161,480 results match your criteria Annual Review Of Law And Social Science[Journal]


Apparent total tract digestibility, ruminal fermentation, and blood metabolites in beef steers fed green chopped cool-season forages.

J Anim Sci 2020 Jun 4. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Department of Animal Sciences, North Florida Research and Education Center, University of Florida, Marianna.

An experiment was conducted during the winter of two consecutive years to evaluate the effects of feeding green chopped cool-season forages on digestibility, ruminal fermentation, and blood parameters in beef steers. Nine ruminally cannulated Angus crossbred steers (yr 1: 359 ± 79 kg; yr 2: 481 ± 105 kg) received ad libitum green chopped forages from pastures planted with one of the following mixtures: 1) OAT = Horizon 201 oats (Avena sativa L.)/Prine annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jas/skaa175DOI Listing

Lifting the fog of confusion about breast cancer screening guidelines: Surprise - it's about the money!

Authors:
Daniel B Kopans

Clin Imaging 2020 Apr 17;67:5-6. Epub 2020 Apr 17.

20 Manitoba Road, Waban, MA 02468, United States of America. Electronic address:

Large amounts of misinformation denigrating the benefits of breast cancer screening have been published over the past 50 years and continue to be published. Each effort to reduce breast cancer screening has been refuted, scientifically, but the efforts continue. The motivation has been unclear until the recent guidelines issued by the American Society of Breast Surgeons who support annual screening starting at the age of 40 contrasted with the American College of Physicians who advocated delaying screening until the age of 50 and then biennially. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinimag.2020.03.009DOI Listing

Improved predictability of peak periphyton in rivers using site-specific accrual periods and long-term water quality datasets.

Sci Total Environ 2020 May 14;736:139362. Epub 2020 May 14.

Horizons Regional Council, Private Bag 11025, Manawatū Mail Centre, Palmerston North 4442, New Zealand.

Prevention of excessive periphyton standing crop (quantified as chlorophyll a) is among primary objectives for river management. Defensible instream nutrient criteria to achieve periphyton chlorophyll a targets at the site scale require robust predictive models. Such models have proved elusive because peak chlorophyll a depends on multiple factors in addition to nutrients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.139362DOI Listing

Excessive radon-based radiation in indoor air caused by soil building materials in traditional homes on Đồng Văn karst plateau, northern Vietnam.

Chemosphere 2020 May 25;257:127119. Epub 2020 May 25.

Indiana University, Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, 1001 East 10th Street, Bloomington, IN, 47405-1405, USA. Electronic address:

Radon-based radiation from natural soil building materials is an important factor likely influencing residents' health as a contributing source of natural radiation. This survey aims to quantify the nuclide-specific α-radiation of isotopes Rn and Rn in common types of houses in a region of northern Vietnam, Đồng Văn karst plateau, to preliminarily (i) evaluate the total annual effective dose rates and (ii) assess the relative risk of cancer induction from indoor α-radiation for inhabitants. The average Rn concentrations in all house types were lower than 100 Bq m, but Rn abundances were far higher than Rn, even up to >1000 Bq m in air close to a wall of unfired-soil bricks. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.127119DOI Listing

Proceeding report of the fourth Symposium on Hidradenitis Suppurativa Advances (SHSA) 2019.

J Am Acad Dermatol 2020 Jun 1. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

The Rockefeller University, New York, NY.

The 4 Annual Symposium on Hidradenitis Suppurativa (SHSA) took place on 1-3 November 2019 at the Westin Book Cadillac Hotel in Detroit, Michigan, U.S.A. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaad.2020.05.114DOI Listing

Role of Non-Genetic Risk Factors in Exacerbating Alcohol-Related Organ Damage.

Alcohol 2020 Jun 1. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Research Service, Veterans Affairs Nebraska-Western Iowa Health Care System, Omaha, NE; Department of Internal Medicine, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE; Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE. Electronic address:

This review provides a summary of the symposium entitled "Role of Non-Genetic Risk Factors in Exacerbating Alcohol-Related Organ Damage" was held at the at the 42 Annual Meeting of the Research Society on Alcoholism. The goals of the symposium were to provide newer insights into the role of non-genetic factors including specific external factors, notably infectious agents or lifestyle factors that synergistically act to exacerbate alcohol pathogenicity to generate more dramatic downstream biological defects. This summary of the symposium will benefit junior/senior basic scientists and clinicians' currently investigating/treating alcohol-induced organ pathology as well as undergraduate, graduate and post-graduate students and fellows. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.alcohol.2020.05.002DOI Listing

A systematic review of interventions after restoring the occluding surfaces of anterior and posterior teeth that are affected by tooth wear with filled resin composites.

J Dent 2020 Jun 1:103388. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Prosthodontics, Centre for Oral, Clinical and Translational Sciences, Guy's Hospital, London, UK.

Objectives: The aim of this systematic review was to assess intervention rates of direct composite restorations in the worn dentition based on data published in clinical trials.

Methods: Searches of electronic data bases, grey Literature and hand searches were completed, and selection criteria were applied at the title, abstract and full paper stages. Unavailable full papers or papers with unsuitable data were excluded. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jdent.2020.103388DOI Listing

Elevational Distribution of the Asian Tiger Mosquito, , in the Inland Mountain Area of Nagano and Yamanashi Prefectures, Japan.

J Am Mosq Control Assoc 2020 Mar;36(1):1-10

Nagano and Yamanashi prefectures of Japan comprise an inland mountain area that extends widely north and south, with elevation varying greatly by location. Mosquitoes transmitting infectious disease have a diversity of habitats in Nagano and Yamanashi, and many species can be expected there. However, there have been few reports on mosquito fauna; in particular, little information is available on mosquitoes such as . Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2987/19-6902.1DOI Listing

"We Just Never Have Enough Time": Clinician Views of Lung Cancer Screening Processes and Implementation.

Ann Am Thorac Soc 2020 Jun 4. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

VA Portland Health Care System, Section of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Portland, Oregon, United States.

Rationale: Despite a known mortality benefit, lung cancer screening (LCS) implementation has been unexpectedly slow. New programs face barriers to implementation, which may include lack of clinician engagement or beliefs that the intervention is not beneficial.

Objective: To evaluate diverse clinician perspectives on their views of LCS and their experience with LCS implementation and processes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1513/AnnalsATS.202003-262OCDOI Listing

The World Federation of Hemophilia Annual Global Survey 1999-2018.

Haemophilia 2020 Jun 4. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

World Federation of Hemophilia, Montréal, QC, Canada.

Introduction: The World Federation of Hemophilia (WFH) strives to achieve care for all patients with inherited bleeding disorders through research, advocacy, capacity building and education. The WFH developed and implemented the Annual Global Survey (AGS), through which comprehensive demographic and treatment data on bleeding disorders are collected each year from its constituent non-governmental national organizations.

Aim: To describe the development, methodology and achievements of the WFH AGS over the past 20 years. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/hae.14012DOI Listing

Undokai and sports events in the Japanese school system.

Authors:
Takeshi Akiyama

Pediatr Int 2020 Jun 4. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Department of Health Science, Nagano College of Nursing, Nagano, Japan.

Background: Japanese schools hold annual sports events in which all pupils participate. These events include activities such as walking, running, and swimming competitions.

Methods: We analyzed literature on school sports events in Japan. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ped.14332DOI Listing

High prevalence of injection drug use and blood-borne viral infections among patients in an urban emergency department.

PLoS One 2020 4;15(6):e0233927. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Alameda Health System, Highland Hospital, Oakland, CA, United States of America.

Background: The opioid epidemic has led to an increase in the number of persons who inject drugs, and this population accounts for 12% of new human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and 60% of new hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections in the United States annually. While persons who inject drugs disproportionately utilize the emergency department (ED), accurate data is lacking on the prevalence and patterns of injection drug use, and prevalence of co-occurring HIV and HCV infections among ED patients.

Objective: The primary outcome was to assess the prevalence of injection drug use and co-occurring HIV and HCV infection among patients presenting to an urban ED. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0233927PLOS

Mortality Among Persons with Both Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Aged ≥25 Years, by Industry and Occupation - United States, 1999-2016.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2020 Jun 5;69(22):670-679. Epub 2020 Jun 5.

Respiratory Health Division, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, CDC.

Patients with asthma typically have chronic airway inflammation, variable airflow limitation, and intermittent respiratory symptoms; patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) often have fixed airflow limitation and persistent respiratory symptoms. Some patients exhibit features suggesting that they have both conditions, which is termed asthma-COPD overlap. These patients have been reported to have worse health outcomes than do those with asthma or COPD alone (1). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6922a3DOI Listing

Ten-year trend of opioid and non-opioid analgesic use in the French adult population.

Br J Clin Pharmacol 2020 Jun 4. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Centre d'addictovigilance, Service de pharmacologie médicale, CHU Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France.

Aim: Analgesics are the most widely used medicines worldwide. In parallel, opioid abuse has increased and is of major concern. The accessibility of pharmacologically powerful medicines and the Addictovigilance signals in France about the risk of opiates addiction call for an overview of analgesic use. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bcp.14415DOI Listing

Long Term Effectiveness of the Diabetes Conversation Map Program on Health Outcomes: A Case-Control Retrospective Cohort Study.

J Adv Nurs 2020 Jun 4. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Clalit Research Institute, Clalit Healthcare Services, Tel Aviv, Israel.

Aim: To evaluate the clinical and health behavioral outcomes of a large sample of participants from the Diabetes Conversation Map Program.

Design: A matched case-control study that was performed on a retrospective cohort study.

Methods: Participants were 11,053 Clalit Health Services members with type 2 diabetes who enrolled in the Diabetes Conversation Map Program between January 2010 and April 2016. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jan.14439DOI Listing

Program Evaluation of the Research in Academic Pediatrics Initiative on Diversity (RAPID): Impact on Career Development and Professional Society Diversity.

Acad Med 2020 Jun 2. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

G. Flores is director, Health Services Research Institute, Connecticut Children's Medical Center, Hartford, Connecticut, professor, Department of Pediatrics, UConn Health, Farmington, Connecticut, and director and principal investigator, Research in Academic Pediatrics Initiative on Diversity. F. Mendoza is professor of pediatrics and associate dean of minority advising and programs, Stanford University School of Medicine and Lucile Salter Packard Children's Hospital, Stanford, California, and co-director of Research in Academic Pediatrics Initiative on Diversity. M. Brimacombe is senior biostatistician, Department of Research, Connecticut Children's Medical Center, Hartford, Connecticut. W. Frazier III is research program manager, Connecticut Children's Medical Center, Hartford, Connecticut.

Purpose: Despite a demographic surge in U.S. minority children, pediatric workforce diversity has failed to keep pace. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ACM.0000000000003531DOI Listing

Detouring in the family system as an antecedent of children's adjustment problems.

J Fam Psychol 2020 Jun 4. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Department of Psychology.

Guided by conceptualizations of relational boundaries from family systems theory, this study examined unique links between detouring (e.g., alliance between parents against child) and young children's psychological functioning after accounting for general family negativity and conflict. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/fam0000727DOI Listing

Physical activity in working mothers: Running low impacts quality of life.

Womens Health (Lond) 2020 Jan-Dec;16:1745506520929165

Department of Psychological Science, Rice University, Houston, TX, USA.

Objectives: The transition to motherhood is associated with declines in physical activity in women. Working mothers may be particularly at-risk for low levels of physical activity, since they have to balance the competing interests of work and family life, and exercise often takes a backseat to more seemingly pressing concerns. The potential benefits working mothers can experience from physical activity are numerous. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1745506520929165DOI Listing

[Strategies for medicinal plants adapting environmental stress and "simulative habitat cultivation" of Dao-di herbs].

Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2020 May;45(9):1969-1974

State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Dao-di Herbs, National Resource Center for Chinese Materia Medica,China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences Beijing 100700, China.

This paper analyzed life form, habitats and environmental stresses of medicinal plants and algal fungi collected in Chinese Pharmacopoeia(2015). ①It was found that only 0.94% of the medicinal plants mainly cultivated in field. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.19540/j.cnki.cjcmm.20200302.101DOI Listing

Factors that have an Impact on Abbreviated New Drug Application (ANDA) Submissions.

Ther Innov Regul Sci 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Division of Quantitative Methods and Modeling, Office of Research and Standards, Office of Generic Drugs, Center of Drug Evaluation and Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, USA.

Background: Increasing generic drug price competition by facilitating abbreviated new drug applications (ANDA) submission may help patients have access to affordable care. This study examined factors associated with first ANDA submission for the brand drug to be copied [the "reference listed drug" (RLD)].

Methods: This study used several data sources from 1/1/2011 to 12/31/2017, including FDA's Approved Drug Products With Therapeutic Equivalence Evaluations (the Orange Book), internal ANDA submission data, FDA's Product-Specific Guidances (PSGs), National Drug Code, and IQVIA National Sales Perspectives. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s43441-020-00163-xDOI Listing

Stool-Based Tests for Colorectal Cancer Screening: Performance Benchmarks Lead to High Expected Efficacy.

Curr Gastroenterol Rep 2020 Jun 3;22(7):32. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Participation goals for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening in the USA have not been met. Non-invasive screening strategies may improve CRC screening participation. We highlight recent literature on stool-based screening performance and expectations for emerging non-invasive screening tests. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11894-020-00770-6DOI Listing

Anthropogenic alteration of nutrient supply increases the global freshwater carbon sink.

Sci Adv 2020 Apr 15;6(16):eaaw2145. Epub 2020 Apr 15.

St. Croix Watershed Research Station, Science Museum of Minnesota, 16910 152 Street North, Marine on St. Croix, MN 55047, USA.

Lakes have a disproportionate effect on the global carbon (C) cycle relative to their area, mediating C transfer from land to atmosphere, and burying organic-C in their sediments. The magnitude and temporal variability of C burial is, however, poorly constrained, and the degree to which humans have influenced lake C cycling through landscape alteration has not been systematically assessed. Here, we report global and biome specific trajectories of lake C sequestration based on 516 lakes and show that some lake C burial rates (i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aaw2145DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7159926PMC

Epidemiological Data on LCL and PCL Injuries Over 17 Seasons in Men's Professional Soccer: The UEFA Elite Club Injury Study.

Open Access J Sports Med 2020 13;11:105-112. Epub 2020 May 13.

Football Research Group, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.

Background: There is limited epidemiological information on injury rates and injury mechanisms for lateral collateral ligament (LCL) and posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) injuries in male professional soccer. In addition, time trends and lay-off times for these injuries have not yet been determined.

Aim: To determine injury rates and circumstances of LCL and PCL injuries over 17 seasons in men's professional soccer. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OAJSM.S237997DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7231769PMC

[Recent trends and challenges for older adults at community sport clubs in Japan: Analysis of FY 2016 Survey Results on Comprehensive Community Sports Clubs].

Nihon Koshu Eisei Zasshi 2020 ;67(5):311-318

Health Services Research and Development Center, University of Tsukuba.

Objectives Comprehensive community sports clubs (CCSCs), of which more than 3,500 exist in Japan, have the potential to contribute to healthy aging in older adults, but their effect on this population has not, thus far, been well explored. This study aimed to investigate the current environment affecting seniors at Japanese CCSCs and to examine issues identified by the analysis.Methods Data were collected from the FY 2016 Survey Results on Comprehensive Community Sports Clubs, conducted by the Japan Sports Agency. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11236/jph.67.5_311DOI Listing
January 2020

Trends and Variation in Care and Outcomes for Children Hospitalized With Acute Gastroenteritis.

Hosp Pediatr 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Department of Pediatrics, Children's Mercy Kansas City and School of Medicine, University of Missouri-Kansas City, Kansas City, Missouri.

Objectives: Assess trends in inpatient acute gastroenteritis (AGE) management across children's hospitals and identify elements of AGE management associated with resource use.

Methods: We examined inpatient stays for children 6 months to 18 years hospitalized with AGE from 2009 to 2018 using the Pediatric Health Information System database. We characterized demographics, hospital-level resource use (ie, medications, laboratories, and imaging), and outcomes (ie, cost per case, 14-day revisit rates, and length of stay [LOS]). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/hpeds.2019-0310DOI Listing

Improving tracheostomy care in the United Kingdom: results of a guided quality improvement programme in 20 diverse hospitals.

Br J Anaesth 2020 May 31. Epub 2020 May 31.

Bayhealth Medical Group, Milford, DE, USA.

Background: Inconsistent and poorly coordinated systems of tracheostomy care commonly result in frustrations, delays, and harm. Quality improvement strategies described by exemplar hospitals of the Global Tracheostomy Collaborative have potential to mitigate such problems. This 3 yr guided implementation programme investigated interventions designed to improve the quality and safety of tracheostomy care. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bja.2020.04.064DOI Listing

Adolescent health programming in India: a rapid review.

Reprod Health 2020 Jun 3;17(1):87. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

World Health Organisation, New Delhi, India.

Background: Recognizing the potential of the country's large youth population and the importance of protecting and supporting its health and well-being, the Government of India committed to strengthening its programmes and systems for adolescents, initially through the Adolescent Reproductive and Sexual Health Strategy (ARSH) launched in 2005 and, subsequently, through the National Adolescent Health Programme (Rashtriya Kishore Swaasthya Karyakram or RKSK) launched in 2014. In 2016, in response to a request from the Government of India, the World Health Organisation undertook a rapid programme review of ARSH and RKSK at the national level and in four states (Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra and Uttarakhand) to identify and document lessons learnt in relation to four domains of the programmes (governance, implementation, monitoring and linkages) that could be used to enhance current and future adolescent health programming in India.

Methodology And Findings: A rapid programme review methodology was utilised to gain an overview of the successes and challenges of the two adolescent health programmes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12978-020-00929-4DOI Listing

Diversity of isoprene-degrading bacteria in phyllosphere and soil communities from a high isoprene-emitting environment: a Malaysian oil palm plantation.

Microbiome 2020 Jun 3;8(1):81. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich Research Park, Norwich, NR4 7TJ, UK.

Background: Isoprene is the most abundantly produced biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) on Earth, with annual global emissions almost equal to those of methane. Despite its importance in atmospheric chemistry and climate, little is known about the biological degradation of isoprene in the environment. The largest source of isoprene is terrestrial plants, and oil palms, the cultivation of which is expanding rapidly, are among the highest isoprene-producing trees. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40168-020-00860-7DOI Listing

Trends and Spatio-temporal variation of female genital mutilation among reproductive-age women in Ethiopia: a Spatio-temporal and multivariate decomposition analysis of Ethiopian demographic and health surveys.

BMC Public Health 2020 May 19;20(1):719. Epub 2020 May 19.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Institute of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia.

Background: Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a serious health problem globally with various health, social and psychological consequences for women. In Ethiopia, the prevalence of female genital mutilation varied across different regions of the country. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the trend and determinants of female genital mutilation among reproductive-age women over time. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-08882-4DOI Listing

Latent tuberculosis infection among health-care workers using Quantiferon-TB Gold-Plus in a country with a low burden for tuberculosis: prevalence and risk factors.

Ann Saudi Med 2020 May-Jun;40(3):191-199. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

From the Infectious Diseases Unit, Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Background: Health-care workers (HCW) are susceptible to latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). The prevalence of LTBI in HCW in Saudi Arabia has not been reported using the fourth-generation interferon gamma release assay QuantiFERON-TB Gold Plus (QFT-Plus).

Objective: Determine the prevalence of LTBI in a large heterogeneous HCW population and assess risk factors for LTBI. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5144/0256-4947.2020.191DOI Listing

Injuries related to animal sacrifice during the Feast of Sacrifice in Turkey.

Ann Saudi Med 2020 May-Jun;40(3):219-226. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

From the Department of Emergency Medicine, Medical Faculty, Ahi Evran University, Kirsehir, Turkey.

Background: The Feast of Sacrifice is a significant annual religious festival in Muslim countries. In these festivals, thousands of animals are usually sacrificed by inexperienced individuals. Thus, many injuries occur during sacrificing of animals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5144/0256-4947.2020.219DOI Listing

Improving Multi-Tumor Biomarker Health Check-up Tests with Machine Learning Algorithms.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jun 1;12(6). Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Linkou, Taoyuan City 33305, Taiwan.

Background: Tumor markers are used to screen tens of millions of individuals worldwide at annual health check-ups, especially in East Asia. Machine learning (ML)-based algorithms that improve the diagnostic accuracy and clinical utility of these tests can have substantial impact leading to the early diagnosis of cancer.

Methods: ML-based algorithms, including a cancer screening algorithm and a secondary organ of origin algorithm, were developed and validated using a large real world dataset (RWD) from asymptomatic individuals undergoing routine cancer screening at a Taiwanese medical center between May 2001 and April 2015. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12061442DOI Listing

Funding for Chagas Disease: A 10-Year (2009-2018) Survey.

Trop Med Infect Dis 2020 Jun 1;5(2). Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Laboratório de Estudos Avançados de Microrganismos Emergentes e Resistentes (LEAMER), Departamento de Microbiologia Geral, Instituto de Microbiologia Paulo de Góes (IMPG), Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro 21941-901, Brazil.

Chagas disease was discovered in 1909 by the Brazilian scientist Carlos Chagas. After more than 110 years, many outcomes have been achieved in all research fields; however, Chagas disease remains a serious public health problem, mainly in Latin America, being one of the most neglected tropical diseases in the world. As a neglected disease, it receives very little financial support. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed5020088DOI Listing

[Acquired immune thrombocytopenia: An update on aspects of diagnosis and management relevant for intensive care medicine].

Dtsch Med Wochenschr 2020 Jun 3;145(11):747-753. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Transfusionsmedizin, Medizinische Fakultät der Universität Tübingen, Universität Tübingen.

Acquired thrombocytopenias represent a group of bleeding diseases, which can be mediated by immune or non-immune factors. Acquired immune thrombocytopenia (AITP) leads to an accelerated decrease in platelet count by platelet reactive antibodies arising from several mechanisms. In AITP, autoantibodies, alloantibodies or drug-dependent antibodies are usually targeting platelet surface glycoproteins. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-0962-6361DOI Listing

[Update diagnosis and therapeutic management of pulmonary embolism].

Dtsch Med Wochenschr 2020 Jun 3;145(11):710-715. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Medizinische Klinik mit Schwerpunkt Kardiologie, Campus Virchow-Klinikum (CVK), Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin.

Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a life-threatening disease and the third most frequent cardiovascular cause of death after stroke and myocardial infarction. The annual incidence is increasing. The recently published 2019 guidelines of the European Society of Cardiology integrate numerous new study findings and provide updated diagnostic and therapeutic algorithms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-0984-7323DOI Listing

Regional Disparities in Qualified Health Plans' Prior Authorization Requirements for HIV Pre-exposure Prophylaxis in the United States.

JAMA Netw Open 2020 Jun 1;3(6):e207445. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Division of Infectious Diseases and International Health, University of Virginia, Charlottesville.

Importance: With the goal of ending the HIV epidemic in the United States, access to HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is essential to help curb new HIV infections. There has been differential uptake of PrEP by region, with the South lagging behind other regions. Discriminatory benefit design (benefit design that prevents or delays people with complex or expensive conditions from obtaining appropriate treatment) through prior authorization requirements could be a systemic barrier that contributes to the decreased PrEP uptake in the South. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.7445DOI Listing

Effect of Aspirin vs Placebo on the Prevention of Depression in Older People: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA Psychiatry 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia.

Importance: Depression is associated with increased inflammation, which may precede its onset, especially in older people. Some preclinical data suggest potential antidepressant effects of aspirin, supported by limited observational data suggesting lower rates of depression in individuals treated with aspirin. There currently appears to be no evidence-based pharmacotherapies for the primary prevention of depression. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2020.1214DOI Listing

Rethinking Space: A Review of Perception, Attention, and Memory in Scene Processing.

Annu Rev Vis Sci 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Department of Psychology, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario K7L 3N6, Canada; email:

Scene processing is fundamentally influenced and constrained by spatial layout and spatial associations with objects. However, semantic information has played a vital role in propelling our understanding of real-world scene perception forward. In this article, we review recent advances in assessing how spatial layout and spatial relations influence scene processing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-vision-121219-081745DOI Listing

Can We See with Melanopsin?

Annu Rev Vis Sci 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Centre for Biological Timing and Division of Neuroscience and Experimental Psychology, Faculty of Biology Medicine and Health, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PT, United Kingdom; email:

A small fraction of mammalian retinal ganglion cells are directly photoreceptive thanks to their expression of the photopigment melanopsin. These intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) have well-established roles in a variety of reflex responses to changes in ambient light intensity, including circadian photoentrainment. In this article, we review the growing evidence, obtained primarily from laboratory mice and humans, that the ability to sense light via melanopsin is also an important component of perceptual and form vision. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-vision-030320-041239DOI Listing

A Department-Sponsored, Hospital-Based Pathology Education Symposium Is a Cost-Effective Method to Provide Laboratory Staff With Highly Rated Continuing Education Experiences.

Arch Pathol Lab Med 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

From the Department of Pathology, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.

Context.—: Continuing education improves the quality of medical care and is a required part of most health care professions. Although a variety of educational modules are available online or at external conferences, completion of these activities can be expensive and time-consuming. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5858/arpa.2019-0694-EPDOI Listing

Global Estimates and Long-Term Trends of Fine Particulate Matter Concentrations (1998-2018).

Environ Sci Technol 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Exposure to outdoor fine particulate matter (PM) is a leading risk factor for mortality. We develop global estimates of annual PM concentrations and trends for 1998-2018 using advances in satellite observations, chemical transport modeling, and ground-based monitoring. Aerosol optical depth (AOD) from advanced satellite products including finer resolution, increased global coverage, and improved long-term stability, are combined and related to surface PM concentrations using geophysical relationships between surface PM and AOD simulated by the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model with updated algorithms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.0c01764DOI Listing

Association between exposure to ambient air pollution and thyroid function in Korean adults.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Department of Family Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, South Korea.

Context: Although a significant relationship has been reported between air pollution and thyroid function in limited samples or regions, few studies have addressed this association in the general population.

Objective: Using a nationwide sample of Korean adults, we investigated the association between exposure to air pollution and thyroid function, and whether this association differed between subgroups stratified according to age or body mass index (BMI).

Methods: We included 4,704 adults in the final analysis and used each person's annual average exposure to four air pollutants, namely, particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 μm (PM10), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide, and carbon monoxide (CO). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/clinem/dgaa338DOI Listing

Why Is Per Capita Consumption Underestimated in Alcohol Surveys? Results from 39 Surveys in 23 European Countries.

Alcohol Alcohol 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Institute of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, TU Dresden, Dresden, Germany.

Aims: The aims of the article are (a) to estimate coverage rates (i.e. the proportion of 'real consumption' accounted for by a survey compared with more reliable aggregate consumption data) of the total, the recorded and the beverage-specific annual per capita consumption in 23 European countries, and (b) to investigate differences between regions, and other factors which might be associated with low coverage (prevalence of heavy episodic drinking [HED], survey methodology). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/alcalc/agaa048DOI Listing

Occupational Asthma and Its Causation in the UK Seafood Processing Industry.

Ann Work Expo Health 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Centre for Occupational and Environmental Health, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.

Objectives: The processing of seafood (fish and shellfish) for human consumption can lead to health consequences, including occupational asthma (OA). Several non-UK studies have reported both respiratory outcomes and airborne levels of major allergens in seafood processing. However, there is a paucity of such evidence in the UK land-based seafood processing sector, which employs some 20 000 workers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/annweh/wxaa055DOI Listing

Temporal trends and spatial distribution of leprosy-related mortality in the state of Tocantins, Brazil, 2000-2015.

Epidemiol Serv Saude 2020 1;29(3):e2018336. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Fundação Escola de Saúde Pública de Palmas, Palmas, TO, Brasil.

Objective to describe temporal trends and spatial distribution patterns of leprosy-related deaths in the state of Tocantins, Brazil, 2000-2015. Methods this study was based on Mortality Information System (SIM) data; mortality coefficient temporal trend analysis was performed using joinpoint regression and descriptive spatial analysis, taking the state's 139 municipalities as geographic units of analysis. Results 201 leprosy-related deaths were identified in Tocantins; average mortality coefficient was 0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5123/s1679-49742020000300003DOI Listing

Decrease in blood donation rates in Japan: a time series analysis.

Rev Bras Epidemiol 2020 1;23:e200047. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Department of Hygiene, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, Miki, Kagawa, Japan.

Objective: To clarify that one of the causes for the decrease in blood donation (BD) rates was the introduction of the 400 ml BD program in 1986.

Method: BP rates were monitored over 48 years (1965-2012) and were divided into pre- and post-intervention periods prior to analysis. An interrupted time series analysis was performed using annual data on BD rates, and the impact of the 400 ml BD program was investigated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1980-549720200047DOI Listing

Prenatal exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals and asthma and allergic diseases.

Authors:
M Casas M Gascon

J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

ISGlobal, Barcelona, Spain.

Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), chemicals that can interfere with endogenous hormones and that are present in many consumer products, can affect the development and functions of the immune system. The prenatal period is critical because exposure to EDCs can induce irreversible changes in the immune system and increase the susceptibility of asthma and allergies later in life. Non-persistent EDCs are of most concern due to their high annual production and potential toxicity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.18176/jiaci.0580DOI Listing