857 results match your criteria Annual Review Of Entomology[Journal]


A Century of Synergy in Termite Symbiosis Research: Linking the Past with New Genomic Insights.

Annu Rev Entomol 2021 01;66:23-43

Department of Biological Sciences, Southern Illinois University Edwardsville, Edwardsville, Illinois 62026, USA; email:

Termites have long been studied for their symbiotic associations with gut microbes. In the late nineteenth century, this relationship was poorly understood and captured the interest of parasitologists such as Joseph Leidy; this research led to that of twentieth-century biologists and entomologists including Cleveland, Hungate, Trager, and Lüscher. Early insights came via microscopy, organismal, and defaunation studies, which led to descriptions of microbes present, descriptions of the roles of symbionts in lignocellulose digestion, and early insights into energy gas utilization by the host termite. Read More

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January 2021

Chemical Ecology, Biochemistry, and Molecular Biology of Insect Hydrocarbons.

Annu Rev Entomol 2021 01;66:45-60

Department of Entomology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907, USA; email:

Insect cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) consist of complex mixtures of straight-chain alkanes and alkenes, and methyl-branched hydrocarbons. In addition to restricting water loss through the cuticle and preventing desiccation, they have secondarily evolved to serve a variety of functions in chemical communication and play critical roles as signals mediating the life histories of insects. In this review, we describe the physical properties of CHCs that allow for both waterproofing and signaling functions, summarize their roles as inter- and intraspecific chemical signals, and discuss the influences of diet and environment on CHC profiles. Read More

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January 2021

The Impacts of Climate Change on Ticks and Tick-Borne Disease Risk.

Authors:
Lucy Gilbert

Annu Rev Entomol 2021 01;66:373-388

Institute for Biodiversity, Animal Health and Comparative Medicine, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, United Kingdom; email:

Ticks exist on all continents and carry more zoonotic pathogens than any other type of vector. Ticks spend most of their lives in the external environment away from the host and are thus expected to be affected by changes in climate. Most empirical and theoretical studies demonstrate or predict range shifts or increases in ticks and tick-borne diseases, but there can be a lot of heterogeneity in such predictions. Read More

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January 2021

Emergence of as a Major Pest of Food Legumes and Evolution of Management Practices in Asia and Africa.

Annu Rev Entomol 2021 01;66:141-161

Biotechnology and Molecular Breeding, World Vegetable Center, Tainan 74151, Taiwan; email:

Legume pod borer, , has emerged as a major pest on food legumes in Asia and Africa. It is an oligophagous pest, feeding on over 70 species in Fabaceae. We examine the species complex in Asia, Africa, Oceania, and the Americas, with an emphasis on molecular taxonomy. Read More

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January 2021

Population Dynamics of Chewing Lice (Phthiraptera) Infesting Birds (Aves).

Annu Rev Entomol 2021 01;66:209-224

Department of Entomology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2, Canada; email:

In the past 25 years, studies on interactions between chewing lice and their bird hosts have increased notably. This body of work reveals that sampling of live avian hosts, collection of the lice, and the aggregated distributions of louse infestations pose challenges for assessing louse populations. The number of lice on a bird varies among host taxa, often with host size and social system. Read More

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January 2021

Mechanisms of Resistance to Insecticidal Proteins from .

Annu Rev Entomol 2021 01;66:121-140

ERI of Biotechnology and Biomedicine (BIOTECMED), Universitat de València, Burjassot 46100, Spain; email:

Insecticidal proteins from the bacterium () are used in sprayable formulations or produced in transgenic crops as the most successful alternatives to synthetic pesticides. The most relevant threat to sustainability of insecticidal proteins (toxins) is the evolution of resistance in target pests. To date, high-level resistance to sprays has been limited to one species in the field and another in commercial greenhouses. Read More

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January 2021

Semiochemicals for Thrips and Their Use in Pest Management.

Annu Rev Entomol 2021 01;66:101-119

New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research, Ltd., Christchurch 8140, New Zealand; email:

Thrips (Thysanoptera) are small insects that can cause huge problems in agriculture, horticulture, and forestry through feeding and the transmission of plant viruses. They produce a rich chemical diversity of pheromones and allomones and also respond to a broad range of semiochemicals from plants. These semiochemicals offer many opportunities to develop new approaches to pest management. Read More

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January 2021

The Interplay Between Viruses and RNAi Pathways in Insects.

Annu Rev Entomol 2021 01;66:61-79

Viruses and RNA Interference Unit, Institut Pasteur, CNRS UMR 3569, 75724 Paris CEDEX 15, France; email:

As an overarching immune mechanism, RNA interference (RNAi) displays pathogen specificity and memory via different pathways. The small interfering RNA (siRNA) pathway is the primary antiviral defense mechanism against RNA viruses of insects and plays a lesser role in defense against DNA viruses. Reflecting the pivotal role of the siRNA pathway in virus selection, different virus families have independently evolved unique strategies to counter this host response, including protein-mediated, decoy RNA-based, and microRNA-based strategies. Read More

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January 2021

Preface.

Authors:
Jon Harrison

Annu Rev Entomol 2021 01;66:v-vi

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January 2021

Engineering the Composition and Fate of Wild Populations with Gene Drive.

Annu Rev Entomol 2021 01 9;66:407-434. Epub 2020 Oct 9.

Departments of Neurology and Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA; email:

Insects play important roles as predators, prey, pollinators, recyclers, hosts, parasitoids, and sources of economically important products. They can also destroy crops; wound animals; and serve as vectors for plant, animal, and human diseases. Gene drive-a process by which genes, gene complexes, or chromosomes encoding specific traits are made to spread through wild populations, even if these traits result in a fitness cost to carriers-provides new opportunities for altering populations to benefit humanity and the environment in ways that are species specific and sustainable. Read More

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January 2021

Biological Control with in China: History, Present Status, and Perspectives.

Annu Rev Entomol 2021 01 25;66:463-484. Epub 2020 Sep 25.

Université Côte d'Azur, INRAE, CNRS, UMR ISA, 06000 Nice, France; email:

species make up one of the most commonly used groups of natural enemies for biological control programs worldwide. Given the major successes in using to control economically important lepidopterous pests on agricultural crops in China, the biology and ecology of these wasps have been intensively studied to identify traits that contribute to successful biological control. Since the 1960s, improved mass production of and better augmentative release methods to suppress agricultural pests have been achieved. Read More

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January 2021

Evolution of Insect Color Vision: From Spectral Sensitivity to Visual Ecology.

Annu Rev Entomol 2021 01 23;66:435-461. Epub 2020 Sep 23.

Lund Vision Group, Department of Biology, University of Lund, 22362 Lund, Sweden; email:

Color vision is widespread among insects but varies among species, depending on the spectral sensitivities and interplay of the participating photoreceptors. The spectral sensitivity of a photoreceptor is principally determined by the absorption spectrum of the expressed visual pigment, but it can be modified by various optical and electrophysiological factors. For example, screening and filtering pigments, rhabdom waveguide properties, retinal structure, and neural processing all influence the perceived color signal. Read More

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January 2021

Advancing Undergraduate Laboratory Education Using Non-Model Insect Species.

Annu Rev Entomol 2021 01 23;66:485-504. Epub 2020 Sep 23.

Department of Biology, Morehouse College, Atlanta, Georgia 30314, USA; email:

Over the past decade, laboratory courses have made a fundamental shift to inquiry-based modules and authentic research experiences. In many cases, these research experiences emphasize addressing novel research questions. Insects are ideal for inquiry-based undergraduate laboratory courses because research on insects is not limited by regulatory, economic, and logistical constraints to the same degree as research on vertebrates. Read More

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January 2021

Insect Transmission of Plant Single-Stranded DNA Viruses.

Annu Rev Entomol 2021 01 15;66:389-405. Epub 2020 Sep 15.

Plant Health Institute of Montpellier, Univ Montpellier, CIRAD, INRAE, IRD, Montpellier SupAgro, Montpellier, France; email:

Of the approximately 1,200 plant virus species that have been described to date, nearly one-third are single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) viruses, and all are transmitted by insect vectors. However, most studies of vector transmission of plant viruses have focused on RNA viruses. All known plant ssDNA viruses belong to two economically important families, and , and in recent years, there have been increased efforts to understand whether they have evolved similar relationships with their respective insect vectors. Read More

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January 2021

Transposable Elements and the Evolution of Insects.

Annu Rev Entomol 2021 01 15;66:355-372. Epub 2020 Sep 15.

Laboratoire Ecologie et Biologie des Interactions, Equipe Ecologie Evolution Symbiose, Unité Mixte de Recherche 7267 Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Université de Poitiers, 86073 Poitiers CEDEX 9, France.

Insects are major contributors to our understanding of the interaction between transposable elements (TEs) and their hosts, owing to seminal discoveries, as well as to the growing number of sequenced insect genomes and population genomics and functional studies. Insect TE landscapes are highly variable both within and across insect orders, although phylogenetic relatedness appears to correlate with similarity in insect TE content. This correlation is unlikely to be solely due to inheritance of TEs from shared ancestors and may partly reflect preferential horizontal transfer of TEs between closely related species. Read More

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January 2021

Preference Provides a Plethora of Problems (Don't Panic).

Authors:
Michael C Singer

Annu Rev Entomol 2021 01 14;66:1-22. Epub 2020 Sep 14.

Station d'Écologie Théorique et Expérimentale, CNRS et Université Paul Sabatier, 09200 Moulis, France; email:

This review was solicited as an autobiography. The "problems" in my title have two meanings. First, they were professional difficulties caused by my decision to study oviposition preferences of butterflies that were not susceptible to traditional preference-testing designs. Read More

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January 2021

Symbiont-Mediated Digestion of Plant Biomass in Fungus-Farming Insects.

Annu Rev Entomol 2021 01 14;66:297-316. Epub 2020 Sep 14.

Department of Bacteriology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA; email:

Feeding on living or dead plant material is widespread in insects. Seminal work on termites and aphids has provided profound insights into the critical nutritional role that microbes play in plant-feeding insects. Some ants, beetles, and termites, among others, have evolved the ability to use microbes to gain indirect access to plant substrate through the farming of a fungus on which they feed. Read More

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January 2021

Navigation Along Windborne Plumes of Pheromone and Resource-Linked Odors.

Authors:
Ring T Cardé

Annu Rev Entomol 2021 01 14;66:317-336. Epub 2020 Sep 14.

Department of Entomology, University of California, Riverside, California 92521, USA; email:

Many insects locate resources such as a mate, a host, or food by flying upwind along the odor plumes that these resources emit to their source. A windborne plume has a turbulent structure comprised of odor filaments interspersed with clean air. As it propagates downwind, the plume becomes more dispersed and dilute, but filaments with concentrations above the threshold required to elicit a behavioral response from receiving organisms can persist for long distances. Read More

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January 2021

Behaviors and Interactions of Insects in Mid-Mesozoic Ecosystems of Northeastern China.

Annu Rev Entomol 2021 01 11;66:337-354. Epub 2020 Sep 11.

College of Life Sciences and Academy for Multidisciplinary Studies, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100048, China; email:

During the past 20 years, more than 1,600 species of well-preserved fossil insects, including members of over 270 families within 24 orders, have been described from the Middle Jurassic Yanliao Entomofauna and Early Cretaceous Jehol Entomofauna in Northeastern China. Diversified fossil insects not only document the origin, systematics, and early evolution of many lineages, but also reveal these lineages' behaviors and interactions with coexisting plants, vertebrates, and other insects in their ecosystems. Fossil evidence has been documented, for example, regarding insects' feeding and pollination mutualism with gymnosperms; ectoparasitic feeding on blood of vertebrates; camouflage, mimicry of gymnosperm plants, and eyespot warning; sound stridulation for attracting potential mates; and sexual display, mating, egg-laying, and parental care. Read More

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January 2021

Tree Diversity and Forest Resistance to Insect Pests: Patterns, Mechanisms, and Prospects.

Annu Rev Entomol 2021 01 9;66:277-296. Epub 2020 Sep 9.

INRAE, University of Bordeaux, BIOGECO, F-33610 Cestas, France; email:

Ecological research conducted over the past five decades has shown that increasing tree species richness at forest stands can improve tree resistance to insect pest damage. However, the commonality of this finding is still under debate. In this review, we provide a quantitative assessment (i. Read More

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January 2021

Survive a Warming Climate: Insect Responses to Extreme High Temperatures.

Annu Rev Entomol 2021 01 1;66:163-184. Epub 2020 Sep 1.

Institut de Recherche sur la Biologie de l'Insecte, UMR 7261, CNRS, Université de Tours, 37200 Tours, France; email:

Global change includes a substantial increase in the frequency and intensity of extreme high temperatures (EHTs), which influence insects at almost all levels. The number of studies showing the ecological importance of EHTs has risen in recent years, but the knowledge is rather dispersed in the contemporary literature. In this article, we review the biological and ecological effects of EHTs actually experienced in the field, i. Read More

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January 2021

Laboulbeniomycetes: Intimate Fungal Associates of Arthropods.

Annu Rev Entomol 2021 01 31;66:257-276. Epub 2020 Aug 31.

Farlow Reference Library and Herbarium of Cryptogamic Botany, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA; email:

Arthropod-fungus interactions involving the Laboulbeniomycetes have been pondered for several hundred years. Early studies of Laboulbeniomycetes faced several uncertainties. Were they parasitic worms, red algal relatives, or fungi? If they were fungi, to which group did they belong? What was the nature of their interactions with their arthropod hosts? The historical misperceptions resulted from the extraordinary morphological features of these oddly constructed ectoparasitic fungi. Read More

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January 2021

Growing Up in a Changing World: Environmental Regulation of Development in Insects.

Annu Rev Entomol 2021 01 21;66:81-99. Epub 2020 Aug 21.

MRC London Institute of Medical Sciences, Imperial College London, London W12 0NN, United Kingdom.

All organisms are exposed to changes in their environment throughout their life cycle. When confronted with these changes, they adjust their development and physiology to ensure that they can produce the functional structures necessary for survival and reproduction. While some traits are remarkably invariant, or robust, across environmental conditions, others show high degrees of variation, known as plasticity. Read More

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January 2021

How Dung Beetles Steer Straight.

Annu Rev Entomol 2021 01 21;66:243-256. Epub 2020 Aug 21.

School of Animal, Plant and Environmental Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; email:

Distant and predictable features in the environment make ideal compass cues to allow movement along a straight path. Ball-rolling dung beetles use a wide range of different signals in the day or night sky to steer themselves along a fixed bearing. These include the sun, the Milky Way, and the polarization pattern generated by the moon. Read More

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January 2021

Spider Diversification Through Space and Time.

Annu Rev Entomol 2021 01 21;66:225-241. Epub 2020 Aug 21.

Department of Biological Sciences, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052, USA; email:

Spiders (Araneae) make up a remarkably diverse lineage of predators that have successfully colonized most terrestrial ecosystems. All spiders produce silk, and many species use it to build capture webs with an extraordinary diversity of forms. Spider diversity is distributed in a highly uneven fashion across lineages. Read More

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January 2021

Honey as a Functional Food for .

Annu Rev Entomol 2021 01 17;66:185-208. Epub 2020 Aug 17.

Department of Entomology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801, USA; email:

Although nectar is consumed, primarily as a supplemental food, by a broad range of insects spanning at least five orders, it is processed and stored by only a small number of species, most of which are bees and wasps in the superfamily Apoidea. Within this group, has evolved remarkable adaptations facilitating nectar processing and storage; in doing so, this species utilizes the end product, honey, for diverse functions with few if any equivalents in other phytophagous insects. Honey and its phytochemical constituents, some of which likely derive from propolis, have functional significance in protecting honey bees against microbial pathogens, toxins, and cold stress, as well as in regulating development and adult longevity. Read More

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January 2021

Preface.

Authors:
John Trumble

Annu Rev Entomol 2020 01;65:v-vi

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January 2020

Balancing Disturbance and Conservation in Agroecosystems to Improve Biological Control.

Annu Rev Entomol 2020 01;65:81-100

Department of Entomology, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey 08901, USA; email:

Disturbances associated with agricultural intensification reduce our ability to achieve sustainable crop production. These disturbances stem from crop-management tactics and can leave crop fields more vulnerable to insect outbreaks, in part because natural-enemy communities often tend to be more susceptible to disturbance than herbivorous pests. Recent research has explored practices that conserve natural-enemy communities and reduce pest outbreaks, revealing that different components of agroecosystems can influence natural-enemy populations. Read More

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January 2020

Influence of Nesting Characteristics on Health of Wild Bee Communities.

Annu Rev Entomol 2020 01;65:39-56

Department of Entomology, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801, USA; email:

Nest site availability and quality are important for maintaining robust populations and communities of wild bees. However, for most species, nesting traits and nest site conditions are poorly known, limiting both our understanding of basic ecology for bee species and conservation efforts. Additionally, many of the threats commonly associated with reducing bee populations have effects that can extend into nests but are largely unstudied. Read More

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January 2020

Insect Declines in the Anthropocene.

Authors:
David L Wagner

Annu Rev Entomol 2020 01 14;65:457-480. Epub 2019 Oct 14.

Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269, USA; email:

Insect declines are being reported worldwide for flying, ground, and aquatic lineages. Most reports come from western and northern Europe, where the insect fauna is well-studied and there are considerable demographic data for many taxonomically disparate lineages. Additional cases of faunal losses have been noted from Asia, North America, the Arctic, the Neotropics, and elsewhere. Read More

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January 2020