228 results match your criteria Annual Review Of Marine Science[Journal]


Climate Change, Coral Loss, and the Curious Case of the Parrotfish Paradigm: Why Don't Marine Protected Areas Improve Reef Resilience?

Ann Rev Mar Sci 2019 Jan;11:307-334

St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center, US Geological Survey, St. Petersburg, Florida 33701, USA.

Scientists have advocated for local interventions, such as creating marine protected areas and implementing fishery restrictions, as ways to mitigate local stressors to limit the effects of climate change on reef-building corals. However, in a literature review, we find little empirical support for the notion of managed resilience. We outline some reasons for why marine protected areas and the protection of herbivorous fish (especially parrotfish) have had little effect on coral resilience. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-marine-010318-095300DOI Listing
January 2019

Biologically Generated Mixing in the Ocean.

Authors:
Eric Kunze

Ann Rev Mar Sci 2019 Jan;11:215-226

NorthWest Research Associates, Redmond, Washington 98052, USA; email:

This article assesses the contribution to ocean mixing by the marine biosphere at both high and low Reynolds numbers Re= uℓ/ ν. While back-of-the-envelope estimates have suggested that swimming marine organisms might generate as much high-Reynolds-number turbulence as deep-ocean tide- and wind-generated internal waves, and that turbulent dissipation rates of O(10 W kg) (Re ∼ 10) could be produced by aggregations of organisms ranging from O(0.01 m) krill to O(10 m) cetaceans, comparable to strong wind and buoyancy forcing near the surface, microstructure measurements do not find consistently elevated dissipation associated with diel vertically migrating krill. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-marine-010318-095047DOI Listing
January 2019

The Global Overturning Circulation.

Authors:
Paola Cessi

Ann Rev Mar Sci 2019 Jan;11:249-270

Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0213, USA; email:

In this article, I use the Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean version 4 (ECCO4) reanalysis to estimate the residual meridional overturning circulation, zonally averaged, over the separate Atlantic and Indo-Pacific sectors. The abyssal component of this estimate differs quantitatively from previously published estimates that use comparable observations, indicating that this component is still undersampled. I also review recent conceptual models of the oceanic meridional overturning circulation and of the mid-depth and abyssal stratification. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-marine-010318-095241DOI Listing
January 2019

Introduction.

Authors:

Ann Rev Mar Sci 2019 Jan;11

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-ma-11-100118-100001DOI Listing
January 2019

The Water Mass Transformation Framework for Ocean Physics and Biogeochemistry.

Ann Rev Mar Sci 2019 Jan 19;11:271-305. Epub 2018 Sep 19.

School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales 2052, Australia; email:

The water mass transformation (WMT) framework weaves together circulation, thermodynamics, and biogeochemistry into a description of the ocean that complements traditional Eulerian and Lagrangian methods. In so doing, a WMT analysis renders novel insights and predictive capabilities for studies of ocean physics and biogeochemistry. In this review, we describe fundamentals of the WMT framework and illustrate its practical analysis capabilities. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-marine-010318-095421DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Arctic and Antarctic Sea Ice Change: Contrasts, Commonalities, and Causes.

Authors:
Ted Maksym

Ann Rev Mar Sci 2019 Jan 14;11:187-213. Epub 2018 Sep 14.

Department of Applied Ocean Physics and Engineering, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts 02543, USA; email:

Arctic sea ice has declined precipitously in both extent and thickness over the past four decades; by contrast, Antarctic sea ice has shown little overall change, but this masks large regional variability. Climate models have not captured these changes. But these differences do not represent a paradox. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-marine-010816-060610DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Marine Metazoan Modern Mass Extinction: Improving Predictions by Integrating Fossil, Modern, and Physiological Data.

Ann Rev Mar Sci 2019 Jan 14;11:369-390. Epub 2018 Sep 14.

Département de Biologie, Chimie et Géographie, Université du Québec à Rimouski, Rimouski, Quebec G5L 3A1, Canada; email: ,

Evolution, extinction, and dispersion are fundamental processes affecting marine biodiversity. Until recently, studies of extant marine systems focused mainly on evolution and dispersion, with extinction receiving less attention. Past extinction events have, however, helped shape the evolutionary history of marine ecosystems, with ecological and evolutionary legacies still evident in modern seas. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-marine-010318-095106DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Using Noble Gases to Assess the Ocean's Carbon Pumps.

Ann Rev Mar Sci 2019 Jan 14;11:75-103. Epub 2018 Sep 14.

School of Oceanography, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA; email:

Natural mechanisms in the ocean, both physical and biological, concentrate carbon in the deep ocean, resulting in lower atmospheric carbon dioxide. The signals of these carbon pumps overlap to create the observed carbon distribution in the ocean, making the individual impact of each pump difficult to disentangle. Noble gases have the potential to directly quantify the physical carbon solubility pump and to indirectly improve estimates of the biological organic carbon pump. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-marine-121916-063604DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Planktonic Marine Archaea.

Ann Rev Mar Sci 2019 Jan 13;11:131-158. Epub 2018 Sep 13.

J. Craig Venter Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA; email: ,

Archaea are ubiquitous and abundant members of the marine plankton. Once thought of as rare organisms found in exotic extremes of temperature, pressure, or salinity, archaea are now known in nearly every marine environment. Though frequently referred to collectively, the planktonic archaea actually comprise four major phylogenetic groups, each with its own distinct physiology and ecology. Read More

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https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/10.1146/annurev-marine-121
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-marine-121916-063141DOI Listing
January 2019
4 Reads

The Variable Southern Ocean Carbon Sink.

Ann Rev Mar Sci 2019 Jan 13;11:159-186. Epub 2018 Sep 13.

Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences and Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309, USA.

The CO uptake by the Southern Ocean (<35°S) varies substantially on all timescales and is a major determinant of the variations of the global ocean carbon sink. Particularly strong are the decadal changes characterized by a weakening period of the Southern Ocean carbon sink in the 1990s and a rebound after 2000. The weakening in the 1990s resulted primarily from a southward shift of the westerlies that enhanced the upwelling and outgassing of respired (i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-marine-121916-063407DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Global Air-Sea Fluxes of Heat, Fresh Water, and Momentum: Energy Budget Closure and Unanswered Questions.

Authors:
Lisan Yu

Ann Rev Mar Sci 2019 Jan 29;11:227-248. Epub 2018 Aug 29.

Department of Physical Oceanography, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts 02543, USA; email:

The ocean interacts with the atmosphere via interfacial exchanges of momentum, heat (via radiation and convection), and fresh water (via evaporation and precipitation). These fluxes, or exchanges, constitute the ocean-surface energy and water budgets and define the ocean's role in Earth's climate and its variability on both short and long timescales. However, direct flux measurements are available only at limited locations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-marine-010816-060704DOI Listing
January 2019
8 Reads

Windows into Microbial Seascapes: Advances in Nanoscale Imaging and Application to Marine Sciences.

Authors:
Gordon T Taylor

Ann Rev Mar Sci 2019 Jan 22;11:465-490. Epub 2018 Aug 22.

School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794, USA; email:

Geochemical cycles of all nonconservative elements are mediated by microorganisms over nanometer spatial scales. The pelagic seascape is known to possess microstructure imposed by heterogeneous distributions of particles, polymeric gels, biologically important chemicals, and microbes. While indispensable, most traditional oceanographic observational approaches overlook this heterogeneity and ignore subtleties, such as activity hot spots, symbioses, niche partitioning, and intrapopulation phenotypic variations, that can provide a deeper mechanistic understanding of planktonic ecosystem function. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-marine-121916-063612DOI Listing
January 2019

The Formation and Distribution of Modern Ooids on Great Bahama Bank.

Ann Rev Mar Sci 2019 Jan 8;11:491-516. Epub 2018 Aug 8.

CSL - Center for Carbonate Research, Department of Marine Geosciences, Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, University of Miami, Miami, Florida 33149, USA; email: , ,

Great Bahama Bank (GBB) is the principal location of the formation and accumulation of ooids (concentrically coated, sand-size carbonate grains) in the world today, and as such has been the focus of studies on all aspects of ooids for more than half a century. Our view from a close look at this vast body of literature coupled with our continuing interests stresses that biological mechanisms (microbially mediated organomineralization) are very important in the formation of ooids, whereas the controlling factor for the distribution and size of ooid sand bodies is the physical energy. Mapping and coring studies of the modern ooid sand bodies on GBB provide insight into the rock record from different perspectives. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-marine-010318-095251DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Compound-Specific Isotope Geochemistry in the Ocean.

Authors:
Hilary G Close

Ann Rev Mar Sci 2019 Jan 25;11:27-56. Epub 2018 Jul 25.

Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, University of Miami, Miami, Florida 33149, USA; email:

Compound-specific isotope analysis encompasses a variety of methods for examining the naturally occurring isotope ratios of individual organic molecules. In marine environments, these methods have revealed heterogeneous sources and alteration processes that underlie the more commonly measured isotope ratios of bulk materials, as well as revealing signatures of marine metabolisms that may otherwise be impossible to isolate. Recently, compound-specific isotopic techniques have improved the reconstruction of metazoan diets and revealed a new potential of metazoan biomass as an archive of paleoecological information. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-marine-121916-063634DOI Listing
January 2019

Unoccupied Aircraft Systems in Marine Science and Conservation.

Authors:
David W Johnston

Ann Rev Mar Sci 2019 Jan 18;11:439-463. Epub 2018 Jul 18.

Marine Robotics and Remote Sensing Lab, Duke University Marine Laboratory, Division of Marine Science and Conservation, Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University, Beaufort, North Carolina 28516, USA; email:

The use of unoccupied aircraft systems (UASs, also known as drones) in science is growing rapidly. Recent advances in microelectronics and battery technology have resulted in the rapid development of low-cost UASs that are transforming many industries. Drones are poised to revolutionize marine science and conservation, as they provide essentially on-demand remote sensing capabilities at low cost and with reduced human risk. Read More

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https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/10.1146/annurev-marine-010
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-marine-010318-095323DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Mechanisms and Pathways of Small-Phytoplankton Export from the Surface Ocean.

Ann Rev Mar Sci 2019 Jan 11;11:57-74. Epub 2018 Jul 11.

Department of Biological Sciences and School of the Earth, Ocean, and Environment, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina 29208, USA; email:

Carbon fixation by phytoplankton near the surface and the sinking of this particulate material to deeper waters are key components of the biological carbon pump. The efficiency of the biological pump is influenced by the size and taxonomic composition of the phytoplankton community. Large, heavily ballasted taxa such as diatoms sink quickly and thus efficiently remove fixed carbon from the upper ocean. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-marine-121916-063627DOI Listing
January 2019

Marine Environmental Epigenetics.

Ann Rev Mar Sci 2019 Jan 29;11:335-368. Epub 2018 Jun 29.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, Rhode Island 02881, USA; email:

Marine organisms' persistence hinges on the capacity for acclimatization and adaptation to the myriad of interacting environmental stressors associated with global climate change. In this context, epigenetics-mechanisms that facilitate phenotypic variation through genotype-environment interactions-are of great interest ecologically and evolutionarily. Our comprehensive review of marine environmental epigenetics guides our recommendations of four key areas for future research: the dynamics of wash-in and wash-out of epigenetic effects, the mechanistic understanding of the interplay of different epigenetic marks and the interaction with the microbiome, the capacity for and mechanisms of transgenerational epigenetic inheritance, and the evolutionary implications of the interaction of genetic and epigenetic features. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-marine-010318-095114DOI Listing
January 2019
14 Reads

Partnering with Fishing Fleets to Monitor Ocean Conditions.

Ann Rev Mar Sci 2019 Jan 20;11:391-411. Epub 2018 Jun 20.

Commercial Fisheries Research Foundation, Saunderstown, Rhode Island 02874, USA.

Engaging ocean users, including fishing fleets, in oceanographic and ecological research is a valuable method for collecting high-quality data, improving cost efficiency, and increasing societal appreciation for scientific research. As research partners, fishing fleets provide broad access to and knowledge of the ocean, and fishers are highly motivated to use the data collected to better understand the ecosystems in which they harvest. Here, we discuss recent trends in collaborative research that have increased the capacity of and access to scientific data collection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-marine-010318-095201DOI Listing
January 2019
3 Reads

Biogeochemical Controls on Coastal Hypoxia.

Ann Rev Mar Sci 2019 Jan 11;11:105-130. Epub 2018 Jun 11.

Chesapeake Biological Laboratory, University of Maryland Center for Environmental Studies, Solomons, Maryland 20688, USA; email:

Aquatic environments experiencing low-oxygen conditions have been described as hypoxic, suboxic, or anoxic zones; oxygen minimum zones; and, in the popular media, the misnomer "dead zones." This review aims to elucidate important aspects underlying oxygen depletion in diverse coastal systems and provides a synthesis of general relationships between hypoxia and its controlling factors. After presenting a generic overview of the first-order processes, we review system-specific characteristics for selected estuaries where adjacent human settlements contribute to high nutrient loads, river-dominated shelves that receive large inputs of fresh water and anthropogenic nutrients, and upwelling regions where a supply of nutrient-rich, low-oxygen waters generates oxygen minimum zones without direct anthropogenic influence. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-marine-010318-095138DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

The Scientific Legacy of the CARIACO Ocean Time-Series Program.

Ann Rev Mar Sci 2019 Jan 11;11:413-437. Epub 2018 Jun 11.

Estación de Investigaciones Marinas de Margarita, Fundación La Salle de Ciencias Naturales, Punta de Piedras, Estado Nueva Esparta, Venezuela.

The CARIACO (Carbon Retention in a Colored Ocean) Ocean Time-Series Program station, located at 10.50°N, 64.66°W, observed biogeochemical and ecological processes in the Cariaco Basin of the southwestern Caribbean Sea from November 1995 to January 2017. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-marine-010318-095150DOI Listing
January 2019
22 Reads

Passing the Baton to the Next Generation: A Few Problems That Need Solving.

Authors:
Cindy Lee

Ann Rev Mar Sci 2019 Jan 31;11:1-13. Epub 2018 May 31.

School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794-5000, USA; email:

This is a personal account of some of the people and factors that were important in my career in chemical oceanography. I also discuss two areas of oceanographic research and training that I think need more attention. The first is how the difficulty in getting appropriate samples hampers our ability to fully understand biogeochemical processes in the sea. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-marine-010318-095342DOI Listing
January 2019

A Conversation with Walter Munk.

Ann Rev Mar Sci 2019 Jan 11;11:15-25. Epub 2018 May 11.

Department of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA; email:

In this interview, Carl Wunsch talks with Walter Munk about his career in oceanography; his relationships with scientists such as Harald Sverdrup, Roger Revelle, Walfrid Ekman, Carl Rossby, Carl Eckart, Henry Stommel, and G.I. Taylor; technological advances over the decades; and his thoughts on the future of the field. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-marine-010318-095353DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Improving Marine Ecosystem Models with Biochemical Tracers.

Ann Rev Mar Sci 2018 01;10:199-228

Oceans and Atmosphere, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Hobart, Tasmania 7000, Australia; email: ,

Empirical data on food web dynamics and predator-prey interactions underpin ecosystem models, which are increasingly used to support strategic management of marine resources. These data have traditionally derived from stomach content analysis, but new and complementary forms of ecological data are increasingly available from biochemical tracer techniques. Extensive opportunities exist to improve the empirical robustness of ecosystem models through the incorporation of biochemical tracer data and derived indices, an area that is rapidly expanding because of advances in analytical developments and sophisticated statistical techniques. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-marine-121916-063256DOI Listing
January 2018
4 Reads

The Bottom Boundary Layer.

Ann Rev Mar Sci 2018 01;10:397-420

Department of Physical Oceanography, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts 02543, USA; email:

The oceanic bottom boundary layer extracts energy and momentum from the overlying flow, mediates the fate of near-bottom substances, and generates bedforms that retard the flow and affect benthic processes. The bottom boundary layer is forced by winds, waves, tides, and buoyancy and is influenced by surface waves, internal waves, and stratification by heat, salt, and suspended sediments. This review focuses on the coastal ocean. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-marine-121916-063351DOI Listing
January 2018

The Ecology, Biogeochemistry, and Optical Properties of Coccolithophores.

Authors:
William M Balch

Ann Rev Mar Sci 2018 01;10:71-98

Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences, East Boothbay, Maine 04544, USA; email:

Coccolithophores are major contributors to phytoplankton communities and ocean biogeochemistry and are strong modulators of the optical field in the sea. New discoveries are changing paradigms about these calcifiers. A new role for silicon in coccolithophore calcification is coupling carbonate and silicon cycles. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-marine-121916-063319DOI Listing
January 2018
2 Reads

How Do Marine Pelagic Species Respond to Climate Change? Theories and Observations.

Ann Rev Mar Sci 2018 01;10:169-197

Secchi Disk Foundation, Yealmpton PL8 2HU, United Kingdom.

In this review, we show how climate affects species, communities, and ecosystems, and why many responses from the species to the biome level originate from the interaction between the species' ecological niche and changes in the environmental regime in both space and time. We describe a theory that allows us to understand and predict how marine species react to climate-induced changes in ecological conditions, how communities form and are reconfigured, and so how biodiversity is arranged and may respond to climate change. Our study shows that the responses of species to climate change are therefore intelligible-that is, they have a strong deterministic component and can be predicted. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-marine-121916-063304DOI Listing
January 2018
3 Reads

A Biogeochemical Oceanographer at Sea: My Life with Nitrogen and a Nod to Silica.

Ann Rev Mar Sci 2018 01;10:1-18

Romberg Tiburon Center, San Francisco State University, San Francisco, California 94920; email:

My evolution from electrical engineering student to limnologist and then to oceanographer was a consequence of generous mentoring, which led to my use of the N tracer technique to measure nitrogen fixation in aquatic systems. The concept of new and regenerated production arose when I applied this method to measure nitrate and ammonium uptake in marine ecosystems. I then showed that enzyme kinetics could be applied to algal nitrogen uptake and used a silicate pump to explain silicate limitation of diatoms in coastal and equatorial upwelling systems. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-marine-121916-063655DOI Listing
January 2018

Introduction.

Authors:

Ann Rev Mar Sci 2018 01;10

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-ma-10-112517-100001DOI Listing
January 2018

Marine Aerosols and Clouds.

Ann Rev Mar Sci 2018 01 13;10:289-313. Epub 2017 Oct 13.

Department of Oceanography, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77843, USA; email:

The role of marine bioaerosols in cloud formation and climate is currently so uncertain that even the sign of the climate forcing is unclear. Marine aerosols form through direct emissions and through the conversion of gas-phase emissions to aerosols in the atmosphere. The composition and size of aerosols determine how effective they are in catalyzing the formation of water droplets and ice crystals in clouds by acting as cloud condensation nuclei and ice nucleating particles, respectively. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-marine-121916-063148DOI Listing
January 2018
8 Reads

Sediment Trapping in Estuaries.

Ann Rev Mar Sci 2018 01 4;10:371-395. Epub 2017 Oct 4.

Department of Applied Ocean Physics and Engineering, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts 02543, USA.

Estuarine turbidity maxima (ETMs) are generated by a large suite of hydrodynamic and sediment dynamic processes, leading to longitudinal convergence of cross-sectionally integrated and tidally averaged transport of cohesive and noncohesive suspended particulate matter (SPM). The relative importance of these processes for SPM trapping varies substantially among estuaries depending on topography, fluvial and tidal forcing, and SPM composition. The high-frequency dynamics of ETMs are constrained by interactions with the low-frequency dynamics of the bottom pool of easily erodible sediments. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-marine-010816-060535DOI Listing
January 2018
1 Read

Manifestation, Drivers, and Emergence of Open Ocean Deoxygenation.

Authors:
Lisa A Levin

Ann Rev Mar Sci 2018 01 29;10:229-260. Epub 2017 Sep 29.

Center for Marine Biodiversity and Conservation, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0218, USA; email:

Oxygen loss in the ocean, termed deoxygenation, is a major consequence of climate change and is exacerbated by other aspects of global change. An average global loss of 2% or more has been recorded in the open ocean over the past 50-100 years, but with greater oxygen declines in intermediate waters (100-600 m) of the North Pacific, the East Pacific, tropical waters, and the Southern Ocean. Although ocean warming contributions to oxygen declines through a reduction in oxygen solubility and stratification effects on ventilation are reasonably well understood, it has been a major challenge to identify drivers and modifying factors that explain different regional patterns, especially in the tropical oceans. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-marine-121916-063359DOI Listing
January 2018
6 Reads

A Satellite-Based Lagrangian View on Phytoplankton Dynamics.

Ann Rev Mar Sci 2018 01 29;10:99-119. Epub 2017 Sep 29.

Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel; email:

The well-lit upper layer of the open ocean is a dynamical environment that hosts approximately half of global primary production. In the remote parts of this environment, distant from the coast and from the seabed, there is no obvious spatially fixed reference frame for describing the dynamics of the microscopic drifting organisms responsible for this immense production of organic matter-the phytoplankton. Thus, a natural perspective for studying phytoplankton dynamics is to follow the trajectories of water parcels in which the organisms are embedded. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-marine-121916-063204DOI Listing
January 2018
4 Reads

Spaceborne Lidar in the Study of Marine Systems.

Ann Rev Mar Sci 2018 01 27;10:121-147. Epub 2017 Sep 27.

Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon 97331-2902, USA.

Satellite passive ocean color instruments have provided an unbroken ∼20-year record of global ocean plankton properties, but this measurement approach has inherent limitations in terms of spatial-temporal sampling and ability to resolve vertical structure within the water column. These limitations can be addressed by coupling ocean color data with measurements from a spaceborne lidar. Airborne lidars have been used for decades to study ocean subsurface properties, but recent breakthroughs have now demonstrated that plankton properties can be measured with a satellite lidar. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-marine-121916-063335DOI Listing
January 2018
1 Read

Comparing Climate Sensitivity, Past and Present.

Ann Rev Mar Sci 2018 01 22;10:261-288. Epub 2017 Sep 22.

Alfred-Wegener-Institut Helmholtz-Zentrum für Polar-und Meeresforschung (AWI), 27515 Bremerhaven, Germany; email:

Climate sensitivity represents the global mean temperature change caused by changes in the radiative balance of climate; it is studied for both present/future (actuo) and past (paleo) climate variations, with the former based on instrumental records and/or various types of model simulations. Paleo-estimates are often considered informative for assessments of actuo-climate change caused by anthropogenic greenhouse forcing, but this utility remains debated because of concerns about the impacts of uncertainties, assumptions, and incomplete knowledge about controlling mechanisms in the dynamic climate system, with its multiple interacting feedbacks and their potential dependence on the climate background state. This is exacerbated by the need to assess actuo- and paleoclimate sensitivity over different timescales, with different drivers, and with different (data and/or model) limitations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-marine-121916-063242DOI Listing
January 2018
5 Reads

Mixing Efficiency in the Ocean.

Ann Rev Mar Sci 2018 01 13;10:443-473. Epub 2017 Sep 13.

Northwest Research Associates, Redmond, Washington 98052, USA; email:

Mixing efficiency is the ratio of the net change in potential energy to the energy expended in producing the mixing. Parameterizations of efficiency and of related mixing coefficients are needed to estimate diapycnal diffusivity from measurements of the turbulent dissipation rate. Comparing diffusivities from microstructure profiling with those inferred from the thickening rate of four simultaneous tracer releases has verified, within observational accuracy, 0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-marine-121916-063643DOI Listing
January 2018
15 Reads

The Recent Atlantic Cold Anomaly: Causes, Consequences, and Related Phenomena.

Ann Rev Mar Sci 2018 01 15;10:475-501. Epub 2017 Sep 15.

Department of Ocean and Earth Science, University of Southampton, Southampton SO14 3ZH, United Kingdom.

Cold ocean temperature anomalies have been observed in the mid- to high-latitude North Atlantic on interannual to centennial timescales. Most notably, a large region of persistently low surface temperatures accompanied by a sharp reduction in ocean heat content was evident in the subpolar gyre from the winter of 2013-2014 to 2016, and the presence of this feature at a time of pervasive warming elsewhere has stimulated considerable debate. Here, we review the role of air-sea interaction and ocean processes in generating this cold anomaly and place it in a longer-term context. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-marine-121916-063102DOI Listing
January 2018
7 Reads

A Synoptic View of the Ventilation and Circulation of Antarctic Bottom Water from Chlorofluorocarbons and Natural Tracers.

Ann Rev Mar Sci 2018 01 6;10:503-527. Epub 2017 Sep 6.

Pacific Marine and Environmental Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Seattle, Washington 98115, USA; email:

Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) is the coldest, densest, most prolific water mass in the global ocean. AABW forms at several distinct regions along the Antarctic coast and feeds into the bottom limb of the meridional overturning circulation, filling most of the global deep ocean. AABW has warmed, freshened, and declined in volume around the globe in recent decades, which has implications for the global heat and sea level rise budgets. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-marine-121916-063414DOI Listing
January 2018
1 Read

Ecological Stoichiometry of Ocean Plankton.

Ann Rev Mar Sci 2018 01 30;10:43-69. Epub 2017 Aug 30.

Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California, Irvine, California 92697; email:

Marine plankton elemental stoichiometric ratios can deviate from the Redfield ratio (106C:16N:1P); here, we examine physiological and biogeochemical mechanisms that lead to the observed variation across lineages, regions, and seasons. Many models of ecological stoichiometry blend together acclimative and adaptive responses to environmental conditions. These two pathways can have unique molecular mechanisms and stoichiometric outcomes, and we attempt to disentangle the two processes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-marine-121916-063126DOI Listing
January 2018
2 Reads

Progress in Deciphering the Controls on the Geochemistry of Fluids in Seafloor Hydrothermal Systems.

Ann Rev Mar Sci 2018 01 30;10:315-343. Epub 2017 Aug 30.

Department of Marine Chemistry and Geochemistry, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts 02543.

Over the last four decades, more than 500 sites of seafloor hydrothermal venting have been identified in a range of tectonic environments. These vents represent the seafloor manifestation of hydrothermal convection of seawater through the permeable oceanic basement that is driven by a subsurface heat source. Hydrothermal circulation has fundamental effects on the transfer of heat and mass from the lithosphere to the hydrosphere, the composition of seawater, the physical and chemical properties of the oceanic basement, and vent ecosystems at and below the seafloor. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-marine-121916-063233DOI Listing
January 2018
2 Reads

Planktonic Subsidies to Surf-Zone and Intertidal Communities.

Ann Rev Mar Sci 2018 01 28;10:345-369. Epub 2017 Aug 28.

Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0209.

Plankton are transported onshore, providing subsidies of food and new recruits to surf-zone and intertidal communities. The transport of plankton to the surf zone is influenced by wind, wave, and tidal forcing, and whether they enter the surf zone depends on alongshore variation in surf-zone hydrodynamics caused by the interaction of breaking waves with coastal morphology. Areas with gently sloping shores and wide surf zones typically have orders-of-magnitude-higher concentrations of plankton in the surf zone and dense larval settlement in intertidal communities because of the presence of bathymetric rip currents, which are absent in areas with steep shores and narrow surf zones. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-marine-010816-060514DOI Listing
January 2018
20 Reads

Applying Movement Ecology to Marine Animals with Complex Life Cycles.

Ann Rev Mar Sci 2018 01 16;10:19-42. Epub 2017 Aug 16.

Department of Ocean Sciences and Department of Biology, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's, Newfoundland A1C 5S7, Canada; email:

Marine animals with complex life cycles may move passively or actively for fertilization, dispersal, predator avoidance, resource acquisition, and migration, and over scales from micrometers to thousands of kilometers. This diversity has catalyzed idiosyncratic and unfocused research, creating unsound paradigms regarding the role of movement in ecology and evolution. The emerging movement ecology paradigm offers a framework to consolidate movement research independent of taxon, life-history stage, scale, or discipline. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-marine-121916-063134DOI Listing
January 2018
2 Reads

The Fate and Impact of Internal Waves in Nearshore Ecosystems.

Authors:
C B Woodson

Ann Rev Mar Sci 2018 01 10;10:421-441. Epub 2017 Aug 10.

COBIAlab, College of Engineering, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602; email:

Internal waves are widespread features of global oceans that play critical roles in mixing and thermohaline circulation. Similarly to surface waves, internal waves can travel long distances, ultimately breaking along continental margins. These breaking waves can transport deep ocean water and associated constituents (nutrients, larvae, and acidic low-oxygen waters) onto the shelf and locally enhance turbulence and mixing, with important effects on nearshore ecosystems. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-marine-121916-063619DOI Listing
January 2018
2 Reads

Remote Sensing Tropical Coral Reefs: The View from Above.

Authors:
Sam J Purkis

Ann Rev Mar Sci 2018 01 9;10:149-168. Epub 2017 Aug 9.

CSL - Center for Carbonate Research, Department of Marine Geosciences, Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, University of Miami, Miami, Florida 33149; email:

Carbonate precipitation has been a common life strategy for marine organisms for 3.7 billion years, as, therefore, has their construction of reefs. As favored by modern corals, reef-forming organisms have typically adopted a niche in warm, shallow, well-lit, tropical marine waters, where they are capable of building vast carbonate edifices. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-marine-121916-063249DOI Listing
January 2018
21 Reads

Climate, Anchovy, and Sardine.

Ann Rev Mar Sci 2017 01;9:469-493

Department of Biological Sciences and Marine Science Program, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina 29208; email:

Anchovy and sardine populated productive ocean regions over hundreds of thousands of years under a naturally varying climate, and are now subject to climate change of equal or greater magnitude occurring over decades to centuries. We hypothesize that anchovy and sardine populations are limited in size by the supply of nitrogen from outside their habitats originating from upwelling, mixing, and rivers. Projections of the responses of anchovy and sardine to climate change rely on a range of model types and consideration of the effects of climate on lower trophic levels, the effects of fishing on higher trophic levels, and the traits of these two types of fish. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-marine-122414-033819DOI Listing
January 2017
2 Reads

Introduction.

Authors:

Ann Rev Mar Sci 2017 01;9

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-ma-09-111716-100001DOI Listing
January 2017

Dining in the Deep: The Feeding Ecology of Deep-Sea Fishes.

Ann Rev Mar Sci 2017 01 13;9:337-366. Epub 2016 Oct 13.

Halmos College of Natural Sciences and Oceanography, Nova Southeastern University, Dania Beach, Florida 33004; email:

Deep-sea fishes inhabit ∼75% of the biosphere and are a critical part of deep-sea food webs. Diet analysis and more recent trophic biomarker approaches, such as stable isotopes and fatty-acid profiles, have enabled the description of feeding guilds and an increased recognition of the vertical connectivity in food webs in a whole-water-column sense, including benthic-pelagic coupling. Ecosystem modeling requires data on feeding rates; the available estimates indicate that deep-sea fishes have lower per-individual feeding rates than coastal and epipelagic fishes, but the overall predation impact may be high. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-marine-010816-060543DOI Listing
January 2017
4 Reads

Zooplankton and the Ocean Carbon Cycle.

Ann Rev Mar Sci 2017 01 17;9:413-444. Epub 2016 Oct 17.

Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093; email:

Marine zooplankton comprise a phylogenetically and functionally diverse assemblage of protistan and metazoan consumers that occupy multiple trophic levels in pelagic food webs. Within this complex network, carbon flows via alternative zooplankton pathways drive temporal and spatial variability in production-grazing coupling, nutrient cycling, export, and transfer efficiency to higher trophic levels. We explore current knowledge of the processing of zooplankton food ingestion by absorption, egestion, respiration, excretion, and growth (production) processes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-marine-010814-015924DOI Listing
January 2017
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Quorum Sensing in Marine Microbial Environments.

Authors:
Laura R Hmelo

Ann Rev Mar Sci 2017 01 21;9:257-281. Epub 2016 Oct 21.

School of Oceanography, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195; email:

Quorum sensing (QS) is a form of chemical communication used by certain bacteria that regulates a wide range of biogeochemically important bacterial behaviors. Although QS was first observed in a marine bacterium nearly four decades ago, only in the past decade has there been a rise in interest in the role that QS plays in the ocean. It has become clear that QS, regulated by signals such as acylated homoserine lactones (AHLs) or furanosyl-borate diesters [autoinducer-2 (AI-2) molecules], is involved in important processes within the marine carbon cycle, in the health of coral reef ecosystems, and in trophic interactions between a range of eukaryotes and their bacterial associates. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-marine-010816-060656DOI Listing
January 2017
5 Reads

Coccolithophore Cell Biology: Chalking Up Progress.

Ann Rev Mar Sci 2017 01 28;9:283-310. Epub 2016 Oct 28.

Marine Biological Association, Plymouth PL1 2PB, United Kingdom; email: ,

Coccolithophores occupy a special position within the marine phytoplankton because of their production of intricate calcite scales, or coccoliths. Coccolithophores are major contributors to global ocean calcification and long-term carbon fluxes. The intracellular production of coccoliths requires modifications to cellular ultrastructure and metabolism that are surveyed here. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-marine-122414-034032DOI Listing
January 2017
4 Reads

The Physiology and Ecology of Diapause in Marine Copepods.

Ann Rev Mar Sci 2017 01 28;9:387-411. Epub 2016 Oct 28.

Biology Department, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts 02543; email: ,

Diapause is a type of dormancy that requires preparation, typically precedes the onset of unfavorable conditions, and necessitates a period of arrest before development can proceed. Two ecologically important groups of copepods have incorporated diapausing stages into their life histories. In freshwater, estuarine, and coastal environments, species within the Centropagoidea superfamily can produce resting eggs containing embryos that may be quiescent, diapausing, or in some intermediate state. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-marine-010816-060505DOI Listing
January 2017
1 Read