1,121 results match your criteria Annual Review Of Genetics[Journal]


Genetic Regulation of RIPK1 and Necroptosis.

Annu Rev Genet 2021 11;55:235-263

Interdisciplinary Research Center on Biology and Chemistry, Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201210, China; email:

The receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 (RIPK1) is recognized as a master upstream regulator that controls cell survival and inflammatory signaling as well as multiple cell death pathways, including apoptosis and necroptosis. The activation of RIPK1 kinase is extensively modulated by ubiquitination and phosphorylation, which are mediated by multiple factors that also control the activation of the NF-κB pathway. We discuss current findings regarding the genetic modulation of RIPK1 that controls its activation and interaction with downstream mediators, such as caspase-8 and RIPK3, to promote apoptosis and necroptosis. Read More

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November 2021

Functional Diversification of Chromatin on Rapid Evolutionary Timescales.

Annu Rev Genet 2021 11;55:401-425

Department of Biology and Epigenetics Institute, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA; email:

Repeat-enriched genomic regions evolve rapidly and yet support strictly conserved functions like faithful chromosome transmission and the preservation of genome integrity. The leading resolution to this paradox is that DNA repeat-packaging proteins evolve adaptively to mitigate deleterious changes in DNA repeat copy number, sequence, and organization. Exciting new research has tested this model of coevolution by engineering evolutionary mismatches between adaptively evolving chromatin proteins of one species and the DNA repeats of a close relative. Read More

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November 2021

Variation and Evolution of Human Centromeres: A Field Guide and Perspective.

Annu Rev Genet 2021 11;55:583-602

Department of Genomics and Human Genetics, Vavilov Institute of General Genetics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 119991, Russia; email:

We are entering a new era in genomics where entire centromeric regions are accurately represented in human reference assemblies. Access to these high-resolution maps will enable new surveys of sequence and epigenetic variation in the population and offer new insight into satellite array genomics and centromere function. Here, we focus on the sequence organization and evolution of alpha satellites, which are credited as the genetic and genomic definition of human centromeres due to their interaction with inner kinetochore proteins and their importance in the development of human artificial chromosome assays. Read More

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November 2021

DNA End Resection: Mechanism and Control.

Annu Rev Genet 2021 11;55:285-307

Department of Microbiology & Immunology, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, NY 10032, USA; email:

DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are cytotoxic lesions that threaten genome integrity and cell viability. Typically, cells repair DSBs by either nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) or homologous recombination (HR). The relative use of these two pathways depends on many factors, including cell cycle stage and the nature of the DNA ends. Read More

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November 2021

Prevalence and Adaptive Impact of Introgression.

Annu Rev Genet 2021 11 27;55:265-283. Epub 2021 Sep 27.

Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA; email:

Alleles that introgress between species can influence the evolutionary and ecological fate of species exposed to novel environments. Hybrid offspring of different species are often unfit, and yet it has long been argued that introgression can be a potent force in evolution, especially in plants. Over the last two decades, genomic data have increasingly provided evidence that introgression is a critically important source of genetic variation and that this additional variation can be useful in adaptive evolution of both animals and plants. Read More

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November 2021

Museum Genomics.

Annu Rev Genet 2021 11 23;55:633-659. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA; email:

Natural history collections are invaluable repositories of biological information that provide an unrivaled record of Earth's biodiversity. Museum genomics-genomics research using traditional museum and cryogenic collections and the infrastructure supporting these investigations-has particularly enhanced research in ecology and evolutionary biology, the study of extinct organisms, and the impact of anthropogenic activity on biodiversity. However, leveraging genomics in biological collections has exposed challenges, such as digitizing, integrating, and sharing collections data; updating practices to ensure broadly optimal data extraction from existing and new collections; and modernizing collections practices, infrastructure, and policies to ensure fair, sustainable, and genomically manifold uses of museum collections by increasingly diverse stakeholders. Read More

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November 2021

Seq Your Destiny: Neural Crest Fate Determination in the Genomic Era.

Annu Rev Genet 2021 11 21;55:349-376. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Division of Biology and Biological Engineering, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125, USA; email:

Neural crest stem/progenitor cells arise early during vertebrate embryogenesis at the border of the forming central nervous system. They subsequently migrate throughout the body, eventually differentiating into diverse cell types ranging from neurons and glia of the peripheral nervous system to bones of the face, portions of the heart, and pigmentation of the skin. Along the body axis, the neural crest is heterogeneous, with different subpopulations arising in the head, neck, trunk, and tail regions, each characterized by distinct migratory patterns and developmental potential. Read More

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November 2021

Genetics of Shoot Meristem and Shoot Regeneration.

Annu Rev Genet 2021 11 21;55:661-681. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

The Robert H. Smith Institute of Plant Sciences and Genetics in Agriculture, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot 76100, Israel; email:

Plants exhibit remarkable lineage plasticity, allowing them to regenerate organs that differ from their respective origins. Such developmental plasticity is dependent on the activity of pluripotent founder cells or stem cells residing in meristems. At the shoot apical meristem (SAM), the constant flow of cells requires continuing cell specification governed by a complex genetic network, with the WUSCHEL transcription factor and phytohormone cytokinin at its core. Read More

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November 2021

Green Algal Models for Multicellularity.

Annu Rev Genet 2021 11 21;55:603-632. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

School of Biological Sciences, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332, USA; email:

The repeated evolution of multicellularity across the tree of life has profoundly affected the ecology and evolution of nearly all life on Earth. Many of these origins were in different groups of photosynthetic eukaryotes, or algae. Here, we review the evolution and genetics of multicellularity in several groups of green algae, which include the closest relatives of land plants. Read More

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November 2021

Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms Linking Human Cortical Development and Evolution.

Annu Rev Genet 2021 11 17;55:555-581. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

VIB-KU Leuven Center for Brain & Disease Research, KU Leuven Department of Neurosciences, Leuven Brain Institute, 3000 Leuven, Belgium; email:

The cerebral cortex is at the core of brain functions that are thought to be particularly developed in the human species. Human cortex specificities stem from divergent features of corticogenesis, leading to increased cortical size and complexity. Underlying cellular mechanisms include prolonged patterns of neuronal generation and maturation, as well as the amplification of specific types of stem/progenitor cells. Read More

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November 2021

Perfecting Targeting in CRISPR.

Annu Rev Genet 2021 11 16;55:453-477. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Institute of Neuroscience, Key Laboratory of Primate Neurobiology, State Key Laboratory of Neuroscience, CAS Center for Excellence in Brain Science and Intelligence Technology, Shanghai Center for Brain Science and Brain-Inspired Technology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031, China; email:

CRISPR-based genome editing holds promise for genome engineering and other applications in diverse organisms. Defining and improving the genome-wide and transcriptome-wide specificities of these editing tools are essential for realizing their full potential in basic research and biomedical therapeutics. This review provides an overview of CRISPR-based DNA- and RNA-editing technologies, methods to quantify their specificities, and key solutions to reduce off-target effects for research and improve therapeutic applications. Read More

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November 2021

How to Switch from Mitosis to Meiosis: Regulation of Germline Entry in Plants.

Annu Rev Genet 2021 11 16;55:427-452. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Department of Developmental Biology, Institute for Plant Sciences and Microbiology, University of Hamburg, D-22609 Hamburg, Germany; email:

One of the major cell fate transitions in eukaryotes is entry into meiosis. While in single-celled yeast this decision is triggered by nutrient starvation, in multicellular eukaryotes, such as plants, it is under developmental control. In contrast to animals, plants have only a short germline and instruct cells to become meiocytes in reproductive organs late in development. Read More

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November 2021

Cold Shock Response in Bacteria.

Annu Rev Genet 2021 11 16;55:377-400. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of California, San Francisco, California 94158, USA; email:

Bacteria often encounter temperature fluctuations in their natural habitats and must adapt to survive. The molecular response of bacteria to sudden temperature upshift or downshift is termed the heat shock response (HSR) or the cold shock response (CSR), respectively. Unlike the HSR, which activates a dedicated transcription factor that predominantly copes with heat-induced protein folding stress, the CSR is mediated by a diverse set of inputs. Read More

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November 2021

: A Genetic Model for Behavioral Evolution and Neuroecology.

Annu Rev Genet 2021 11 16;55:527-554. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Center for Integrative Genomics, Faculty of Biology and Medicine, University of Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland; email:

Defining the mechanisms by which animals adapt to their ecological niche is an important problem bridging evolution, genetics, and neurobiology. We review the establishment of a powerful genetic model for comparative behavioral analysis and neuroecology, . This island-endemic fly species is closely related to several cosmopolitan generalists, including , but has evolved extreme specialism, feeding and reproducing exclusively on the noni fruit of the tropical shrub . Read More

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November 2021

Plant Cell Identity in the Era of Single-Cell Transcriptomics.

Annu Rev Genet 2021 11 16;55:479-496. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA; email:

High-throughput single-cell transcriptomic approaches have revolutionized our view of gene expression at the level of individual cells, providing new insights into their heterogeneity, identities, and functions. Recently, technical challenges to the application of single-cell transcriptomics to plants have been overcome, and many plant organs and tissues have now been subjected to analyses at single-cell resolution. In this review, we describe these studies and their impact on our understanding of the diversity, differentiation, and activities of plant cells. Read More

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November 2021

Architecture and Dynamics of Meiotic Chromosomes.

Annu Rev Genet 2021 11 16;55:497-526. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA; email:

The specialized two-stage meiotic cell division program halves a cell's chromosome complement in preparation for sexual reproduction. This reduction in ploidy requires that in meiotic prophase, each pair of homologous chromosomes (homologs) identify one another and form physical links through DNA recombination. Here, we review recent advances in understanding the complex morphological changes that chromosomes undergo during meiotic prophase to promote homolog identification and crossing over. Read More

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November 2021

Genomic and Epigenetic Foundations of Neocentromere Formation.

Annu Rev Genet 2021 11 8;55:331-348. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA; email:

Centromeres are essential to genome inheritance, serving as the site of kinetochore assembly and coordinating chromosome segregation during cell division. Abnormal centromere function is associated with birth defects, infertility, and cancer. Normally, centromeres are assembled and maintained at the same chromosomal location. Read More

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November 2021

DREAM On: Cell Cycle Control in Development and Disease.

Annu Rev Genet 2021 11 8;55:309-329. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Department of Human and Molecular Genetics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298, USA; email:

Perfectly orchestrated periodic gene expression during cell cycle progression is essential for maintaining genome integrity and ensuring that cell proliferation can be stopped by environmental signals. Genetic and proteomic studies during the past two decades revealed remarkable evolutionary conservation of the key mechanisms that control cell cycle-regulated gene expression, including multisubunit DNA-binding DREAM complexes. DREAM complexes containing a retinoblastoma family member, an E2F transcription factor and its dimerization partner, and five proteins related to products of multivulva (Muv) class B genes , , , , and (comprising the MuvB core) have been described in diverse organisms, from worms to humans. Read More

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November 2021

A Functional Dissection of the mRNA and Locally Synthesized Protein Population in Neuronal Dendrites and Axons.

Annu Rev Genet 2021 11 30;55:183-207. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

Max Planck Institute for Brain Research, 60438 Frankfurt, Germany; email:

Neurons are characterized by a complex morphology that enables the generation of subcellular compartments with unique biochemical and biophysical properties, such as dendrites, axons, and synapses. To sustain these different compartments and carry a wide array of elaborate operations, neurons express a diverse repertoire of gene products. Extensive regulation at both the messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels allows for the differentiation of subcellular compartments as well as numerous forms of plasticity in response to variable stimuli. Read More

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November 2021

Dissecting Organismal Morphogenesis by Bridging Genetics and Biophysics.

Annu Rev Genet 2021 11 30;55:209-233. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

Institute of Science and Technology Austria, 3400 Klosterneuburg, Austria; email:

Multicellular organisms develop complex shapes from much simpler, single-celled zygotes through a process commonly called morphogenesis. Morphogenesis involves an interplay between several factors, ranging from the gene regulatory networks determining cell fate and differentiation to the mechanical processes underlying cell and tissue shape changes. Thus, the study of morphogenesis has historically been based on multidisciplinary approaches at the interface of biology with physics and mathematics. Read More

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November 2021

Revelations About Aging and Disease from Unconventional Vertebrate Model Organisms.

Annu Rev Genet 2021 11 20;55:135-159. Epub 2021 Aug 20.

Department of Biology, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627, USA; email:

Aging is a major risk factor for multiple diseases. Understanding the underlying mechanisms of aging would help to delay and prevent age-associated diseases. Short-lived model organisms have been extensively used to study the mechanisms of aging. Read More

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November 2021

Regulatory Themes and Variations by the Stress-Signaling Nucleotide Alarmones (p)ppGpp in Bacteria.

Annu Rev Genet 2021 11 20;55:115-133. Epub 2021 Aug 20.

Department of Bacteriology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA; email:

Bacterial stress-signaling alarmones are important components of a protective network against diverse stresses such as nutrient starvation and antibiotic assault. pppGpp and ppGpp, collectively (p)ppGpp, have well-documented regulatory roles in gene expression and protein translation. Recent work has highlighted another key function of (p)ppGpp: inducing rapid and coordinated changes in cellular metabolism by regulating enzymatic activities, especially those involved in purine nucleotide synthesis. Read More

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November 2021

The tracrRNA in CRISPR Biology and Technologies.

Annu Rev Genet 2021 11 20;55:161-181. Epub 2021 Aug 20.

Helmholtz Institute for RNA-based Infection Research (HIRI), Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research (HZI), 97080 Würzburg, Germany; email:

CRISPR-Cas adaptive immune systems in bacteria and archaea utilize short CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs) to guide sequence-specific recognition and clearance of foreign genetic material. Multiple crRNAs are stored together in a compact format called a CRISPR array that is transcribed and processed into the individual crRNAs. While the exact processing mechanisms vary widely, some CRISPR-Cas systems, including those encoding the Cas9 nuclease, rely on a -activating crRNA (tracrRNA). Read More

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November 2021

The Drama of Wallerian Degeneration: The Cast, Crew, and Script.

Annu Rev Genet 2021 11 5;55:93-113. Epub 2021 Aug 5.

Interdisciplinary Research Center on Biology and Chemistry, Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201203, China; email:

Significant advances have been made in recent years in identifying the genetic components of Wallerian degeneration, the process that brings the progressive destruction and removal of injured axons. It has now been accepted that Wallerian degeneration is an active and dynamic cellular process that is well regulated at molecular and cellular levels. In this review, we describe our current understanding of Wallerian degeneration, focusing on the molecular players and mechanisms that mediate the injury response, activate the degenerative program, transduce the death signal, execute the destruction order, and finally, clear away the debris. Read More

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November 2021

Genotype-Phenotype Relationships in the Context of Transcriptional Adaptation and Genetic Robustness.

Annu Rev Genet 2021 11 27;55:71-91. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Developmental Genetics, Max Planck Institute for Heart and Lung Research, 61231 Bad Nauheim, Germany; email:

Genetic manipulations with a robust and predictable outcome are critical to investigate gene function, as well as for therapeutic genome engineering. For many years, knockdown approaches and reagents including RNA interference and antisense oligonucleotides dominated functional studies; however, with the advent of precise genome editing technologies, CRISPR-based knockout systems have become the state-of-the-art tools for such studies. These technologies have helped decipher the role of thousands of genes in development and disease. Read More

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November 2021

Brain Repair by Cell Replacement via In Situ Neuronal Reprogramming.

Annu Rev Genet 2021 11 26;55:45-69. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0651, USA; email:

Neurodegenerative diseases, characterized by progressive neural loss, have been some of the most challenging medical problems in aging societies. Treatment strategies such as symptom management have little impact on disease progression, while intervention with specific disease mechanisms may only slow down disease progression. One therapeutic strategy that has the potential to reverse the disease phenotype is to replenish neurons and rebuild the pathway lost to degeneration. Read More

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November 2021

Evolution and Plasticity of Genome-Wide Meiotic Recombination Rates.

Annu Rev Genet 2021 11 26;55:23-43. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Plant Evolutionary Genetics, Institute of Molecular Plant Biology, Department of Biology, ETH Zürich, 8092 Zürich, Switzerland; email:

Sex, as well as meiotic recombination between homologous chromosomes, is nearly ubiquitous among eukaryotes. In those species that use it, recombination is important for chromosome segregation during gamete production, and thus for fertility. Strikingly, although in most species only one crossover event per chromosome is required to ensure proper segregation, recombination rates vary considerably above this minimum and show variation within and among species. Read More

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November 2021

The Complex Genetic Basis and Multilayered Regulatory Control of Yeast Pseudohyphal Growth.

Authors:
Anuj Kumar

Annu Rev Genet 2021 11 19;55:1-21. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA; email:

Eukaryotic cells are exquisitely responsive to external and internal cues, achieving precise control of seemingly diverse growth processes through a complex interplay of regulatory mechanisms. The budding yeast provides a fascinating model of cell growth in its stress-responsive transition from planktonic single cells to a filamentous pseudohyphal growth form. During pseudohyphal growth, yeast cells undergo changes in morphology, polarity, and adhesion to form extended and invasive multicellular filaments. Read More

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November 2021

Brown Algal Model Organisms.

Annu Rev Genet 2020 11;54:71-92

Laboratory of Integrative Biology of Marine Models (LBI2M), Station Biologique de Roscoff (SBR), CNRS, Sorbonne Université, 29680 Roscoff, France; email:

Model organisms are extensively used in research as accessible and convenient systems for studying a particular area or question in biology. Traditionally, only a limited number of organisms have been studied in detail, but modern genomic tools are enabling researchers to extend beyond the set of classical model organisms to include novel species from less-studied phylogenetic groups. This review focuses on model species for an important group of multicellular organisms, the brown algae. Read More

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November 2020

Canary in the Coal Mine? Male Infertility as a Marker of Overall Health.

Annu Rev Genet 2020 11;54:465-486

James Buchanan Brady Foundation Institute of Urology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY 10065, USA; email:

Male factor infertility is a common problem. Evidence is emerging regarding the spectrum of systemic disease and illness harbored by infertile men who otherwise appear healthy. In this review, we present evidence that infertile men have poor overall health and increased morbidity and mortality, increased rates of both genitourinary and non-genitourinary malignancy, and greater risks of systemic disease. Read More

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November 2020