1,069 results match your criteria Annual Review Of Genetics[Journal]


The Power of Human Cancer Genetics as Revealed by Low-Grade Gliomas.

Annu Rev Genet 2019 12;53:483-503

Departments of Pediatric and Human Genetics, McGill University and the Research Institute of the McGill University Health Center, Montreal, Quebec H4A 3J1, Canada; email:

The human brain contains a vast number of cells and shows extraordinary cellular diversity to facilitate the many cognitive and automatic commands governing our bodily functions. This complexity arises partly from large-scale structural variations in the genome, evolutionary processes to increase brain size, function, and cognition. Not surprisingly given recent technical advances, low-grade gliomas (LGGs), which arise from the glia (the most abundant cell type in the brain), have undergone a recent revolution in their classification and therapy, especially in the pediatric setting. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-genet-120417-031642DOI Listing
December 2019

Genetic Screens to Analyze Pattern Formation of Egg and Embryo in : A Personal History.

Authors:
Trudi Schüpbach

Annu Rev Genet 2019 12;53:1-18

Department of Molecular Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544, USA; email:

In development, the axes of the egg and future embryo are established during oogenesis. To learn about the underlying genetic and molecular pathways that lead to axis formation, I conducted a large-scale genetic screen at the beginning of my independent career. This led to the eventual understanding that both anterior-posterior and dorsal-ventral pattern information is transmitted from the oocyte to the surrounding follicle cells and in turn from the follicle cells back to the oocyte. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-genet-112618-043708DOI Listing
December 2019

Organization of Chromosomal DNA by SMC Complexes.

Annu Rev Genet 2019 12 2;53:445-482. Epub 2019 Oct 2.

Department of Biochemistry, Oxford University, Oxford OX1 3QU, United Kingdom; email:

Structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) complexes are key organizers of chromosome architecture in all kingdoms of life. Despite seemingly divergent functions, such as chromosome segregation, chromosome maintenance, sister chromatid cohesion, and mitotic chromosome compaction, it appears that these complexes function via highly conserved mechanisms and that they represent a novel class of DNA translocases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-genet-112618-043633DOI Listing
December 2019

Genetic Factors in Mammalian Prion Diseases.

Annu Rev Genet 2019 12 19;53:117-147. Epub 2019 Sep 19.

Medical Research Council Prion Unit at UCL, Institute of Prion Diseases, University College London, London W1W 7FF, United Kingdom; email:

Mammalian prion diseases are a group of neurodegenerative conditions caused by infection of the central nervous system with proteinaceous agents called prions, including sporadic, variant, and iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease; kuru; inherited prion disease; sheep scrapie; bovine spongiform encephalopathy; and chronic wasting disease. Prions are composed of misfolded and multimeric forms of the normal cellular prion protein (PrP). Prion diseases require host expression of the prion protein gene () and a range of other cellular functions to support their propagation and toxicity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-genet-120213-092352DOI Listing
December 2019
3 Reads

The Evolution of Sexual Reproduction and the Mating-Type Locus: Links to Pathogenesis of Human Pathogenic Fungi.

Annu Rev Genet 2019 12 19;53:417-444. Epub 2019 Sep 19.

Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA; email:

species utilize a variety of sexual reproduction mechanisms, which generate genetic diversity, purge deleterious mutations, and contribute to their ability to occupy myriad environmental niches and exhibit a range of pathogenic potential. The bisexual and unisexual cycles of pathogenic species are stimulated by properties associated with their environmental niches and proceed through well-characterized signaling pathways and corresponding morphological changes. Genes governing mating are encoded by the mating-type () loci and influence pathogenesis, population dynamics, and lineage divergence in . Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-genet-120116-024755DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7025156PMC
December 2019

Microglia in Brain Development, Homeostasis, and Neurodegeneration.

Annu Rev Genet 2019 12 13;53:263-288. Epub 2019 Sep 13.

Department of Neuroscience, Genentech, South San Francisco, California 94080, USA; email:

Advances in human genetics have implicated a growing number of genes in neurodegenerative diseases, providing insight into pathological processes. For Alzheimer disease in particular, genome-wide association studies and gene expression studies have emphasized the pathogenic contributions from microglial cells and motivated studies of microglial function/dysfunction. Here, we summarize recent genetic evidence for microglial involvement in neurodegenerative disease with a focus on Alzheimer disease, for which the evidence is most compelling. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-genet-112618-043515DOI Listing
December 2019
1 Read

The Arms Race Between KRAB-Zinc Finger Proteins and Endogenous Retroelements and Its Impact on Mammals.

Annu Rev Genet 2019 12 13;53:393-416. Epub 2019 Sep 13.

Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, The National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA; email:

Nearly half of the human genome consists of endogenous retroelements (EREs) and their genetic remnants, a small fraction of which carry the potential to propagate in the host genome, posing a threat to genome integrity and cell/organismal survival. The largest family of transcription factors in tetrapods, the Krüppel-associated box domain zinc finger proteins (KRAB-ZFPs), binds to specific EREs and represses their transcription. Since their first appearance over 400 million years ago, KRAB-ZFPs have undergone dramatic expansion and diversification in mammals, correlating with the invasions of new EREs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-genet-112618-043717DOI Listing
December 2019

Zebrafish Pigment Pattern Formation: Insights into the Development and Evolution of Adult Form.

Annu Rev Genet 2019 12 11;53:505-530. Epub 2019 Sep 11.

Department of Biology and Department of Cell Biology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22903, USA.

Vertebrate pigment patterns are diverse and fascinating adult traits that allow animals to recognize conspecifics, attract mates, and avoid predators. Pigment patterns in fish are among the most amenable traits for studying the cellular basis of adult form, as the cells that produce diverse patterns are readily visible in the skin during development. The genetic basis of pigment pattern development has been most studied in the zebrafish, . Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-genet-112618-043741DOI Listing
December 2019

Evolutionary Ecology of Releases for Disease Control.

Annu Rev Genet 2019 12 10;53:93-116. Epub 2019 Sep 10.

Pest and Environmental Adaptation Research Group, School of BioSciences, Bio21 Institute, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3052, Australia.

is an endosymbiotic that can suppress insect-borne diseases through decreasing host virus transmission (population replacement) or through decreasing host population density (population suppression). We contrast natural infections in insect populations with transinfections in mosquitoes to gain insights into factors potentially affecting the long-term success of releases. Natural infections can spread rapidly, whereas the slow spread of transinfections is governed by deleterious effects on host fitness and demographic factors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-genet-112618-043609DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6944334PMC
December 2019

Regulation of Genomic Output and (Pluri)potency in Regeneration.

Annu Rev Genet 2019 12 10;53:327-346. Epub 2019 Sep 10.

Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Stowers Institute for Medical Research, Kansas City, Missouri 64110, USA; email:

Regeneration is a remarkable phenomenon that has been the subject of awe and bafflement for hundreds of years. Although regeneration competence is found in highly divergent organisms throughout the animal kingdom, recent advances in tools used for molecular and genomic characterization have uncovered common genes, molecular mechanisms, and genomic features in regenerating animals. In this review we focus on what is known about how genome regulation modulates cellular potency during regeneration. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-genet-112618-043733DOI Listing
December 2019

Standard Deviations: The Biological Bases of Transmission Ratio Distortion.

Annu Rev Genet 2019 12 10;53:347-372. Epub 2019 Sep 10.

Division of Biological Sciences, University of Montana, Missoula, Montana 59812, USA; email:

The rule of Mendelian inheritance is remarkably robust, but deviations from the equal transmission of alternative alleles at a locus [a.k.a. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-genet-112618-043905DOI Listing
December 2019

The Microbiome and Aging.

Annu Rev Genet 2019 12 5;53:239-261. Epub 2019 Sep 5.

MRC London Institute of Medical Sciences, London W12 0NN, United Kingdom; email:

Aging is a natural process of organismal decay that underpins the development of myriad diseases and disorders. Extensive efforts have been made to understand the biology of aging and its regulation, but most studies focus solely on the host organism. Considering the pivotal role of the microbiota in host health and metabolism, we propose viewing the host and its microbiota as a single biological entity whose aging phenotype is influenced by the complex interplay between host and bacterial genetics. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-genet-112618-043650DOI Listing
December 2019
1 Read

The Gene and Its Behavioral Effects: Pleiotropy and Plasticity.

Annu Rev Genet 2019 12 5;53:373-392. Epub 2019 Sep 5.

Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3B2, Canada; email:

The () gene is a well-established example of a gene with major effects on behavior and natural variation. This gene is best known for underlying the behavioral strategies of rover and sitter foraging larvae, having been mapped and named for this phenotype. Nevertheless, in the last three decades an extensive array of studies describing 's role as a modifier of behavior in a wide range of phenotypes, in both and other organisms, has emerged. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-genet-112618-043536DOI Listing
December 2019

Light in the Fungal World: From Photoreception to Gene Transcription and Beyond.

Annu Rev Genet 2019 12 26;53:149-170. Epub 2019 Aug 26.

Departamento de Genética, Facultad de Biología, Universidad de Sevilla, 41012 Sevilla, Spain; email:

Fungi see light of different colors by using photoreceptors such as the White Collar proteins and cryptochromes for blue light, opsins for green light, and phytochromes for red light. Light regulates fungal development, promotes the accumulation of protective pigments and proteins, and regulates tropic growth. The White Collar complex (WCC) is a photoreceptor and a transcription factor that is responsible for regulating transcription after exposure to blue light. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-genet-120417-031415DOI Listing
December 2019

Mechanisms of DNA Uptake by Naturally Competent Bacteria.

Annu Rev Genet 2019 12 21;53:217-237. Epub 2019 Aug 21.

Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology, Global Health Institute, School of Life Sciences, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland.

Transformation is a widespread mechanism of horizontal gene transfer in bacteria. DNA uptake to the periplasmic compartment requires a DNA-uptake pilus and the DNA-binding protein ComEA. In the gram-negative bacteria, DNA is first pulled toward the outer membrane by retraction of the pilus and then taken up by binding to periplasmic ComEA, acting as a Brownian ratchet to prevent backward diffusion. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-genet-112618-043641DOI Listing
December 2019

Cell Size Control in Plants.

Annu Rev Genet 2019 12 20;53:45-65. Epub 2019 Aug 20.

Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, John Innes Centre, Norwich Research Park, Norwich NR4 7UH, United Kingdom; email:

The genetic control of the characteristic cell sizes of different species and tissues is a long-standing enigma. Plants are convenient for studying this question in a multicellular context, as their cells do not move and are easily tracked and measured from organ initiation in the meristems to subsequent morphogenesis and differentiation. In this article, we discuss cell size control in plants compared with other organisms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-genet-112618-043602DOI Listing
December 2019
1 Read

Liquid-Liquid Phase Separation in Disease.

Annu Rev Genet 2019 12 20;53:171-194. Epub 2019 Aug 20.

BioMedical Center (BMC), Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, 82152 Planegg-Martinsried, Germany; email:

We have made rapid progress in recent years in identifying the genetic causes of many human diseases. However, despite this recent progress, our mechanistic understanding of these diseases is often incomplete. This is a problem because it limits our ability to develop effective disease treatments. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-genet-112618-043527DOI Listing
December 2019

Crossover Interference: Shedding Light on the Evolution of Recombination.

Annu Rev Genet 2019 12 20;53:19-44. Epub 2019 Aug 20.

Laboratory of Genetics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA.

Through recombination, genes are freed to evolve more independently of one another, unleashing genetic variance hidden in the linkage disequilibrium that accumulates through selection combined with drift. Yet crossover numbers are evolutionarily constrained, with at least one and not many more than one crossover per bivalent in most taxa. Crossover interference, whereby a crossover reduces the probability of a neighboring crossover, contributes to this homogeneity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-genet-040119-093957DOI Listing
December 2019
1 Read

Living with Two Genomes: Grafting and Its Implications for Plant Genome-to-Genome Interactions, Phenotypic Variation, and Evolution.

Annu Rev Genet 2019 12 19;53:195-215. Epub 2019 Aug 19.

Department of Botany and Plant Sciences, University of California, Riverside, California 92521, USA.

Plant genomes interact when genetically distinct individuals join, or are joined, together. Individuals can fuse in three contexts: artificial grafts, natural grafts, and host-parasite interactions. Artificial grafts have been studied for decades and are important platforms for studying the movement of RNA, DNA, and protein. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-genet-112618-043545DOI Listing
December 2019

Natural Viruses of Nematodes.

Annu Rev Genet 2019 12 19;53:313-326. Epub 2019 Aug 19.

Departments of Molecular Microbiology and Pathology & Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, USA.

has long been a laboratory model organism with no known natural pathogens. In the past ten years, however, natural viruses have been isolated from wild-caught (Orsay virus) and its relative (Santeuil virus, Le Blanc virus, and Melnik virus). All are RNA positive-sense viruses related to ; they infect intestinal cells and are horizontally transmitted. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-genet-112618-043756DOI Listing
December 2019
1 Read

Myoblast Fusion: Invasion and Resistance for the Ultimate Union.

Annu Rev Genet 2019 12 5;53:67-91. Epub 2019 Jul 5.

Department of Molecular Biology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390, USA; email:

Cell-cell fusion is indispensable for creating life and building syncytial tissues and organs. Ever since the discovery of cell-cell fusion, how cells join together to form zygotes and multinucleated syncytia has remained a fundamental question in cell and developmental biology. In the past two decades, myoblast fusion has been used as a powerful genetic model to unravel mechanisms underlying cell-cell fusion in vivo. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-genet-120116-024603DOI Listing
December 2019

Multigenerational Regulation of the Chromatin Landscape by Germline Small RNAs.

Annu Rev Genet 2019 12 31;53:289-311. Epub 2019 May 31.

Department of Biology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218, USA; email:

In animals, small noncoding RNAs that are expressed in the germline and transmitted to progeny control gene expression to promote fertility. Germline-expressed small RNAs, including endogenous small interfering RNAs (endo-siRNAs) and Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs), drive the repression of deleterious transcripts such as transposons, repetitive elements, and pseudogenes. Recent studies have highlighted an important role for small RNAs in transgenerational epigenetic inheritance via regulation of heritable chromatin marks; therefore, small RNAs are thought to convey an epigenetic memory of genomic self and nonself elements. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-genet-112618-043505DOI Listing
December 2019
15 Reads

piRNA-Guided Genome Defense: From Biogenesis to Silencing.

Annu Rev Genet 2018 11;52:131-157

Cancer Research UK Cambridge Institute, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 0RE, United Kingdom; email: ,

PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) and their associated PIWI clade Argonaute proteins constitute the core of the piRNA pathway. In gonadal cells, this conserved pathway is crucial for genome defense, and its main function is to silence transposable elements. This is achieved through posttranscriptional and transcriptional gene silencing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-genet-120417-031441DOI Listing
November 2018
1 Read

Mechanisms of Neural Crest Migration.

Annu Rev Genet 2018 11;52:43-63

Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom; email:

Neural crest cells are a transient embryonic cell population that migrate collectively to various locations throughout the embryo to contribute a number of cell types to several organs. After induction, the neural crest delaminates and undergoes an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition before migrating through intricate yet characteristic paths. The neural crest exhibits a variety of migratory behaviors ranging from sheet-like mass migration in the cephalic regions to chain migration in the trunk. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-genet-120417-031559DOI Listing
November 2018
1 Read

Ribosome Hibernation.

Annu Rev Genet 2018 11;52:321-348

Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, DK-2200 Copenhagen, Denmark; email:

Protein synthesis consumes a large fraction of available resources in the cell. When bacteria encounter unfavorable conditions and cease to grow, specialized mechanisms are in place to ensure the overall reduction of costly protein synthesis while maintaining a basal level of translation. A number of ribosome-associated factors are involved in this regulation; some confer an inactive, hibernating state of the ribosome in the form of 70S monomers (RaiA; this and the following are based on Escherichia coli nomenclature) or 100S dimers (RMF and HPF homologs), and others inhibit translation at different stages in the translation cycle (RsfS, YqjD and paralogs, SRA, and EttA). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-genet-120215-035130DOI Listing
November 2018
4 Reads

The Smc5/6 Complex: New and Old Functions of the Enigmatic Long-Distance Relative.

Authors:
Luis Aragón

Annu Rev Genet 2018 11;52:89-107

Cell Cycle Group, MRC London Institute of Medical Sciences, Hammersmith Hospital Campus, London W12 0NN, United Kingdom; email:

Smc5 and Smc6, together with the kleisin Nse4, form the heart of the enigmatic and poorly understood Smc5/6 complex, which is frequently viewed as a cousin of cohesin and condensin with functions in DNA repair. As novel functions for cohesin and condensin complexes in the organization of long-range chromatin architecture have recently emerged, new unsuspected roles for Smc5/6 have also surfaced. Here, I aim to provide a comprehensive overview of our current knowledge of the Smc5/6 complex, including its long-established function in genome stability, its multiple roles in DNA repair, and its recently discovered connection to the transcription inhibition of hepatitis B virus genomes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-genet-120417-031353DOI Listing
November 2018
1 Read

On the Road to Breeding 4.0: Unraveling the Good, the Bad, and the Boring of Crop Quantitative Genomics.

Annu Rev Genet 2018 11 4;52:421-444. Epub 2018 Oct 4.

United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA.

Understanding the quantitative genetics of crops has been and will continue to be central to maintaining and improving global food security. We outline four stages that plant breeding either has already achieved or will probably soon achieve. Top-of-the-line breeding programs are currently in Breeding 3. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-genet-120116-024846DOI Listing
November 2018
3 Reads

X-Chromosome Inactivation: A Crossroads Between Chromosome Architecture and Gene Regulation.

Annu Rev Genet 2018 11 26;52:535-566. Epub 2018 Sep 26.

Genetics and Developmental Biology Unit and Mammalian Developmental Epigenetics Group, Institut Curie, PSL Research University, CNRS UMR3215, INSERM U934, 75248 Paris, France; email:

In somatic nuclei of female therian mammals, the two X chromosomes display very different chromatin states: One X is typically euchromatic and transcriptionally active, and the other is mostly silent and forms a cytologically detectable heterochromatic structure termed the Barr body. These differences, which arise during female development as a result of X-chromosome inactivation (XCI), have been the focus of research for many decades. Initial approaches to define the structure of the inactive X chromosome (Xi) and its relationship to gene expression mainly involved microscopy-based approaches. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-genet-120116-024611DOI Listing
November 2018
6 Reads

The Multiple Levels of Mitonuclear Coregulation.

Annu Rev Genet 2018 11 19;52:511-533. Epub 2018 Sep 19.

Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA; email: , ,

Together, the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes encode the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complexes that reside in the mitochondrial inner membrane and enable aerobic life. Mitochondria maintain their own genome that is expressed and regulated by factors distinct from their nuclear counterparts. For optimal function, the cell must ensure proper stoichiometric production of OXPHOS subunits by coordinating two physically separated and evolutionarily distinct gene expression systems. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-genet-120417-031709DOI Listing
November 2018
2 Reads

Chemical Modifications in the Life of an mRNA Transcript.

Annu Rev Genet 2018 11 19;52:349-372. Epub 2018 Sep 19.

Department of Chemistry, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Institute for Biophysical Dynamics, and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA; email: ,

Investigations over the past eight years of chemical modifications on messenger RNA (mRNA) have revealed a new level of posttranscriptional gene regulation in eukaryotes. Rapid progress in our understanding of these modifications, particularly, N-methyladenosine (mA), has revealed their roles throughout the life cycle of an mRNA transcript. mA methylation provides a rapid mechanism for coordinated transcriptome processing and turnover that is important in embryonic development and cell differentiation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-genet-120417-031522DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6436393PMC
November 2018
15 Reads

Immunoglobulin-Like Receptors and Their Impact on Wiring of Brain Synapses.

Annu Rev Genet 2018 11 13;52:567-590. Epub 2018 Sep 13.

Center for Neuroscience, University of California, Davis, California 95618, USA; email: ,

Synapse formation is mediated by a surprisingly large number and wide variety of genes encoding many different protein classes. One of the families increasingly implicated in synapse wiring is the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF). IgSF molecules are by definition any protein containing at least one Ig-like domain, making this family one of the most common protein classes encoded by the genome. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-genet-120417-031513DOI Listing
November 2018
26 Reads

Somatic Mutagenesis in Mammals and Its Implications for Human Disease and Aging.

Authors:
Lei Zhang Jan Vijg

Annu Rev Genet 2018 11 13;52:397-419. Epub 2018 Sep 13.

Department of Genetics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York 10461, USA; email:

DNA mutations as a consequence of errors during DNA damage repair, replication, or mitosis are the substrate for evolution. In multicellular organisms, mutations can occur in the germline and also in somatic tissues, where they are associated with cancer and other chronic diseases and possibly with aging. Recent advances in high-throughput sequencing have made it relatively easy to study germline de novo mutations, but in somatic cells, the vast majority of mutations are low-abundant and can be detected only in clonal lineages, such as tumors, or single cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-genet-120417-031501DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6414224PMC
November 2018
2 Reads
15.720 Impact Factor

Recent Advances in Behavioral (Epi)Genetics in Eusocial Insects.

Annu Rev Genet 2018 11 12;52:489-510. Epub 2018 Sep 12.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA; email: ,

Eusocial insects live in societies in which distinct family members serve specific roles in maintaining the colony and advancing the reproductive ability of a few select individuals. Given the genetic similarity of all colony members, the diversity of morphologies and behaviors is surprising. Social communication relies on pheromones and olfaction, as shown by mutants of orco, the universal odorant receptor coreceptor, and through electrophysiological analysis of neuronal responses to pheromones. Read More

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https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/10.1146/annurev-genet-1201
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-genet-120116-024456DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6445553PMC
November 2018
2 Reads

Understanding the Genetic Basis of C Kranz Anatomy with a View to Engineering C Crops.

Annu Rev Genet 2018 11 12;52:249-270. Epub 2018 Sep 12.

Department of Plant Sciences, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3RB, United Kingdom; email: , ,

One of the most remarkable examples of convergent evolution is the transition from C to C photosynthesis, an event that occurred on over 60 independent occasions. The evolution of C is particularly noteworthy because of the complexity of the developmental and metabolic changes that took place. In most cases, compartmentalized metabolic reactions were facilitated by the development of a distinct leaf anatomy known as Kranz. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-genet-120417-031217DOI Listing
November 2018
5 Reads

Shelterin-Mediated Telomere Protection.

Authors:
Titia de Lange

Annu Rev Genet 2018 11 12;52:223-247. Epub 2018 Sep 12.

Laboratory of Cell Biology and Genetics, Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10065, USA; email:

For more than a decade, it has been known that mammalian cells use shelterin to protect chromosome ends. Much progress has been made on the mechanism by which shelterin prevents telomeres from inadvertently activating DNA damage signaling and double-strand break (DSB) repair pathways. Shelterin averts activation of three DNA damage response enzymes [the ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) and ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related (ATR) kinases and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1)], blocks three DSB repair pathways [classical nonhomologous end joining (c-NHEJ), alternative (alt)-NHEJ, and homology-directed repair (HDR)], and prevents hyper-resection at telomeres. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-genet-032918-021921DOI Listing
November 2018
3 Reads

Aging in a Dish: iPSC-Derived and Directly Induced Neurons for Studying Brain Aging and Age-Related Neurodegenerative Diseases.

Annu Rev Genet 2018 11 12;52:271-293. Epub 2018 Sep 12.

Laboratory of Genetics, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, California 92037, USA; email:

Age-associated neurological diseases represent a profound challenge in biomedical research as we are still struggling to understand the interface between the aging process and the manifestation of disease. Various pathologies in the elderly do not directly result from genetic mutations, toxins, or infectious agents but are primarily driven by the many manifestations of biological aging. Therefore, the generation of appropriate model systems to study human aging in the nervous system demands new concepts that lie beyond transgenic and drug-induced models. Read More

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https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/10.1146/annurev-genet-1204
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-genet-120417-031534DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6415910PMC
November 2018
21 Reads

Chromosome Dynamics in Response to DNA Damage.

Annu Rev Genet 2018 11 12;52:295-319. Epub 2018 Sep 12.

Friedrich Miescher Institute for Biomedical Research, 4058 Basel, Switzerland; email:

Recent advances in both the technologies used to measure chromatin movement and the biophysical analysis used to model them have yielded a fuller understanding of chromatin dynamics and the polymer structure that underlies it. Changes in nucleosome packing, checkpoint kinase activation, the cell cycle, chromosomal tethers, and external forces acting on nuclei in response to external and internal stimuli can alter the basal mobility of DNA in interphase nuclei of yeast or mammalian cells. Although chromatin movement is assumed to be necessary for many DNA-based processes, including gene activation by distal enhancer-promoter interaction or sequence-based homology searches during double-strand break repair, experimental evidence supporting an essential role in these activities is sparse. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-genet-120417-031334DOI Listing
November 2018
44 Reads

Unique Archaeal Small RNAs.

Annu Rev Genet 2018 11 12;52:465-487. Epub 2018 Sep 12.

Prokaryotic Small RNA Biology Group, Max Planck Institute for Terrestrial Microbiology, 35043 Marburg, Germany; email: , ,

Advances in genome-wide sequence technologies allow for detailed insights into the complexity of RNA landscapes of organisms from all three domains of life. Recent analyses of archaeal transcriptomes identified interaction and regulation networks of noncoding RNAs in this understudied domain. Here, we review current knowledge of small, noncoding RNAs with important functions for the archaeal lifestyle, which often requires adaptation to extreme environments. Read More

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https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/10.1146/annurev-genet-1204
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-genet-120417-031300DOI Listing
November 2018
6 Reads

Calcium Channelopathies: Structural Insights into Disorders of the Muscle Excitation-Contraction Complex.

Annu Rev Genet 2018 11 12;52:373-396. Epub 2018 Sep 12.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z3, Canada; email:

Ion channels are membrane proteins responsible for the passage of ions down their electrochemical gradients and across biological membranes. In this, they generate and shape action potentials and provide secondary messengers for various signaling pathways. They are often part of larger complexes containing auxiliary subunits and regulatory proteins. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-genet-120417-031311DOI Listing
November 2018
2 Reads

Phage-Encoded Anti-CRISPR Defenses.

Annu Rev Genet 2018 11 12;52:445-464. Epub 2018 Sep 12.

Department of Biochemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1M1, Canada; email:

The battle for survival between bacteria and bacteriophages (phages) is an arms race where bacteria develop defenses to protect themselves from phages and phages evolve counterstrategies to bypass these defenses. CRISPR-Cas adaptive immune systems represent a widespread mechanism by which bacteria protect themselves from phage infection. In response to CRISPR-Cas, phages have evolved protein inhibitors known as anti-CRISPRs. Read More

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https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/10.1146/annurev-genet-1204
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-genet-120417-031321DOI Listing
November 2018
12 Reads

Tracing My Roots: How I Became a Plant Biologist.

Annu Rev Genet 2018 11 7;52:1-20. Epub 2018 Sep 7.

Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, and Department of Molecular Biology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA; email:

My trajectory to becoming a plant biologist was shaped by a complex mix of scientific, political, sociological, and personal factors. I was trained as a microbiologist and molecular biologist in the late 1960s and early 1970s, a time of political upheaval surrounding the Vietnam War. My political activism taught me to be wary of the potential misuses of scientific knowledge and to promote the positive applications of science for the benefit of society. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-genet-120417-031722DOI Listing
November 2018
30 Reads

Power in Numbers: Single-Cell RNA-Seq Strategies to Dissect Complex Tissues.

Annu Rev Genet 2018 11 7;52:203-221. Epub 2018 Sep 7.

Center for Genomics and Systems Biology, New York University, New York, NY 10003, USA; email:

The growing scale and declining cost of single-cell RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) now permit a repetition of cell sampling that increases the power to detect rare cell states, reconstruct developmental trajectories, and measure phenotype in new terms such as cellular variance. The characterization of anatomy and developmental dynamics has not had an equivalent breakthrough since groundbreaking advances in live fluorescent microscopy. The new resolution obtained by single-cell RNA-seq is a boon to genetics because the novel description of phenotype offers the opportunity to refine gene function and dissect pleiotropy. Read More

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https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/10.1146/annurev-genet-1204
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-genet-120417-031247DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6314027PMC
November 2018
17 Reads

Genetic Control of Early Cell Lineages in the Mammalian Embryo.

Authors:
Janet Rossant

Annu Rev Genet 2018 11 5;52:185-201. Epub 2018 Sep 5.

Program in Stem Cell and Developmental Biology, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario M5G 0A4, Canada; email:

Establishing the different lineages of the early mammalian embryo takes place over several days and several rounds of cell divisions from the fertilized egg. The resulting blastocyst contains the pluripotent cells of the epiblast, from which embryonic stem cells can be derived, as well as the extraembryonic lineages required for a mammalian embryo to survive in the uterine environment. The dynamics of the cellular and genetic interactions controlling the initiation and maintenance of these lineages in the mouse embryo are increasingly well understood through application of the tools of single-cell genomics, gene editing, and in vivo imaging. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-genet-120116-024544DOI Listing
November 2018
2 Reads

H3-H4 Histone Chaperone Pathways.

Annu Rev Genet 2018 11 5;52:109-130. Epub 2018 Sep 5.

Genetics & Genome Biology Program, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario M5G 0A4, Canada; email:

Nucleosomes compact and organize genetic material on a structural level. However, they also alter local chromatin accessibility through changes in their position, through the incorporation of histone variants, and through a vast array of histone posttranslational modifications. The dynamic nature of chromatin requires histone chaperones to process, deposit, and evict histones in different tissues and at different times in the cell cycle. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-genet-120417-031547DOI Listing
November 2018
4 Reads

Metabolic Gene Clusters in Eukaryotes.

Annu Rev Genet 2018 11 5;52:159-183. Epub 2018 Sep 5.

Department of Metabolic Biology, John Innes Centre, Norwich NR4 7UH, United Kingdom; email:

In bacteria, more than half of the genes in the genome are organized in operons. In contrast, in eukaryotes, functionally related genes are usually dispersed across the genome. There are, however, numerous examples of functional clusters of nonhomologous genes for metabolic pathways in fungi and plants. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-genet-120417-031237DOI Listing
November 2018
3 Reads

The Hippo Signaling Network and Its Biological Functions.

Annu Rev Genet 2018 11 5;52:65-87. Epub 2018 Sep 5.

Waksman Institute and Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854, USA; email:

Hippo signaling is an evolutionarily conserved network that has a central role in regulating cell proliferation and cell fate to control organ growth and regeneration. It promotes activation of the LATS kinases, which control gene expression by inhibiting the activity of the transcriptional coactivator proteins YAP and TAZ in mammals and Yorkie in Drosophila. Diverse upstream inputs, including both biochemical cues and biomechanical cues, regulate Hippo signaling and enable it to have a key role as a sensor of cells' physical environment and an integrator of growth control signals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-genet-120417-031621DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6322405PMC
November 2018
1 Read

Transgenerational Epigenetic Inheritance.

Annu Rev Genet 2018 11 30;52:21-41. Epub 2018 Aug 30.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts 01605, USA; email:

Inheritance of genomic DNA underlies the vast majority of biological inheritance, yet it has been clear for decades that additional epigenetic information can be passed on to future generations. Here, we review major model systems for transgenerational epigenetic inheritance via the germline in multicellular organisms. In addition to surveying examples of epivariation that may arise stochastically or in response to unknown stimuli, we also discuss the induction of heritable epigenetic changes by genetic or environmental perturbations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-genet-120417-031404DOI Listing
November 2018
38 Reads

Mosaicism in Cutaneous Disorders.

Annu Rev Genet 2017 11;51:123-141

Department of Dermatology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA; email:

Genetic mosaicism arises when a zygote harbors two or more distinct genotypes, typically due to de novo, somatic mutation during embryogenesis. The clinical manifestations largely depend on the differentiation status of the mutated cell; earlier mutations target pluripotent cells and generate more widespread disease affecting multiple organ systems. If gonadal tissue is spared-as in somatic genomic mosaicism-the mutation and its effects are limited to the proband, whereas mosaicism also affecting the gametes, such as germline or gonosomal mosaicism, is transmissible. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-genet-121415-121955DOI Listing
November 2017
12 Reads

Nucleases Acting at Stalled Forks: How to Reboot the Replication Program with a Few Shortcuts.

Annu Rev Genet 2017 11;51:477-499

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Saint Louis University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63104, USA; email:

In a lifetime, a human being synthesizes approximately 2×10 meters of DNA, a distance that corresponds to 130,000 times the distance between the Earth and the Sun. This daunting task is executed by thousands of replication forks, which progress along the chromosomes and frequently stall when they encounter DNA lesions, unusual DNA structures, RNA polymerases, or tightly-bound protein complexes. To complete DNA synthesis before the onset of mitosis, eukaryotic cells have evolved complex mechanisms to process and restart arrested forks through the coordinated action of multiple nucleases, topoisomerases, and helicases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-genet-120116-024745DOI Listing
November 2017
4 Reads

Mas-Related G Protein-Coupled Receptors and the Biology of Itch Sensation.

Annu Rev Genet 2017 11;51:103-121

The Solomon H. Snyder Department of Neuroscience and the Center for Sensory Biology, Johns Hopkins University, School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA; email: ,

Chronic, persistent itch is a devastating symptom that causes much suffering. In recent years, there has been great progress made in understanding the molecules, cells, and circuits underlying itch sensation. Once thought to be carried by pain-sensing neurons, itch is now believed to be capable of being transmitted by dedicated sensory labeled lines. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-genet-120116-024723DOI Listing
November 2017
11 Reads