1,047 results match your criteria Annual Review Of Genetics[Journal]


piRNA-Guided Genome Defense: From Biogenesis to Silencing.

Annu Rev Genet 2018 11;52:131-157

Cancer Research UK Cambridge Institute, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 0RE, United Kingdom; email: ,

PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) and their associated PIWI clade Argonaute proteins constitute the core of the piRNA pathway. In gonadal cells, this conserved pathway is crucial for genome defense, and its main function is to silence transposable elements. This is achieved through posttranscriptional and transcriptional gene silencing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-genet-120417-031441DOI Listing
November 2018

Mechanisms of Neural Crest Migration.

Annu Rev Genet 2018 11;52:43-63

Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom; email:

Neural crest cells are a transient embryonic cell population that migrate collectively to various locations throughout the embryo to contribute a number of cell types to several organs. After induction, the neural crest delaminates and undergoes an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition before migrating through intricate yet characteristic paths. The neural crest exhibits a variety of migratory behaviors ranging from sheet-like mass migration in the cephalic regions to chain migration in the trunk. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-genet-120417-031559DOI Listing
November 2018

Ribosome Hibernation.

Annu Rev Genet 2018 11;52:321-348

Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, DK-2200 Copenhagen, Denmark; email:

Protein synthesis consumes a large fraction of available resources in the cell. When bacteria encounter unfavorable conditions and cease to grow, specialized mechanisms are in place to ensure the overall reduction of costly protein synthesis while maintaining a basal level of translation. A number of ribosome-associated factors are involved in this regulation; some confer an inactive, hibernating state of the ribosome in the form of 70S monomers (RaiA; this and the following are based on Escherichia coli nomenclature) or 100S dimers (RMF and HPF homologs), and others inhibit translation at different stages in the translation cycle (RsfS, YqjD and paralogs, SRA, and EttA). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-genet-120215-035130DOI Listing
November 2018
1 Read

The Smc5/6 Complex: New and Old Functions of the Enigmatic Long-Distance Relative.

Authors:
Luis Aragón

Annu Rev Genet 2018 11;52:89-107

Cell Cycle Group, MRC London Institute of Medical Sciences, Hammersmith Hospital Campus, London W12 0NN, United Kingdom; email:

Smc5 and Smc6, together with the kleisin Nse4, form the heart of the enigmatic and poorly understood Smc5/6 complex, which is frequently viewed as a cousin of cohesin and condensin with functions in DNA repair. As novel functions for cohesin and condensin complexes in the organization of long-range chromatin architecture have recently emerged, new unsuspected roles for Smc5/6 have also surfaced. Here, I aim to provide a comprehensive overview of our current knowledge of the Smc5/6 complex, including its long-established function in genome stability, its multiple roles in DNA repair, and its recently discovered connection to the transcription inhibition of hepatitis B virus genomes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-genet-120417-031353DOI Listing
November 2018

On the Road to Breeding 4.0: Unraveling the Good, the Bad, and the Boring of Crop Quantitative Genomics.

Annu Rev Genet 2018 11 4;52:421-444. Epub 2018 Oct 4.

United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA.

Understanding the quantitative genetics of crops has been and will continue to be central to maintaining and improving global food security. We outline four stages that plant breeding either has already achieved or will probably soon achieve. Top-of-the-line breeding programs are currently in Breeding 3. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-genet-120116-024846DOI Listing
November 2018
1 Read

X-Chromosome Inactivation: A Crossroads Between Chromosome Architecture and Gene Regulation.

Annu Rev Genet 2018 11 26;52:535-566. Epub 2018 Sep 26.

Genetics and Developmental Biology Unit and Mammalian Developmental Epigenetics Group, Institut Curie, PSL Research University, CNRS UMR3215, INSERM U934, 75248 Paris, France; email:

In somatic nuclei of female therian mammals, the two X chromosomes display very different chromatin states: One X is typically euchromatic and transcriptionally active, and the other is mostly silent and forms a cytologically detectable heterochromatic structure termed the Barr body. These differences, which arise during female development as a result of X-chromosome inactivation (XCI), have been the focus of research for many decades. Initial approaches to define the structure of the inactive X chromosome (Xi) and its relationship to gene expression mainly involved microscopy-based approaches. Read More

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https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/10.1146/annurev-genet-1201
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-genet-120116-024611DOI Listing
November 2018
5 Reads

The Multiple Levels of Mitonuclear Coregulation.

Annu Rev Genet 2018 11 19;52:511-533. Epub 2018 Sep 19.

Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA; email: , ,

Together, the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes encode the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complexes that reside in the mitochondrial inner membrane and enable aerobic life. Mitochondria maintain their own genome that is expressed and regulated by factors distinct from their nuclear counterparts. For optimal function, the cell must ensure proper stoichiometric production of OXPHOS subunits by coordinating two physically separated and evolutionarily distinct gene expression systems. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-genet-120417-031709DOI Listing
November 2018
1 Read

Chemical Modifications in the Life of an mRNA Transcript.

Annu Rev Genet 2018 11 19;52:349-372. Epub 2018 Sep 19.

Department of Chemistry, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Institute for Biophysical Dynamics, and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA; email: ,

Investigations over the past eight years of chemical modifications on messenger RNA (mRNA) have revealed a new level of posttranscriptional gene regulation in eukaryotes. Rapid progress in our understanding of these modifications, particularly, N-methyladenosine (mA), has revealed their roles throughout the life cycle of an mRNA transcript. mA methylation provides a rapid mechanism for coordinated transcriptome processing and turnover that is important in embryonic development and cell differentiation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-genet-120417-031522DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6436393PMC
November 2018
8 Reads

Immunoglobulin-Like Receptors and Their Impact on Wiring of Brain Synapses.

Annu Rev Genet 2018 11 13;52:567-590. Epub 2018 Sep 13.

Center for Neuroscience, University of California, Davis, California 95618, USA; email: ,

Synapse formation is mediated by a surprisingly large number and wide variety of genes encoding many different protein classes. One of the families increasingly implicated in synapse wiring is the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF). IgSF molecules are by definition any protein containing at least one Ig-like domain, making this family one of the most common protein classes encoded by the genome. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-genet-120417-031513DOI Listing
November 2018
15 Reads

Somatic Mutagenesis in Mammals and Its Implications for Human Disease and Aging.

Authors:
Lei Zhang Jan Vijg

Annu Rev Genet 2018 11 13;52:397-419. Epub 2018 Sep 13.

Department of Genetics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York 10461, USA; email:

DNA mutations as a consequence of errors during DNA damage repair, replication, or mitosis are the substrate for evolution. In multicellular organisms, mutations can occur in the germline and also in somatic tissues, where they are associated with cancer and other chronic diseases and possibly with aging. Recent advances in high-throughput sequencing have made it relatively easy to study germline de novo mutations, but in somatic cells, the vast majority of mutations are low-abundant and can be detected only in clonal lineages, such as tumors, or single cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-genet-120417-031501DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6414224PMC
November 2018
1 Read
15.720 Impact Factor

Recent Advances in Behavioral (Epi)Genetics in Eusocial Insects.

Annu Rev Genet 2018 11 12;52:489-510. Epub 2018 Sep 12.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA; email: ,

Eusocial insects live in societies in which distinct family members serve specific roles in maintaining the colony and advancing the reproductive ability of a few select individuals. Given the genetic similarity of all colony members, the diversity of morphologies and behaviors is surprising. Social communication relies on pheromones and olfaction, as shown by mutants of orco, the universal odorant receptor coreceptor, and through electrophysiological analysis of neuronal responses to pheromones. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-genet-120116-024456DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6445553PMC
November 2018

Understanding the Genetic Basis of C Kranz Anatomy with a View to Engineering C Crops.

Annu Rev Genet 2018 11 12;52:249-270. Epub 2018 Sep 12.

Department of Plant Sciences, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3RB, United Kingdom; email: , ,

One of the most remarkable examples of convergent evolution is the transition from C to C photosynthesis, an event that occurred on over 60 independent occasions. The evolution of C is particularly noteworthy because of the complexity of the developmental and metabolic changes that took place. In most cases, compartmentalized metabolic reactions were facilitated by the development of a distinct leaf anatomy known as Kranz. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-genet-120417-031217DOI Listing
November 2018
3 Reads

Shelterin-Mediated Telomere Protection.

Authors:
Titia de Lange

Annu Rev Genet 2018 11 12;52:223-247. Epub 2018 Sep 12.

Laboratory of Cell Biology and Genetics, Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10065, USA; email:

For more than a decade, it has been known that mammalian cells use shelterin to protect chromosome ends. Much progress has been made on the mechanism by which shelterin prevents telomeres from inadvertently activating DNA damage signaling and double-strand break (DSB) repair pathways. Shelterin averts activation of three DNA damage response enzymes [the ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) and ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related (ATR) kinases and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1)], blocks three DSB repair pathways [classical nonhomologous end joining (c-NHEJ), alternative (alt)-NHEJ, and homology-directed repair (HDR)], and prevents hyper-resection at telomeres. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-genet-032918-021921DOI Listing
November 2018
2 Reads

Aging in a Dish: iPSC-Derived and Directly Induced Neurons for Studying Brain Aging and Age-Related Neurodegenerative Diseases.

Annu Rev Genet 2018 11 12;52:271-293. Epub 2018 Sep 12.

Laboratory of Genetics, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, California 92037, USA; email:

Age-associated neurological diseases represent a profound challenge in biomedical research as we are still struggling to understand the interface between the aging process and the manifestation of disease. Various pathologies in the elderly do not directly result from genetic mutations, toxins, or infectious agents but are primarily driven by the many manifestations of biological aging. Therefore, the generation of appropriate model systems to study human aging in the nervous system demands new concepts that lie beyond transgenic and drug-induced models. Read More

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https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/10.1146/annurev-genet-1204
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-genet-120417-031534DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6415910PMC
November 2018
20 Reads

Chromosome Dynamics in Response to DNA Damage.

Annu Rev Genet 2018 11 12;52:295-319. Epub 2018 Sep 12.

Friedrich Miescher Institute for Biomedical Research, 4058 Basel, Switzerland; email:

Recent advances in both the technologies used to measure chromatin movement and the biophysical analysis used to model them have yielded a fuller understanding of chromatin dynamics and the polymer structure that underlies it. Changes in nucleosome packing, checkpoint kinase activation, the cell cycle, chromosomal tethers, and external forces acting on nuclei in response to external and internal stimuli can alter the basal mobility of DNA in interphase nuclei of yeast or mammalian cells. Although chromatin movement is assumed to be necessary for many DNA-based processes, including gene activation by distal enhancer-promoter interaction or sequence-based homology searches during double-strand break repair, experimental evidence supporting an essential role in these activities is sparse. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-genet-120417-031334DOI Listing
November 2018
20 Reads

Unique Archaeal Small RNAs.

Annu Rev Genet 2018 11 12;52:465-487. Epub 2018 Sep 12.

Prokaryotic Small RNA Biology Group, Max Planck Institute for Terrestrial Microbiology, 35043 Marburg, Germany; email: , ,

Advances in genome-wide sequence technologies allow for detailed insights into the complexity of RNA landscapes of organisms from all three domains of life. Recent analyses of archaeal transcriptomes identified interaction and regulation networks of noncoding RNAs in this understudied domain. Here, we review current knowledge of small, noncoding RNAs with important functions for the archaeal lifestyle, which often requires adaptation to extreme environments. Read More

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https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/10.1146/annurev-genet-1204
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-genet-120417-031300DOI Listing
November 2018
4 Reads

Calcium Channelopathies: Structural Insights into Disorders of the Muscle Excitation-Contraction Complex.

Annu Rev Genet 2018 11 12;52:373-396. Epub 2018 Sep 12.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z3, Canada; email:

Ion channels are membrane proteins responsible for the passage of ions down their electrochemical gradients and across biological membranes. In this, they generate and shape action potentials and provide secondary messengers for various signaling pathways. They are often part of larger complexes containing auxiliary subunits and regulatory proteins. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-genet-120417-031311DOI Listing
November 2018

Phage-Encoded Anti-CRISPR Defenses.

Annu Rev Genet 2018 11 12;52:445-464. Epub 2018 Sep 12.

Department of Biochemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1M1, Canada; email:

The battle for survival between bacteria and bacteriophages (phages) is an arms race where bacteria develop defenses to protect themselves from phages and phages evolve counterstrategies to bypass these defenses. CRISPR-Cas adaptive immune systems represent a widespread mechanism by which bacteria protect themselves from phage infection. In response to CRISPR-Cas, phages have evolved protein inhibitors known as anti-CRISPRs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-genet-120417-031321DOI Listing
November 2018
10 Reads

Tracing My Roots: How I Became a Plant Biologist.

Annu Rev Genet 2018 11 7;52:1-20. Epub 2018 Sep 7.

Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, and Department of Molecular Biology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA; email:

My trajectory to becoming a plant biologist was shaped by a complex mix of scientific, political, sociological, and personal factors. I was trained as a microbiologist and molecular biologist in the late 1960s and early 1970s, a time of political upheaval surrounding the Vietnam War. My political activism taught me to be wary of the potential misuses of scientific knowledge and to promote the positive applications of science for the benefit of society. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-genet-120417-031722DOI Listing
November 2018
14 Reads

Power in Numbers: Single-Cell RNA-Seq Strategies to Dissect Complex Tissues.

Annu Rev Genet 2018 11 7;52:203-221. Epub 2018 Sep 7.

Center for Genomics and Systems Biology, New York University, New York, NY 10003, USA; email:

The growing scale and declining cost of single-cell RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) now permit a repetition of cell sampling that increases the power to detect rare cell states, reconstruct developmental trajectories, and measure phenotype in new terms such as cellular variance. The characterization of anatomy and developmental dynamics has not had an equivalent breakthrough since groundbreaking advances in live fluorescent microscopy. The new resolution obtained by single-cell RNA-seq is a boon to genetics because the novel description of phenotype offers the opportunity to refine gene function and dissect pleiotropy. Read More

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https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/10.1146/annurev-genet-1204
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-genet-120417-031247DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6314027PMC
November 2018
11 Reads

Genetic Control of Early Cell Lineages in the Mammalian Embryo.

Authors:
Janet Rossant

Annu Rev Genet 2018 11 5;52:185-201. Epub 2018 Sep 5.

Program in Stem Cell and Developmental Biology, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario M5G 0A4, Canada; email:

Establishing the different lineages of the early mammalian embryo takes place over several days and several rounds of cell divisions from the fertilized egg. The resulting blastocyst contains the pluripotent cells of the epiblast, from which embryonic stem cells can be derived, as well as the extraembryonic lineages required for a mammalian embryo to survive in the uterine environment. The dynamics of the cellular and genetic interactions controlling the initiation and maintenance of these lineages in the mouse embryo are increasingly well understood through application of the tools of single-cell genomics, gene editing, and in vivo imaging. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-genet-120116-024544DOI Listing
November 2018
1 Read

H3-H4 Histone Chaperone Pathways.

Annu Rev Genet 2018 11 5;52:109-130. Epub 2018 Sep 5.

Genetics & Genome Biology Program, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario M5G 0A4, Canada; email:

Nucleosomes compact and organize genetic material on a structural level. However, they also alter local chromatin accessibility through changes in their position, through the incorporation of histone variants, and through a vast array of histone posttranslational modifications. The dynamic nature of chromatin requires histone chaperones to process, deposit, and evict histones in different tissues and at different times in the cell cycle. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-genet-120417-031547DOI Listing
November 2018
1 Read

Metabolic Gene Clusters in Eukaryotes.

Annu Rev Genet 2018 11 5;52:159-183. Epub 2018 Sep 5.

Department of Metabolic Biology, John Innes Centre, Norwich NR4 7UH, United Kingdom; email:

In bacteria, more than half of the genes in the genome are organized in operons. In contrast, in eukaryotes, functionally related genes are usually dispersed across the genome. There are, however, numerous examples of functional clusters of nonhomologous genes for metabolic pathways in fungi and plants. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-genet-120417-031237DOI Listing
November 2018

The Hippo Signaling Network and Its Biological Functions.

Annu Rev Genet 2018 11 5;52:65-87. Epub 2018 Sep 5.

Waksman Institute and Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854, USA; email:

Hippo signaling is an evolutionarily conserved network that has a central role in regulating cell proliferation and cell fate to control organ growth and regeneration. It promotes activation of the LATS kinases, which control gene expression by inhibiting the activity of the transcriptional coactivator proteins YAP and TAZ in mammals and Yorkie in Drosophila. Diverse upstream inputs, including both biochemical cues and biomechanical cues, regulate Hippo signaling and enable it to have a key role as a sensor of cells' physical environment and an integrator of growth control signals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-genet-120417-031621DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6322405PMC
November 2018

Transgenerational Epigenetic Inheritance.

Annu Rev Genet 2018 11 30;52:21-41. Epub 2018 Aug 30.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts 01605, USA; email:

Inheritance of genomic DNA underlies the vast majority of biological inheritance, yet it has been clear for decades that additional epigenetic information can be passed on to future generations. Here, we review major model systems for transgenerational epigenetic inheritance via the germline in multicellular organisms. In addition to surveying examples of epivariation that may arise stochastically or in response to unknown stimuli, we also discuss the induction of heritable epigenetic changes by genetic or environmental perturbations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-genet-120417-031404DOI Listing
November 2018
37 Reads

Mosaicism in Cutaneous Disorders.

Annu Rev Genet 2017 11;51:123-141

Department of Dermatology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA; email:

Genetic mosaicism arises when a zygote harbors two or more distinct genotypes, typically due to de novo, somatic mutation during embryogenesis. The clinical manifestations largely depend on the differentiation status of the mutated cell; earlier mutations target pluripotent cells and generate more widespread disease affecting multiple organ systems. If gonadal tissue is spared-as in somatic genomic mosaicism-the mutation and its effects are limited to the proband, whereas mosaicism also affecting the gametes, such as germline or gonosomal mosaicism, is transmissible. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-genet-121415-121955DOI Listing
November 2017
6 Reads

Nucleases Acting at Stalled Forks: How to Reboot the Replication Program with a Few Shortcuts.

Annu Rev Genet 2017 11;51:477-499

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Saint Louis University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63104, USA; email:

In a lifetime, a human being synthesizes approximately 2×10 meters of DNA, a distance that corresponds to 130,000 times the distance between the Earth and the Sun. This daunting task is executed by thousands of replication forks, which progress along the chromosomes and frequently stall when they encounter DNA lesions, unusual DNA structures, RNA polymerases, or tightly-bound protein complexes. To complete DNA synthesis before the onset of mitosis, eukaryotic cells have evolved complex mechanisms to process and restart arrested forks through the coordinated action of multiple nucleases, topoisomerases, and helicases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-genet-120116-024745DOI Listing
November 2017
1 Read

Mas-Related G Protein-Coupled Receptors and the Biology of Itch Sensation.

Annu Rev Genet 2017 11;51:103-121

The Solomon H. Snyder Department of Neuroscience and the Center for Sensory Biology, Johns Hopkins University, School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA; email: ,

Chronic, persistent itch is a devastating symptom that causes much suffering. In recent years, there has been great progress made in understanding the molecules, cells, and circuits underlying itch sensation. Once thought to be carried by pain-sensing neurons, itch is now believed to be capable of being transmitted by dedicated sensory labeled lines. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-genet-120116-024723DOI Listing
November 2017
4 Reads

Transcriptional Regulation in Archaea: From Individual Genes to Global Regulatory Networks.

Annu Rev Genet 2017 11;51:143-170

Department of Biology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708, USA.

Archaea are major contributors to biogeochemical cycles, possess unique metabolic capabilities, and resist extreme stress. To regulate the expression of genes encoding these unique programs, archaeal cells use gene regulatory networks (GRNs) composed of transcription factor proteins and their target genes. Recent developments in genetics, genomics, and computational methods used with archaeal model organisms have enabled the mapping and prediction of global GRN structures. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-genet-120116-023413DOI Listing
November 2017
2 Reads

Conditional Degrons for Controlling Protein Expression at the Protein Level.

Annu Rev Genet 2017 11;51:83-102

Division of Molecular Cell Engineering, National Institute of Genetics, Research Organization of Information and Systems (ROIS), and Department of Genetics, The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI), Mishima, Shizuoka 411-8540, Japan; email:

The conditional depletion of a protein of interest (POI) is useful not only for loss-of-function studies, but also for the modulation of biological pathways. Technologies that work at the level of DNA, mRNA, and protein are available for temporal protein depletion. Compared with technologies targeting the pretranslation steps, direct protein depletion (or protein knockdown approaches) is advantageous in terms of specificity, reversibility, and time required for depletion, which can be achieved by fusing a POI with a protein domain called a degron that induces rapid proteolysis of the fusion protein. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-genet-120116-024656DOI Listing
November 2017
1 Read

Generation and Evolution of Neural Cell Types and Circuits: Insights from the Drosophila Visual System.

Annu Rev Genet 2017 11 27;51:501-527. Epub 2017 Sep 27.

Department of Biology, New York University, New York, NY 10003, USA; email:

The Drosophila visual system has become a premier model for probing how neural diversity is generated during development. Recent work has provided deeper insight into the elaborate mechanisms that control the range of types and numbers of neurons produced, which neurons survive, and how they interact. These processes drive visual function and influence behavioral preferences. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-genet-120215-035312DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5849253PMC
November 2017
5 Reads

Noncoding RNAs in Polycomb and Trithorax Regulation: A Quantitative Perspective.

Authors:
Leonie Ringrose

Annu Rev Genet 2017 11 15;51:385-411. Epub 2017 Sep 15.

Integrated Research Institute for Life Sciences, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, 10115 Berlin, Germany; email:

The question of how noncoding RNAs are involved in Polycomb group (PcG) and Trithorax group (TrxG) regulation has been on an extraordinary journey over the last three decades. Favored models have risen and fallen, and healthy debates have swept back and forth. The field has recently reached a critical mass of compelling data that throws light on several previously unresolved issues. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-genet-120116-023402DOI Listing
November 2017
68 Reads

Big Lessons from Little Yeast: Budding and Fission Yeast Centrosome Structure, Duplication, and Function.

Annu Rev Genet 2017 11 15;51:361-383. Epub 2017 Sep 15.

Stowers Institute for Medical Research, Kansas City, Missouri 64110, USA; email:

Centrosomes are a functionally conserved feature of eukaryotic cells that play an important role in cell division. The conserved γ-tubulin complex organizes spindle and astral microtubules, which, in turn, separate replicated chromosomes accurately into daughter cells. Like DNA, centrosomes are duplicated once each cell cycle. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-genet-120116-024733DOI Listing
November 2017
23 Reads

Getting Nervous: An Evolutionary Overhaul for Communication.

Annu Rev Genet 2017 11 20;51:455-476. Epub 2017 Sep 20.

Département des Neurosciences Fondamentales, Université de Lausanne, Lausanne, CH-1005 Switzerland; email: ,

The evolution of a nervous system as a control system of the body's functions is a key innovation of animals. Its fundamental units are neurons, highly specialized cells dedicated to fast cell-cell communication. Neurons pass signals to other neurons, muscle cells, or gland cells at specialized junctions, the synapses, where transmitters are released from vesicles in a Ca-dependent fashion to activate receptors in the membrane of the target cell. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-genet-120116-024648DOI Listing
November 2017
22 Reads

Combining Traditional Mutagenesis with New High-Throughput Sequencing and Genome Editing to Reveal Hidden Variation in Polyploid Wheat.

Annu Rev Genet 2017 11 20;51:435-454. Epub 2017 Sep 20.

Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Plant Sciences, University of California, Davis, California 95616, USA.

Induced mutations have been used to generate novel variation for breeding purposes since the early 1900s. However, the combination of this old technology with the new capabilities of high-throughput sequencing has resulted in powerful reverse genetic approaches in polyploid crops. Sequencing genomes or exomes of large mutant populations can generate extensive databases of mutations for most genes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-genet-120116-024533DOI Listing
November 2017
27 Reads

The Relationship Between the Human Genome and Microbiome Comes into View.

Annu Rev Genet 2017 11 20;51:413-433. Epub 2017 Sep 20.

Department of Microbiome Science, Max Planck Institute for Developmental Biology, 72076 Tübingen, Germany; email:

The body's microbiome, composed of microbial cells that number in the trillions, is involved in human health and disease in ways that are just starting to emerge. The microbiome is assembled at birth, develops with its host, and is greatly influenced by environmental factors such as diet and other exposures. Recently, a role for human genetic variation has emerged as also influential in accounting for interpersonal differences in microbiomes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-genet-110711-155532DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5744868PMC
November 2017
50 Reads

Genetic Networks in Plant Vascular Development.

Annu Rev Genet 2017 11 11;51:335-359. Epub 2017 Sep 11.

Institute of Biotechnology and Department of Biosciences, University of Helsinki, 00014 Helsinki, Finland.

Understanding the development of vascular tissues in plants is crucial because the evolution of vasculature enabled plants to thrive on land. Various systems and approaches have been used to advance our knowledge about the genetic regulation of vasculature development, from the scale of single genes to networks. In this review, we provide a perspective on the major approaches used in studying plant vascular development, and we cover the mechanisms and genetic networks underlying vascular tissue specification, patterning, and differentiation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-genet-120116-024525DOI Listing
November 2017
2 Reads

Genetic and Structural Analyses of RRNPP Intercellular Peptide Signaling of Gram-Positive Bacteria.

Annu Rev Genet 2017 11 6;51:311-333. Epub 2017 Sep 6.

Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy and Center for Biomolecular Sciences, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60607, USA; email:

Bacteria use diffusible chemical messengers, termed pheromones, to coordinate gene expression and behavior among cells in a community by a process known as quorum sensing. Pheromones of many gram-positive bacteria, such as Bacillus and Streptococcus, are small, linear peptides secreted from cells and subsequently detected by sensory receptors such as those belonging to the large family of RRNPP proteins. These proteins are cytoplasmic pheromone receptors sharing a structurally similar pheromone-binding domain that functions allosterically to regulate receptor activity. Read More

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http://www.annualreviews.org/doi/10.1146/annurev-genet-12011
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-genet-120116-023507DOI Listing
November 2017
6 Reads

The Genetics of Plant Metabolism.

Annu Rev Genet 2017 11 6;51:287-310. Epub 2017 Sep 6.

Max Planck Institute of Molecular Plant Physiology, 14476 Potsdam-Golm, Germany; email:

Plant metabolic studies have traditionally focused on the role and regulation of the enzymes catalyzing key reactions within specific pathways. Within the past 20 years, reverse genetic approaches have allowed direct determination of the effects of the deficiency, or surplus, of a given protein on the biochemistry of a plant. In parallel, top-down approaches have also been taken, which rely on screening broad, natural genetic diversity for metabolic diversity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-genet-120116-024640DOI Listing
November 2017
23 Reads

Genetics and Evolution of Social Behavior in Insects.

Annu Rev Genet 2017 11 30;51:219-239. Epub 2017 Aug 30.

Department of Ecology and Evolution, University of Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland; email: ,

The study of insect social behavior has offered tremendous insight into the molecular mechanisms mediating behavioral and phenotypic plasticity. Genomic applications to the study of eusocial insect species, in particular, have led to several hypotheses for the processes underlying the molecular evolution of behavior. Advances in understanding the genetic control of social organization have also been made, suggesting an important role for supergenes in the evolution of divergent behavioral phenotypes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-genet-120116-024515DOI Listing
November 2017
6 Reads

Sex Determination in the Mammalian Germline.

Annu Rev Genet 2017 11 30;51:265-285. Epub 2017 Aug 30.

School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane QLD 4072, Australia.

Sexual reproduction crucially depends on the production of sperm in males and oocytes in females. Both types of gamete arise from the same precursor, the germ cells. We review the events that characterize the development of germ cells during fetal life as they commit to, and prepare for, oogenesis or spermatogenesis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-genet-120215-035449DOI Listing
November 2017

Regulation by 3'-Untranslated Regions.

Authors:
Christine Mayr

Annu Rev Genet 2017 11 30;51:171-194. Epub 2017 Aug 30.

Department of Cancer Biology and Genetics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065, USA; email:

3'-untranslated regions (3'-UTRs) are the noncoding parts of mRNAs. Compared to yeast, in humans, median 3'-UTR length has expanded approximately tenfold alongside an increased generation of alternative 3'-UTR isoforms. In contrast, the number of coding genes, as well as coding region length, has remained similar. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-genet-120116-024704DOI Listing
November 2017
2 Reads

The Yeast Genomes in Three Dimensions: Mechanisms and Functions.

Authors:
Ken-Ichi Noma

Annu Rev Genet 2017 11 30;51:23-44. Epub 2017 Aug 30.

Gene Expression and Regulation Program, The Wistar Institute, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA; email:

The three-dimensional (3D) genome structure is highly ordered by a hierarchy of organizing events ranging from enhancer-promoter or gene-gene contacts to chromosomal territorial arrangement. It is becoming clear that the cohesin and condensin complexes are key molecular machines that organize the 3D genome structure. These complexes are highly conserved from simple systems, e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-genet-120116-023438DOI Listing
November 2017

Origin and Evolution of the Universal Genetic Code.

Annu Rev Genet 2017 11 30;51:45-62. Epub 2017 Aug 30.

Department of Mathematics, North Dakota State University, Fargo, North Dakota 58108, USA.

The standard genetic code (SGC) is virtually universal among extant life forms. Although many deviations from the universal code exist, particularly in organelles and prokaryotes with small genomes, they are limited in scope and obviously secondary. The universality of the code likely results from the combination of a frozen accident, i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-genet-120116-024713DOI Listing
November 2017
9 Reads

Human Genetic Determinants of Viral Diseases.

Annu Rev Genet 2017 11 30;51:241-263. Epub 2017 Aug 30.

Department of Microbial Infection and Immunity, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA; email: , , ,

Much progress has been made in the identification of specific human gene variants that contribute to enhanced susceptibility or resistance to viral diseases. Herein we review multiple discoveries made with genome-wide or candidate gene approaches that have revealed significant insights into virus-host interactions. Genetic factors that have been identified include genes encoding virus receptors, receptor-modifying enzymes, and a wide variety of innate and adaptive immunity-related proteins. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-genet-120116-023425DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6038703PMC
November 2017
35 Reads

Integration of Agrobacterium T-DNA into the Plant Genome.

Authors:
Stanton B Gelvin

Annu Rev Genet 2017 11 30;51:195-217. Epub 2017 Aug 30.

Department of Biological Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907-1392, USA; email:

Agrobacterium strains transfer a single-strand form of T-DNA (T-strands) and Virulence (Vir) effector proteins to plant cells. Following transfer, T-strands likely form complexes with Vir and plant proteins that traffic through the cytoplasm and enter the nucleus. T-strands may subsequently randomly integrate into plant chromosomes and permanently express encoded transgenes, a process known as stable transformation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-genet-120215-035320DOI Listing
November 2017
2 Reads

Regeneration Genetics.

Annu Rev Genet 2017 11 30;51:63-82. Epub 2017 Aug 30.

Department of Cell Biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA; email:

Understanding how and why animals regenerate complex tissues has the potential to transform regenerative medicine. Here we present an overview of genetic approaches that have recently been applied to dissect mechanisms of regeneration. We describe new advances that relate to central objectives of regeneration biologists researching different tissues and species, focusing mainly on vertebrates. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-genet-120116-024554DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5705327PMC
November 2017
21 Reads

Witnessing Genome Evolution: Experimental Reconstruction of Endosymbiotic and Horizontal Gene Transfer.

Authors:
Ralph Bock

Annu Rev Genet 2017 11 28;51:1-22. Epub 2017 Aug 28.

Max-Planck-Institut für Molekulare Pflanzenphysiologie, D-14476 Potsdam-Golm, Germany; email:

Present day mitochondria and plastids (chloroplasts) evolved from formerly free-living bacteria that were acquired through endosymbiosis more than a billion years ago. Conversion of the bacterial endosymbionts into cell organelles involved the massive translocation of genetic material from the organellar genomes to the nucleus. The development of transformation technologies for organellar genomes has made it possible to reconstruct this endosymbiotic gene transfer in laboratory experiments and study the mechanisms involved. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-genet-120215-035329DOI Listing
November 2017
6 Reads

Vaccination via Chloroplast Genetics: Affordable Protein Drugs for the Prevention and Treatment of Inherited or Infectious Human Diseases.

Annu Rev Genet 2016 Nov 21;50:595-618. Epub 2016 Oct 21.

Department of Biochemistry, School of Dental Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104; email:

Plastid-made biopharmaceuticals treat major metabolic or genetic disorders, including Alzheimer's, diabetes, hypertension, hemophilia, and retinopathy. Booster vaccines made in chloroplasts prevent global infectious diseases, such as tuberculosis, malaria, cholera, and polio, and biological threats, such as anthrax and plague. Recent advances in this field include commercial-scale production of human therapeutic proteins in FDA-approved cGMP facilities, development of tags to deliver protein drugs to targeted human cells or tissues, methods to deliver precise doses, and long-term stability of protein drugs at ambient temperature, maintaining their efficacy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-genet-120215-035349DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5496655PMC
November 2016
20 Reads

Single-Cell and Single-Molecule Analysis of Gene Expression Regulation.

Annu Rev Genet 2016 Nov;50:267-291

Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul, 08826, Korea; email:

Recent advancements in single-cell and single-molecule imaging technologies have resolved biological processes in time and space that are fundamental to understanding the regulation of gene expression. Observations of single-molecule events in their cellular context have revealed highly dynamic aspects of transcriptional and post-transcriptional control in eukaryotic cells. This approach can relate transcription with mRNA abundance and lifetimes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-genet-120215-034854DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5149423PMC
November 2016
2 Reads
15 Citations
15.724 Impact Factor