881 results match your criteria Annual Review Of Neuroscience[Journal]


Dexterous Hand Movements and Their Recovery After Central Nervous System Injury.

Authors:
Tadashi Isa

Annu Rev Neurosci 2019 Apr 2. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Department of Neuroscience and Human Brain Research Center, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan; email:

Hand dexterity has uniquely developed in higher primates and is thought to rely on the direct corticomotoneuronal (CM) pathway. Recent studies have shown that rodents and carnivores lack the direct CM pathway but can control certain levels of dexterous hand movements through various indirect CM pathways. Some homologous pathways also exist in higher primates, and among them, propriospinal (PrS) neurons in the mid-cervical segments (C3-C4) are significantly involved in hand dexterity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-neuro-070918-050436DOI Listing

The Theory and Neuroscience of Cerebellar Cognition.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2019 Apr 2. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Berenson-Allen Center for Noninvasive Brain Stimulation, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA.

Cerebellar neuroscience has undergone a paradigm shift. The theories of the universal cerebellar transform and dysmetria of thought and the principles of organization of cerebral cortical connections, together with brain imaging studies and clinical evidence, have recontextualized the cerebellum as a critical node in the distributed neural circuits subserving behavior. The framework for cerebellar cognition stems from the identification of three cognitive representations in the posterior lobe, which are interconnected with cerebral association areas and distinct from the primary and secondary cerebellar sensorimotor representations linked with the spinal cord. Read More

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https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/10.1146/annurev-neuro-0709
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-neuro-070918-050258DOI Listing
April 2019
5 Reads

Magnetic Strategies for Nervous System Control.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2019 Apr 2. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Research Laboratory of Electronics, and McGovern Institute for Brain Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA; email:

Magnetic fields pass through tissue undiminished and without producing harmful effects, motivating their use as a wireless, minimally invasive means to control neural activity. Here, we review mechanisms and techniques coupling magnetic fields to changes in electrochemical potentials across neuronal membranes. Biological magnetoreception, although incompletely understood, is discussed as a potential source of inspiration. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-neuro-070918-050241DOI Listing

Lessons from Worm Dendritic Patterning.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2019 Apr 2. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Department of Biology, Technion Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 3200003, Israel; email:

The structural and functional properties of neurons have intrigued scientists since the pioneering work of Santiago Ramón y Cajal. Since then, emerging cutting-edge technologies, including light and electron microscopy, electrophysiology, biochemistry, optogenetics, and molecular biology, have dramatically increased our understanding of dendritic properties. This advancement was also facilitated by the establishment of different animal model organisms, from flies to mammals. Read More

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https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/10.1146/annurev-neuro-0721
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-neuro-072116-031437DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Repeat-Associated Non-ATG Translation: Molecular Mechanisms and Contribution to Neurological Disease.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2019 Mar 25. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

Center for NeuroGenetics, Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Genetics Institute, and McKnight Brain Institute, College of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32610, USA; email:

Microsatellite mutations involving the expansion of tri-, tetra-, penta-, or hexanucleotide repeats cause more than 40 different neurological disorders. Although, traditionally, the position of the repeat within or outside of an open reading frame has been used to focus research on disease mechanisms involving protein loss of function, protein gain of function, or RNA gain of function, the discoveries of bidirectional transcription and repeat-associated non-ATG (RAN) have blurred these distinctions. Here we review what is known about RAN proteins in disease, the mechanisms by which they are produced, and the novel therapeutic opportunities they provide. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-neuro-070918-050405DOI Listing

Neurite Development and Repair in Worms and Flies.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2019 Mar 18. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Department of Biology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA; email:

How the nervous system is wired has been a central question of neuroscience since the inception of the field, and many of the foundational discoveries and conceptual advances have been made through the study of invertebrate experimental organisms, including Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster. Although many guidance molecules and receptors have been identified, recent experiments have shed light on the many modes of action for these pathways. Here, we summarize the recent progress in determining how the physical and temporal constraints of the surrounding environment provide instructive regulations in nervous system wiring. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-neuro-070918-050208DOI Listing

Glia-Neuron Interactions in Caenorhabditis elegans.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2019 Mar 18. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Laboratory of Developmental Genetics, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10065, USA; email:

Glia are abundant components of animal nervous systems. Recognized 170 years ago, concerted attempts to understand these cells began only recently. From these investigations glia, once considered passive filler material in the brain, have emerged as active players in neuron development and activity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-neuro-070918-050314DOI Listing

Probing Computation in the Primate Visual System at Single-Cone Resolution.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2019 Mar 11. Epub 2019 Mar 11.

Departments of Neurosurgery and Ophthalmology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305, USA; email:

Daylight vision begins when light activates cone photoreceptors in the retina, creating spatial patterns of neural activity. These cone signals are then combined and processed in downstream neural circuits, ultimately producing visual perception. Recent technical advances have made it possible to deliver visual stimuli to the retina that probe this processing by the visual system at its elementary resolution of individual cones. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-neuro-070918-050233DOI Listing

Acoustic Pattern Recognition and Courtship Songs: Insights from Insects.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2019 Feb 20. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

Princeton Neuroscience Institute , Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544, USA; email:

Across the animal kingdom, social interactions rely on sound production and perception. From simple cricket chirps to more elaborate bird songs, animals go to great lengths to communicate information critical for reproduction and survival via acoustic signals. Insects produce a wide array of songs to attract a mate, and the intended receivers must differentiate these calls from competing sounds, analyze the quality of the sender from spectrotemporal signal properties, and then determine how to react. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-neuro-080317-061839DOI Listing
February 2019

Unified Classification of Molecular, Network, and Endocrine Features of Hypothalamic Neurons.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2019 Aug 2. Epub 2019 Aug 2.

Department of Molecular Neurosciences, Center for Brain Research, Medical University of Vienna, 1090 Vienna, Austria; email:

Peripheral endocrine output relies on either direct or feed-forward multi-order command from the hypothalamus. Efficient coding of endocrine responses is made possible by the many neuronal cell types that coexist in intercalated hypothalamic nuclei and communicate through extensive synaptic connectivity. Although general anatomical and neurochemical features of hypothalamic neurons were described during the past decades, they have yet to be reconciled with recently discovered molecular classifiers and neurogenetic function determination. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-neuro-070918-050414DOI Listing

Sodium Channels in Human Pain Disorders: Genetics and Pharmacogenomics.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2019 Jan 31. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

Department of Neurology and Center for Neuroscience and Regeneration Research, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06510, USA; email:

Acute pain is adaptive, but chronic pain is a global challenge. Many chronic pain syndromes are peripheral in origin and reflect hyperactivity of peripheral pain-signaling neurons. Current treatments are ineffective or only partially effective and in some cases can be addictive, underscoring the need for better therapies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-neuro-070918-050144DOI Listing
January 2019

A Motor Theory of Sleep-Wake Control: Arousal-Action Circuit.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2019 Jan 30. Epub 2019 Jan 30.

Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Helen Wills Neuroscience Institute, and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA; email:

Wakefulness, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, and non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep are characterized by distinct electroencephalogram (EEG), electromyogram (EMG), and autonomic profiles. The circuit mechanism coordinating these changes during sleep-wake transitions remains poorly understood. The past few years have witnessed rapid progress in the identification of REM and NREM sleep neurons, which constitute highly distributed networks spanning the forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-neuro-080317-061813DOI Listing
January 2019

Genes Involved in the Development and Physiology of Both the Peripheral and Central Auditory Systems.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2019 Jan 30. Epub 2019 Jan 30.

Unité de Génétique et Physiologie de l'Audition, Institut Pasteur, 75015 Paris, France; email: ,

The genetic approach, based on the study of inherited forms of deafness, has proven to be particularly effective for deciphering the molecular mechanisms underlying the development of the peripheral auditory system, the cochlea and its afferent auditory neurons, and how this system extracts the physical parameters of sound. Although this genetic dissection has provided little information about the central auditory system, scattered data suggest that some genes may have a critical role in both the peripheral and central auditory systems. Here, we review the genes controlling the development and function of the peripheral and central auditory systems, focusing on those with demonstrated intrinsic roles in both systems and highlighting the current underappreciation of these genes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-neuro-070918-050428DOI Listing
January 2019

Neuronal Development of Hearing and Language: Cochlear Implants and Critical Periods.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2019 Jan 30. Epub 2019 Jan 30.

School of Medicine and Pratt School of Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708, USA.

The modern cochlear implant (CI) is the most successful neural prosthesis developed to date. CIs provide hearing to the profoundly hearing impaired and allow the acquisition of spoken language in children born deaf. Results from studies enabled by the CI have provided new insights into ( a) minimal representations at the periphery for speech reception, ( b) brain mechanisms for decoding speech presented in quiet and in acoustically adverse conditions, ( c) the developmental neuroscience of language and hearing, and ( d) the mechanisms and time courses of intramodal and cross-modal plasticity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-neuro-080317-061513DOI Listing
January 2019

What Happens with the Circuit in Alzheimer's Disease in Mice and Humans?

Annu Rev Neurosci 2018 07;41:277-297

Institute of Neuroscience, Technical University of Munich, 80802 Munich, Germany; email:

A major mystery of many types of neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), remains the underlying, disease-specific neuronal damage. Because of the strong interconnectivity of neurons in the brain, neuronal dysfunction necessarily disrupts neuronal circuits. In this article, we review evidence for the disruption of large-scale networks from imaging studies of humans and relate it to studies of cellular dysfunction in mouse models of AD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-neuro-080317-061725DOI Listing
July 2018
3 Reads

How Movement Modulates Hearing.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2018 07;41:553-572

Department of Neurobiology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA; email:

Hearing is often viewed as a passive process: Sound enters the ear, triggers a cascade of activity through the auditory system, and culminates in an auditory percept. In contrast to a passive process, motor-related signals strongly modulate the auditory system from the eardrum to the cortex. The motor modulation of auditory activity is most well documented during speech and other vocalizations but also can be detected during a wide variety of other sound-generating behaviors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-neuro-072116-031215DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6201761PMC
July 2018
6 Reads

Myelin Plasticity and Nervous System Function.

Authors:
Michelle Monje

Annu Rev Neurosci 2018 07;41:61-76

Department of Neurology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA; email:

Structural plasticity in the myelinated infrastructure of the nervous system has come to light. Although an innate program of myelin development proceeds independent of nervous system activity, a second mode of myelination exists in which activity-dependent, plastic changes in myelin-forming cells influence myelin structure and neurological function. These complementary and possibly temporally overlapping activity-independent and activity-dependent modes of myelination crystallize in a model of experience-modulated myelin development and plasticity with broad implications for neurological function. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-neuro-080317-061853DOI Listing

Evolutionary Changes in Transcriptional Regulation: Insights into Human Behavior and Neurological Conditions.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2018 07;41:185-206

Division of Genetics and Genomics, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA; email:

Understanding the biological basis for human-specific cognitive traits presents both immense challenges and unique opportunities. Although the question of what makes us human has been investigated with several different methods, the rise of comparative genomics, epigenomics, and medical genetics has provided tools to help narrow down and functionally assess the regions of the genome that seem evolutionarily relevant along the human lineage. In this review, we focus on how medical genetic cases have provided compelling functional evidence for genes and loci that appear to have interesting evolutionary signatures in humans. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-neuro-080317-062104DOI Listing
July 2018
2 Reads

Cortical Coding of Auditory Features.

Authors:
Xiaoqin Wang

Annu Rev Neurosci 2018 07;41:527-552

Laboratory of Auditory Neurophysiology, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA; email:

How the cerebral cortex encodes auditory features of biologically important sounds, including speech and music, is one of the most important questions in auditory neuroscience. The pursuit to understand related neural coding mechanisms in the mammalian auditory cortex can be traced back several decades to the early exploration of the cerebral cortex. Significant progress in this field has been made in the past two decades with new technical and conceptual advances. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-neuro-072116-031302DOI Listing
July 2018
2 Reads

Computational Principles of Supervised Learning in the Cerebellum.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2018 07;41:233-253

Department of Neuroscience, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA; email:

Supervised learning plays a key role in the operation of many biological and artificial neural networks. Analysis of the computations underlying supervised learning is facilitated by the relatively simple and uniform architecture of the cerebellum, a brain area that supports numerous motor, sensory, and cognitive functions. We highlight recent discoveries indicating that the cerebellum implements supervised learning using the following organizational principles: ( a) extensive preprocessing of input representations (i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-neuro-080317-061948DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6056176PMC
July 2018
1 Read

Endogenous and Exogenous Opioids in Pain.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2018 07 31;41:453-473. Epub 2018 May 31.

Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine, Stanford University, Palo Alto, California 94304, USA; email:

Opioids are the most commonly used and effective analgesic treatments for severe pain, but they have recently come under scrutiny owing to epidemic levels of abuse and overdose. These compounds act on the endogenous opioid system, which comprises four G protein-coupled receptors (mu, delta, kappa, and nociceptin) and four major peptide families (β-endorphin, enkephalins, dynorphins, and nociceptin/orphanin FQ). In this review, we first describe the functional organization and pharmacology of the endogenous opioid system. Read More

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https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/10.1146/annurev-neuro-0803
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-neuro-080317-061522DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6428583PMC
July 2018
5 Reads

Cognition as a Window into Neuronal Population Space.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2018 07;41:77-97

Department of Neuroscience and Center for the Neural Basis of Cognition, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA; email:

Understanding how cognitive processes affect the responses of sensory neurons may clarify the relationship between neuronal population activity and behavior. However, tools for analyzing neuronal activity have not kept up with technological advances in recording from large neuronal populations. Here, we describe prevalent hypotheses of how cognitive processes affect sensory neurons, driven largely by a model based on the activity of single neurons or pools of neurons as the units of computation. Read More

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https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/10.1146/annurev-neuro-0803
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-neuro-080317-061936DOI Listing
July 2018
2 Reads

The Accessory Olfactory System: Innately Specialized or Microcosm of Mammalian Circuitry?

Authors:
Timothy E Holy

Annu Rev Neurosci 2018 07 4;41:501-525. Epub 2018 May 4.

Department of Neuroscience, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri 63132, USA; email:

In mammals, the accessory olfactory system is a distinct circuit that has received attention for its role in detecting and responding to pheromones. While the neuroscientific investigation of this system is comparatively new, recent advances and its compact size have made it an attractive model for developing an end-to-end understanding of such questions as regulation of essential behaviors, plasticity, and individual recognition. Recent discoveries have indicated a need to reevaluate our conception of this system, suggesting that ( a) physical principles-rather than biological necessity-play an underappreciated role in its raison d'être and that ( b) the anatomy of downstream projections is not dominated by unique specializations but instead consists of an abbreviated cortical/basal ganglia motif reminiscent of other sensorimotor systems. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-neuro-080317-061916DOI Listing

Memory Allocation: Mechanisms and Function.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2018 07 25;41:389-413. Epub 2018 Apr 25.

Department of Psychology, University of Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G3, Canada; email: ,

Memories for events are thought to be represented in sparse, distributed neuronal ensembles (or engrams). In this article, we review how neurons are chosen to become part of a particular engram, via a process of neuronal allocation. Experiments in rodents indicate that eligible neurons compete for allocation to a given engram, with more excitable neurons winning this competition. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-neuro-080317-061956DOI Listing
July 2018
1 Read

Neural Circuits of Sexual Behavior in Caenorhabditis elegans.

Authors:
Scott W Emmons

Annu Rev Neurosci 2018 07 25;41:349-369. Epub 2018 Apr 25.

Department of Genetics and Dominick Purpura Department of Neuroscience, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York 10461, USA; email:

The recently determined connectome of the Caenorhabditis elegans adult male, together with the known connectome of the hermaphrodite, opens up the possibility for a comprehensive description of sexual dimorphism in this species and the identification and study of the neural circuits underlying sexual behaviors. The C. elegans nervous system consists of 294 neurons shared by both sexes plus neurons unique to each sex, 8 in the hermaphrodite and 91 in the male. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-neuro-070815-014056DOI Listing

The Dynamic Basis of Respiratory Rhythm Generation: One Breath at a Time.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2018 07 30;41:475-499. Epub 2018 Apr 30.

Center for Integrative Brain Research, Seattle Children's Research Institute, Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington 98101, USA; email:

Rhythmicity is a universal timing mechanism in the brain, and the rhythmogenic mechanisms are generally dynamic. This is illustrated for the neuronal control of breathing, a behavior that occurs as a one-, two-, or three-phase rhythm. Each breath is assembled stochastically, and increasing evidence suggests that each phase can be generated independently by a dedicated excitatory microcircuit. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-neuro-080317-061756DOI Listing
July 2018
1 Read

Anxiety, Depression, and Decision Making: A Computational Perspective.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2018 07 25;41:371-388. Epub 2018 Apr 25.

Department of Psychology, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA; email:

In everyday life, the outcomes of our actions are rarely certain. Further, we often lack the information needed to precisely estimate the probability and value of potential outcomes as well as how much effort will be required by the courses of action under consideration. Under such conditions of uncertainty, individual differences in the estimation and weighting of these variables, and in reliance on model-free versus model-based decision making, have the potential to strongly influence our behavior. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-neuro-080317-062007DOI Listing
July 2018
2 Reads

A Guide to Emerging Technologies for Large-Scale and Whole-Brain Optical Imaging of Neuronal Activity.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2018 07 25;41:431-452. Epub 2018 Apr 25.

Laboratory of Neurotechnology and Biophysics, The Rockefeller University, New York, New York 10065, USA.

The mammalian brain is a densely interconnected network that consists of millions to billions of neurons. Decoding how information is represented and processed by this neural circuitry requires the ability to capture and manipulate the dynamics of large populations at high speed and high resolution over a large area of the brain. Although the use of optical approaches by the neuroscience community has rapidly increased over the past two decades, most microscopy approaches are unable to record the activity of all neurons comprising a functional network across the mammalian brain at relevant temporal and spatial resolutions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-neuro-072116-031458DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6037565PMC
July 2018
3 Reads

Viral Strategies for Targeting the Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2018 07 25;41:323-348. Epub 2018 Apr 25.

Division of Biology and Biological Engineering, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125, USA; email:

Recombinant viruses allow for targeted transgene expression in specific cell populations throughout the nervous system. The adeno-associated virus (AAV) is among the most commonly used viruses for neuroscience research. Recombinant AAVs (rAAVs) are highly versatile and can package most cargo composed of desired genes within the capsid's ∼5-kb carrying capacity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-neuro-080317-062048DOI Listing
July 2018
8 Reads

Closing the Loop: From Motor Neuroscience to Neurorehabilitation.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2018 07 30;41:415-429. Epub 2018 Apr 30.

Center for Movement Studies, The Kennedy Krieger Institute, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA.

The fields of human motor control, motor learning, and neurorehabilitation have long been linked by the intuition that understanding how we move (and learn to move) leads to better rehabilitation. In reality, these fields have remained largely separate. Our knowledge of the neural control of movement has expanded, but principles that can directly impact rehabilitation efficacy remain somewhat sparse. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-neuro-080317-062245DOI Listing
July 2018
1 Read

Long-Term Plasticity of Neurotransmitter Release: Emerging Mechanisms and Contributions to Brain Function and Disease.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2018 07 25;41:299-322. Epub 2018 Apr 25.

Dominick P. Purpura Department of Neuroscience, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York 10461, USA; email:

Long-lasting changes of brain function in response to experience rely on diverse forms of activity-dependent synaptic plasticity. Chief among them are long-term potentiation and long-term depression of neurotransmitter release, which are widely expressed by excitatory and inhibitory synapses throughout the central nervous system and can dynamically regulate information flow in neural circuits. This review article explores recent advances in presynaptic long-term plasticity mechanisms and contributions to circuit function. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-neuro-080317-062155DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6238218PMC

Lysosomes and Brain Health.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2018 07 16;41:255-276. Epub 2018 Apr 16.

Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, and Jan and Dan Duncan Neurological Research Institute, Texas Children's Hospital, Houston, Texas 77030, USA; email:

One of the fundamental properties of the cell is the capability to digest and remodel its own components according to metabolic and developmental needs. This is accomplished via the autophagy-lysosome system, a pathway of critical importance in the brain, where it contributes to neuronal plasticity and must protect nonreplaceable neurons from the potentially harmful accumulation of cellular waste. The study of lysosomal biogenesis and function in the context of common and rare neurodegenerative diseases has revealed that a dysfunctional autophagy-lysosome system is the shared nexus where multiple, interconnected pathogenic events take place. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-neuro-080317-061804DOI Listing
July 2018
1 Read

Medulloblastoma: From Molecular Subgroups to Molecular Targeted Therapies.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2018 07 11;41:207-232. Epub 2018 Apr 11.

Tumor Initiation and Maintenance Program, NCI-Designated Cancer Center, Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA; email:

Brain tumors are the leading cause of cancer-related death in children, and medulloblastoma (MB) is the most common malignant pediatric brain tumor. Advances in surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy have improved the survival of MB patients. But despite these advances, 25-30% of patients still die from the disease, and survivors suffer severe long-term side effects from the aggressive therapies they receive. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-neuro-070815-013838DOI Listing
July 2018
2 Reads

Neuronal Activity-Dependent Control of Postnatal Neurogenesis and Gliogenesis.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2018 07 4;41:139-161. Epub 2018 Apr 4.

Departments of Cell Biology and Neurobiology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA; email:

The addition of new neurons and oligodendroglia in the postnatal and adult mammalian brain presents distinct forms of gray and white matter plasticity. Substantial effort has been devoted to understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms controlling postnatal neurogenesis and gliogenesis, revealing important parallels to principles governing the embryonic stages. While during central nervous system development, scripted temporal and spatial patterns of neural and glial progenitor proliferation and differentiation are necessary to create the nervous system architecture, it remains unclear what driving forces maintain and sustain postnatal neural stem cell (NSC) and oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (OPC) production of new neurons and glia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-neuro-072116-031054DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6324739PMC
July 2018
1 Read

Evolution of New miRNAs and Cerebro-Cortical Development.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2018 07 4;41:119-137. Epub 2018 Apr 4.

Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regeneration Medicine and Stem Cell Research, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143, USA.

The noncoding portion of the genome, including microRNAs, has been fertile evolutionary soil for cortical development in primates. A major contribution to cortical expansion in primates is the generation of novel precursor cell populations. Because miRNA expression profiles track closely with cell identity, it is likely that numerous novel microRNAs have contributed to cellular diversity in the brain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-neuro-080317-061822DOI Listing
July 2018
1 Read

Toward an Integrative Theory of Thalamic Function.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2018 07 4;41:163-183. Epub 2018 Apr 4.

Department of Brain and Cognitive Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA; email:

The thalamus has long been suspected to have an important role in cognition, yet recent theories have favored a more corticocentric view. According to this view, the thalamus is an excitatory feedforward relay to or between cortical regions, and cognitively relevant computations are exclusively cortical. Here, we review anatomical, physiological, and behavioral studies along evolutionary and theoretical dimensions, arguing for essential and unique thalamic computations in cognition. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-neuro-080317-062144DOI Listing
July 2018
1 Read

Neural Mechanisms of Social Cognition in Primates.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2018 07 21;41:99-118. Epub 2018 Mar 21.

Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, OX1 3UD Oxford, United Kingdom; email: , ,

Activity in a network of areas spanning the superior temporal sulcus, dorsomedial frontal cortex, and anterior cingulate cortex is concerned with how nonhuman primates negotiate the social worlds in which they live. Central aspects of these circuits are retained in humans. Activity in these areas codes for primates' interactions with one another, their attempts to find out about one another, and their attempts to prevent others from finding out too much about themselves. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-neuro-080317-061450DOI Listing

Basic and Translational Neuroscience of Childhood-Onset Dystonia: A Control-Theory Perspective.

Authors:
Terence D Sanger

Annu Rev Neurosci 2018 07 28;41:41-59. Epub 2018 Feb 28.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089, USA; email:

Dystonia is a collection of symptoms with involuntary muscle activation causing hypertonia, hyperkinetic movements, and overflow. In children, dystonia can have numerous etiologies with varying neuroanatomic distribution. The semiology of dystonia can be explained by gain-of-function failure of a feedback controller that is responsible for stabilizing posture and movement. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-neuro-080317-061504DOI Listing
July 2018
1 Read

Structural Plasticity in Adulthood with Motor Learning and Stroke Rehabilitation.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2018 07 28;41:25-40. Epub 2018 Feb 28.

Wellcome Centre for Integrative Neuroimaging, Oxford Centre for Functional MRI of the Brain, Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, John Radcliffe Hospital, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 9DU, United Kingdom; email: ,

The development of advanced noninvasive techniques to image the human brain has enabled the demonstration of structural plasticity during adulthood in response to motor learning. Understanding the basic mechanisms of structural plasticity in the context of motor learning is essential to improve motor rehabilitation in stroke patients. Here, we review and discuss the emerging evidence for motor-learning-related structural plasticity and the implications for stroke rehabilitation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-neuro-080317-062015DOI Listing

Abnormal mTOR Activation in Autism.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2018 07 25;41:1-23. Epub 2018 Jan 25.

F.M. Kirby Neurobiology Center, Translational Neuroscience Center, Department of Neurology, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA; email:

The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is an important signaling hub that integrates environmental information regarding energy availability and stimulates anabolic molecular processes and cell growth. Abnormalities in this pathway have been identified in several syndromes in which autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is highly prevalent. Several studies have investigated mTOR signaling in developmental and neuronal processes that, when dysregulated, could contribute to the development of ASD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-neuro-080317-061747DOI Listing
July 2018
5 Reads

The Role of the Lateral Intraparietal Area in (the Study of) Decision Making.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2017 07;40:349-372

Center for Perceptual Systems, Departments of Neuroscience and Psychology, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712; email: , ,

Over the past two decades, neurophysiological responses in the lateral intraparietal area (LIP) have received extensive study for insight into decision making. In a parallel manner, inferred cognitive processes have enriched interpretations of LIP activity. Because of this bidirectional interplay between physiology and cognition, LIP has served as fertile ground for developing quantitative models that link neural activity with decision making. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-neuro-072116-031508DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6289048PMC
July 2017
4 Reads

Architecture, Function, and Assembly of the Mouse Visual System.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2017 07;40:499-538

Department of Neurobiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305.

Vision is the sense humans rely on most to navigate the world, make decisions, and perform complex tasks. Understanding how humans see thus represents one of the most fundamental and important goals of neuroscience. The use of the mouse as a model for parsing how vision works at a fundamental level started approximately a decade ago, ushered in by the mouse's convenient size, relatively low cost, and, above all, amenability to genetic perturbations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-neuro-071714-033842DOI Listing
July 2017
4 Reads

Mechanisms of Persistent Activity in Cortical Circuits: Possible Neural Substrates for Working Memory.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2017 07;40:603-627

Department of Neurosciences, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio 44106; email:

A commonly observed neural correlate of working memory is firing that persists after the triggering stimulus disappears. Substantial effort has been devoted to understanding the many potential mechanisms that may underlie memory-associated persistent activity. These rely either on the intrinsic properties of individual neurons or on the connectivity within neural circuits to maintain the persistent activity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-neuro-070815-014006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5995341PMC
July 2017
5 Reads

Propagation of Tau Aggregates and Neurodegeneration.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2017 07;40:189-210

MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge CB2 0QH, United Kingdom; email:

A pathway from the natively unfolded microtubule-associated protein Tau to a highly structured amyloid fibril underlies human Tauopathies. This ordered assembly causes disease and represents the gain of toxic function. In recent years, evidence has accumulated to suggest that Tau inclusions form first in a small number of brain cells, from where they propagate to other regions, resulting in neurodegeneration and disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-neuro-072116-031153DOI Listing
July 2017
17 Reads

Catastrophic Epilepsies of Childhood.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2017 07;40:149-166

Epilepsy Research Laboratory in the Department of Neurological Surgery, Weill Institute for Neurosciences, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143; email:

The tragedy of epilepsy emerges from the combination of its high prevalence, impact upon sufferers and their families, and unpredictability. Childhood epilepsies are frequently severe, presenting in infancy with pharmaco-resistant seizures; are often accompanied by debilitating neuropsychiatric and systemic comorbidities; and carry a grave risk of mortality. Here, we review the most current basic science and translational research findings on several of the most catastrophic forms of pediatric epilepsy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-neuro-072116-031250DOI Listing

Identifying Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms for Magnetosensation.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2017 07;40:231-250

Institute for Cell and Molecular Biology, Center for Brain, Behavior and Evolution, Center for Learning and Memory, Waggoner Center for Alcohol and Addiction Research, and Department of Neuroscience, University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712; email: ,

Diverse animals ranging from worms and insects to birds and turtles perform impressive journeys using the magnetic field of the earth as a cue. Although major cellular and molecular mechanisms for sensing mechanical and chemical cues have been elucidated over the past three decades, the mechanisms that animals use to sense magnetic fields remain largely mysterious. Here we survey progress on the search for magnetosensory neurons and magnetosensitive molecules important for animal behaviors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-neuro-072116-031312DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5588146PMC
July 2017
3 Reads

Replay Comes of Age.

Authors:
David J Foster

Annu Rev Neurosci 2017 07;40:581-602

Department of Psychology and Helen Wills Neuroscience Institute, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720; email:

Hippocampal place cells take part in sequenced patterns of reactivation after behavioral experience, known as replay. Since replay was first reported, nearly 20 years ago, many new results have been found, necessitating revision of the original interpretations. We review some of these results with a focus on the phenomenology of replay. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-neuro-072116-031538DOI Listing
July 2017
2 Reads

What Have We Learned About Movement Disorders from Functional Neurosurgery?

Annu Rev Neurosci 2017 07;40:453-477

Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Surgery, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5T 2S8, Canada; email: , ,

Modern functional neurosurgery for movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease, tremor, and dystonia involves the placement of focal lesions or the application of deep brain stimulation (DBS) within circuits that modulate motor function. Precise targeting of these motor structures can be further refined by the use of electrophysiological approaches. In particular, microelectrode recordings enable the delineation of neuroanatomic structures. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-neuro-070815-013906DOI Listing
July 2017
6 Reads
19.320 Impact Factor

Transcriptomic Perspectives on Neocortical Structure, Development, Evolution, and Disease.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2017 07 29;40:629-652. Epub 2017 Jun 29.

Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3QX, United Kingdom; email:

The cerebral cortex is the source of our most complex cognitive capabilities and a vulnerable target of many neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders. Transcriptomics offers a new approach to understanding the cortex at the level of its underlying genetic code, and rapid technological advances have propelled this field to the high-throughput study of the complete set of transcribed genes at increasingly fine resolution to the level of individual cells. These tools have revealed features of the genetic architecture of adult cortical areas, layers, and cell types, as well as spatiotemporal patterning during development. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-neuro-070815-013858DOI Listing
July 2017
10 Reads
19.320 Impact Factor

Inhibitory Plasticity: Balance, Control, and Codependence.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2017 07 9;40:557-579. Epub 2017 Jun 9.

Centre for Neural Circuits and Behaviour, Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3SR, United Kingdom; email:

Inhibitory neurons, although relatively few in number, exert powerful control over brain circuits. They stabilize network activity in the face of strong feedback excitation and actively engage in computations. Recent studies reveal the importance of a precise balance of excitation and inhibition in neural circuits, which often requires exquisite fine-tuning of inhibitory connections. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-neuro-072116-031005DOI Listing
July 2017
10 Reads