910 results match your criteria Annual Review Of Neuroscience[Journal]


Basal Ganglia Circuits for Action Specification.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2020 Apr 17. Epub 2020 Apr 17.

Janelia Research Campus, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Ashburn, Virginia 20147, USA; email:

Behavior is readily classified into patterns of movements with inferred common goals-actions. Goals may be discrete; movements are continuous. Through the careful study of isolated movements in laboratory settings, or via introspection, it has become clear that animals can exhibit exquisite graded specification to their movements. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-neuro-070918-050452DOI Listing

Multiscale Patterning from Competing Interactions and Length Scales.

Authors:
A R Bishop

Annu Rev Neurosci 2020 Apr 17. Epub 2020 Apr 17.

Center for Nonlinear Studies, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545, USA; email:

We live in a research era marked by impressive new tools powering the scientific method to accelerate the discovery, prediction, and control of increasingly complex systems. In common with many disciplines and societal challenges and opportunities, materials and condensed matter sciences are beneficiaries. The volume and fidelity of experimental, computational, and visualization data available, and tools to rapidly interpret them, are remarkable. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-matsci-081519-050045DOI Listing

Toward Community-Driven Big Open Brain Science: Open Big Data and Tools for Structure, Function, and Genetics.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2020 Apr 13. Epub 2020 Apr 13.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21208, USA; email:

As acquiring bigger data becomes easier in experimental brain science, computational and statistical brain science must achieve similar advances to fully capitalize on these data. Tackling these problems will benefit from a more explicit and concerted effort to work together. Specifically, brain science can be further democratized by harnessing the power of community-driven tools, which both are built by and benefit from many different people with different backgrounds and expertise. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-neuro-100119-110036DOI Listing

The Mushroom Body: From Architecture to Algorithm in a Learning Circuit.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2020 Apr 13. Epub 2020 Apr 13.

Janelia Research Campus, Ashburn, Virginia 20147, USA; email:

The brain contains a relatively simple circuit for forming Pavlovian associations, yet it achieves many operations common across memory systems. Recent advances have established a clear framework for learning and revealed the following key operations: ) pattern separation, whereby dense combinatorial representations of odors are preprocessed to generate highly specific, nonoverlapping odor patterns used for learning; ) convergence, in which sensory information is funneled to a small set of output neurons that guide behavioral actions; ) plasticity, where changing the mapping of sensory input to behavioral output requires a strong reinforcement signal, which is also modulated by internal state and environmental context; and ) modularization, in which a memory consists of multiple parallel traces, which are distinct in stability and flexibility and exist in anatomically well-defined modules within the network. Cross-module interactions allow for higher-order effects where past experience influences future learning. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-neuro-080317-0621333DOI Listing

The Neural Basis of Escape Behavior in Vertebrates.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2020 Apr 7. Epub 2020 Apr 7.

Department of Psychology, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 2LT, United Kingdom; email:

Escape is one of the most studied animal behaviors, and there is a rich normative theory that links threat properties to evasive actions and their timing. The behavioral principles of escape are evolutionarily conserved and rely on elementary computational steps such as classifying sensory stimuli and executing appropriate movements. These are common building blocks of general adaptive behaviors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-neuro-100219-122527DOI Listing

Neuromodulation of Brain State and Behavior.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2020 Apr 6. Epub 2020 Apr 6.

Neuroscience Institute, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA.

Neural activity and behavior are both notoriously variable, with responses differing widely between repeated presentation of identical stimuli or trials. Recent results in humans and animals reveal that these variations are not random in their nature, but may in fact be due in large part to rapid shifts in neural, cognitive, and behavioral states. Here we review recent advances in the understanding of rapid variations in the waking state, how variations are generated, and how they modulate neural and behavioral responses in both mice and humans. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-neuro-100219-105424DOI Listing

Endogenous Opioids at the Intersection of Opioid Addiction, Pain, and Depression: The Search for a Precision Medicine Approach.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2020 Feb 28. Epub 2020 Feb 28.

Michigan Neuroscience Institute, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA; email:

Opioid addiction and overdose are at record levels in the United States. This is driven, in part, by their widespread prescription for the treatment of pain, which also increased opportunity for diversion by sensation-seeking users. Despite considerable research on the neurobiology of addiction, treatment options for opioid abuse remain limited. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-neuro-110719-095912DOI Listing
February 2020

Suckling, Feeding, and Swallowing: Behaviors, Circuits, and Targets for Neurodevelopmental Pathology.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2020 Feb 26. Epub 2020 Feb 26.

Fralin Biomedical Research Institute at Virginia Tech Carilion, Roanoke, Virginia, 24016, USA; email:

All mammals must suckle and swallow at birth, and subsequently chew and swallow solid foods, for optimal growth and health. These initially innate behaviors depend critically upon coordinated development of the mouth, tongue, pharynx, and larynx as well as the cranial nerves that control these structures. Disrupted suckling, feeding, and swallowing from birth onward-perinatal dysphagia-is often associated with several neurodevelopmental disorders that subsequently alter complex behaviors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-neuro-100419-100636DOI Listing
February 2020

Neuropod Cells: Emerging Biology of the Gut-Brain Sensory Transduction.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2020 Feb 26. Epub 2020 Feb 26.

Gut-Brain Neurobiology Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA; email:

Guided by its sight, scent, texture, and taste, animals ingest food. Once ingested, it is up to the gut to make sense of the food's nutritional value. Classic sensory systems rely on neuroepithelial circuits to convert stimuli into signals that guide behavior. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-neuro-091619-022657DOI Listing
February 2020

Impairments to Consolidation, Reconsolidation, and Long-Term Memory Maintenance Lead to Memory Erasure.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2020 Feb 25. Epub 2020 Feb 25.

Department of Psychology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 1B1, Canada; email:

An enduring problem in neuroscience is determining whether cases of amnesia result from eradication of the memory trace (storage impairment) or if the trace is present but inaccessible (retrieval impairment). The most direct approach to resolving this question is to quantify changes in the brain mechanisms of long-term memory (BM-LTM). This approach argues that if the amnesia is due to a retrieval failure, BM-LTM should remain at levels comparable to trained, unimpaired animals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-neuro-091319-024636DOI Listing
February 2020

The Anatomy and Physiology of Claustrum-Cortex Interactions.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2020 Feb 21. Epub 2020 Feb 21.

Janelia Research Campus, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Ashburn, Virginia 20147, USA; email:

The claustrum is one of the most widely connected regions of the forebrain, yet its function has remained obscure, largely due to the experimentally challenging nature of targeting this small, thin, and elongated brain area. However, recent advances in molecular techniques have enabled the anatomy and physiology of the claustrum to be studied with the spatiotemporal and cell type-specific precision required to eventually converge on what this area does. Here we review early anatomical and electrophysiological results from cats and primates, as well as recent work in the rodent, identifying the connectivity, cell types, and physiological circuit mechanisms underlying the communication between the claustrum and the cortex. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-neuro-092519-101637DOI Listing
February 2020

Mechanosensitive Ion Channels: Structural Features Relevant to Mechanotransduction Mechanisms.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2020 Feb 21. Epub 2020 Feb 21.

Department of Physiology, University of California, San Francisco, California 94158, USA; email:

Activation of mechanosensitive ion channels underlies a variety of fundamental physiological processes that require sensation of mechanical force. Different mechanosensitive channels adapt distinctive structures and mechanotransduction mechanisms to fit their biological roles. How mechanosensitive channels work, especially in animals, has been extensively studied in the past decade. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-neuro-070918-050509DOI Listing
February 2020

Synaptic Plasticity Forms and Functions.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2020 Feb 19. Epub 2020 Feb 19.

Department of Neuroscience and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA; email:

Synaptic plasticity, the activity-dependent change in neuronal connection strength, has long been considered an important component of learning and memory. Computational and engineering work corroborate the power of learning through the directed adjustment of connection weights. Here we review the fundamental elements of four broadly categorized forms of synaptic plasticity and discuss their functional capabilities and limitations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-neuro-090919-022842DOI Listing
February 2020

The Glial Perspective on Sleep and Circadian Rhythms.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2020 Feb 19. Epub 2020 Feb 19.

Chronobiology and Sleep Institute, Perelman School of Medicine, and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA; email:

While neurons and circuits are almost unequivocally considered to be the computational units and actuators of behavior, a complete understanding of the nervous system must incorporate glial cells. Far beyond a copious but passive substrate, glial influence is inextricable from neuronal physiology, whether during developmental guidance and synaptic shaping or through the trophic support, neurotransmitter and ion homeostasis, cytokine signaling and immune function, and debris engulfment contributions that this class provides throughout an organism's life. With such essential functions, among a growing literature of nuanced roles, it follows that glia are consequential to behavior in adult animals, with novel genetic tools allowing for the investigation of these phenomena in living organisms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-neuro-091819-094557DOI Listing
February 2020

Calcium Signaling in the Oligodendrocyte Lineage: Regulators and Consequences.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2020 Feb 19. Epub 2020 Feb 19.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology and Hunter James Kelly Research Institute, Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, The State University of New York, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York 14203, USA; email:

Cells of the oligodendrocyte lineage express a wide range of Ca channels and receptors that regulate oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (OPC) and oligodendrocyte formation and function. Here we define those key channels and receptors that regulate Ca signaling and OPC development and myelination. We then discuss how the regulation of intracellular Ca in turn affects OPC and oligodendrocyte biology in the healthy nervous system and under pathological conditions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-neuro-100719-093305DOI Listing
February 2020

Neural Mechanisms of Itch.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2020 Feb 19. Epub 2020 Feb 19.

The Solomon H. Snyder Department of Neuroscience and the Center for Sensory Biology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA; email:

Itch is a unique sensation that helps organisms scratch away external threats; scratching itself induces an immune response that can contribute to more itchiness. Itch is induced chemically in the peripheral nervous system via a wide array of receptors. Given the superficial localization of itch neuron terminals, cells that dwell close to the skin contribute significantly to itch. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-neuro-083019-024537DOI Listing
February 2020

Navigating Through Time: A Spatial Navigation Perspective on How the Brain May Encode Time.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2020 Jan 21. Epub 2020 Jan 21.

Department of Neurobiology, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208, USA; email:

Interval timing, which operates on timescales of seconds to minutes, is distributed across multiple brain regions and may use distinct circuit mechanisms as compared to millisecond timing and circadian rhythms. However, its study has proven difficult, as timing on this scale is deeply entangled with other behaviors. Several circuit and cellular mechanisms could generate sequential or ramping activity patterns that carry timing information. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-neuro-101419-011117DOI Listing
January 2020

Mechanisms Underlying the Neural Computation of Head Direction.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2019 Dec 24. Epub 2019 Dec 24.

Janelia Research Campus, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Ashburn, Virginia 20147, USA; email:

Many animals use an internal sense of direction to guide their movements through the world. Neurons selective to head direction are thought to support this directional sense and have been found in a diverse range of species, from insects to primates, highlighting their evolutionary importance. Across species, most head-direction networks share four key properties: a unique representation of direction at all times, persistent activity in the absence of movement, integration of angular velocity to update the representation, and the use of directional cues to correct drift. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-neuro-072116-031516DOI Listing
December 2019

CA2: A Highly Connected Intrahippocampal Relay.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2019 Dec 24. Epub 2019 Dec 24.

Laboratory for Circuit and Behavioral Physiology, RIKEN Center for Brain Science, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198, Japan; email:

Although Lorente de No' recognized the anatomical distinction of the hippocampal Cornu Ammonis (CA) 2 region, it had, until recently, been assigned no unique function. Its location between the key players of the circuit, CA3 and CA1, which along with the entorhinal cortex and dentate gyrus compose the classic trisynaptic circuit, further distracted research interest. However, the connectivity of CA2 pyramidal cells, together with unique patterns of gene expression, hints at a much larger contribution to hippocampal information processing than has been ascribed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-neuro-080719-100343DOI Listing
December 2019

Interneuron Types as Attractors and Controllers.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2019 Jul 12. Epub 2019 Jul 12.

Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, New York 11724, USA.

Cortical interneurons display striking differences in shape, physiology, and other attributes, challenging us to appropriately classify them. We previously suggested that interneuron types should be defined by their role in cortical processing. Here, we revisit the question of how to codify their diversity based upon their division of labor and function as controllers of cortical information flow. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-neuro-070918-050421DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7064158PMC
July 2019
2 Reads

Pathophysiology and Mechanisms of Zika Virus Infection in the Nervous System.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2019 07;42:249-269

Department of Neuroscience and Mahoney Institute for Neurosciences, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA; email:

In 2015, public awareness of Zika virus (ZIKV) rose in response to alarming statistics of infants with microcephaly being born to women who were infected with the virus during pregnancy, triggering global concern over these potentially devastating consequences. Although we have discovered a great deal about the genome and pathogenesis of this reemergent flavivirus since this recent outbreak, we still have much more to learn, including the nature of the virus-host interactions and mechanisms that determine its tropism and pathogenicity in the nervous system, which are in turn shaped by the continual evolution of the virus. Inevitably, we will find out more about the potential long-term effects of ZIKV exposure on the nervous system from ongoing longitudinal studies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-neuro-080317-062231DOI Listing
July 2019
1 Read

Neuron-Glia Signaling in Synapse Elimination.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2019 07;42:107-127

Department of Neurology and F.M. Kirby Neurobiology Center, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA; email:

Maturation of neuronal circuits requires selective elimination of synaptic connections. Although neuron-intrinsic mechanisms are important in this process, it is increasingly recognized that glial cells also play a critical role. Without proper functioning of these cells, the number, morphology, and function of synaptic contacts are profoundly altered, resulting in abnormal connectivity and behavioral abnormalities. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-neuro-070918-050306DOI Listing

The Emerging Nature of Astrocyte Diversity.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2019 07;42:187-207

Department of Neuroscience and Center for Cell and Gene Therapy, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA; email:

Astrocytes are morphologically complex, ubiquitous cells that are viewed as a homogeneous population tiling the entire central nervous system (CNS). However, this view has been challenged in the last few years with the availability of RNA sequencing, immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, morphological reconstruction, and imaging data. These studies suggest that astrocytes represent a diverse population of cells and that they display brain area- and disease-specific properties and functions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-neuro-070918-050443DOI Listing

Brainstem Circuits Controlling Action Diversification.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2019 07;42:485-504

Biozentrum, Department of Cell Biology, University of Basel, 4056 Basel, Switzerland; email:

Neuronal circuits that regulate movement are distributed throughout the nervous system. The brainstem is an important interface between upper motor centers involved in action planning and circuits in the spinal cord ultimately leading to execution of body movements. Here we focus on recent work using genetic and viral entry points to reveal the identity of functionally dedicated and frequently spatially intermingled brainstem populations essential for action diversification, a general principle conserved throughout evolution. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-neuro-070918-050201DOI Listing

Antisense Oligonucleotide Therapies for Neurodegenerative Diseases.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2019 07;42:385-406

Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA.

Antisense oligonucleotides represent a novel therapeutic platform for the discovery of medicines that have the potential to treat most neurodegenerative diseases. Antisense drugs are currently in development for the treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Huntington's disease, and Alzheimer's disease, and multiple research programs are underway for additional neurodegenerative diseases. One antisense drug, nusinersen, has been approved for the treatment of spinal muscular atrophy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-neuro-070918-050501DOI Listing
July 2019
1 Read

Light-Sheet Microscopy in Neuroscience.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2019 07;42:295-313

Departments of Biomedical Engineering and Radiology and Zuckerman Mind Brain Behavior Institute, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027, USA; email:

Light-sheet microscopy is an imaging approach that offers unique advantages for a diverse range of neuroscience applications. Unlike point-scanning techniques such as confocal and two-photon microscopy, light-sheet microscopes illuminate an entire plane of tissue, while imaging this plane onto a camera. Although early implementations of light sheet were optimized for longitudinal imaging of embryonic development in small specimens, emerging implementations are capable of capturing light-sheet images in freely moving, unconstrained specimens and even the intact in vivo mammalian brain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-neuro-070918-050357DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6800245PMC
July 2019
1 Read

Peeling the Onion of Brain Representations.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2019 07;42:407-432

Brain and Mind Institute and Departments of Computer Science and Statistical and Actuarial Sciences, Western University, London, Ontario N6A 3K7, Canada; email:

The brain's function is to enable adaptive behavior in the world. To this end, the brain processes information about the world. The concept of representation links the information processed by the brain back to the world and enables us to understand what the brain does at a functional level. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-neuro-080317-061906DOI Listing

Early Binaural Hearing: The Comparison of Temporal Differences at the Two Ears.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2019 07 24;42:433-457. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Department of Neuroscience, Erasmus University Medical Center, 3000 CA Rotterdam, Netherlands.

Many mammals, including humans, are exquisitely sensitive to tiny time differences between sounds at the two ears. These interaural time differences are an important source of information for sound detection, for sound localization in space, and for environmental awareness. Two brainstem circuits are involved in the initial temporal comparisons between the ears, centered on the medial and lateral superior olive. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-neuro-080317-061925DOI Listing
July 2019
2 Reads

What, If, and When to Move: Basal Ganglia Circuits and Self-Paced Action Initiation.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2019 07 24;42:459-483. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Champalimaud Research, Champalimaud Centre for the Unknown, 1400-038 Lisbon, Portugal.

Deciding what to do and when to move is vital to our survival. Clinical and fundamental studies have identified basal ganglia circuits as critical for this process. The main input nucleus of the basal ganglia, the striatum, receives inputs from frontal, sensory, and motor cortices and interconnected thalamic areas that provide information about potential goals, context, and actions and directly or indirectly modulates basal ganglia outputs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-neuro-072116-031033DOI Listing
July 2019
1 Read

Dexterous Hand Movements and Their Recovery After Central Nervous System Injury.

Authors:
Tadashi Isa

Annu Rev Neurosci 2019 07 2;42:315-335. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Department of Neuroscience and Human Brain Research Center, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan; email:

Hand dexterity has uniquely developed in higher primates and is thought to rely on the direct corticomotoneuronal (CM) pathway. Recent studies have shown that rodents and carnivores lack the direct CM pathway but can control certain levels of dexterous hand movements through various indirect CM pathways. Some homologous pathways also exist in higher primates, and among them, propriospinal (PrS) neurons in the mid-cervical segments (C3-C4) are significantly involved in hand dexterity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-neuro-070918-050436DOI Listing
July 2019
2 Reads

The Theory and Neuroscience of Cerebellar Cognition.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2019 07 2;42:337-364. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Berenson-Allen Center for Noninvasive Brain Stimulation, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA.

Cerebellar neuroscience has undergone a paradigm shift. The theories of the universal cerebellar transform and dysmetria of thought and the principles of organization of cerebral cortical connections, together with neuroanatomical, brain imaging, and clinical observations, have recontextualized the cerebellum as a critical node in the distributed neural circuits subserving behavior. The framework for cerebellar cognition stems from the identification of three cognitive representations in the posterior lobe, which are interconnected with cerebral association areas and distinct from the primary and secondary cerebellar sensorimotor representations linked with the spinal cord and cerebral motor areas. Read More

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https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/10.1146/annurev-neuro-0709
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-neuro-070918-050258DOI Listing
July 2019
18 Reads

Magnetic Strategies for Nervous System Control.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2019 07 2;42:271-293. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Research Laboratory of Electronics, and McGovern Institute for Brain Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA; email:

Magnetic fields pass through tissue undiminished and without producing harmful effects, motivating their use as a wireless, minimally invasive means to control neural activity. Here, we review mechanisms and techniques coupling magnetic fields to changes in electrochemical potentials across neuronal membranes. Biological magnetoreception, although incompletely understood, is discussed as a potential source of inspiration. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-neuro-070918-050241DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6617523PMC
July 2019
7 Reads

Lessons from Worm Dendritic Patterning.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2019 07 2;42:365-383. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Department of Biology, Technion Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 3200003, Israel; email:

The structural and functional properties of neurons have intrigued scientists since the pioneering work of Santiago Ramón y Cajal. Since then, emerging cutting-edge technologies, including light and electron microscopy, electrophysiology, biochemistry, optogenetics, and molecular biology, have dramatically increased our understanding of dendritic properties. This advancement was also facilitated by the establishment of different animal model organisms, from flies to mammals. Read More

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https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/10.1146/annurev-neuro-0721
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-neuro-072116-031437DOI Listing
July 2019
14 Reads
19.320 Impact Factor

Repeat-Associated Non-ATG Translation: Molecular Mechanisms and Contribution to Neurological Disease.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2019 07 25;42:227-247. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

Center for NeuroGenetics, Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Genetics Institute, and McKnight Brain Institute, College of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32610, USA; email:

Microsatellite mutations involving the expansion of tri-, tetra-, penta-, or hexanucleotide repeats cause more than 40 different neurological disorders. Although, traditionally, the position of the repeat within or outside of an open reading frame has been used to focus research on disease mechanisms involving protein loss of function, protein gain of function, or RNA gain of function, the discoveries of bidirectional transcription and repeat-associated non-ATG (RAN) have blurred these distinctions. Here we review what is known about RAN proteins in disease, the mechanisms by which they are produced, and the novel therapeutic opportunities they provide. Read More

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https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/10.1146/annurev-neuro-0709
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-neuro-070918-050405DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6687071PMC
July 2019
5 Reads

Neurite Development and Repair in Worms and Flies.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2019 07 18;42:209-226. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Department of Biology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA; email:

How the nervous system is wired has been a central question of neuroscience since the inception of the field, and many of the foundational discoveries and conceptual advances have been made through the study of invertebrate experimental organisms, including and . Although many guidance molecules and receptors have been identified, recent experiments have shed light on the many modes of action for these pathways. Here, we summarize the recent progress in determining how the physical and temporal constraints of the surrounding environment provide instructive regulations in nervous system wiring. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-neuro-070918-050208DOI Listing
July 2019
1 Read

Glia-Neuron Interactions in .

Annu Rev Neurosci 2019 07 18;42:149-168. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Laboratory of Developmental Genetics, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10065, USA; email:

Glia are abundant components of animal nervous systems. Recognized 170 years ago, concerted attempts to understand these cells began only recently. From these investigations glia, once considered passive filler material in the brain, have emerged as active players in neuron development and activity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-neuro-070918-050314DOI Listing
July 2019
1 Read

Probing Computation in the Primate Visual System at Single-Cone Resolution.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2019 07 11;42:169-186. Epub 2019 Mar 11.

Departments of Neurosurgery and Ophthalmology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305, USA; email:

Daylight vision begins when light activates cone photoreceptors in the retina, creating spatial patterns of neural activity. These cone signals are then combined and processed in downstream neural circuits, ultimately producing visual perception. Recent technical advances have made it possible to deliver visual stimuli to the retina that probe this processing by the visual system at its elementary resolution of individual cones. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-neuro-070918-050233DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6996509PMC
July 2019
1 Read

Acoustic Pattern Recognition and Courtship Songs: Insights from Insects.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2019 07 20;42:129-147. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

Princeton Neuroscience Institute, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544, USA; email:

Across the animal kingdom, social interactions rely on sound production and perception. From simple cricket chirps to more elaborate bird songs, animals go to great lengths to communicate information critical for reproduction and survival via acoustic signals. Insects produce a wide array of songs to attract a mate, and the intended receivers must differentiate these calls from competing sounds, analyze the quality of the sender from spectrotemporal signal properties, and then determine how to react. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-neuro-080317-061839DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6885008PMC
July 2019
2 Reads

Unified Classification of Molecular, Network, and Endocrine Features of Hypothalamic Neurons.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2019 07 8;42:1-26. Epub 2019 Feb 8.

Department of Molecular Neurosciences, Center for Brain Research, Medical University of Vienna, 1090 Vienna, Austria; email:

Peripheral endocrine output relies on either direct or feed-forward multi-order command from the hypothalamus. Efficient coding of endocrine responses is made possible by the many neuronal cell types that coexist in intercalated hypothalamic nuclei and communicate through extensive synaptic connectivity. Although general anatomical and neurochemical features of hypothalamic neurons were described during the past decades, they have yet to be reconciled with recently discovered molecular classifiers and neurogenetic function determination. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-neuro-070918-050414DOI Listing
July 2019
1 Read

Sodium Channels in Human Pain Disorders: Genetics and Pharmacogenomics.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2019 07 31;42:87-106. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

Department of Neurology and Center for Neuroscience and Regeneration Research, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06510, USA; email:

Acute pain is adaptive, but chronic pain is a global challenge. Many chronic pain syndromes are peripheral in origin and reflect hyperactivity of peripheral pain-signaling neurons. Current treatments are ineffective or only partially effective and in some cases can be addictive, underscoring the need for better therapies. Read More

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https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/10.1146/annurev-neuro-0709
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-neuro-070918-050144DOI Listing
July 2019
4 Reads

A Motor Theory of Sleep-Wake Control: Arousal-Action Circuit.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2019 07 30;42:27-46. Epub 2019 Jan 30.

Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Helen Wills Neuroscience Institute, and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA; email:

Wakefulness, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, and non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep are characterized by distinct electroencephalogram (EEG), electromyogram (EMG), and autonomic profiles. The circuit mechanism coordinating these changes during sleep-wake transitions remains poorly understood. The past few years have witnessed rapid progress in the identification of REM and NREM sleep neurons, which constitute highly distributed networks spanning the forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-neuro-080317-061813DOI Listing
July 2019
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Genes Involved in the Development and Physiology of Both the Peripheral and Central Auditory Systems.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2019 07 30;42:67-86. Epub 2019 Jan 30.

Unité de Génétique et Physiologie de l'Audition, Institut Pasteur, 75015 Paris, France; email: ,

The genetic approach, based on the study of inherited forms of deafness, has proven to be particularly effective for deciphering the molecular mechanisms underlying the development of the peripheral auditory system, the cochlea and its afferent auditory neurons, and how this system extracts the physical parameters of sound. Although this genetic dissection has provided little information about the central auditory system, scattered data suggest that some genes may have a critical role in both the peripheral and central auditory systems. Here, we review the genes controlling the development and function of the peripheral and central auditory systems, focusing on those with demonstrated intrinsic roles in both systems and highlighting the current underappreciation of these genes. Read More

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https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/10.1146/annurev-neuro-0709
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-neuro-070918-050428DOI Listing
July 2019
5 Reads

Neuronal Development of Hearing and Language: Cochlear Implants and Critical Periods.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2019 07 30;42:47-65. Epub 2019 Jan 30.

School of Behavioral and Brain Sciences, The University of Texas at Dallas, Dallas, Texas 75080, USA.

The modern cochlear implant (CI) is the most successful neural prosthesis developed to date. CIs provide hearing to the profoundly hearing impaired and allow the acquisition of spoken language in children born deaf. Results from studies enabled by the CI have provided new insights into () minimal representations at the periphery for speech reception, () brain mechanisms for decoding speech presented in quiet and in acoustically adverse conditions, () the developmental neuroscience of language and hearing, and () the mechanisms and time courses of intramodal and cross-modal plasticity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-neuro-080317-061513DOI Listing
July 2019
1 Read

What Happens with the Circuit in Alzheimer's Disease in Mice and Humans?

Annu Rev Neurosci 2018 07;41:277-297

Institute of Neuroscience, Technical University of Munich, 80802 Munich, Germany; email:

A major mystery of many types of neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), remains the underlying, disease-specific neuronal damage. Because of the strong interconnectivity of neurons in the brain, neuronal dysfunction necessarily disrupts neuronal circuits. In this article, we review evidence for the disruption of large-scale networks from imaging studies of humans and relate it to studies of cellular dysfunction in mouse models of AD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-neuro-080317-061725DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6571139PMC
July 2018
4 Reads

How Movement Modulates Hearing.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2018 07;41:553-572

Department of Neurobiology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA; email:

Hearing is often viewed as a passive process: Sound enters the ear, triggers a cascade of activity through the auditory system, and culminates in an auditory percept. In contrast to a passive process, motor-related signals strongly modulate the auditory system from the eardrum to the cortex. The motor modulation of auditory activity is most well documented during speech and other vocalizations but also can be detected during a wide variety of other sound-generating behaviors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-neuro-072116-031215DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6201761PMC
July 2018
24 Reads

Myelin Plasticity and Nervous System Function.

Authors:
Michelle Monje

Annu Rev Neurosci 2018 07;41:61-76

Department of Neurology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA; email:

Structural plasticity in the myelinated infrastructure of the nervous system has come to light. Although an innate program of myelin development proceeds independent of nervous system activity, a second mode of myelination exists in which activity-dependent, plastic changes in myelin-forming cells influence myelin structure and neurological function. These complementary and possibly temporally overlapping activity-independent and activity-dependent modes of myelination crystallize in a model of experience-modulated myelin development and plasticity with broad implications for neurological function. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-neuro-080317-061853DOI Listing
July 2018
1 Read

Evolutionary Changes in Transcriptional Regulation: Insights into Human Behavior and Neurological Conditions.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2018 07;41:185-206

Division of Genetics and Genomics, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA; email:

Understanding the biological basis for human-specific cognitive traits presents both immense challenges and unique opportunities. Although the question of what makes us human has been investigated with several different methods, the rise of comparative genomics, epigenomics, and medical genetics has provided tools to help narrow down and functionally assess the regions of the genome that seem evolutionarily relevant along the human lineage. In this review, we focus on how medical genetic cases have provided compelling functional evidence for genes and loci that appear to have interesting evolutionary signatures in humans. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-neuro-080317-062104DOI Listing
July 2018
5 Reads

Cortical Coding of Auditory Features.

Authors:
Xiaoqin Wang

Annu Rev Neurosci 2018 07;41:527-552

Laboratory of Auditory Neurophysiology, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA; email:

How the cerebral cortex encodes auditory features of biologically important sounds, including speech and music, is one of the most important questions in auditory neuroscience. The pursuit to understand related neural coding mechanisms in the mammalian auditory cortex can be traced back several decades to the early exploration of the cerebral cortex. Significant progress in this field has been made in the past two decades with new technical and conceptual advances. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-neuro-072116-031302DOI Listing
July 2018
4 Reads

Computational Principles of Supervised Learning in the Cerebellum.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2018 07;41:233-253

Department of Neuroscience, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA; email:

Supervised learning plays a key role in the operation of many biological and artificial neural networks. Analysis of the computations underlying supervised learning is facilitated by the relatively simple and uniform architecture of the cerebellum, a brain area that supports numerous motor, sensory, and cognitive functions. We highlight recent discoveries indicating that the cerebellum implements supervised learning using the following organizational principles: ( a) extensive preprocessing of input representations (i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-neuro-080317-061948DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6056176PMC
July 2018
2 Reads

Endogenous and Exogenous Opioids in Pain.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2018 07 31;41:453-473. Epub 2018 May 31.

Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine, Stanford University, Palo Alto, California 94304, USA; email:

Opioids are the most commonly used and effective analgesic treatments for severe pain, but they have recently come under scrutiny owing to epidemic levels of abuse and overdose. These compounds act on the endogenous opioid system, which comprises four G protein-coupled receptors (mu, delta, kappa, and nociceptin) and four major peptide families (β-endorphin, enkephalins, dynorphins, and nociceptin/orphanin FQ). In this review, we first describe the functional organization and pharmacology of the endogenous opioid system. Read More

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https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/10.1146/annurev-neuro-0803
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-neuro-080317-061522DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6428583PMC
July 2018
9 Reads