12 results match your criteria Annual Review Of Ecology Evolution And Systematics[Journal]

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Gene Drive Dynamics in Natural Populations: The Importance of Density Dependence, Space, and Sex.

Annu Rev Ecol Evol Syst 2020 Nov 28;51(1):505-531. Epub 2020 Aug 28.

Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695, USA.

The spread of synthetic gene drives is often discussed in the context of panmictic populations connected by gene flow and described with simple deterministic models. Under such assumptions, an entire species could be altered by releasing a single individual carrying an invasive gene drive, such as a standard homing drive. While this remains a theoretical possibility, gene drive spread in natural populations is more complex and merits a more realistic assessment. Read More

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November 2020

Life Ascending: Mechanism and Process in Physiological Adaptation to High-Altitude Hypoxia.

Annu Rev Ecol Evol Syst 2019 Nov 3;50:503-526. Epub 2019 Sep 3.

Department of Biology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4K1, Canada.

To cope with the reduced availability of O at high altitude, air-breathing vertebrates have evolved myriad adjustments in the cardiorespiratory system to match tissue O delivery with metabolic O demand. We explain how changes at interacting steps of the O transport pathway contribute to plastic and evolved changes in whole-animal aerobic performance under hypoxia. In vertebrates native to high altitude, enhancements of aerobic performance under hypoxia are attributable to a combination of environmentally induced and evolved changes in multiple steps of the pathway. Read More

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November 2019

Evolutionary and ecological consequences of gut microbial communities.

Annu Rev Ecol Evol Syst 2019 Nov 29;50(1):451-475. Epub 2019 Aug 29.

Department of Integrative Biology, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78703 USA.

Animals are distinguished by having guts: organs that must extract nutrients from food while barring invasion by pathogens. Most guts are colonized by non-pathogenic microorganisms, but the functions of these microbes, or even the reasons why they occur in the gut, vary widely among animals. Sometimes these microorganisms have co-diversified with hosts; sometimes they live mostly elsewhere in the environment. Read More

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November 2019

A genomic perspective on the generation and maintenance of genetic diversity in herbivorous insects.

Annu Rev Ecol Evol Syst 2016 Nov 19;47:165-187. Epub 2016 Aug 19.

Department of Integrative Biology, University of California-Berkeley, Berkeley, California.

Understanding the processes that generate and maintain genetic variation within populations is a central goal in evolutionary biology. Theory predicts that some of this variation is maintained as a consequence of adapting to variable habitats. Studies in herbivorous insects have played a key role in confirming this prediction. Read More

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November 2016

Structure and functioning of dryland ecosystems in a changing world.

Annu Rev Ecol Evol Syst 2016 Nov 19;47:215-237. Epub 2016 Aug 19.

Departamento de Biología y Geología, Física y Química Inorgánica, Escuela Superior de Ciencias Experimentales y Tecnología, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Calle Tulipán s/n, 28933 Móstoles, Spain.

Understanding how drylands respond to ongoing environmental change is extremely important for global sustainability. Here we review how biotic attributes, climate, grazing pressure, land cover change and nitrogen deposition affect the functioning of drylands at multiple spatial scales. Our synthesis highlights the importance of biotic attributes (e. Read More

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November 2016

Variability in fitness effects can preclude selection of the fittest.

Annu Rev Ecol Evol Syst 2017 28;48(1):399-417. Epub 2017 Aug 28.

Brown University, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology and Center for Computational and Molecular Biology. Providence, RI, USA.

Evolutionary biologists often predict the outcome of natural selection on an allele by measuring its effects on lifetime survival and reproduction of individual carriers. However, alleles affecting traits like sex, evolvability, and cooperation can cause fitness effects that depend heavily on differences in the environmental, social, and genetic context of individuals carrying the allele. This variability makes it difficult to summarize the evolutionary fate of an allele based solely on its effects on any one individual. Read More

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Modularity: genes, development and evolution.

Annu Rev Ecol Evol Syst 2016 7;47:463-486. Epub 2016 Sep 7.

Laboratório de Evolução de Mamíferos, Departamento de Genética e Biologia Evolutiva, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, 05508-090, Brazil.

Modularity has emerged as a central concept for evolutionary biology, providing the field with a theory of organismal structure and variation. This theory has reframed long standing questions and serves as a unified conceptual framework for genetics, developmental biology and multivariate evolution. Research programs in systems biology and quantitative genetics are bridging the gap between these fields. Read More

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September 2016

On the Nature and Evolutionary Impact of Phenotypic Robustness Mechanisms.

Annu Rev Ecol Evol Syst 2014 Nov;45:496-517

Institute of Molecular Biology, Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei, Taiwan 11529;

Biologists have long observed that physiological and developmental processes are insensitive, or robust, to many genetic and environmental perturbations. A complete understanding of the evolutionary causes and consequences of this robustness is lacking. Recent progress has been made in uncovering the regulatory mechanisms that underlie environmental robustness in particular. Read More

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November 2014

Population Genomics of Human Adaptation.

Annu Rev Ecol Evol Syst 2013 Nov;44:123-143

Departments of Biology and Genetics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA.

Recent advances in genotyping technologies have facilitated genome-wide scans for natural selection. Identification of targets of natural selection will shed light on processes of human adaptation and evolution and could be important for identifying variation that influences both normal human phenotypic variation as well as disease susceptibility. Here we focus on studies of natural selection in modern humans who originated ~200,000 years go in Africa and migrated across the globe ~50,000 - 100,000 years ago. Read More

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November 2013

The Utility of Fisher's Geometric Model in Evolutionary Genetics.

Authors:
O Tenaillon

Annu Rev Ecol Evol Syst 2014 Nov;45:179-201

IAME, UMR 1137, INSERM, F-75018 Paris, France ; IAME, UMR 1137, Univ. Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, F-75018 Paris, France.

The accumulation of data on the genomic bases of adaptation has triggered renewed interest in theoretical models of adaptation. Among these models, Fisher Geometric Model (FGM) has received a lot of attention over the last two decades. FGM is based on a continuous multidimensional phenotypic landscape, but it is for the emerging properties of individual mutation effects that it is mostly used. Read More

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November 2014

Revisiting the Impact of Inversions in Evolution: From Population Genetic Markers to Drivers of Adaptive Shifts and Speciation?

Annu Rev Ecol Evol Syst 2008 Dec;39:21-42

Centre for Environmental Stress and Adaptation Research, Department of Genetics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 Australia; email:

There is a growing appreciation that chromosome inversions affect rates of adaptation, speciation, and the evolution of sex chromosomes. Comparative genomic studies have identified many new paracentric inversion polymorphisms. Population models suggest that inversions can spread by reducing recombination between alleles that independently increase fitness, without epistasis or coadaptation. Read More

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December 2008

Chemical Complexity and the Genetics of Aging.

Annu Rev Ecol Evol Syst 2007 Dec;38:299-326

Center for Research on Ageing, University College London, Darwin Building, Gower Street, London, WC1E6BT.

We examine how aging is impacted by various chemical challenges that organisms face and by the molecular mechanisms that have evolved to regulate lifespan in response to them. For example, environmental information, which is detected and processed through sensory systems, can modulate lifespan by providing information about the presence and quality of food as well as presence and density of conspecifics and predators. In addition, the diverse forms of molecular damage that result from constant exposure to damaging chemicals that are generated from the environment and from metabolism pose an informatic and energetic challenge for detoxification systems, which are important in ensuring longevity. Read More

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December 2007
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