1,699 results match your criteria Annual Review Of Microbiology[Journal]


Egress Across the Parasite Life Cycle.

Annu Rev Microbiol 2022 Apr 13. Epub 2022 Apr 13.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine; and Department of Molecular Microbiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, USA; email:

Human malaria, caused by infection with parasites, remains one of the most important global public health problems, with the World Health Organization reporting more than 240 million cases and 600,000 deaths annually as of 2020 (). Our understanding of the biology of these parasites is critical for development of effective therapeutics and prophylactics, including both antimalarials and vaccines. is a protozoan organism that is intracellular for most of its life cycle. Read More

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Metabolic Reprogramming and Longevity in Quiescence.

Annu Rev Microbiol 2022 Apr 13. Epub 2022 Apr 13.

Department of Microbiology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA; email:

Since Jacques Monod's foundational work in the 1940s, investigators studying bacterial physiology have largely (but not exclusively) focused on the exponential phase of bacterial cultures, which is characterized by rapid growth and high biosynthesis activity in the presence of excess nutrients. However, this is not the predominant state of bacterial life. In nature, most bacteria experience nutrient limitation most of the time. Read More

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My Personal Journey from the Fascination for Phages to a Tumor-Inducing Fungal Pathogen of Corn.

Authors:
Regine Kahmann

Annu Rev Microbiol 2022 Apr 8. Epub 2022 Apr 8.

Max Planck Institute for Terrestrial Microbiology, Marburg, Germany; email:

My path in science began with a fascination for microbiology and phages and later involved a switch of subjects to the fungus and how it causes disease in maize. I will not provide a review of my work but rather focus on decisive findings, serendipitous, lucky moments when major advances made the -maize system what it is now-a well-established model for biotrophic fungi. I also want to share with you the joy of finding the needle in a haystack at the very end of my scientific career, a fungal structure likely used for effector delivery, and how we were able to translate this into a potential application in agriculture. Read More

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The Versatile Roles of Type III Secretion Systems in Rhizobia-Legume Symbioses.

Annu Rev Microbiol 2022 Apr 8. Epub 2022 Apr 8.

Laboratoire des Symbioses Tropicales et Méditerranéennes (LSTM), IRD, Institut Agro, INRAE, Université de Montpellier, and CIRAD, Montpellier, France; email:

To suppress plant immunity and promote the intracellular infection required for fixing nitrogen for the benefit of their legume hosts, many rhizobia use type III secretion systems (T3SSs) that deliver effector proteins (T3Es) inside host cells. As reported for interactions between pathogens and host plants, the immune system of legume hosts and the cocktail of T3Es secreted by rhizobia determine the symbiotic outcome. If they remain undetected, T3Es may reduce plant immunity and thus promote infection of legumes by rhizobia. Read More

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Toxin-Antitoxin Systems as Phage Defense Elements.

Annu Rev Microbiol 2022 Apr 8. Epub 2022 Apr 8.

Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA; email:

Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are ubiquitous genetic elements in bacteria that consist of a growth-inhibiting toxin and its cognate antitoxin. These systems are prevalent in bacterial chromosomes, plasmids, and phage genomes, but individual systems are not highly conserved, even among closely related strains. The biological functions of TA systems have been controversial and enigmatic, although a handful of these systems have been shown to defend bacteria against their viral predators, bacteriophages. Read More

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Cell Wall Biology of .

Annu Rev Microbiol 2021 10;75:151-174

Department of Molecular Biology and Laboratory for Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS), Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR), Umeå University, Umeå SE-90187, Sweden; email:

Most bacteria are protected from environmental offenses by a cell wall consisting of strong yet elastic peptidoglycan. The cell wall is essential for preserving bacterial morphology and viability, and thus the enzymes involved in the production and turnover of peptidoglycan have become preferred targets for many of our most successful antibiotics. In the past decades, , the gram-negative pathogen causing the diarrheal disease cholera, has become a major model for understanding cell wall genetics, biochemistry, and physiology. Read More

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October 2021

Introduction.

Authors:
Susan Gottesman

Annu Rev Microbiol 2021 10;75

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October 2021

Deciphering the Chitin Code in Plant Symbiosis, Defense, and Microbial Networks.

Annu Rev Microbiol 2021 10;75:583-607

Department of Bacteriology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA; email:

Chitin is a structural polymer in many eukaryotes. Many organisms can degrade chitin to defend against chitinous pathogens or use chitin oligomers as food. Beneficial microorganisms like nitrogen-fixing symbiotic rhizobia and mycorrhizal fungi produce chitin-based signal molecules called lipo-chitooligosaccharides (LCOs) and short chitin oligomers to initiate a symbiotic relationship with their compatible hosts and exchange nutrients. Read More

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October 2021

Cellular Adaptations to Cytoplasmic Mg Limitation.

Annu Rev Microbiol 2021 10;75:649-672

Department of Microbial Pathogenesis, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06536, USA; email:

Mg is the most abundant divalent cation in living cells. It is essential for charge neutralization, macromolecule stabilization, and the assembly and activity of ribosomes and as a cofactor for enzymatic reactions. When experiencing low cytoplasmic Mg, bacteria adopt two main strategies: They increase the abundance and activity of Mg importers and decrease the abundance of Mg-chelating ATP and rRNA. Read More

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October 2021

The Bacterial Hsp90 Chaperone: Cellular Functions and Mechanism of Action.

Annu Rev Microbiol 2021 10 10;75:719-739. Epub 2021 Aug 10.

Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS, Laboratoire de Bioénergétique et Ingénierie des Protéines, Institut de Microbiologie de la Méditerranée, 13009 Marseille, France; email:

Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is a molecular chaperone that folds and remodels proteins, thereby regulating the activity of numerous substrate proteins. Hsp90 is widely conserved across species and is essential in all eukaryotes and in some bacteria under stress conditions. To facilitate protein remodeling, bacterial Hsp90 collaborates with the Hsp70 molecular chaperone and its cochaperones. Read More

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October 2021

Growth and Division of the Peptidoglycan Matrix.

Annu Rev Microbiol 2021 10 5;75:315-336. Epub 2021 Aug 5.

Department of Microbiology, Blavatnik Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA; email:

Most bacteria are surrounded by a peptidoglycan cell wall that defines their shape and protects them from osmotic lysis. The expansion and division of this structure therefore plays an integral role in bacterial growth and division. Additionally, the biogenesis of the peptidoglycan layer is the target of many of our most effective antibiotics. Read More

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October 2021

Evolution and Physiology of Amphibious Yeasts.

Annu Rev Microbiol 2021 10 5;75:337-357. Epub 2021 Aug 5.

School of Life Sciences, University of Hawai'i at Mānoa, Honolulu, Hawaii 96822, USA; email:

Since the emergence of the first fungi some 700 million years ago, unicellular yeast-like forms have emerged multiple times in independent lineages via convergent evolution. While tens to hundreds of millions of years separate the independent evolution of these unicellular organisms, they share remarkable phenotypic and metabolic similarities, and all have streamlined genomes. Yeasts occur in every aquatic environment yet examined. Read More

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October 2021

Life in the Dark: Phylogenetic and Physiological Diversity of Chemosynthetic Symbioses.

Annu Rev Microbiol 2021 10 5;75:695-718. Epub 2021 Aug 5.

Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology, 28359, Bremen, Germany; email:

Possibly the last discovery of a previously unknown major ecosystem on Earth was made just over half a century ago, when researchers found teaming communities of animals flourishing two and a half kilometers below the ocean surface at hydrothermal vents. We now know that these highly productive ecosystems are based on nutritional symbioses between chemosynthetic bacteria and eukaryotes and that these chemosymbioses are ubiquitous in both deep-sea and shallow-water environments. The symbionts are primary producers that gain energy from the oxidation of reduced compounds, such as sulfide and methane, to fix carbon dioxide or methane into biomass to feed their hosts. Read More

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October 2021

Expanding Archaeal Diversity and Phylogeny: Past, Present, and Future.

Annu Rev Microbiol 2021 10 5;75:359-381. Epub 2021 Aug 5.

Laboratory of Microbiology, Wageningen University and Research, 6700 EH Wageningen, The Netherlands; email:

The discovery of the Archaea is a major scientific hallmark of the twentieth century. Since then, important features of their cell biology, physiology, ecology, and diversity have been revealed. Over the course of some 40 years, the diversity of known archaea has expanded from 2 to about 30 phyla comprising over 20,000 species. Read More

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October 2021

Virulence and Pathogenicity of Chytrid Fungi Causing Amphibian Extinctions.

Annu Rev Microbiol 2021 10 5;75:673-693. Epub 2021 Aug 5.

Wildlife Health Ghent, Department of Pathology, Bacteriology and Avian Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, B-9820 Merelbeke, Belgium.

Ancient enzootic associations between wildlife and their infections allow evolution to innovate mechanisms of pathogenicity that are counterbalanced by host responses. However, erosion of barriers to pathogen dispersal by globalization leads to the infection of hosts that have not evolved effective resistance and the emergence of highly virulent infections. Global amphibian declines driven by the rise of chytrid fungi and chytridiomycosis are emblematic of emerging infections. Read More

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October 2021

Bacterial Outer Membrane Vesicles: From Discovery to Applications.

Annu Rev Microbiol 2021 10 5;75:609-630. Epub 2021 Aug 5.

Laboratory of Bacterial Polysaccharides, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, Maryland 20993, USA; email:

Secretion of cellular components across the plasma membrane is an essential process that enables organisms to interact with their environments. Production of extracellular vesicles in bacteria is a well-documented but poorly understood process. Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are produced in gram-negative bacteria by blebbing of the outer membrane. Read More

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October 2021

Quorum Sensing in Fungal Species.

Annu Rev Microbiol 2021 10 4;75:449-469. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

State Key Laboratory of Mycology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China; email:

Quorum sensing (QS) is one of the most studied cell-cell communication mechanisms in fungi. Research in the last 20 years has explored various fungal QS systems that are involved in a wide range of biological processes, especially eukaryote- or fungus-specific behaviors, mirroring the significant contribution of QS regulation to fungal biology and evolution. Based on recent progress, we summarize in this review fungal QS regulation, with an emphasis on its functional role in behaviors unique to fungi or eukaryotes. Read More

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October 2021

Transcriptional Pausing as a Mediator of Bacterial Gene Regulation.

Authors:
Robert Landick

Annu Rev Microbiol 2021 10 4;75:291-314. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Department of Biochemistry and Department of Bacteriology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA; email:

Cellular life depends on transcription of DNA by RNA polymerase to express genetic information. RNA polymerase has evolved not just to read information from DNA and write it to RNA but also to sense and process information from the cellular and extracellular environments. Much of this information processing occurs during transcript elongation, when transcriptional pausing enables regulatory decisions. Read More

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October 2021

Trypanosome Signaling-Quorum Sensing.

Authors:
Keith R Matthews

Annu Rev Microbiol 2021 10 4;75:495-514. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Institute for Immunology and Infection Research, Ashworth Laboratories, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3FL, United Kingdom; email:

African trypanosomes are responsible for important diseases of humans and animals in sub-Saharan Africa. The best-studied species is , which is characterized by development in the mammalian host between morphologically slender and stumpy forms. The latter are adapted for transmission by the parasite's vector, the tsetse fly. Read More

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October 2021

Causative Microbes in Host-Microbiome Interactions.

Annu Rev Microbiol 2021 10 4;75:223-242. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Precision Immunology Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029, USA; email:

Despite identification of numerous associations between microbiomes and diseases, the complexity of the human microbiome has hindered identification of individual species and strains that are causative in host phenotype or disease. Uncovering causative microbes is vital to fully understand disease processes and to harness the potential therapeutic benefits of microbiota manipulation. Developments in sequencing technology, animal models, and bacterial culturing have facilitated the discovery of specific microbes that impact the host and are beginning to advance the characterization of host-microbiome interaction mechanisms. Read More

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October 2021

Hostile Takeover: How Viruses Reprogram Prokaryotic Metabolism.

Annu Rev Microbiol 2021 10 4;75:515-539. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Department of Bacteriology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA; email:

To reproduce, prokaryotic viruses must hijack the cellular machinery of their hosts and redirect it toward the production of viral particles. While takeover of the host replication and protein synthesis apparatus has long been considered an essential feature of infection, recent studies indicate that extensive reprogramming of host primary metabolism is a widespread phenomenon among prokaryotic viruses that is required to fulfill the biosynthetic needs of virion production. In this review we provide an overview of the most significant recent findings regarding virus-induced reprogramming of prokaryotic metabolism and suggest how quantitative systems biology approaches may be used to provide a holistic understanding of metabolic remodeling during lytic viral infection. Read More

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October 2021

Quantitative Control for Stoichiometric Protein Synthesis.

Annu Rev Microbiol 2021 10 3;75:243-267. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA; email:

Bacterial protein synthesis rates have evolved to maintain preferred stoichiometries at striking precision, from the components of protein complexes to constituents of entire pathways. Setting relative protein production rates to be well within a factor of two requires concerted tuning of transcription, RNA turnover, and translation, allowing many potential regulatory strategies to achieve the preferred output. The last decade has seen a greatly expanded capacity for precise interrogation of each step of the central dogma genome-wide. Read More

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October 2021

The Type VII Secretion System of .

Annu Rev Microbiol 2021 10 3;75:471-494. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Microbes in Health and Disease Theme, Newcastle University Biosciences Institute, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE2 4HH, United Kingdom; email:

The type VII protein secretion system (T7SS) of is encoded at the locus. T7 substrate recognition and protein transport are mediated by EssC, a membrane-bound multidomain ATPase. Four EssC sequence variants have been identified across strains, each accompanied by a specific suite of substrate proteins. Read More

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October 2021

Antimicrobial Activity of Metals and Metalloids.

Annu Rev Microbiol 2021 10 3;75:175-197. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Institute of Environmental Microbiology, College of Resources and Environment, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou 350002, China; email:

Competition shapes evolution. Toxic metals and metalloids have exerted selective pressure on life since the rise of the first organisms on the Earth, which has led to the evolution and acquisition of resistance mechanisms against them, as well as mechanisms to weaponize them. Microorganisms exploit antimicrobial metals and metalloids to gain competitive advantage over other members of microbial communities. Read More

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October 2021

Two P or Not Two P: Understanding Regulation by the Bacterial Second Messengers (p)ppGpp.

Annu Rev Microbiol 2021 10 3;75:383-406. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

SYNMIKRO Research Center, Philipps-University Marburg, 35043 Marburg, Germany; email:

Under stressful growth conditions and nutrient starvation, bacteria adapt by synthesizing signaling molecules that profoundly reprogram cellular physiology. At the onset of this process, called the stringent response, members of the RelA/SpoT homolog (RSH) protein superfamily are activated by specific stress stimuli to produce several hyperphosphorylated forms of guanine nucleotides, commonly referred to as (p)ppGpp. Some bifunctional RSH enzymes also harbor domains that allow for degradation of (p)ppGpp by hydrolysis. Read More

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October 2021

Multiscale Dynamic Structuring of Bacterial Chromosomes.

Annu Rev Microbiol 2021 10 3;75:541-561. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Université Paris-Saclay, CEA, CNRS, Institute for Integrative Biology of the Cell (I2BC), 91198 Gif-sur-Yvette, France; email:

Since the nucleoid was isolated from bacteria in the 1970s, two fundamental questions emerged and are still in the spotlight: how bacteria organize their chromosomes to fit inside the cell and how nucleoid organization enables essential biological processes. During the last decades, knowledge of bacterial chromosome organization has advanced considerably, and today, such chromosomes are considered to be highly organized and dynamic structures that are shaped by multiple factors in a multiscale manner. Here we review not only the classical well-known factors involved in chromosome organization but also novel components that have recently been shown to dynamically shape the 3D structuring of the bacterial genome. Read More

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October 2021

Bacterial Multicellularity: The Biology of Building Large-Scale Biofilm Communities.

Annu Rev Microbiol 2021 10 3;75:269-290. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Institut für Biologie/Mikrobiologie, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, 10115 Berlin, Germany; email:

Biofilms are a widespread multicellular form of bacterial life. The spatial structure and emergent properties of these communities depend on a polymeric extracellular matrix architecture that is orders of magnitude larger than the cells that build it. Using as a model the wrinkly macrocolony biofilms of , which contain amyloid curli fibers and phosphoethanolamine (pEtN)-modified cellulose as matrix components, we summarize here the structure, building, and function of this large-scale matrix architecture. Read More

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October 2021

Origin and Early Evolution of the Eukaryotic Cell.

Authors:
Toni Gabaldón

Annu Rev Microbiol 2021 10 3;75:631-647. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Barcelona Supercomputing Centre (BCS-CNS), 08034 Barcelona, Spain; email:

The origin of eukaryotes has been defined as the major evolutionary transition since the origin of life itself. Most hallmark traits of eukaryotes, such as their intricate intracellular organization, can be traced back to a putative common ancestor that predated the broad diversity of extant eukaryotes. However, little is known about the nature and relative order of events that occurred in the path from preexisting prokaryotes to this already sophisticated ancestor. Read More

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October 2021

Imaging Infection Across Scales of Size: From Whole Animals to Single Molecules.

Authors:
Eric P Skaar

Annu Rev Microbiol 2021 10 3;75:407-426. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Vanderbilt Institute for Infection, Immunology, and Inflammation, Department of Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee 37232, USA; email:

Infectious diseases are a leading cause of global morbidity and mortality, and the threat of infectious diseases to human health is steadily increasing as new diseases emerge, existing diseases reemerge, and antimicrobial resistance expands. The application of imaging technology to the study of infection biology has the potential to uncover new factors that are critical to the outcome of host-pathogen interactions and to lead to innovations in diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases. This article reviews current and future opportunities for the application of imaging to the study of infectious diseases, with a particular focus on the power of imaging objects across a broad range of sizes to expand the utility of these approaches. Read More

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October 2021

Molecular Basis of Lysis-Lysogeny Decisions in Gram-Positive Phages.

Annu Rev Microbiol 2021 10 3;75:563-581. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Institute of Infection, Immunity and Inflammation, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8TA, United Kingdom; email:

Temperate bacteriophages (phages) are viruses of bacteria. Upon infection of a susceptible host, a temperate phage can establish either a lytic cycle that kills the host or a lysogenic cycle as a stable prophage. The life cycle pursued by an infecting temperate phage can have a significant impact not only on the individual host bacterium at the cellular level but also on bacterial communities and evolution in the ecosystem. Read More

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October 2021