934 results match your criteria Annual Review Of Neuroscience[Journal]

Neurophysiology of Human Perceptual Decision-Making.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering and UCD Centre for Biomedical Engineering, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland; email:

The discovery of neural signals that reflect the dynamics of perceptual decision formation has had a considerable impact. Not only do such signals enable detailed investigations of the neural implementation of the decision-making process but they also can expose key elements of the brain's decision algorithms. For a long time, such signals were only accessible through direct animal brain recordings, and progress in human neuroscience was hampered by the limitations of noninvasive recording techniques. Read More

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Spatial Transcriptomics: Molecular Maps of the Mammalian Brain.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm 171 77, Sweden; email:

Maps of the nervous system inspire experiments and theories in neuroscience. Advances in molecular biology over the past decades have revolutionized the definition of cell and tissue identity. Spatial transcriptomics has opened up a new era in neuroanatomy, where the unsupervised and unbiased exploration of the molecular signatures of tissue organization will give rise to a new generation of brain maps. Read More

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How Cortical Circuits Implement Cortical Computations: Mouse Visual Cortex as a Model.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Physiology and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94158, USA; email:

The mouse, as a model organism to study the brain, gives us unprecedented experimental access to the mammalian cerebral cortex. By determining the cortex's cellular composition, revealing the interaction between its different components, and systematically perturbing these components, we are obtaining mechanistic insight into some of the most basic properties of cortical function. In this review, we describe recent advances in our understanding of how circuits of cortical neurons implement computations, as revealed by the study of mouse primary visual cortex. Read More

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Perceptual Inference, Learning, and Attention in a Multisensory World.

Uta Noppeney

Annu Rev Neurosci 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behavior, Radboud University, 6525 AJ Nijmegen, The Netherlands; email:

Adaptive behavior in a complex, dynamic, and multisensory world poses some of the most fundamental computational challenges for the brain, notably inference, decision-making, learning, binding, and attention. We first discuss how the brain integrates sensory signals from the same source to support perceptual inference and decision-making by weighting them according to their momentary sensory uncertainties. We then show how observers solve the binding or causal inference problem-deciding whether signals come from common causes and should hence be integrated or else be treated independently. Read More

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The Cortical Motor Areas and the Emergence of Motor Skills: A Neuroanatomical Perspective.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Institut des Neurosciences de la Timone, CNRS, and Aix-Marseille Université, 13005 Marseille, France.

What changes in neural architecture account for the emergence and expansion of dexterity in primates? Dexterity, or skill in performing motor tasks, depends on the ability to generate highly fractionated patterns of muscle activity. It also involves the spatiotemporal coordination of activity in proximal and distal muscles across multiple joints. Many motor skills require the generation of complex movement sequences that are only acquired and refined through extensive practice. Read More

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The Geometry of Information Coding in Correlated Neural Populations.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Physics, Ecole Normale Supérieure, 75005 Paris, France; email:

Neurons in the brain represent information in their collective activity. The fidelity of this neural population code depends on whether and how variability in the response of one neuron is shared with other neurons. Two decades of studies have investigated the influence of these noise correlations on the properties of neural coding. Read More

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Oxytocin, Neural Plasticity, and Social Behavior.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Silvio O. Conte Center for Oxytocin and Social Cognition, Center for Translational Social Neuroscience, and Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30329, USA.

Oxytocin regulates parturition, lactation, parental nurturing, and many other social behaviors in both sexes. The circuit mechanisms by which oxytocin modulates social behavior are receiving increasing attention. Here, we review recent studies on oxytocin modulation of neural circuit function and social behavior, largely enabled by new methods of monitoring and manipulating oxytocin or oxytocin receptor neurons in vivo. Read More

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Ion Channel Degeneracy, Variability, and Covariation in Neuron and Circuit Resilience.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2021 Mar 26. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Volen Center and Department of Biology, Brandeis University, Waltham, Massachusetts 02454, USA; email:

The large number of ion channels found in all nervous systems poses fundamental questions concerning how the characteristic intrinsic properties of single neurons are determined by the specific subsets of channels they express. All neurons display many different ion channels with overlapping voltage- and time-dependent properties. We speculate that these overlapping properties promote resilience in neuronal function. Read More

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Inferring Macroscale Brain Dynamics via Fusion of Simultaneous EEG-fMRI.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2021 Mar 24. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Departments of Biomedical Engineering, Electrical Engineering, and Radiology and the Data Science Institute, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027, USA; email:

Advances in the instrumentation and signal processing for simultaneously acquired electroencephalography and functional magnetic resonance imaging (EEG-fMRI) have enabled new ways to observe the spatiotemporal neural dynamics of the human brain. Central to the utility of EEG-fMRI neuroimaging systems are the methods for fusing the two data streams, with machine learning playing a key role. These methods can be dichotomized into those that are symmetric and asymmetric in terms of how the two modalities inform the fusion. Read More

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The Role of the Medial Prefrontal Cortex in Moderating Neural Representations of Self and Other in Primates.

Masaki Isoda

Annu Rev Neurosci 2021 Mar 22. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Division of Behavioral Development, Department of System Neuroscience, National Institute for Physiological Sciences, National Institutes of Natural Sciences, Okazaki, Aichi 444-8585, Japan; email:

As a frontal node in the primate social brain, the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) plays a critical role in coordinating one's own behavior with respect to that of others. Current literature demonstrates that single neurons in the MPFC encode behavior-related variables such as intentions, actions, and rewards, specifically for self and other, and that the MPFC comes into play when reflecting upon oneself and others. The social moderator account of MPFC function can explain maladaptive social cognition in people with autism spectrum disorder, which tips the balance in favor of self-centered perspectives rather than taking into consideration the perspective of others. Read More

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Dense Circuit Reconstruction to Understand Neuronal Computation: Focus on Zebrafish.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2021 Mar 17. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Princeton Neuroscience Institute, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544, USA; email:

The dense reconstruction of neuronal wiring diagrams from volumetric electron microscopy data has the potential to generate fundamentally new insights into mechanisms of information processing and storage in neuronal circuits. Zebrafish provide unique opportunities for dynamical connectomics approaches that combine reconstructions of wiring diagrams with measurements of neuronal population activity and behavior. Such approaches have the power to reveal higher-order structure in wiring diagrams that cannot be detected by sparse sampling of connectivity and that is essential for neuronal computations. Read More

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Neocortical Layer 1: An Elegant Solution to Top-Down and Bottom-Up Integration.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2021 Mar 17. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Neuroscience Institute, Department of Neuroscience and Physiology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA; email:

Many of our daily activities, such as riding a bike to work or reading a book in a noisy cafe, and highly skilled activities, such as a professional playing a tennis match or a violin concerto, depend upon the ability of the brain to quickly make moment-to-moment adjustments to our behavior in response to the results of our actions. Particularly, they depend upon the ability of the neocortex to integrate the information provided by the sensory organs (bottom-up information) with internally generated signals such as expectations or attentional signals (top-down information). This integration occurs in pyramidal cells (PCs) and their long apical dendrite, which branches extensively into a dendritic tuft in layer 1 (L1). Read More

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Human Representation Learning.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2021 Mar 17. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Department of Psychology, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544, USA; email:

The central theme of this review is the dynamic interaction between information selection and learning. We pose a fundamental question about this interaction: How do we learn what features of our experiences are worth learning about? In humans, this process depends on attention and memory, two cognitive functions that together constrain representations of the world to features that are relevant for goal attainment. Recent evidence suggests that the representations shaped by attention and memory are themselves inferred from experience with each task. Read More

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Ensheathment and Myelination of Axons: Evolution of Glial Functions.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2021 Mar 15. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Department of Neurogenetics, Max Planck Institute of Experimental Medicine, D-37075 Göttingen, Germany; email:

Myelination of axons provides the structural basis for rapid saltatory impulse propagation along vertebrate fiber tracts, a well-established neurophysiological concept. However, myelinating oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells serve additional functions in neuronal energy metabolism that are remarkably similar to those of axon-ensheathing glial cells in unmyelinated invertebrates. Here we discuss myelin evolution and physiological glial functions, beginning with the role of ensheathing glia in preventing ephaptic coupling, axoglial metabolic support, and eliminating oxidative radicals. Read More

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Consolidating the Circuit Model for Addiction.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2021 Mar 5. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Krieger School of Arts and Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218, USA.

Addiction is a disease characterized by compulsive drug seeking and consumption observed in 20-30% of users. An addicted individual will favor drug reward over natural rewards, despite major negative consequences. Mechanistic research on rodents modeling core components of the disease has identified altered synaptic transmission as the functional substrate of pathological behavior. Read More

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Integrated Patterning Programs During Development Generate the Diversity of Neurons and Control Their Mature Properties.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2021 Feb 8. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Department of Biology, New York University, New York, NY 10003, USA; email:

During the approximately 5 days of neurogenesis (late embryogenesis to the beginning of pupation), a limited number of neural stem cells produce approximately 200,000 neurons comprising hundreds of cell types. To build a functional nervous system, neuronal types need to be produced in the proper places, appropriate numbers, and correct times. We discuss how neural stem cells (neuroblasts) obtain so-called area codes for their positions in the nervous system (spatial patterning) and how they keep time to sequentially produce neurons with unique fates (temporal patterning). Read More

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February 2021

Smartphones and the Neuroscience of Mental Health.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2021 Feb 8. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Departments of Psychology and Psychiatry, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA; email:

Improvements in understanding the neurobiological basis of mental illness have unfortunately not translated into major advances in treatment. At this point, it is clear that psychiatric disorders are exceedingly complex and that, in order to account for and leverage this complexity, we need to collect longitudinal datasets from much larger and more diverse samples than is practical using traditional methods. We discuss how smartphone-based research methods have the potential to dramatically advance our understanding of the neuroscience of mental health. Read More

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February 2021

A Common Space Approach to Comparative Neuroscience.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2021 Feb 3. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Wellcome Centre for Integrative Neuroimaging, Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 9DU, United Kingdom.

Comparative neuroscience is entering the era of big data. New high-throughput methods and data-sharing initiatives have resulted in the availability of large, digital data sets containing many types of data from ever more species. Here, we present a framework for exploiting the new possibilities offered. Read More

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February 2021

Astrocytes and Behavior.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2021 Jan 6. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Department of Neuroscience, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA; email:

Animal behavior was classically considered to be determined exclusively by neuronal activity, whereas surrounding glial cells such as astrocytes played only supportive roles. However, astrocytes are as numerous as neurons in the mammalian brain, and current findings indicate a chemically based dialog between astrocytes and neurons. Activation of astrocytes by synaptically released neurotransmitters converges on regulating intracellular Ca in astrocytes, which then can regulate the efficacy of near and distant tripartite synapses at diverse timescales through gliotransmitter release. Read More

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January 2021

Reward Contributions to Serotonergic Functions.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2020 07;43:141-162

National Institute of Biological Sciences, Beijing 102206, China; email:

The brain serotonin systems participate in numerous aspects of reward processing, although it remains elusive how exactly serotonin signals regulate neural computation and reward-related behavior. The application of optogenetics and imaging techniques during the last decade has provided many insights. Here, we review recent progress on the organization and physiology of the dorsal raphe serotonin neurons and the relationships between their activity and behavioral functions in the context of reward processing. Read More

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3D Brain Organoids: Studying Brain Development and Disease Outside the Embryo.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2020 07;43:375-389

Department of Stem Cell and Regenerative Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA; email:

Scientists have been fascinated by the human brain for centuries, yet knowledge of the cellular and molecular events that build the human brain during embryogenesis and of how abnormalities in this process lead to neurological disease remains very superficial. In particular, the lack of experimental models for a process that largely occurs during human in utero development, and is therefore poorly accessible for study, has hindered progress in mechanistic understanding. Advances in stem cell-derived models of human organogenesis, in the form of three-dimensional organoid cultures, and transformative new analytic technologies have opened new experimental pathways for investigation of aspects of development, evolution, and pathology of the human brain. Read More

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The Genetic Control of Stoichiometry Underlying Autism.

Robert B Darnell

Annu Rev Neurosci 2020 07;43:509-533

Laboratory of Molecular Neuro-Oncology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10065, USA; email:

Autism is a common and complex neurologic disorder whose scientific underpinnings have begun to be established in the past decade. The essence of this breakthrough has been a focus on families, where genetic analyses are strongest, versus large-scale, case-control studies. Autism genetics has progressed in parallel with technology, from analyses of copy number variation to whole-exome sequencing (WES) and whole-genome sequencing (WGS). Read More

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Computation Through Neural Population Dynamics.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2020 07;43:249-275

Department of Bioengineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA; email:

Significant experimental, computational, and theoretical work has identified rich structure within the coordinated activity of interconnected neural populations. An emerging challenge now is to uncover the nature of the associated computations, how they are implemented, and what role they play in driving behavior. We term this computation through neural population dynamics. Read More

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Finding the Brain in the Nose.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2020 07;43:277-295

Department of Neurobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA; email:

Olfaction is fundamentally distinct from other sensory modalities. Natural odor stimuli are complex mixtures of volatile chemicals that interact in the nose with a receptor array that, in rodents, is built from more than 1,000 unique receptors. These interactions dictate a peripheral olfactory code, which in the brain is transformed and reformatted as it is broadcast across a set of highly interconnected olfactory regions. Read More

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Basal Ganglia Circuits for Action Specification.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2020 07 17;43:485-507. Epub 2020 Apr 17.

Janelia Research Campus, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Ashburn, Virginia 20147, USA; email:

Behavior is readily classified into patterns of movements with inferred common goals-actions. Goals may be discrete; movements are continuous. Through the careful study of isolated movements in laboratory settings, or via introspection, it has become clear that animals can exhibit exquisite graded specification to their movements. Read More

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Multiscale Patterning from Competing Interactions and Length Scales.

A R Bishop

Annu Rev Neurosci 2020 Apr 17. Epub 2020 Apr 17.

Center for Nonlinear Studies, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545, USA; email:

We live in a research era marked by impressive new tools powering the scientific method to accelerate the discovery, prediction, and control of increasingly complex systems. In common with many disciplines and societal challenges and opportunities, materials and condensed matter sciences are beneficiaries. The volume and fidelity of experimental, computational, and visualization data available, and tools to rapidly interpret them, are remarkable. Read More

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Toward Community-Driven Big Open Brain Science: Open Big Data and Tools for Structure, Function, and Genetics.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2020 07 13;43:441-464. Epub 2020 Apr 13.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218, USA; email:

As acquiring bigger data becomes easier in experimental brain science, computational and statistical brain science must achieve similar advances to fully capitalize on these data. Tackling these problems will benefit from a more explicit and concerted effort to work together. Specifically, brain science can be further democratized by harnessing the power of community-driven tools, which both are built by and benefit from many different people with different backgrounds and expertise. Read More

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The Mushroom Body: From Architecture to Algorithm in a Learning Circuit.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2020 07 13;43:465-484. Epub 2020 Apr 13.

Janelia Research Campus, Ashburn, Virginia 20147, USA; email:

The brain contains a relatively simple circuit for forming Pavlovian associations, yet it achieves many operations common across memory systems. Recent advances have established a clear framework for learning and revealed the following key operations: ) pattern separation, whereby dense combinatorial representations of odors are preprocessed to generate highly specific, nonoverlapping odor patterns used for learning; ) convergence, in which sensory information is funneled to a small set of output neurons that guide behavioral actions; ) plasticity, where changing the mapping of sensory input to behavioral output requires a strong reinforcement signal, which is also modulated by internal state and environmental context; and ) modularization, in which a memory consists of multiple parallel traces, which are distinct in stability and flexibility and exist in anatomically well-defined modules within the network. Cross-module interactions allow for higher-order effects where past experience influences future learning. Read More

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The Neural Basis of Escape Behavior in Vertebrates.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2020 07 7;43:417-439. Epub 2020 Apr 7.

Department of Psychology, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 2LT, United Kingdom; email:

Escape is one of the most studied animal behaviors, and there is a rich normative theory that links threat properties to evasive actions and their timing. The behavioral principles of escape are evolutionarily conserved and rely on elementary computational steps such as classifying sensory stimuli and executing appropriate movements. These are common building blocks of general adaptive behaviors. Read More

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Neuromodulation of Brain State and Behavior.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2020 07 6;43:391-415. Epub 2020 Apr 6.

Departments of Neurology, Neuroscience and Physiology, and Radiology, Neuroscience Institute, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA.

Neural activity and behavior are both notoriously variable, with responses differing widely between repeated presentation of identical stimuli or trials. Recent results in humans and animals reveal that these variations are not random in their nature, but may in fact be due in large part to rapid shifts in neural, cognitive, and behavioral states. Here we review recent advances in the understanding of rapid variations in the waking state, how variations are generated, and how they modulate neural and behavioral responses in both mice and humans. Read More

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