Annu Rev Nutr 2021 10 20;41:479-510. Epub 2021 Jul 20.
Institute for Nutritional Sciences, Global Health, and Technology, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA; email:
The gut microbiome plays an integral role in health and disease, and diet is a major driver of its composition, diversity, and functional capacity. Given the dynamic development of the gut microbiome in infants and children, it is critical to address two major questions: () Can diet modify the composition, diversity, or function of the gut microbiome, and () will such modification affect functional/clinical outcomes including immune function, cognitive development, and overall health? We synthesize the evidence on the effect of nutritional interventions on the gut microbiome in infants and children across 26 studies. Findings indicate the need to study older children, assess the whole intestinal tract, and harmonize methods and interpretation of findings, which are critical for informing meaningful clinical and public health practice. Read More