960 results match your criteria Annual Review Of Neuroscience[Journal]


Synaptic Mechanisms Regulating Mood State Transitions in Depression.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2022 May 4. Epub 2022 May 4.

Department of Psychiatry and Feil Family Brain and Mind Research Institute, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, New York, USA; email:

Depression is an episodic form of mental illness characterized by mood state transitions with poorly understood neurobiological mechanisms. Antidepressants reverse the effects of stress and depression on synapse function, enhancing neurotransmission, increasing plasticity, and generating new synapses in stress-sensitive brain regions. These properties are shared to varying degrees by all known antidepressants, suggesting that synaptic remodeling could play a key role in depression pathophysiology and antidepressant function. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Adeno-Associated Virus Toolkit to Target Diverse Brain Cells.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2022 Apr 19. Epub 2022 Apr 19.

Division of Biology and Biological Engineering, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California, USA; email:

Recombinant adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) are commonly used gene delivery vehicles for neuroscience research. They have two engineerable features: the capsid (outer protein shell) and cargo (encapsulated genome). These features can be modified to enhance cell type or tissue tropism and control transgene expression, respectively. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Human Cerebellar Development and Transcriptomics: Implications for Neurodevelopmental Disorders.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2022 Apr 19. Epub 2022 Apr 19.

Center for Integrative Brain Research, Seattle Children's Research Institute, Seattle, Washington, USA; email:

Developmental abnormalities of the cerebellum are among the most recognized structural brain malformations in human prenatal imaging. Yet reliable information regarding their cause in humans is sparse, and few outcome studies are available to inform prognosis. We know very little about human cerebellar development, in stark contrast to the wealth of knowledge from decades of research on cerebellar developmental biology of model organisms, especially mice. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Beyond Wrapping: Canonical and Noncanonical Functions of Schwann Cells.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2022 Apr 19. Epub 2022 Apr 19.

Institute for Myelin and Glia Exploration, Departments of Biochemistry and Neurology, Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York, USA; email:

Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) are essential for the support and myelination of axons, ensuring fast and accurate communication between the central nervous system and the periphery. Schwann cells and related glia accompany innervating axons in virtually all tissues in the body, where they exhibit remarkable plasticity and the ability to modulate pathology in extraordinary, and sometimes surprising, ways. Here, we provide a brief overview of the various glial cell types in the PNS and describe the cornerstone cellular and molecular processes that enable Schwann cells to perform their canonical functions. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Microglia and Neurodevelopmental Disorders.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2022 Apr 18. Epub 2022 Apr 18.

Department of Neuroscience, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA; email:

Mounting evidence indicates that microglia, which are the resident immune cells of the brain, play critical roles in a diverse array of neurodevelopmental processes required for proper brain maturation and function. This evidence has ultimately led to growing speculation that microglial dysfunction may play a role in neurodevelopmental disorder (NDD) pathoetiology. In this review, we first provide an overview of how microglia mechanistically contribute to the sculpting of the developing brain and neuronal circuits. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Considering Organismal Physiology in Laboratory Studies of Rodent Behavior.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2022 Apr 8. Epub 2022 Apr 8.

Department of Psychology, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts, USA; email:

Any experiment conducted in a rodent laboratory is done so against the backdrop of each animal's physiological state at the time of the experiment. This physiological state can be the product of multiple factors, both internal (e.g. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Subcortical Cognition: The Fruit Below the Rind.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2022 Apr 6. Epub 2022 Apr 6.

Brain and Language Lab, Department of Neuroscience, Georgetown University, Washington, DC, USA; email:

Cognitive neuroscience has highlighted the cerebral cortex while often overlooking subcortical structures. This cortical proclivity is found in basic and translational research on many aspects of cognition, especially higher cognitive domains such as language, reading, music, and math. We suggest that, for both anatomical and evolutionary reasons, multiple subcortical structures play substantial roles across higher and lower cognition. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Neuroimmune Interactions in Peripheral Organs.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2022 Apr 1. Epub 2022 Apr 1.

Champalimaud Research, Champalimaud Centre for the Unknown, Lisbon, Portugal; email:

Interactions between the nervous and immune systems were recognized long ago, but recent studies show that this crosstalk occurs more frequently than was previously appreciated. Moreover, technological advances have enabled the identification of the molecular mediators and receptors that enable the interaction between these two complex systems and provide new insights on the role of neuroimmune crosstalk in organismal physiology. Most neuroimmune interaction occurs at discrete anatomical locations in which neurons and immune cells colocalize. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Neuromodulation and Neurophysiology on the Timescale of Learning and Decision-Making.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2022 Apr 1. Epub 2022 Apr 1.

The Solomon H. Snyder Department of Neuroscience, Brain Science Institute, and Kavli Neuroscience Discovery Institute, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA; email:

Nervous systems evolved to effectively navigate the dynamics of the environment to achieve their goals. One framework used to study this fundamental problem arose in the study of learning and decision-making. In this framework, the demands of effective behavior require slow dynamics-on the scale of seconds to minutes-of networks of neurons. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

A Theoretical Framework for Human and Nonhuman Vocal Interaction.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2022 Feb 22. Epub 2022 Feb 22.

NYU Neuroscience Institute and Department of Otolaryngology, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, NY, USA; email:

Vocal communication is a critical feature of social interaction across species; however, the relation between such behavior in humans and nonhumans remains unclear. To enable comparative investigation of this topic, we review the literature pertinent to interactive language use and identify the superset of cognitive operations involved in generating communicative action. We posit these functions comprise three intersecting multistep pathways: () the Content Pathway, which selects the movements constituting a response; () the Timing Pathway, which temporally structures responses; and () the Affect Pathway, which modulates response parameters according to internal state. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2022

Fluorescence Imaging of Neural Activity, Neurochemical Dynamics, and Drug-Specific Receptor Conformation with Genetically Encoded Sensors.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2022 Feb 22. Epub 2022 Feb 22.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine, School of Medicine, University of California, Davis, California, USA; email:

Recent advances in fluorescence imaging permit large-scale recording of neural activity and dynamics of neurochemical release with unprecedented resolution in behaving animals. Calcium imaging with highly optimized genetically encoded indicators provides a mesoscopic view of neural activity from genetically defined populations at cellular and subcellular resolutions. Rigorously improved voltage sensors and microscopy allow for robust spike imaging of populational neurons in various brain regions. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2022

Neural Algorithms and Circuits for Motor Planning.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2022 Feb 22. Epub 2022 Feb 22.

Janelia Research Campus, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Ashburn, Virginia, USA.

The brain plans and executes volitional movements. The underlying patterns of neural population activity have been explored in the context of movements of the eyes, limbs, tongue, and head in nonhuman primates and rodents. How do networks of neurons produce the slow neural dynamics that prepare specific movements and the fast dynamics that ultimately initiate these movements? Recent work exploits rapid and calibrated perturbations of neural activity to test specific dynamical systems models that are capable of producing the observed neural activity. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2022

Breathing Rhythm and Pattern and Their Influence on Emotion.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2022 Feb 8. Epub 2022 Feb 8.

Department of Neurobiology, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, USA; email:

Breathing is a vital rhythmic motor behavior with a surprisingly broad influence on the brain and body. The apparent simplicity of breathing belies a complex neural control system, the breathing central pattern generator (bCPG), that exhibits diverse operational modes to regulate gas exchange and coordinate breathing with an array of behaviors. In this review, we focus on selected advances in our understanding of the bCPG. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2022

Neural Signaling in Cancer.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2022 Feb 8. Epub 2022 Feb 8.

Department of Neurology and Neurological Sciences and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA; email:

Nervous system activity regulates development, homeostasis, and plasticity of the brain as well as other organs in the body. These mechanisms are subverted in cancer to propel malignant growth. In turn, cancers modulate neural structure and function to augment growth-promoting neural signaling in the tumor microenvironment. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2022

Clearing Your Mind: Mechanisms of Debris Clearance After Cell Death During Neural Development.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2022 Feb 28. Epub 2022 Feb 28.

Neuroscience Graduate Program, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA; email:

Neurodevelopment and efferocytosis have fascinated scientists for decades. How an organism builds a nervous system that is precisely tuned for efficient behaviors and survival and how it simultaneously manages constant somatic cell turnover are complex questions that have resulted in distinct fields of study. Although neurodevelopment requires the overproduction of cells that are subsequently pruned back, very few studies marry these fields to elucidate the cellular and molecular mechanisms that drive nervous system development through the lens of cell clearance. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2022

Mesoaccumbal Dopamine Heterogeneity: What Do Dopamine Firing and Release Have to Do with It?

Annu Rev Neurosci 2022 Feb 28. Epub 2022 Feb 28.

Department of Molecular and Cell Biology and Helen Wills Neuroscience Institute, University of California, Berkeley, California, USA; email:

Ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine (DA) neurons are often thought to uniformly encode reward prediction errors. Conversely, DA release in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), the prominent projection target of these neurons, has been implicated in reinforcement learning, motivation, aversion, and incentive salience. This contrast between heterogeneous functions of DA release versus a homogeneous role for DA neuron activity raises numerous questions regarding how VTA DA activity translates into NAc DA release. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2022

Melding Synthetic Molecules and Genetically Encoded Proteins to Forge New Tools for Neuroscience.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2022 Feb 28. Epub 2022 Feb 28.

Janelia Research Campus, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Ashburn, Virginia, USA; email:

Unraveling the complexity of the brain requires sophisticated methods to probe and perturb neurobiological processes with high spatiotemporal control. The field of chemical biology has produced general strategies to combine the molecular specificity of small-molecule tools with the cellular specificity of genetically encoded reagents. Here, we survey the application, refinement, and extension of these hybrid small-molecule:protein methods to problems in neuroscience, which yields powerful reagents to precisely measure and manipulate neural systems. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2022

Brainstem Circuits for Locomotion.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2022 Jan 5. Epub 2022 Jan 5.

Department of Neuroscience, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; email:

Locomotion is a universal motor behavior that is expressed as the output of many integrated brain functions. Locomotion is organized at several levels of the nervous system, with brainstem circuits acting as the gate between brain areas regulating innate, emotional, or motivational locomotion and executive spinal circuits. Here we review recent advances on brainstem circuits involved in controlling locomotion. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2022

Challenges of Organoid Research.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2022 Jan 5. Epub 2022 Jan 5.

Department of Neurology and Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regeneration Medicine and Stem Cell Research, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA; email:

Organoids are 3D cell culture systems derived from human pluripotent stem cells that contain tissue resident cell types and reflect features of early tissue organization. Neural organoids are a particularly innovative scientific advance given the lack of accessibility of developing human brain tissue and intractability of neurological diseases. Neural organoids have become an invaluable approach to model features of human brain development that are not well reflected in animal models. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2022

Receptor-Ribosome Coupling: A Link Between Extrinsic Signals and mRNA Translation in Neuronal Compartments.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2022 Jan 5. Epub 2022 Jan 5.

Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom; email:

Axons receive extracellular signals that help to guide growth and synapse formation during development and to maintain neuronal function and survival during maturity. These signals relay information via cell surface receptors that can initiate local intracellular signaling at the site of binding, including local messenger RNA (mRNA) translation. Direct coupling of translational machinery to receptors provides an attractive way to activate this local mRNA translation and change the local proteome with high spatiotemporal resolution. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2022

Multiple-Timescale Representations of Space: Linking Memory to Navigation.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2021 Dec 22. Epub 2021 Dec 22.

Neuroscience Program, Department of Psychology, and Volen National Center for Complex Systems, Brandeis University, Waltham, Massachusetts, USA; email:

When navigating through space, we must maintain a representation of our position in real time; when recalling a past episode, a memory can come back in a flash. Interestingly, the brain's spatial representation system, including the hippocampus, supports these two distinct timescale functions. How are neural representations of space used in the service of both real-world navigation and internal mnemonic processes? Recent progress has identified sequences of hippocampal place cells, evolving at multiple timescales in accordance with either navigational behaviors or internal oscillations, that underlie these functions. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
December 2021

Parkinson's Disease Genetics and Pathophysiology.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2021 07;44:87-108

Jan and Dan Duncan Neurological Research Institute, Texas Children's Hospital, Houston, Texas 77030, USA.

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder characterized by degeneration of the substantia nigra pars compacta and by accumulation of α-synuclein in Lewy bodies. PD is caused by a combination of environmental factors and genetic variants. These variants range from highly penetrant Mendelian alleles to alleles that only modestly increase disease risk. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Adaptive Prediction for Social Contexts: The Cerebellar Contribution to Typical and Atypical Social Behaviors.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2021 07;44:475-493

Departments of Neurology, Neuroscience, Psychiatry, and Pediatrics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390, USA; email:

Social interactions involve processes ranging from face recognition to understanding others' intentions. To guide appropriate behavior in a given context, social interactions rely on accurately predicting the outcomes of one's actions and the thoughts of others. Because social interactions are inherently dynamic, these predictions must be continuously adapted. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Neural and Molecular Mechanisms of Biological Embedding of Social Interactions.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2021 07;44:109-128

Neuroscience Program and Carl R. Woese Institute for Genomic Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801, USA; email:

Animals operate in complex environments, and salient social information is encoded in the nervous system and then processed to initiate adaptive behavior. This encoding involves biological embedding, the process by which social experience affects the brain to influence future behavior. Biological embedding is an important conceptual framework for understanding social decision-making in the brain, as it encompasses multiple levels of organization that regulate how information is encoded and used to modify behavior. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Sources of Individual Differences in Pain.

Authors:
Jeffrey S Mogil

Annu Rev Neurosci 2021 07;44:1-25

Departments of Psychology and Anesthesia, Alan Edwards Centre for Research on Pain, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 1B1, Canada; email:

Pain is an immense clinical and societal challenge, and the key to understanding and treating it is variability. Robust interindividual differences are consistently observed in pain sensitivity, susceptibility to developing painful disorders, and response to analgesic manipulations. This review examines the causes of this variability, including both organismic and environmental sources. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Physiology and Pathophysiology of Mechanically Activated PIEZO Channels.

Authors:
Ruhma Syeda

Annu Rev Neurosci 2021 07;44:383-402

Department of Neuroscience, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75235, USA; email:

Nearly all structures in our body experience mechanical forces. At a molecular scale, these forces are detected by ion channels that function as mechanotransducers converting physical forces into electrochemical responses. Here we focus on PIEZOs, a family of mechanically activated ion channels comprising PIEZO1 and PIEZO2. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Current Status of and Perspectives on the Application of Marmosets in Neurobiology.

Authors:
Hideyuki Okano

Annu Rev Neurosci 2021 07 2;44:27-48. Epub 2020 Dec 2.

Department of Physiology, Keio University School of Medicine, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582, Japan; email:

The common marmoset (), a small New World primate, is receiving substantial attention in the neuroscience and biomedical science fields because its anatomical features, functional and behavioral characteristics, and reproductive features and its amenability to available genetic modification technologies make it an attractive experimental subject. In this review, I outline the progress of marmoset neuroscience research and summarize both the current status (opportunities and limitations) of and the future perspectives on the application of marmosets in neuroscience and disease modeling. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Neurophysiology of Human Perceptual Decision-Making.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2021 07 4;44:495-516. Epub 2021 May 4.

School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering and UCD Centre for Biomedical Engineering, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland; email:

The discovery of neural signals that reflect the dynamics of perceptual decision formation has had a considerable impact. Not only do such signals enable detailed investigations of the neural implementation of the decision-making process but they also can expose key elements of the brain's decision algorithms. For a long time, such signals were only accessible through direct animal brain recordings, and progress in human neuroscience was hampered by the limitations of noninvasive recording techniques. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Spatial Transcriptomics: Molecular Maps of the Mammalian Brain.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2021 07 29;44:547-562. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm 171 77, Sweden; email:

Maps of the nervous system inspire experiments and theories in neuroscience. Advances in molecular biology over the past decades have revolutionized the definition of cell and tissue identity. Spatial transcriptomics has opened up a new era in neuroanatomy, where the unsupervised and unbiased exploration of the molecular signatures of tissue organization will give rise to a new generation of brain maps. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

How Cortical Circuits Implement Cortical Computations: Mouse Visual Cortex as a Model.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2021 07 29;44:517-546. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Physiology and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94158, USA; email:

The mouse, as a model organism to study the brain, gives us unprecedented experimental access to the mammalian cerebral cortex. By determining the cortex's cellular composition, revealing the interaction between its different components, and systematically perturbing these components, we are obtaining mechanistic insight into some of the most basic properties of cortical function. In this review, we describe recent advances in our understanding of how circuits of cortical neurons implement computations, as revealed by the study of mouse primary visual cortex. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF