, DNA methylation, and histone modifications, contribute to the establishment of plant epigenetic profiles. During the past decade, a growing body of experimental work has revealed the intricate, diverse, and dynamic roles that epigenetic modifications play in plant-nematode interactions. Read More

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Tolerance of Plants to Pathogens: A Unifying View.

Annu Rev Phytopathol 2020 08 13;58:77-96. Epub 2020 May 13.

Centro de Biotecnología y Genómica de Plantas (CBGP), Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM) and Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria (INIA), and E.T.S.I. Agronómica, Alimentaria y de Biosistemas, Campus de Montegancedo, UPM, 28223 Pozuelo de Alarcón, Madrid, Spain; email:

Increasing evidence indicates that tolerance is a host defense strategy against pathogens as widespread and successful as resistance. Since the concept of tolerance was proposed more than a century ago, it has been in continuous evolution. In parallel, our understanding of its mechanistic bases and its consequences for host and pathogen interactions, ecology, and evolution has grown. Read More

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Origins and Immunity Networking Functions of EDS1 Family Proteins.

Annu Rev Phytopathol 2020 08 12;58:253-276. Epub 2020 May 12.

Department of Plant-Microbe Interactions, Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research, 50829 Cologne, Germany; email:

The EDS1 family of structurally unique lipase-like proteins EDS1, SAG101, and PAD4 evolved in seed plants, on top of existing phytohormone and nucleotide-binding-leucine-rich-repeat (NLR) networks, to regulate immunity pathways against host-adapted biotrophic pathogens. Exclusive heterodimers between EDS1 and SAG101 or PAD4 create essential surfaces for resistance signaling. Phylogenomic information, together with functional studies in and tobacco, identify a coevolved module between the EDS1-SAG101 heterodimer and coiled-coil (CC) HET-S and LOP-B (CC) domain helper NLRs that is recruited by intracellular Toll-interleukin1-receptor (TIR) domain NLR receptors to confer host cell death and pathogen immunity. Read More

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Functional Ecology of Forest Disease.

Annu Rev Phytopathol 2020 08 12;58:343-361. Epub 2020 May 12.

Department of Forest Mycology and Plant Pathology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, 750 07 Uppsala, Sweden; email:

Global change is pressing forest pathologists to solve increasingly complex problems. We argue that understanding interactive effects between forest pathogens and global warming, globalization, and land-use changes may benefit from a functional ecology mindset. Traits can be more informative about ecological functions than species inventories and may deliver a more mechanistic description of forest disease. Read More

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