883 results match your criteria Annual Review Of Nutrition[Journal]


Glucose-Dependent Insulinotropic Polypeptide-A Postprandial Hormone with Unharnessed Metabolic Potential.

Annu Rev Nutr 2022 May 24. Epub 2022 May 24.

MRC Metabolic Diseases Unit, Wellcome Trust/MRC Institute of Metabolic Science, University of Cambridge, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, United Kingdom; email:

Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) is released from the upper small intestine in response to food intake and contributes to the postprandial control of nutrient disposition, including of sugars and fats. Long neglected as a potential therapeutic target, the GIPR axis has received increasing interest recently, with the emerging data demonstrating the metabolically favorable outcomes of adding GIPR agonism to GLP-1 receptor agonists in people with type 2 diabetes and obesity. This review examines the physiology of the GIP axis, from the mechanisms underlying GIP secretion from the intestine to its action on target tissues and therapeutic development. Read More

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The Origins, Evolution, and Future of Dietary Methionine Restriction.

Annu Rev Nutr 2022 May 19. Epub 2022 May 19.

Laboratory of Nutrient Sensing and Adipocyte Signaling, Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA; email:

The original description of dietary methionine restriction (MR) used semipurified diets to limit methionine intake to 20% of normal levels, and this reduction in dietary methionine increased longevity by ∼30% in rats. The MR diet also produces paradoxical increases in energy intake and expenditure and limits fat deposition while reducing tissue and circulating lipids and enhancing overall insulin sensitivity. In the years following the original 1993 report, a comprehensive effort has been made to understand the nutrient sensing and signaling systems linking reduced dietary methionine to the behavioral, physiological, biochemical, and transcriptional components of the response. Read More

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Reprogramming of Hepatic Metabolism and Microenvironment in Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis.

Annu Rev Nutr 2022 May 18. Epub 2022 May 18.

Life Sciences Institute and Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA; email:

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a spectrum of metabolic liver disease associated with obesity, ranges from relatively benign hepatic steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The latter is characterized by persistent liver injury, inflammation, and liver fibrosis, which collectively increase the risk for end-stage liver diseases such as cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Recent work has shed new light on the pathophysiology of NAFLD/NASH, particularly the role of genetic, epigenetic, and dietary factors and metabolic dysfunctions in other tissues in driving excess hepatic fat accumulation and liver injury. Read More

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The Lard Works in Mysterious Ways: Ceramides in Nutrition-Linked Chronic Disease.

Annu Rev Nutr 2022 May 18. Epub 2022 May 18.

Department of Nutrition and Integrative Physiology, University of Utah College of Health, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA; email:

Diet influences onset, progression, and severity of several chronic diseases, including heart failure, diabetes, steatohepatitis, and a subset of cancers. The prevalence and clinical burden of these obesity-linked diseases has risen over the past two decades. These metabolic disorders are driven by ectopic lipid deposition in tissues not suited for fat storage, leading to lipotoxic disruption of cell function and survival. Read More

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The Oscillating Gut Microbiome and Its Effects on Host Circadian Biology.

Annu Rev Nutr 2022 May 16. Epub 2022 May 16.

Microbiology Department, Institute for Immunology, and Institute for Diabetes, Obesity, and Metabolism, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA; email:

The microbial community colonizing the gastrointestinal tract, collectively termed the gut microbiota, is an important element of the host organism due to its impact on multiple aspects of health. The digestion of food, secretion of immunostimulatory molecules, performance of chemical reactions in the intestine, and production of metabolites by the microbiota contribute to host homeostasis and disease. Recent discoveries indicate that these major functions are not constantly performed over the course of a day, but rather undergo diurnal fluctuations due to compositional and biogeographical oscillations in the microbiota. Read More

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Molecular Mechanisms of Iron and Heme Metabolism.

Annu Rev Nutr 2022 May 4. Epub 2022 May 4.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, USA; email:

An abundant metal in the human body, iron is essential for key biological pathways including oxygen transport, DNA metabolism, and mitochondrial function. Most iron is bound to heme but it can also be incorporated into iron-sulfur clusters or bind directly to proteins. Iron's capacity to cycle between Fe and Fe contributes to its biological utility but also renders it toxic in excess. Read More

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Long Noncoding RNAs That Function in Nutrition: Lnc-ing Nutritional Cues to Metabolic Pathways.

Annu Rev Nutr 2022 Apr 18. Epub 2022 Apr 18.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA; email:

Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are sensitive to changing environments and play key roles in health and disease. Emerging evidence indicates that lncRNAs regulate gene expression to shape metabolic processes in response to changing nutritional cues. Here we review various lncRNAs sensitive to fasting, feeding, and high-fat diet in key metabolic tissues (liver, adipose, and muscle), highlighting regulatory mechanisms that trigger expression changes of lncRNAs themselves, and how these lncRNAs regulate gene expression of key metabolic genes in specific cell types or across tissues. Read More

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Sex as a Biological Variable in Nutrition Research: From Human Studies to Animal Models.

Annu Rev Nutr 2022 Apr 13. Epub 2022 Apr 13.

Leonard Davis School of Gerontology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, USA; email:

Biological sex is a fundamental source of phenotypic variability across species. Males and females have different nutritional needs and exhibit differences in nutrient digestion and utilization, leading to different health outcomes throughout life. With personalized nutrition gaining popularity in scientific research and clinical practice, it is important to understand the fundamentals of sex differences in nutrition research. Read More

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Advancing Health Equity Efforts to Reduce Obesity: Changing the Course.

Annu Rev Nutr 2022 Apr 13. Epub 2022 Apr 13.

Dornsife School of Public Health, Drexel University, and Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA; email:

Population-based solutions are needed to stabilize and then reverse the continued upward trends in obesity prevalence in the US population and worldwide. This review focuses on the related, urgent issue of disparities in obesity prevalence affecting US racial/ethnic minority and other socially marginalized populations. The review provides background on these disparities from a health equity perspective and highlights evidence of progress in equity-focused obesity efforts. Read More

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A Female Career in Research.

Annu Rev Nutr 2022 Apr 1. Epub 2022 Apr 1.

Stanford Prevention Research Center, Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, USA; email:

After a long career at the National Center for Health Statistics, I retired and joined the Stanford Prevention Research Center as an unpaid associate. I was once described by a former US Food and Drug Administration commissioner as "one of the great epidemiologists." The chair of the Harvard nutrition department, speaking on National Public Radio, once described my research as "rubbish. Read More

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Cardiometabolic Benefits of Intermittent Fasting.

Annu Rev Nutr 2021 10;41:333-361

Department of Kinesiology and Nutrition, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60612, USA; email:

This review aims to summarize the effects of intermittent fasting on markers of cardiometabolic health in humans. All forms of fasting reviewed here-alternate-day fasting (ADF), the 5:2 diet, and time-restricted eating (TRE)-produced mild to moderate weight loss (1-8% from baseline) and consistent reductions in energy intake (10-30% from baseline). These regimens may benefit cardiometabolic health by decreasing blood pressure, insulin resistance, and oxidative stress. Read More

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October 2021

Metabolic and Signaling Roles of Ketone Bodies in Health and Disease.

Annu Rev Nutr 2021 10;41:49-77

Department of Medicine, Division of Molecular Medicine, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA; email:

Ketone bodies play significant roles in organismal energy homeostasis, serving as oxidative fuels, modulators of redox potential, lipogenic precursors, and signals, primarily during states of low carbohydrate availability. Efforts to enhance wellness and ameliorate disease via nutritional, chronobiological, and pharmacological interventions have markedly intensified interest in ketone body metabolism. The two ketone body redox partners, acetoacetate and D-β-hydroxybutyrate, serve distinct metabolic and signaling roles in biological systems. Read More

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October 2021

Diet-Host-Microbiota Interactions Shape Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Ligand Production to Modulate Intestinal Homeostasis.

Annu Rev Nutr 2021 10;41:455-478

Program in Integrative Nutrition and Complex Diseases and Department of Nutrition, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77843, USA; email:

The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated basic-helix-loop-helix transcription factor that binds structurally diverse ligands and senses cues from environmental toxicants and physiologically relevant dietary/microbiota-derived ligands. The AhR is an ancient conserved protein and is widely expressed across different tissues in vertebrates and invertebrates. AhR signaling mediates a wide range of cellular functions in a ligand-, cell type-, species-, and context-specific manner. Read More

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October 2021

Microbial Flavonoid Metabolism: A Cardiometabolic Disease Perspective.

Annu Rev Nutr 2021 10;41:433-454

Department of Cardiovascular and Metabolic Sciences and Center for Microbiome and Human Health, Lerner Research Institute of the Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio 44195, USA; email:

Cardiometabolic disease (CMD) is a leading cause of death worldwide and encompasses the inflammatory metabolic disorders of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and cardiovascular disease. Flavonoids are polyphenolic plant metabolites that are abundantly present in fruits and vegetables and have biologically relevant protective effects in a number of cardiometabolic disorders. Several epidemiological studies underscored a negative association between dietary flavonoid consumption and the propensity to develop CMD. Read More

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October 2021

Designing Relevant Preclinical Rodent Models for Studying Links Between Nutrition, Obesity, Metabolism, and Cancer.

Annu Rev Nutr 2021 10 6;41:253-282. Epub 2021 Aug 6.

Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA; email:

Diet and nutrition are intricately related to cancer prevention, growth, and treatment response. Preclinical rodent models are a cornerstone to biomedical research and remain instrumental in our understanding of the relationship between cancer and diet and in the development of effective therapeutics. However, the success rate of translating promising findings from the bench to the bedside is suboptimal. Read More

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October 2021

Sleep and Diet: Mounting Evidence of a Cyclical Relationship.

Annu Rev Nutr 2021 10 4;41:309-332. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Sleep Center of Excellence, Department of Medicine, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, NY 10032, USA; email:

Two factors intrinsic to health are diet and sleep. These two behaviors may well influence one another. Indeed, that insufficient sleep adversely impacts dietary intakes is well documented. Read More

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October 2021

The Influence of Front-of-Package Nutrition Labeling on Consumer Behavior and Product Reformulation.

Annu Rev Nutr 2021 10 2;41:529-550. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Department of Nutrition, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27516, USA; email:

Countries worldwide have implemented mandatory or voluntary front-of-package nutrition labeling systems. We provide a narrative review of () real-world evaluations of front-of-package nutrition labels that analyze objective sales data and () studies that objectively assess product reformulation in response to a front-of-package nutrition label implementation. We argue that there is sufficient scientific evidence to recommend that governments implement mandatory front-of-package nutrition labeling systems to improvepopulation health. Read More

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October 2021

The Roles of Cytoplasmic Lipid Droplets in Modulating Intestinal Uptake of Dietary Fat.

Annu Rev Nutr 2021 10 20;41:79-104. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Nutrition Science, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907, USA; email:

Dietary fat absorption is required for health but also contributes to hyperlipidemia and metabolic disease when dysregulated. One step in the process of dietary fat absorption is the formation of cytoplasmic lipid droplets (CLDs) in small intestinal enterocytes; these CLDs serve as dynamic triacylglycerol storage organelles that influence the rate at which dietary fat is absorbed. Recent studies have uncovered novel factors regulating enterocyte CLD metabolism that in turn influence the absorption of dietary fat. Read More

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October 2021

Nutritional Interventions and the Gut Microbiome in Children.

Annu Rev Nutr 2021 10 20;41:479-510. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Institute for Nutritional Sciences, Global Health, and Technology, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA; email:

The gut microbiome plays an integral role in health and disease, and diet is a major driver of its composition, diversity, and functional capacity. Given the dynamic development of the gut microbiome in infants and children, it is critical to address two major questions: () Can diet modify the composition, diversity, or function of the gut microbiome, and () will such modification affect functional/clinical outcomes including immune function, cognitive development, and overall health? We synthesize the evidence on the effect of nutritional interventions on the gut microbiome in infants and children across 26 studies. Findings indicate the need to study older children, assess the whole intestinal tract, and harmonize methods and interpretation of findings, which are critical for informing meaningful clinical and public health practice. Read More

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October 2021

Standardized Reference Diets for Zebrafish: Addressing Nutritional Control in Experimental Methodology.

Annu Rev Nutr 2021 10 16;41:511-527. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Department of Biology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294-1170, USA; email:

The ideal of experimental methodology in animal research is the reduction or elimination of environmental variables or consistency in their application. In lab animals, diet has been recognized as a very influential response variable. Reproducibility in research using rodents required the development of a unique diet of consistent ingredient and nutrient composition to allow for cross-comparisons of lab results, spatially and temporally. Read More

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October 2021

Ins and Outs of the TCA Cycle: The Central Role of Anaplerosis.

Annu Rev Nutr 2021 10 16;41:19-47. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Center for Human Nutrition, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390, USA; email:

The reactions of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle allow the controlled combustion of fat and carbohydrate. In principle, TCA cycle intermediates are regenerated on every turn and can facilitate the oxidation of an infinite number of nutrient molecules. However, TCA cycle intermediates can be lost to cataplerotic pathways that provide precursors for biosynthesis, and they must be replaced by anaplerotic pathways that regenerate these intermediates. Read More

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October 2021

Dietary and Physiological Effects of Zinc on the Immune System.

Annu Rev Nutr 2021 10 13;41:133-175. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Institute of Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, RWTH Aachen University, 52074 Aachen, Germany; email:

Evidence for the importance of zinc for all immune cells and for mounting an efficient and balanced immune response to various environmental stressors has been accumulating in recent years. This article describes the role of zinc in fundamental biological processes and summarizes our current knowledge of zinc's effect on hematopoiesis, including differentiation into immune cell subtypes. In addition, the important role of zinc during activation and function of immune cells is detailed and associated with the specific immune responses to bacteria, parasites, and viruses. Read More

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October 2021

Nutritional Qualities and Enhancement of Edible Insects.

Annu Rev Nutr 2021 10 29;41:551-576. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, University of Copenhagen, 1958 Frederiksberg C, Denmark; email:

Over the last decade, the urgency to find alternative and sustainable protein sources has prompted an exponential increase in the interest in insects as a human food source. Edible insects contribute suitable amounts of energy and protein, fatty acids, and micronutrients to the human diet. Nutritional values of insects can be manipulated to meet specific needs. Read More

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October 2021

Is Food Addictive? A Review of the Science.

Annu Rev Nutr 2021 10 21;41:387-410. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Department of Psychiatry, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA; email:

As ultraprocessed foods (i.e., foods composed of mostly cheap industrial sources of dietary energy and nutrients plus additives) have become more abundant in our food supply, rates of obesity and diet-related disease have increased simultaneously. Read More

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October 2021

The Influence of Timing in Critical Care Nutrition.

Annu Rev Nutr 2021 10 18;41:203-222. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Department of Kinesiology and Nutrition, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60612, USA; email:

Proper timing of critical care nutrition has long been a matter of controversy. Critical illness waxes and wanes in stages, creating a dynamic flux in energy needs that we have only begun to examine. Furthermore, response to nutrition support likely differs greatly at the level of the individual patient in regard to genetic status, disease stage, comorbidities, and more. Read More

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October 2021

Effects of Evolution, Ecology, and Economy on Human Diet: Insights from Hunter-Gatherers and Other Small-Scale Societies.

Annu Rev Nutr 2021 10 17;41:363-385. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Department of Anthropology, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA.

We review the evolutionary origins of the human diet and the effects of ecology economy on the dietary proportion of plants and animals. Humans eat more meat than other apes, a consequence of hunting and gathering, which arose ∼2.5 Mya with the genus . Read More

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October 2021

Vitamin A and Vitamin E: Will the Real Antioxidant Please Stand Up?

Annu Rev Nutr 2021 10 11;41:105-131. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon 97331, USA.

Vitamin A, acting through its metabolite, all--retinoic acid, is a potent transcriptional regulator affecting expression levels of hundreds of genes through retinoic acid response elements present within these genes. However, the literature is replete with claims that consider vitamin A to be an antioxidant vitamin, like vitamins C and E. This apparent contradiction in the understanding of how vitamin A acts mechanistically within the body is a major focus of this review. Read More

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October 2021

Roles of Endocannabinoids and Endocannabinoid-Like Molecules in Energy Homeostasis and Metabolic Regulation: A Nutritional Perspective.

Annu Rev Nutr 2021 10 11;41:177-202. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Biochemistry, Kagawa University School of Medicine, Miki, Kagawa 761-0793, Japan; email:

The endocannabinoid system is involved in signal transduction in mammals. It comprises principally G protein-coupled cannabinoid receptors and their endogenous agonists, called endocannabinoids, as well as the enzymes and transporters responsible for the metabolism of endocannabinoids. Two arachidonic acid-containing lipid molecules, arachidonoylethanolamide (anandamide) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol, function as endocannabinoids. Read More

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October 2021

Breastfeeding Beyond 12 Months: Is There Evidence for Health Impacts?

Annu Rev Nutr 2021 10 11;41:283-308. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Margaret Ritchie School of Family and Consumer Sciences, University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho 83844, USA; email:

Because breastfeeding provides optimal nutrition and other benefits for infants (e.g., lower risk of infectious disease) and benefits for mothers (e. Read More

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October 2021