Annu Rev Neurosci 2020 07 6;43:391-415. Epub 2020 Apr 6.
Departments of Neurology, Neuroscience and Physiology, and Radiology, Neuroscience Institute, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA.
Neural activity and behavior are both notoriously variable, with responses differing widely between repeated presentation of identical stimuli or trials. Recent results in humans and animals reveal that these variations are not random in their nature, but may in fact be due in large part to rapid shifts in neural, cognitive, and behavioral states. Here we review recent advances in the understanding of rapid variations in the waking state, how variations are generated, and how they modulate neural and behavioral responses in both mice and humans. Read More