148,920 results match your criteria Annual Review Of Ecology Evolution And Systematics[Journal]


Emerging translational science discoveries, clonal approaches and treatment trends in chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms.

Hematol Oncol 2019 Apr 23. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA, USA.

The 60 American Society of Hematology (ASH) held in San Diego in December 2018 was followed by the 13 Post-ASH chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) workshop on the 4 -5 December 2018. This closed annual workshop, first introduced in 2006 by Goldman and Mughal, was organized in collaboration with Alpine Oncology Foundation and allowed experts in preclinical and clinical research in the chronic MPNs to discuss the current scenario, including relevant presentations at ASH, and address pivotal open questions that impact translational research and clinical management. This review is based on the presentations and deliberations at this workshop, and rather than provide a resume of the proceedings, we have selected some of the important translational science and treatment issues which require clarity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hon.2622DOI Listing

Economic evaluations of onchocerciasis interventions: a systematic review and research needs.

Trop Med Int Health 2019 Apr 23. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

London Centre for Neglected Tropical Disease Research, Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, UK.

Objective: To provide a systematic review of economic evaluations that have been conducted for onchocerciasis interventions, to summarise current key knowledge and to identify research gaps.

Method: A systematic review of the literature was conducted on the 8 of August 2018 using the PubMed (MEDLINE) and ISI Web of Science electronic databases. No date or language stipulations were applied to the searches. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tmi.13241DOI Listing

Rare cancers in childhood and adolescence in Brazil: First report of data from 19 population-based cancer registries.

Cancer 2019 Apr 23. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

IRCCS Foundation, Evaluative Epidemiology Unit, Evaluative Epidemiology Unit, National Cancer Institute, Milan, Italy.

Background: Rare childhood cancer is challenging to define. The Italian Pediatric Rare Tumor (TREP) Study considers rare tumors to include solid malignancies characterized by an annual incidence rate of <2 cases per 1 million and not enrolled in clinical trials. The objective of the current study was to analyze the population incidence rate of rare tumors among children and adolescents (those aged birth-19 years) in Brazil. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/cncr.32121
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.32121DOI Listing
April 2019
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Trends in Cigar Use in the United States, 2002 to 2016: Diverging Trends by Race/Ethnicity.

Nicotine Tob Res 2019 Apr 23. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Institute for Implementation Science in Population Health, The City University of New York, New York, NY USA.

Introduction: While there are racial/ethnic differences in cigarette use, little is known about how non-cigarette tobacco use differs among racial/ethnic groups. The current study investigated trends in cigar use from 2002 to 2016, by racial/ethnic group, in nationally representative United States (US) data.

Methods: Data were drawn from the 2002-2016 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) public use data files (total analytic sample n=630,547 including 54,060 past-month cigar users). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ntr/ntz060DOI Listing

Low dose from external radiation among returning residents to the former evacuation zone in Minamisoma City, Fukushima Prefecture.

J Radiol Prot 2019 Apr 23;39(2):548-563. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Research Center for Community Health, Minamisoma Municipal General Hospital, Fukushima, Japan. Department of Global Health Policy, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.

After the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident, evidence on the real-life conditions of returnees to areas once designated as legal no-go zones, including their radiation dose levels, is scarce. In the present study, using a radiation dosimeter and lifestyle survey, we evaluated the lifestyle characteristics and dose levels in 2017 from external exposure among those who returned to the no-go zones after the evacuation orders were lifted. A total of 112 returnees to Odaka district, Minamisoma City, Fukushima Prefecture, were considered and compared to 266 non-returnees. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6498/ab0f87DOI Listing

Increased Incidence of Central Venous Catheter-Related Infection in Patients Undergoing Cytoreductive Surgery and Hyperthermic Intra-Peritoneal Chemotherapy.

Surg Infect (Larchmt) 2019 Apr 23. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

1 National Centre for Peritoneal Malignancy, Mater Misericordiae University Hospital, Dublin, Ireland.

Cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intra-peritoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) is a complex surgical intervention with associated risks. Central venous catheter (CVC) line sepsis is one of a number of potential morbidities. The aim of this study was to calculate the incidence of catheter-related infection (CRI) in a CRS and HIPEC patient population and to assess its influence on length of hospital stay. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/sur.2018.250DOI Listing

Trends in pediatric thyroid cancer incidence in the United States, 1998-2013.

Cancer 2019 Apr 23. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Infections and Immunoepidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland.

Background: Pediatric differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) rates have increased over time in the United States and worldwide. Improvements in imaging for the diagnosis of DTC have been hypothesized as a potential driver of these increases. This study stratifies temporal trends in pediatric DTC by stage and tumor size to assess whether rates of large, late-stage cancers, which are likely to be clinically meaningful, are increasing over time. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.32125DOI Listing

Foliar water uptake in Amazonian trees: evidence and consequences.

Glob Chang Biol 2019 Apr 23. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Research School of Biology, The Australian National University, Canberra, 2601 ACT, Australia.

The absorption of atmospheric water directly into leaves enables plants to alleviate the water stress caused by low soil moisture, hydraulic resistance in the xylem and the effect of gravity on the water column, whilst enabling plants to scavenge small inputs of water from leaf wetting events. By increasing the availability of water, and supplying it from the top of the canopy (in a direction facilitated by gravity), foliar uptake (FU) may be a significant process in determining how forests interact with climate, and could alter our interpretation of current metrics for hydraulic stress and sensitivity. FU has not been reported for lowland tropical rain forests; we test whether FU occurs in six common Amazonian tree genera in lowland Amazônia, and make a first estimation of its contribution to canopy-atmosphere water exchange. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/gcb.14666DOI Listing

Taxonomy, together with ontogeny and growing conditions, drives needleleaf species' sensitivity to climate in boreal North America.

Glob Chang Biol 2019 Apr 23. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Centre d'étude de la forêt, Université du Québec à Montréal, C.P. 8888, succ. Centre-ville, Montréal, QC, H3C 3P8, Canada.

Currently, there is no consensus regarding the way that changes in climate will affect boreal forest growth, where warming is occurring faster than in other biomes. Some studies suggest negative effects due to drought-induced stresses, while others provide evidence of increased growth rates due to a longer growing season. Studies focusing upon the effects of environmental conditions on growth-climate relationships are usually limited to small sampling areas that do not encompass the full range of environmental conditions; therefore, they only provide a limited understanding of the processes at play. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/gcb.14665DOI Listing

Failure to place evidence at the centre of quality improvement remains a major barrier for advances in quality improvement.

J Eval Clin Pract 2019 Apr 23. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Department of Health Research Methods, Evidence and Impact, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

Mondoux and Shojania (M&S) issued a critique of our call to unify all disciplines of relevance for quality improvement (QI). They do not challenge the need for alignment of different fields that have played roles in the QI space. They selected to focus their critique on our views that ultimately the discipline of QI should be based on the principles of evidence-based medicine (EBM) and decision sciences. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jep.13146DOI Listing

Temporal variations of atmospheric benzene and its health effects in Tehran megacity (2010-2013).

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

The main aims of the present research were (1) investigation of the temporal trends of atmospheric benzene concentrations in Tehran city during the period 2010 to 2013 and (2) assessment of carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic health risks of inhalation exposure to benzene. For the first objective, the data of ambient air benzene concentrations were derived from 15 air quality monitoring stations (AQMSs) in Tehran during the years 2010 to 2013 and they were temporally investigated after data cleaning and missing data imputation. The excess lifetime cancer risk (ELCR) and hazard quotient (HQ) were estimated to reveal the carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic health effects of exposure to ambient benzene. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-019-05086-1DOI Listing

Population-Based Study on Risk Factors for Tumor-Positive Resection Margins in Patients with Gastric Cancer.

Ann Surg Oncol 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Department of Surgery, Erasmus University Medical Centre Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Radical gastrectomy is the cornerstone of the treatment of locally advanced gastric cancer. This study was designed to evaluate factors associated with a tumor-positive resection margin after gastrectomy and to evaluate the influence of hospital volume.

Methods: In this Dutch cohort study, patients with junctional or gastric cancer who underwent curative gastrectomy between 2011 and 2017 were included. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1245/s10434-019-07381-0DOI Listing

Biotechnological application of endophytic filamentous bipolaris and curvularia: a review on bioeconomy impact.

World J Microbiol Biotechnol 2019 Apr 22;35(5):69. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Institute of Child Health, Kolkata, West Bengal, 700017, India.

The filamentous Bipolaris and Curvularia genera consist of species known to cause severe diseases in plants and animals amounting to an estimated annual loss of USD $10 billion worldwide. Despite the harmful effect of Bipolaris and Curvularia species, scarce attention is paid on beneficial areas where the fungi are used in industrial processes to generate biotechnological products. Catalytic potential of Bipolaris and Curvularia species in the production of biodiesel, bioflucculant, biosorbent, and mycoherbicide are promising for the bioeconomy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11274-019-2644-7DOI Listing

Association of Surgical Volume and Quality Management in Thyroid Surgery: A Two-Nation Multicenter Study.

World J Surg 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Department of Visceral Surgery and Medicine, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, University of Bern, 3010, Bern, Switzerland.

Background: High-volume caseload in thyroid surgery is associated with lower postoperative complication rates resulting to better outcomes. The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation of the departments' annual number of thyroid surgeries on the adherence to consensus guidelines and on the implementation of measures for quality assurance.

Methods: In 2016, we sent an anonymous electronic survey with questions related to the perioperative management in thyroid surgery to all directors of departments in operative medicine in Switzerland and Austria. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00268-019-05012-zDOI Listing

Cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular strength and risk of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Diabetologia 2019 Apr 23. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Research Unit for Exercise Epidemiology, Centre of Research in Childhood Health, Department of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.

Aims/hypothesis: The study aimed to quantitatively summarise the dose-response relationships between cardiorespiratory fitness and muscular strength on the one hand and risk of type 2 diabetes on the other and estimate the hypothetical benefits associated with population-wide changes in the distribution of fitness.

Methods: We performed a systematic review with meta-analysis. The PubMed and EMBASE electronic databases were searched from inception dates to 12 December 2018 for cohort studies examining the association of cardiorespiratory fitness or muscular strength with risk of incident type 2 diabetes in adults. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00125-019-4867-4DOI Listing

Trends in overall, cardiovascular and cancer-related mortality among individuals with diabetes reported on death certificates in the United States between 2007 and 2017.

Diabetologia 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Stanford University School of Medicine, 750 Welch Road no. 210, Palo Alto, CA, 94304, USA.

Aims/hypothesis: The determination of diabetes as underlying cause of death by using the death certificate may result in inaccurate estimation of national mortality attributed to diabetes, because individuals who die with diabetes generally have other conditions that may contribute to their death. We investigated the trends in age-standardised mortality due to diabetes as underlying or contributing cause of death and cause-specific mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD), complications of diabetes and cancer among individuals with diabetes listed on death certificates in the USA from 2007 to 2017.

Methods: Using the US Census and national mortality database, we calculated age-standardised mortality due to diabetes as underlying or contributing cause of death and cause-specific mortality rates among adults over 20 years with diabetes listed on death certificates. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00125-019-4870-9DOI Listing

Association between air travel and importation of chikungunya into the United States.

J Travel Med 2019 Apr 23. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute, St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto, Canada.

Background: During infectious disease outbreaks with pandemic potential, the number of air passengers travelling from the outbreak source to international destinations has been used as a proxy for disease importation risk to new locations. However, evaluations of the validity of this approach are limited. We sought to quantify the association between international air travel and disease importation using the 2014-2016 chikungunya outbreak in the Americas as a case study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jtm/taz028DOI Listing

Mandatory Flu Vaccine for Healthcare Workers: Not Worthwhile.

Authors:
Michael B Edmond

Open Forum Infect Dis 2019 Apr 17;6(4):ofy214. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Chief Quality Officer, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics.

In 2010, the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology published a recommendation that annual influenza vaccination of healthcare workers be made a condition of employment despite no high-level evidence to support this recommendation. A better strategy for reducing the transmission of respiratory viruses in the healthcare setting would be to encourage vaccination and reduce presenteeism, which is very common among healthcare workers with influenza-like illness. In a hospital with a baseline vaccination compliance of 70%, reducing presenteeism by 2% has the equivalent impact of mandating vaccination in terms of the number of healthcare workers with influenza-like illness at work. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/ofid/article/doi/10.1093/ofid/ofy21
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ofid/ofy214DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6468124PMC
April 2019
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Impact of availability of direct-acting antivirals for hepatitis C on Canadian hospitalization rates, 2012-2016.

Can Commun Dis Rep 2018 Jul 5;44(7-8):150-156. Epub 2018 Jul 5.

Toronto Centre for Liver Disease, University Health Network, Toronto General Hospital, Toronto, ON.

Backgrounds: Hospitalizations associated with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and liver disease increased on average by 6.0% per year from 2004 to 2010 in Canada and were projected (in 2010) to increase by another 4% by 2016. The first generation of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) became available in 2012. Read More

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Haematological traits co-vary with migratory status, altitude and energy expenditure: a phylogenetic, comparative analysis.

Sci Rep 2019 Apr 23;9(1):6351. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Department of Biological Sciences, Simon Fraser University, 8888 University Drive, Burnaby, British Columbia, V5A 1S6, Canada.

Aerobic capacity is assumed to be a main predictor of workload ability and haematocrit (Hct) and haemoglobin (Hb) have been suggested as key determinants of aerobic performance. Intraspecific studies have reported increases in Hct and Hb in response to increased workload. Furthermore, Hct and Hb vary markedly among individuals and throughout the annual cycle in free-living birds and it has been suggested that this variation reflects adaptive modulation of these traits to meet seasonal changes in energy demands. Read More

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http://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-019-42921-4
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-42921-4DOI Listing

The Role of Age and Multimorbidity in Shaping Older African American Men's Experiences with Patient⁻Provider Communication.

Geriatrics (Basel) 2018 Oct 24;3(4). Epub 2018 Oct 24.

College of Human Medicine, Michigan State University, Flint, MI 48502, USA.

This study investigated factors associated with older African American men's unmet health communication needs in the context of patient-provider interactions. Responses to a health survey were analyzed for 430 African American men attending a Midwest community health fair. The outcome measure was the extent to which men could get their health-related questions answered during recent medical visits. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics3040074DOI Listing
October 2018

An Acute Model of Care to Guide Eating & Drinking Decisions in the Frail Elderly with Dementia and Dysphagia.

Authors:
Dharinee Hansjee

Geriatrics (Basel) 2018 Oct 2;3(4). Epub 2018 Oct 2.

Lewisham & Greenwich NHS Trust, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, London, SE18 4QH, UK.

People with dementia frequently develop dysphagia (swallowing impairment), which causes them to be at high risk of aspiration pneumonia, resulting in hospital admissions. These individuals are advised against alternative nutrition and hydration as this does not eliminate the risk of developing chest infections. The purpose of this study was to establish the impact on length of stay by having a protocol to guide eating and drinking despite aspiration risks (risk feeding). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics3040065DOI Listing
October 2018

Orthogeriatrics and Hip Fracture Care in the UK: Factors Driving Change to More Integrated Models of Care.

Authors:
Mark Middleton

Geriatrics (Basel) 2018 Aug 28;3(3). Epub 2018 Aug 28.

Department of Trauma and Orthopaedics, St George's University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Blackshaw Road, Tooting, London SW17 0QT, UK.

In the United Kingdom (UK), approximately 80,000 hip fractures each year result in an estimated annual cost of two billion pounds in direct healthcare costs alone. Various models of care exist for collaboration between orthopaedic surgeons and geriatricians in response to the complex medical, rehabilitation, and social needs of this patient group. Mounting evidence suggests that more integrated models of orthogeriatric care result in superior quality of care indicators and clinical outcomes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics3030055DOI Listing

Osteoporosis, Activities of Daily Living Skills, Quality of Life, and Dietary Adequacy of Congregate Meal Participants.

Geriatrics (Basel) 2018 May 10;3(2). Epub 2018 May 10.

Department of Physical Therapy, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199, USA.

Osteoporosis, a chronic disease that results in low bone mass with an increased risk of fragility fractures, is prevalent in older adults. Diet can prevent or lessen the severity of osteoporosis. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to assess differences in diet, quality of life, self-rated health, and physical function between congregate meal participants with and without osteoporosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics3020024DOI Listing

Preparing for PrEP: estimating the size of the population eligible for HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis among men who have sex with men in England.

Sex Transm Infect 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Blood Safety, Hepatitis, Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI) and HIV Service, National Infection Service, Public Health England, London, UK.

Objectives: The size of the population of men who have sex with men (MSM) who may be eligible for HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (HIV-PrEP) in England remains unknown. To plan for a national PrEP implementation trial, we estimated the number of MSM attending sexual health clinics (SHCs) that may be eligible for HIV-PrEP in England.

Methods: Sexually transmitted infection (STI) surveillance data from 2010 to 2015 from the GUMCAD surveillance system were used to estimate the annual number of HIV-negative MSM who may be eligible for HIV-PrEP in England. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/sextrans-2019-054009DOI Listing

Forty-six years of Greenland Ice Sheet mass balance from 1972 to 2018.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Department of Earth System Science, University of California, Irvine, CA 92617.

We reconstruct the mass balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet using a comprehensive survey of thickness, surface elevation, velocity, and surface mass balance (SMB) of 260 glaciers from 1972 to 2018. We calculate mass discharge, D, into the ocean directly for 107 glaciers (85% of D) and indirectly for 110 glaciers (15%) using velocity-scaled reference fluxes. The decadal mass balance switched from a mass gain of +47 ± 21 Gt/y in 1972-1980 to a loss of 51 ± 17 Gt/y in 1980-1990. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1904242116DOI Listing

Joint modelling of resistance to six antimicrobials in urinary isolates in Quebec, Canada.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Department of Microbiology, Infectious Diseases & Immunology, Université de Montréal, Montréal, QC, Canada

Empirical treatment of urinary tract infections should be based on susceptibility profiles specific to the locale and patient population. Additionally, these susceptibility profiles should account for correlations between resistance to different types of antimicrobials. We used hierarchical logistic regression models to investigate geographic, temporal, and demographic trends in resistance to six antimicrobials in community-acquired and nosocomial urinary isolates from three communities in the province of Quebec, Canada procured between April 2010 and December 2017. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AAC.02531-18DOI Listing

Prioritization for liver transplantation using the MELD score in Chile: Inequities generated by MELD exceptions.: A collaboration between the Chilean Liver Transplant Programs, the Public Health Institute and the National Transplant Coordinator.

Ann Hepatol 2019 Apr 12. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

National Liver Transplant Coordinator, Santiago, Chile. Electronic address:

Introduction And Aim: The MELD score has been established as an efficient and rigorous prioritization system for liver transplant (LT). Our study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the MELD score as a system for prioritization for LT, in terms of decreasing the dropout rate in the waiting list and maintaining an adequate survival post-LT in Chile.

Materials And Methods: We analyzed the Chilean Public Health Institute liver transplant registry of candidates listed from October 15th 2011 to December 31st 2014. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aohep.2018.11.001DOI Listing
April 2019
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Acute Stroke Trial Enrollment through a Telemedicine Network: A 12-Year Experience.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

UPMC Stroke Institute, Departments of Neurology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; UPMC Stroke Institute, Departments of Neurosurgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Electronic address:

Background: A major barrier to acute stroke trial enrollment is timely access to participating centers. Establishing referral relationships via telemedicine may broaden trial access. We sought to understand the utilization of telemedicine in trial enrollment at a large academic center. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2019.03.046DOI Listing

Recurrent vulvo-vaginal candidiasis in Abidjan (Côte d'Ivoire): Aetiology and associated factors.

J Mycol Med 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Département de parasitologie-mycologie, UFR des Sciences Pharmaceutiques et Biologiques, Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire.

Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC) is a major health problem for sexually active women because of its severe effect on their quality of life. A thorough knowledge of their epidemiology leads to their efficient management. Therefore, a cross-sectional study was conducted in 2014 in women with leucorrhoea associated or not with other clinical signs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mycmed.2019.04.002DOI Listing

Brain size growth in Australopithecus.

Authors:
Zachary Cofran

J Hum Evol 2019 May 20;130:72-82. Epub 2019 Mar 20.

Anthropology Department, Vassar College, 124 Raymond Avenue, Box 42, Poughkeepsie, NY 12603, USA. Electronic address:

Postnatal growth is one of the proximate means by which humans attain massive adult brain size. Humans are characterized by the maintenance of prenatal brain growth rates into the first postnatal year, as well as an overall extended period of growth. The evolution of this pattern is difficult to assess due to its relatively brief duration and the underrepresentation of well-preserved fossil individuals who died during this short period. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhevol.2019.02.006DOI Listing

Prevalence of Anemia in Chinese Children and Adolescents and Its Associated Factors.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2019 Apr 19;16(8). Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Key Laboratory of Trace Element Nutrition of National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China, Department of Trace Element Nutrition, National Institute for Nutrition and Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, No. 29 Nan Wei Road, Xicheng District, Beijing 100050, China.

In this study, we assessed the hemoglobin levels and anemia status of Chinese children and adolescents from the Chinese National Nutrition and Health Survey (CNNHS) in 2010⁻2012 and analyzed the factors associated with anemia. The hemoglobin concentration and prevalence of anemia for children and adolescents aged 6⁻17 years from both CNNHS 2010⁻2012 and CNNHS 2002 were analyzed. Multi-variable logistic regression analysis was used to assess the factors associated with anemia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16081416DOI Listing

Effects of an Experimental Water-level Drawdown on Methane Emissions from a Eutrophic Reservoir.

Ecosystems 2018 5;21(4):657-674. Epub 2017 Sep 5.

6United States Army Corps of Engineers, Louisville, Kentucky USA.

Reservoirs are a globally significant source of methane (CH) to the atmosphere. However, emission rate estimates may be biased low due to inadequate monitoring during brief periods of elevated emission rates (that is, hot moments). Here we investigate CH bubbling (that is, ebullition) during periods of falling water levels in a eutrophic reservoir in the Midwestern USA. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10021-017-0176-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6445499PMC
September 2017

Detecting Early Pancreatic Cancer: Current Problems and Future Prospects.

Gut Liver 2019 Apr 23. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Divisions of Endoscopy, Shizuoka Cancer Center, Shizuoka, Japan.

The number of patients with pancreatic cancer (PC) is currently increasing in both Korea and Japan. The 5-year survival rate of patients with PC 13.0%; however, resection with minimal invasion (tumor size: ≤10 mm) increases the 5-year survival rate to 80%. Read More

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http://www.gutnliver.org/journal/view.html?doi=10.5009/gnl18
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5009/gnl18491DOI Listing
April 2019
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Increased susceptibility to pertussis in adults at childbearing age as determined by comparative seroprevalence study, China 2010-2016.

J Infect 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Department of Medical Microbiology, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China; Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of Turku, Turku, Finland. Electronic address:

Objectives: This study was aimed to determine pertussis specific serum PT-IgG antibodies in healthy individuals during 2010 and 2015/2016 in Beijing, China.

Methods: A total of 3884 healthy individuals were included: 3058 aged 3 to 69 years randomly selected from an epidemiological survey conducted in 2010, and 826 aged 20-39 years selected from those who attended an annual medical examination in 2015/2016. Serum PT-IgG antibodies were determined using the Serion/Virion ELISA kits. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jinf.2019.04.011DOI Listing

Improved Mortality Associated with the Use of Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation.

Ann Thorac Surg 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Cardiothoracic Surgery, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO, United States.

Background: Our objective was to evaluate the association of bridge to transplant (BTT) extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) on survival after lung transplantation (LTx) and determine the degree to which transplant center volume affects this relationship.

Methods: Using the United Network for Organ Sharing database, we performed a retrospective cohort study evaluating the survival of patients undergoing LTx between 2005 and 2017. Based on previous literature, LTx centers were classified into 3 groups using their average annual LTx volume over the preceding 5 years; <25, 25-49, and >50. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.athoracsur.2019.03.057DOI Listing

A 4-Yr Survey of the Range of Ticks and Tick-Borne Pathogens in the Lehigh Valley Region of Eastern Pennsylvania.

J Med Entomol 2019 Apr 23. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Suppan LLC, 3870 Kreidersville Road, Northampton, PA.

Questing ticks were surveyed by dragging in forested habitats within the Lehigh Valley region of eastern Pennsylvania for four consecutive summers (2015-2018). A high level of inter-annual variation was found in the density of blacklegged tick nymphs, Ixodes scapularis Say, with a high density of host-seeking nymphs (DON) in summer 2015 and 2017 and a relatively low DON in summer 2016 and 2018. Very few American dog ticks (Dermacentor variabilis Say) and Ixodes cookei Packard were collected. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jme/tjz043DOI Listing

Effects of grazing patterns on grassland biomass and soil environments in China: A meta-analysis.

PLoS One 2019 22;14(4):e0215223. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

State Key Laboratory of Geohazard Prevention and Geoenvironment Protection, Chengdu University of Technology, Chengdu, China.

Background: Grazing has important influences on the structures and functions of grassland ecosystems, but the effects of grazing patterns on grassland biomass and soil environments in China remain unclear.

Objective: We employed a meta-analysis to identify the response of biomass and soil environments to different grazing patterns in China.

Methods: Peer-reviewed journal articles were searched using the Web of Science and China National Knowledge to compile a database. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0215223PLOS

Systematic sampling of adults as a sensitive means of detecting persistence of lymphatic filariasis following mass drug administration in Sri Lanka.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 Apr 22;13(4):e0007365. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Infectious Diseases Division, Department of Internal Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, United States of America.

Background: Sri Lanka's Anti-Filariasis Campaign conducted 5 annual rounds of mass drug administration (MDA) with diethylcarbamazine (DEC) plus albendazole to eliminate lymphatic filariasis (LF) in all endemic districts between 2002 and 2006. Post-MDA surveillance has consistently documented Wuchereria bancrofti microfilaremia (Mf) rates below 1% in all sentinel and spot check sites since that time, and all implementation units easily satisfied WHO's target for school-based transmission assessment surveys (school-TAS) in 2013. However, more detailed studies have identified foci of persistent infection in the large coastal evaluation unit (EU) (population about 0. Read More

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http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007365
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007365DOI Listing
April 2019
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Spatio-temporal dynamics of dengue in Brazil: Seasonal travelling waves and determinants of regional synchrony.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 Apr 22;13(4):e0007012. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Mathematical Modelling of Infectious Diseases Unit, Institut Pasteur, UMR2000, CNRS, Paris, France.

Dengue continues to be the most important vector-borne viral disease globally and in Brazil, where more than 1.4 million cases and over 500 deaths were reported in 2016. Mosquito control programmes and other interventions have not stopped the alarming trend of increasingly large epidemics in the past few years. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007012DOI Listing

Trajectories of sickness absence and disability pension before and after opioid initiation for noncancer pain: a 10-year population-based study.

Pain 2019 May;160(5):1224-1233

Division of Insurance Medicine, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Chronic noncancer pain is a leading cause of sickness absence (SA) and disability pension (DP). The objectives of this study were to identify trajectories of SA/DP before and after strong and weak opioid initiation for noncancer pain and the factors associated with these trajectories. A longitudinal population-based study of 201,641 people (24-59 years) without cancer who initiated opioid analgesics in 2009 in Sweden was conducted. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/j.pain.0000000000001500DOI Listing

2019 Annual Meeting Supplement.

Authors:

Acad Emerg Med 2019 May;26 Suppl 1:S9-S318

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acem.13756DOI Listing

Association of Cortical β-Amyloid Protein in the Absence of Insoluble Deposits With Alzheimer Disease.

JAMA Neurol 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Rush Alzheimer's Disease Center, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois.

Importance: β-Amyloid deposits are a pathologic hallmark of Alzheimer disease (AD). However, the extent to which cortical β-amyloid protein in the absence of insoluble deposits is associated with classic features of AD appear to be unknown.

Objective: To examine the associations of cortical β-amyloid protein in the absence of insoluble deposits with cognitive decline, neurofibrillary tangles, other age-associated neuropathologic conditions, and APOE. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaneurol.2019.0834DOI Listing

Association Between Longitudinal Plasma Neurofilament Light and Neurodegeneration in Patients With Alzheimer Disease.

JAMA Neurol 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Department of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry, the Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Mölndal, Sweden.

Importance: Plasma neurofilament light (NfL) has been suggested as a noninvasive biomarker to monitor neurodegeneration in Alzheimer disease (AD), but studies are lacking.

Objective: To examine whether longitudinal plasma NfL levels are associated with other hallmarks of AD.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This North American cohort study used data from 1583 individuals in the multicenter Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative study from September 7, 2005, through June 16, 2016. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaneurol.2019.0765DOI Listing

Association of Cumulative Socioeconomic and Health-Related Disadvantage With Disparities in Smoking Prevalence in the United States, 2008 to 2017.

JAMA Intern Med 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles.

Importance: Understanding emerging patterns of smoking disparities among disadvantaged populations can guide tobacco control policy.

Objective: To estimate disparities in smoking prevalence associated with the number of socioeconomic and health-related disadvantages faced by a population among US adults from 2008 to 2017.

Design, Setting, And Participants: Nationally representative cross-sectional annual household-based probability sample of US noninstitutionalized residents. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamainternmed.2019.0192DOI Listing

Trends in varicella and herpes zoster epidemiology before and after the implementation of universal one-dose varicella vaccination over one decade in South Korea, 2003-2015.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

b Vaccine Bio Research Institute, College of Medicine , The Catholic University of Korea , Seoul , Republic of Korea.

Background In South Korea, one-dose varicella vaccine was included in the National Immunization Program for children aged 12-15 months in 2005, and the vaccine coverage reached >95%. The impact of varicella vaccination on varicella and herpes zoster (HZ) was investigated, accounting for demographic changes over time. Methods We calculated the crude and age-sex standardized incidence rates (IRs) and age-specific IRs of varicella and HZ from 2003 to 2015, using the National Health Information Database including approximately 50 million Koreans. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21645515.2019.1603985DOI Listing

The BAUS/BJUI/USANZ session at the AUA 2019 Annual Meeting.

BJU Int 2019 May;123(5):741-742

University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust, Leicester, UK.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bju.14761DOI Listing

Floral colour structure in two Australian herbaceous communities: it depends on who is looking.

Ann Bot 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

School of Biological Sciences, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia.

Background And Aims: Pollinator-mediated interactions between plant species may affect the composition of angiosperm communities. Floral colour signals should play a role in these interactions, but the role will arise from the visual perceptions and behavioural responses of multiple pollinators. Recent advances in the visual sciences can be used to inform our understanding of these perceptions and responses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcz043DOI Listing