256 results match your criteria Annual Review Of Marine Science[Journal]


Amazon Sediment Transport and Accumulation Along the Continuum of Mixed Fluvial and Marine Processes.

Ann Rev Mar Sci 2020 Jul 7. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

School of Oceanography, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA; email:

Sediment transfer from land to ocean begins in coastal settings and, for large rivers such as the Amazon, has dramatic impacts over thousands of kilometers covering diverse environmental conditions. In the relatively natural Amazon tidal river, combinations of fluvial and marine processes transition toward the ocean, affecting the transport and accumulation of sediment in floodplains and tributary mouths. The enormous discharge of Amazon fresh water causes estuarine processes to occur on the continental shelf, where much sediment accumulation creates a large clinoform structure and where additional sediment accumulates along its shoreward boundary in tidal flats and mangrove forests. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-marine-010816-060457DOI Listing

Variations in Ocean Mixing from Seconds to Years.

Authors:
James N Moum

Ann Rev Mar Sci 2020 Jun 29. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

College of Earth, Ocean, and Atmospheric Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon 97370-5503, USA; email:

Over the past several decades, there has developed a community-wide appreciation for the importance of mixing at the smallest scales to geophysical fluid dynamics on all scales. This appreciation has spawned greater participation in the investigation of ocean mixing and new ways to measure it. These are welcome developments given the tremendous separation in scales between the basins, đ’Ș(10) m, and the turbulence, đ’Ș (10) m, and the fact that turbulence that leads to thermodynamically irreversible mixing in high-Reynolds-number geophysical flows varies by at least eight orders of magnitude in both space and time. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-marine-031920-122846DOI Listing

The Hydrodynamics of Jellyfish Swimming.

Ann Rev Mar Sci 2020 Jun 29. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Oregon Institute of Marine Biology, University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon 97403, USA; email:

Jellyfish have provided insight into important components of animal propulsion, such as suction thrust, passive energy recapture, vortex wall effects, and the rotational mechanics of turning. These traits are critically important to jellyfish because they must propel themselves despite severe limitations on force production imposed by rudimentary cnidarian muscular structures. Consequently, jellyfish swimming can occur only by careful orchestration of fluid interactions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-marine-031120-091442DOI Listing

Marine Parasites and Disease in the Era of Global Climate Change.

Authors:
James E Byers

Ann Rev Mar Sci 2020 Jun 10. Epub 2020 Jun 10.

Odum School of Ecology, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602, USA; email:

Climate change affects ecological processes and interactions, including parasitism. Because parasites are natural components of ecological systems, as well as agents of outbreak and disease-induced mortality, it is important to summarize current knowledge of the sensitivity of parasites to climate and identify how to better predict their responses to it. This need is particularly great in marine systems, where the responses of parasites to climate variables are less well studied than those in other biomes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-marine-031920-100429DOI Listing

Ocean Optimism: Moving Beyond the Obituaries in Marine Conservation.

Authors:
Nancy Knowlton

Ann Rev Mar Sci 2020 Jun 5. Epub 2020 Jun 5.

National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC 20560, USA; email:

While the ocean has suffered many losses, there is increasing evidence that important progress is being made in marine conservation. Examples include striking recoveries of once-threatened species, increasing rates of protection of marine habitats, more sustainably managed fisheries and aquaculture, reductions in some forms of pollution, accelerating restoration of degraded habitats, and use of the ocean and its habitats to sequester carbon and provide clean energy. Many of these achievements have multiple benefits, including improved human well-being. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-marine-040220-101608DOI Listing

Right Place, Right Time: An Informal Memoir.

Authors:
Carl Wunsch

Ann Rev Mar Sci 2020 Jun 5. Epub 2020 Jun 5.

Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA; email:

My career spanned the revolution in understanding of the large-scale fluid ocean, as modern electronics produced vast new capabilities. I started in the days of almost purely mechanical instruments operated by seagoing scientists, ones not so different from those used more than a century earlier. Elegant theories existed of hypothetical steady-state oceans. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-marine-021320-125821DOI Listing

The Biological Pump During the Last Glacial Maximum.

Ann Rev Mar Sci 2020 Jan;12:559-586

Godwin Laboratory for Palaeoclimate Research, Department of Earth Sciences, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EQ, United Kingdom; email:

Much of the global cooling during ice ages arose from changes in ocean carbon storage that lowered atmospheric CO. A slew of mechanisms, both physical and biological, have been proposed as key drivers of these changes. Here we discuss the current understanding of these mechanisms with a focus on how they altered the theoretically defined soft-tissue and biological disequilibrium carbon storage at the peak of the last ice age. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-marine-010419-010906DOI Listing
January 2020

Introduction.

Authors:

Ann Rev Mar Sci 2020 Jan;12

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-ma-12-092719-100001DOI Listing
January 2020

Phytoplankton in the Ocean.

Ann Rev Mar Sci 2020 01;12:233-265

Institut de Biologie de l'École Normale SupĂ©rieure (IBENS), DĂ©partement de Biologie, École Normale SupĂ©rieure, CNRS, INSERM, UniversitĂ© de Recherche Paris Sciences et Lettres (UniversitĂ© PSL), 75005 Paris, France; email:

Photosynthesis evolved in the ocean more than 2 billion years ago and is now performed by a wide range of evolutionarily distinct organisms, including both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Our appreciation of their abundance, distributions, and contributions to primary production in the ocean has been increasing since they were first discovered in the seventeenth century and has now been enhanced by data emerging from the Oceans project, which performed a comprehensive worldwide sampling of plankton in the upper layers of the ocean between 2009 and 2013. Largely using recent data from Oceans, here we review the geographic distributions of phytoplankton in the global ocean and their diversity, abundance, and standing stock biomass. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-marine-010419-010706DOI Listing
January 2020

Upwelling Bays: How Coastal Upwelling Controls Circulation, Habitat, and Productivity in Bays.

Authors:
John L Largier

Ann Rev Mar Sci 2020 Jan 17;12:415-447. Epub 2019 Sep 17.

Department of Environmental Science and Policy, University of California, Davis, California 95616, USA.

Bays in coastal upwelling regions are physically driven and biochemically fueled by their interaction with open coastal waters. Wind-driven flow over the shelf imposes a circulation in the bay, which is also influenced by local wind stress and thermal bay-ocean density differences. Three types of bays are recognized based on the degree of exposure to coastal currents and winds (wide-open bays, square bays, and elongated bays), and the characteristic circulation and stratification patterns of each type are described. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-marine-010419-011020DOI Listing
January 2020

A 50-Year Journey from Phosphate to Autonomous Underwater Vehicles.

Authors:
Mary Jane Perry

Ann Rev Mar Sci 2020 01 16;12:1-22. Epub 2019 Sep 16.

School of Marine Sciences, University of Maine, Orono, Maine 04469, USA; email:

This narrative is a personal account of my evolution as a student of phytoplankton and the ocean. Initially I focused on phytoplankton nutrient physiology and uptake, later switching to photosynthetic physiology. Better models of photosynthesis naturally require a better understanding of spectral underwater light fields and absorption coefficients, which precipitated my involvement in the nascent field of bio-optical oceanography. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-marine-010419-010945DOI Listing
January 2020
1 Read

Vascular Plants Are Globally Significant Contributors to Marine Carbon Fluxes and Sinks.

Ann Rev Mar Sci 2020 Jan 10;12:469-497. Epub 2019 Sep 10.

Department of Biochemistry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1QW, United Kingdom; email:

More than two-thirds of global biomass consists of vascular plants. A portion of the detritus they generate is carried into the oceans from land and highly productive blue carbon ecosystems-salt marshes, mangrove forests, and seagrass meadows. This large detrital input receives scant attention in current models of the global carbon cycle, though for blue carbon ecosystems, increasingly well-constrained estimates of biomass, productivity, and carbon fluxes, reviewed in this article, are now available. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-marine-010318-095333DOI Listing
January 2020

Climate-Driven Shifts in Marine Species Ranges: Scaling from Organisms to Communities.

Ann Rev Mar Sci 2020 01 10;12:153-179. Epub 2019 Sep 10.

Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Natural Resources, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey 08901, USA; email:

The geographic distributions of marine species are changing rapidly, with leading range edges following climate poleward, deeper, and in other directions and trailing range edges often contracting in similar directions. These shifts have their roots in fine-scale interactions between organisms and their environment-including mosaics and gradients of temperature and oxygen-mediated by physiology, behavior, evolution, dispersal, and species interactions. These shifts reassemble food webs and can have dramatic consequences. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-marine-010419-010916DOI Listing
January 2020

The Nutritional Ecology of Marine Apex Predators.

Ann Rev Mar Sci 2020 Jan 5;12:361-387. Epub 2019 Sep 5.

Charles Perkins Centre, The University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales 2006, Australia; email:

Apex predators play pivotal roles in marine ecosystems, mediated principally through diet and nutrition. Yet, compared with terrestrial animals, the nutritional ecology of marine predators is poorly understood. One reason is that the field has adhered to an approach that evaluates diet principally in terms of energy gain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-marine-010318-095411DOI Listing
January 2020

Changing Tides: The Role of Natural and Anthropogenic Factors.

Ann Rev Mar Sci 2020 01 3;12:121-151. Epub 2019 Sep 3.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Portland State University, Portland, Oregon 97207, USA.

Tides are changing worldwide at rates not explained by astronomical forcing. Rather, the observed evolution of tides and other long waves, such as storm surges, is influenced by shelf processes and changes to the roughness, depth, width, and length of embayments, estuaries, and tidal rivers. In this review, we focus on processes in estuaries and tidal rivers, because that is where the largest changes to tidal properties are occurring. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-marine-010419-010727DOI Listing
January 2020
1 Read

Evolution, Microbes, and Changing Ocean Conditions.

Ann Rev Mar Sci 2020 01 26;12:181-208. Epub 2019 Aug 26.

Climate Change Cluster, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales 2007, Australia; email:

Experimental evolution and the associated theory are underutilized in marine microbial studies; the two fields have developed largely in isolation. Here, we review evolutionary tools for addressing four key areas of ocean global change biology: linking plastic and evolutionary trait changes, the contribution of environmental variability to determining trait values, the role of multiple environmental drivers in trait change, and the fate of populations near their tolerance limits. Wherever possible, we highlight which data from marine studies could use evolutionary approaches and where marine model systems can advance our understanding of evolution. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-marine-010318-095311DOI Listing
January 2020
7 Reads

Glacial-Interglacial Precipitation Changes.

Authors:
David McGee

Ann Rev Mar Sci 2020 Jan 26;12:525-557. Epub 2019 Aug 26.

Department of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA; email:

Glacial-interglacial cycles have constituted a primary mode of climate variability over the last 2.6 million years of Earth's history. While glacial periods cannot be seen simply as a reverse analogue of future warming, they offer an opportunity to test our understanding of the response of precipitation patterns to a much wider range of conditions than we have been able to directly observe. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-marine-010419-010859DOI Listing
January 2020

Ocean Acidification and Coastal Marine Invertebrates: Tracking CO Effects from Seawater to the Cell.

Ann Rev Mar Sci 2020 Jan 26;12:499-523. Epub 2019 Aug 26.

Department of Biological Sciences, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, California 93407, USA; email:

In the last few decades, numerous studies have investigated the impacts of simulated ocean acidification on marine species and communities, particularly those inhabiting dynamic coastal systems. Despite these research efforts, there are many gaps in our understanding, particularly with respect to physiological mechanisms that lead to pathologies. In this review, we trace how carbonate system disturbances propagate from the coastal environment into marine invertebrates and highlight mechanistic links between these disturbances and organism function. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-marine-010419-010658DOI Listing
January 2020

Observing the Global Ocean with Biogeochemical-Argo.

Ann Rev Mar Sci 2020 01 21;12:23-48. Epub 2019 Aug 21.

Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, Moss Landing, California 95039, USA; email:

Biogeochemical-Argo (BGC-Argo) is a network of profiling floats carrying sensors that enable observation of as many as six essential biogeochemical and bio-optical variables: oxygen, nitrate, pH, chlorophyll , suspended particles, and downwelling irradiance. This sensor network represents today's most promising strategy for collecting temporally and vertically resolved observations of biogeochemical properties throughout the ocean. All data are freely available within 24 hours of transmission. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-marine-010419-010956DOI Listing
January 2020
3 Reads

GEOTRACES: Accelerating Research on the Marine Biogeochemical Cycles of Trace Elements and Their Isotopes.

Ann Rev Mar Sci 2020 01 23;12:49-85. Epub 2019 Jul 23.

Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University, Palisades, New York 10964, USA; email:

The biogeochemical cycles of trace elements and their isotopes (TEIs) constitute an active area of oceanographic research due to their role as essential nutrients for marine organisms and their use as tracers of oceanographic processes. Selected TEIs also provide diagnostic information about the physical, geological, and chemical processes that supply or remove solutes in the ocean. Many of these same TEIs provide information about ocean conditions in the past, as their imprint on marine sediments can be interpreted to reflect changes in ocean circulation, biological productivity, the ocean carbon cycle, and more. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-marine-010318-095123DOI Listing
January 2020

Antarctic Futures: An Assessment of Climate-Driven Changes in Ecosystem Structure, Function, and Service Provisioning in the Southern Ocean.

Ann Rev Mar Sci 2020 01 23;12:87-120. Epub 2019 Jul 23.

Tyndall Centre, School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ, United Kingdom.

In this article, we analyze the impacts of climate change on Antarctic marine ecosystems. Observations demonstrate large-scale changes in the physical variables and circulation of the Southern Ocean driven by warming, stratospheric ozone depletion, and a positive Southern Annular Mode. Alterations in the physical environment are driving change through all levels of Antarctic marine food webs, which differ regionally. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-marine-010419-011028DOI Listing
January 2020

NanoSIMS: Microscale Quantification of Biogeochemical Activity with Large-Scale Impacts.

Authors:
Xavier Mayali

Ann Rev Mar Sci 2020 Jan 12;12:449-467. Epub 2019 Jul 12.

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550, USA; email:

One major objective of aquatic microbial ecology is to understand the distribution of microbial populations over space and time and in response to environmental factors. Perhaps more importantly, it is crucial to quantify how those microbial cells affect biogeochemical processes of interest, such as primary production, nitrogen cycling, or the breakdown of pollutants. One valuable approach to link microbial identity to activity is to carry out incubations with stable-isotope-labeled substrates and then quantify the isotope incorporation by individual microbial cells using nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-marine-010419-010714DOI Listing
January 2020

The Role of Symbioses in the Adaptation and Stress Responses of Marine Organisms.

Authors:
Amy Apprill

Ann Rev Mar Sci 2020 01 5;12:291-314. Epub 2019 Jul 5.

Department of Marine Chemistry and Geochemistry, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts 02543, USA; email:

Ocean ecosystems are experiencing unprecedented rates of climate and anthropogenic change, which can often initiate stress in marine organisms. Symbioses, or associations between different organisms, are plentiful in the ocean and could play a significant role in facilitating organismal adaptations to stressful ocean conditions. This article reviews current knowledge about the role of symbiosis in marine organismal acclimation and adaptation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-marine-010419-010641DOI Listing
January 2020

Improving Predictions of Salt Marsh Evolution Through Better Integration of Data and Models.

Ann Rev Mar Sci 2020 Jan 5;12:389-413. Epub 2019 Jul 5.

Virginia Institute of Marine Science, College of William and Mary, Gloucester Point, Virginia 23062, USA; email:

Salt marshes are recognized as valuable resources that are threatened by climate change and human activities. Better management and planning for these ecosystems will depend on understanding which marshes are most vulnerable, what is driving their change, and what their future trajectory is likely to be. Both observations and models have provided inconsistent answers to these questions, likely in part because of comparisons among sites and/or models that differ significantly in their characteristics and processes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-marine-010419-010610DOI Listing
January 2020

The North Atlantic Ecosystem, from Plankton to Whales.

Ann Rev Mar Sci 2020 Jan 21;12:339-359. Epub 2019 Jul 21.

Virginia Institute for Marine Sciences, Gloucester Point, Virginia 23062, USA; email:

Compared with terrestrial ecosystems, marine ecosystems have a higher proportion of heterotrophic biomass. Building from this observation, we define the North Atlantic biome as the region where the large, lipid-rich copepod is the dominant mesozooplankton species. This species is superbly adapted to take advantage of the intense pulse of productivity associated with the North Atlantic spring bloom. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-marine-010419-010752DOI Listing
January 2020
7 Reads

Combining Molecular Observations and Microbial Ecosystem Modeling: A Practical Guide.

Ann Rev Mar Sci 2020 01 21;12:267-289. Epub 2019 Jun 21.

Specialty Area of Water Quality Engineering (Wasserreinhaltung), Institute of Environmental Science and Engineering, Technical University of Berlin, 10623 Berlin, Germany; email:

Advances in technologies for molecular observation are leading to novel types of data, including gene, transcript, protein, and metabolite levels, which are fundamentally different from the types traditionally compared with microbial ecosystem models, such as biomass (e.g., chlorophyll ) and nutrient concentrations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-marine-010419-010829DOI Listing
January 2020
8 Reads

The Emerging Ecological and Biogeochemical Importance of Sponges on Coral Reefs.

Ann Rev Mar Sci 2020 01 21;12:315-337. Epub 2019 Jun 21.

Department of Biology and Marine Biology and Center for Marine Science, University of North Carolina Wilmington, Wilmington, North Carolina 28409, USA; email:

With the decline of reef-building corals on tropical reefs, sponges have emerged as an important component of changing coral reef ecosystems. Seemingly simple, sponges are highly diverse taxonomically, morphologically, and in terms of their relationships with symbiotic microbes, and they are one of nature's richest sources of novel secondary metabolites. Unlike most other benthic organisms, sponges have the capacity to disrupt boundary flow as they pump large volumes of seawater into the water column. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-marine-010419-010807DOI Listing
January 2020
1 Read

Marine Microbial Assemblages on Microplastics: Diversity, Adaptation, and Role in Degradation.

Ann Rev Mar Sci 2020 01 21;12:209-232. Epub 2019 Jun 21.

Department of Biological Oceanography, Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research WarnemĂŒnde (IOW), D-18119 Rostock, Germany; email:

We have known for more than 45 years that microplastics in the ocean are carriers of microbially dominated assemblages. However, only recently has the role of microbial interactions with microplastics in marine ecosystems been investigated in detail. Research in this field has focused on three main areas: () the establishment of plastic-specific biofilms (the so-called plastisphere); () enrichment of pathogenic bacteria, particularly members of the genus , coupled to a vector function of microplastics; and () the microbial degradation of microplastics in the marine environment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-marine-010419-010633DOI Listing
January 2020
3 Reads

Climate Change, Coral Loss, and the Curious Case of the Parrotfish Paradigm: Why Don't Marine Protected Areas Improve Reef Resilience?

Ann Rev Mar Sci 2019 01;11:307-334

St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center, US Geological Survey, St. Petersburg, Florida 33701, USA.

Scientists have advocated for local interventions, such as creating marine protected areas and implementing fishery restrictions, as ways to mitigate local stressors to limit the effects of climate change on reef-building corals. However, in a literature review, we find little empirical support for the notion of managed resilience. We outline some reasons for why marine protected areas and the protection of herbivorous fish (especially parrotfish) have had little effect on coral resilience. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-marine-010318-095300DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Biologically Generated Mixing in the Ocean.

Authors:
Eric Kunze

Ann Rev Mar Sci 2019 01;11:215-226

NorthWest Research Associates, Redmond, Washington 98052, USA; email:

This article assesses the contribution to ocean mixing by the marine biosphere at both high and low Reynolds numbers Re= uℓ/ Îœ. While back-of-the-envelope estimates have suggested that swimming marine organisms might generate as much high-Reynolds-number turbulence as deep-ocean tide- and wind-generated internal waves, and that turbulent dissipation rates of O(10 W kg) (Re ∌ 10) could be produced by aggregations of organisms ranging from O(0.01 m) krill to O(10 m) cetaceans, comparable to strong wind and buoyancy forcing near the surface, microstructure measurements do not find consistently elevated dissipation associated with diel vertically migrating krill. Read More

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https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/10.1146/annurev-marine-010
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-marine-010318-095047DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

The Global Overturning Circulation.

Authors:
Paola Cessi

Ann Rev Mar Sci 2019 01;11:249-270

Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0213, USA; email:

In this article, I use the Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean version 4 (ECCO4) reanalysis to estimate the residual meridional overturning circulation, zonally averaged, over the separate Atlantic and Indo-Pacific sectors. The abyssal component of this estimate differs quantitatively from previously published estimates that use comparable observations, indicating that this component is still undersampled. I also review recent conceptual models of the oceanic meridional overturning circulation and of the mid-depth and abyssal stratification. Read More

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https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/10.1146/annurev-marine-010
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-marine-010318-095241DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Introduction.

Authors:

Ann Rev Mar Sci 2019 01;11

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-ma-11-100118-100001DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

The Water Mass Transformation Framework for Ocean Physics and Biogeochemistry.

Ann Rev Mar Sci 2019 01 19;11:271-305. Epub 2018 Sep 19.

School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales 2052, Australia; email:

The water mass transformation (WMT) framework weaves together circulation, thermodynamics, and biogeochemistry into a description of the ocean that complements traditional Eulerian and Lagrangian methods. In so doing, a WMT analysis renders novel insights and predictive capabilities for studies of ocean physics and biogeochemistry. In this review, we describe fundamentals of the WMT framework and illustrate its practical analysis capabilities. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-marine-010318-095421DOI Listing
January 2019
5 Reads

Arctic and Antarctic Sea Ice Change: Contrasts, Commonalities, and Causes.

Authors:
Ted Maksym

Ann Rev Mar Sci 2019 01 14;11:187-213. Epub 2018 Sep 14.

Department of Applied Ocean Physics and Engineering, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts 02543, USA; email:

Arctic sea ice has declined precipitously in both extent and thickness over the past four decades; by contrast, Antarctic sea ice has shown little overall change, but this masks large regional variability. Climate models have not captured these changes. But these differences do not represent a paradox. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-marine-010816-060610DOI Listing
January 2019
3 Reads

Marine Metazoan Modern Mass Extinction: Improving Predictions by Integrating Fossil, Modern, and Physiological Data.

Ann Rev Mar Sci 2019 01 14;11:369-390. Epub 2018 Sep 14.

Département de Biologie, Chimie et Géographie, Université du Québec à Rimouski, Rimouski, Quebec G5L 3A1, Canada; email: ,

Evolution, extinction, and dispersion are fundamental processes affecting marine biodiversity. Until recently, studies of extant marine systems focused mainly on evolution and dispersion, with extinction receiving less attention. Past extinction events have, however, helped shape the evolutionary history of marine ecosystems, with ecological and evolutionary legacies still evident in modern seas. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-marine-010318-095106DOI Listing
January 2019
3 Reads

Using Noble Gases to Assess the Ocean's Carbon Pumps.

Ann Rev Mar Sci 2019 01 14;11:75-103. Epub 2018 Sep 14.

School of Oceanography, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA; email:

Natural mechanisms in the ocean, both physical and biological, concentrate carbon in the deep ocean, resulting in lower atmospheric carbon dioxide. The signals of these carbon pumps overlap to create the observed carbon distribution in the ocean, making the individual impact of each pump difficult to disentangle. Noble gases have the potential to directly quantify the physical carbon solubility pump and to indirectly improve estimates of the biological organic carbon pump. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-marine-121916-063604DOI Listing
January 2019
5 Reads

Planktonic Marine Archaea.

Ann Rev Mar Sci 2019 01 13;11:131-158. Epub 2018 Sep 13.

J. Craig Venter Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA; email: ,

Archaea are ubiquitous and abundant members of the marine plankton. Once thought of as rare organisms found in exotic extremes of temperature, pressure, or salinity, archaea are now known in nearly every marine environment. Though frequently referred to collectively, the planktonic archaea actually comprise four major phylogenetic groups, each with its own distinct physiology and ecology. Read More

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https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/10.1146/annurev-marine-121
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-marine-121916-063141DOI Listing
January 2019
6 Reads

The Variable Southern Ocean Carbon Sink.

Ann Rev Mar Sci 2019 01 13;11:159-186. Epub 2018 Sep 13.

Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences and Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309, USA.

The CO uptake by the Southern Ocean (<35°S) varies substantially on all timescales and is a major determinant of the variations of the global ocean carbon sink. Particularly strong are the decadal changes characterized by a weakening period of the Southern Ocean carbon sink in the 1990s and a rebound after 2000. The weakening in the 1990s resulted primarily from a southward shift of the westerlies that enhanced the upwelling and outgassing of respired (i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-marine-121916-063407DOI Listing
January 2019
4 Reads

Global Air-Sea Fluxes of Heat, Fresh Water, and Momentum: Energy Budget Closure and Unanswered Questions.

Authors:
Lisan Yu

Ann Rev Mar Sci 2019 01 29;11:227-248. Epub 2018 Aug 29.

Department of Physical Oceanography, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts 02543, USA; email:

The ocean interacts with the atmosphere via interfacial exchanges of momentum, heat (via radiation and convection), and fresh water (via evaporation and precipitation). These fluxes, or exchanges, constitute the ocean-surface energy and water budgets and define the ocean's role in Earth's climate and its variability on both short and long timescales. However, direct flux measurements are available only at limited locations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-marine-010816-060704DOI Listing
January 2019
10 Reads

Windows into Microbial Seascapes: Advances in Nanoscale Imaging and Application to Marine Sciences.

Authors:
Gordon T Taylor

Ann Rev Mar Sci 2019 01 22;11:465-490. Epub 2018 Aug 22.

School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794, USA; email:

Geochemical cycles of all nonconservative elements are mediated by microorganisms over nanometer spatial scales. The pelagic seascape is known to possess microstructure imposed by heterogeneous distributions of particles, polymeric gels, biologically important chemicals, and microbes. While indispensable, most traditional oceanographic observational approaches overlook this heterogeneity and ignore subtleties, such as activity hot spots, symbioses, niche partitioning, and intrapopulation phenotypic variations, that can provide a deeper mechanistic understanding of planktonic ecosystem function. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-marine-121916-063612DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

The Formation and Distribution of Modern Ooids on Great Bahama Bank.

Ann Rev Mar Sci 2019 01 8;11:491-516. Epub 2018 Aug 8.

CSL - Center for Carbonate Research, Department of Marine Geosciences, Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, University of Miami, Miami, Florida 33149, USA; email: , ,

Great Bahama Bank (GBB) is the principal location of the formation and accumulation of ooids (concentrically coated, sand-size carbonate grains) in the world today, and as such has been the focus of studies on all aspects of ooids for more than half a century. Our view from a close look at this vast body of literature coupled with our continuing interests stresses that biological mechanisms (microbially mediated organomineralization) are very important in the formation of ooids, whereas the controlling factor for the distribution and size of ooid sand bodies is the physical energy. Mapping and coring studies of the modern ooid sand bodies on GBB provide insight into the rock record from different perspectives. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-marine-010318-095251DOI Listing
January 2019
7 Reads

Compound-Specific Isotope Geochemistry in the Ocean.

Authors:
Hilary G Close

Ann Rev Mar Sci 2019 01 25;11:27-56. Epub 2018 Jul 25.

Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, University of Miami, Miami, Florida 33149, USA; email:

Compound-specific isotope analysis encompasses a variety of methods for examining the naturally occurring isotope ratios of individual organic molecules. In marine environments, these methods have revealed heterogeneous sources and alteration processes that underlie the more commonly measured isotope ratios of bulk materials, as well as revealing signatures of marine metabolisms that may otherwise be impossible to isolate. Recently, compound-specific isotopic techniques have improved the reconstruction of metazoan diets and revealed a new potential of metazoan biomass as an archive of paleoecological information. Read More

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https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/10.1146/annurev-marine-121
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-marine-121916-063634DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Unoccupied Aircraft Systems in Marine Science and Conservation.

Authors:
David W Johnston

Ann Rev Mar Sci 2019 01 18;11:439-463. Epub 2018 Jul 18.

Marine Robotics and Remote Sensing Lab, Duke University Marine Laboratory, Division of Marine Science and Conservation, Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University, Beaufort, North Carolina 28516, USA; email:

The use of unoccupied aircraft systems (UASs, also known as drones) in science is growing rapidly. Recent advances in microelectronics and battery technology have resulted in the rapid development of low-cost UASs that are transforming many industries. Drones are poised to revolutionize marine science and conservation, as they provide essentially on-demand remote sensing capabilities at low cost and with reduced human risk. Read More

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https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/10.1146/annurev-marine-010
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-marine-010318-095323DOI Listing
January 2019
4 Reads

Mechanisms and Pathways of Small-Phytoplankton Export from the Surface Ocean.

Ann Rev Mar Sci 2019 01 11;11:57-74. Epub 2018 Jul 11.

Department of Biological Sciences and School of the Earth, Ocean, and Environment, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina 29208, USA; email:

Carbon fixation by phytoplankton near the surface and the sinking of this particulate material to deeper waters are key components of the biological carbon pump. The efficiency of the biological pump is influenced by the size and taxonomic composition of the phytoplankton community. Large, heavily ballasted taxa such as diatoms sink quickly and thus efficiently remove fixed carbon from the upper ocean. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-marine-121916-063627DOI Listing
January 2019
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Marine Environmental Epigenetics.

Ann Rev Mar Sci 2019 01 29;11:335-368. Epub 2018 Jun 29.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, Rhode Island 02881, USA; email:

Marine organisms' persistence hinges on the capacity for acclimatization and adaptation to the myriad of interacting environmental stressors associated with global climate change. In this context, epigenetics-mechanisms that facilitate phenotypic variation through genotype-environment interactions-are of great interest ecologically and evolutionarily. Our comprehensive review of marine environmental epigenetics guides our recommendations of four key areas for future research: the dynamics of wash-in and wash-out of epigenetic effects, the mechanistic understanding of the interplay of different epigenetic marks and the interaction with the microbiome, the capacity for and mechanisms of transgenerational epigenetic inheritance, and the evolutionary implications of the interaction of genetic and epigenetic features. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-marine-010318-095114DOI Listing
January 2019
17 Reads

Partnering with Fishing Fleets to Monitor Ocean Conditions.

Ann Rev Mar Sci 2019 01 20;11:391-411. Epub 2018 Jun 20.

Commercial Fisheries Research Foundation, Saunderstown, Rhode Island 02874, USA.

Engaging ocean users, including fishing fleets, in oceanographic and ecological research is a valuable method for collecting high-quality data, improving cost efficiency, and increasing societal appreciation for scientific research. As research partners, fishing fleets provide broad access to and knowledge of the ocean, and fishers are highly motivated to use the data collected to better understand the ecosystems in which they harvest. Here, we discuss recent trends in collaborative research that have increased the capacity of and access to scientific data collection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-marine-010318-095201DOI Listing
January 2019
4 Reads

Biogeochemical Controls on Coastal Hypoxia.

Ann Rev Mar Sci 2019 01 11;11:105-130. Epub 2018 Jun 11.

Chesapeake Biological Laboratory, University of Maryland Center for Environmental Studies, Solomons, Maryland 20688, USA; email:

Aquatic environments experiencing low-oxygen conditions have been described as hypoxic, suboxic, or anoxic zones; oxygen minimum zones; and, in the popular media, the misnomer "dead zones." This review aims to elucidate important aspects underlying oxygen depletion in diverse coastal systems and provides a synthesis of general relationships between hypoxia and its controlling factors. After presenting a generic overview of the first-order processes, we review system-specific characteristics for selected estuaries where adjacent human settlements contribute to high nutrient loads, river-dominated shelves that receive large inputs of fresh water and anthropogenic nutrients, and upwelling regions where a supply of nutrient-rich, low-oxygen waters generates oxygen minimum zones without direct anthropogenic influence. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-marine-010318-095138DOI Listing
January 2019
6 Reads

The Scientific Legacy of the CARIACO Ocean Time-Series Program.

Ann Rev Mar Sci 2019 01 11;11:413-437. Epub 2018 Jun 11.

EstaciĂłn de Investigaciones Marinas de Margarita, FundaciĂłn La Salle de Ciencias Naturales, Punta de Piedras, Estado Nueva Esparta, Venezuela.

The CARIACO (Carbon Retention in a Colored Ocean) Ocean Time-Series Program station, located at 10.50°N, 64.66°W, observed biogeochemical and ecological processes in the Cariaco Basin of the southwestern Caribbean Sea from November 1995 to January 2017. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-marine-010318-095150DOI Listing
January 2019
46 Reads

Passing the Baton to the Next Generation: A Few Problems That Need Solving.

Authors:
Cindy Lee

Ann Rev Mar Sci 2019 01 31;11:1-13. Epub 2018 May 31.

School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794-5000, USA; email:

This is a personal account of some of the people and factors that were important in my career in chemical oceanography. I also discuss two areas of oceanographic research and training that I think need more attention. The first is how the difficulty in getting appropriate samples hampers our ability to fully understand biogeochemical processes in the sea. Read More

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https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/10.1146/annurev-marine-010
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-marine-010318-095342DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

A Conversation with Walter Munk.

Ann Rev Mar Sci 2019 01 11;11:15-25. Epub 2018 May 11.

Department of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA; email:

In this interview, Carl Wunsch talks with Walter Munk about his career in oceanography; his relationships with scientists such as Harald Sverdrup, Roger Revelle, Walfrid Ekman, Carl Rossby, Carl Eckart, Henry Stommel, and G.I. Taylor; technological advances over the decades; and his thoughts on the future of the field. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-marine-010318-095353DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads