173,504 results match your criteria Annual Review Of Ecology Evolution And Systematics[Journal]


A bitter epidemic: The impact of the 1918 influenza on sugar production in Java.

Econ Hum Biol 2021 Apr 20;42:101011. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Wageningen University, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Research about the economic consequences of past epidemics has mostly focused on the experience of industrialized countries, thus providing little knowledge about the effects of health shocks on developing economies. We fill this gap by studying the impact of the 1918 influenza in Java, with a new dataset on aggregate food production and district-level figures on (i) sugar production, the major export commodity and the predominant source of labour demand; (ii) agricultural and plantation wages, and (iii) annual crude death rates. The mortality impact of the influenza on Java was high, as crude mortality rates doubled in 1918 relative to the preceding years, but its economic impact was mixed. Read More

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Spatial autocorrelation, influencing factors and temporal distribution of the construction and demolition waste disposal industry.

Waste Manag 2021 May 1;127:158-167. Epub 2021 May 1.

School of Management Engineering, Shandong Jianzhu University, PR China. Electronic address:

The construction and demolition waste disposal industry plays a vital role in improving the utilisation rate of construction and demolition waste worldwide, however, too little work has been devoted to the industrial economic analysis. To explore the economic pattern and promote the development of the construction and demolition waste disposal industry, the spatial autocorrelation and influencing factors were analysed, and a temporal development process was evaluated. Spatial measurement results show that the spatial autocorrelation of the construction and demolition waste disposal industry is significant at a 1% level. Read More

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A Long, Fulfilling Career in Human Genetics.

Authors:
Haig H Kazazian

Annu Rev Genomics Hum Genet 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Genetic Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA; email:

I have been fortunate and privileged to have participated in amazing breakthroughs in human genetics since the 1960s. I was lucky to have trained in medical school at Dartmouth and Johns Hopkins, in pediatrics at the University of Minnesota and Johns Hopkins, and in genetics and molecular biology with Dr. Barton Childs at Johns Hopkins and Dr. Read More

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Genetic Dissection of the Disease Cycle.

Annu Rev Phytopathol 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Plant, Soil and Microbial Sciences, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824, USA; email:

Fire blight, caused by the bacterial phytopathogen , is an economically important and mechanistically complex disease that affects apple and pear production in most geographic production hubs worldwide. We compile, assess, and present a genetic outlook on the progression of an infection in the host. We discuss the key aspects of type III secretion-mediated infection and systemic movement, biofilm formation in xylem, and pathogen dispersal via ooze droplets, a concentrated suspension of bacteria and exopolysaccharide components. Read More

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One Hundred Years of Hybrid Necrosis: Hybrid Autoimmunity as a Window into the Mechanisms and Evolution of Plant-Pathogen Interactions.

Annu Rev Phytopathol 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Molecular Biology, Max Planck Institute for Developmental Biology, 72076 Tübingen, Germany; email:

Hybrid necrosis in plants refers to a genetic autoimmunity syndrome in the progeny of interspecific or intraspecific crosses. Although the phenomenon was first documented in 1920, it has been unequivocally linked to autoimmunity only recently, with the discovery of the underlying genetic and biochemical mechanisms. The most common causal loci encode immune receptors, which are known to differ within and between species. Read More

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Neurophysiology of Human Perceptual Decision-Making.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering and UCD Centre for Biomedical Engineering, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland; email:

The discovery of neural signals that reflect the dynamics of perceptual decision formation has had a considerable impact. Not only do such signals enable detailed investigations of the neural implementation of the decision-making process but they also can expose key elements of the brain's decision algorithms. For a long time, such signals were only accessible through direct animal brain recordings, and progress in human neuroscience was hampered by the limitations of noninvasive recording techniques. Read More

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Tree growth responses to temporal variation in rainfall differ across a continental-scale climatic gradient.

PLoS One 2021 4;16(5):e0249959. Epub 2021 May 4.

School of Biological Sciences, The University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.

Globally, many biomes are being impacted by significant shifts in total annual rainfall as well as increasing variability of rainfall within and among years. Such changes can have potentially large impacts on plant productivity and growth, but remain largely unknown, particularly for much of the Southern Hemisphere. We investigate how growth of the widespread conifer, Callitris columellaris varied with inter-annual variation in the amount, intensity and frequency of rainfall events over the last century and between semi-arid (<500 mm mean annual rainfall) and tropical (>800 mm mean annual rainfall) biomes in Australia. Read More

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Real-Time Surveillance of Infectious Diseases, Injuries, and Chronic Conditions During the 2018 Iraq Arba'een Mass Gathering.

Health Secur 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Faris Lami, PhD, is an Associate Professor, Department of Community Medicine, College of Medicine, Baghdad University, Bab Al Muadham, Baghdad, Iraq. Mirwais Amiri, MD, MPH, is Research and Policy Team Leader and Mohannad Al Nsour, MD, MSc, PhD, is Executive Director; both at Center of Excellence for Applied Epidemiology Global Health Development, Amman, Jordan. Yasir Majeed, MD, is Director, Field Epidemiology Training Program, Public Health Directorate, Ministry of Health, Baghdad, Iraq. Kira M. Barr is a Graduate Student, Epidemiology, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH. Yousef S. Khader, ScD, is a Professor, Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan.

The Arba'een pilgrimage in Iraq is now the largest annual gathering in a single place worldwide. To monitor and address the health needs of pilgrims in field clinics near the pilgrimage route, a syndromic surveillance system was designed and implemented by Global Health Development/Eastern Mediterranean Public Health Network in collaboration with Iraq Ministry of Health. This study aimed to analyze the effectiveness of the surveillance system and the data it gathered in evaluating the burden of common acute and infectious conditions, chronic conditions, and trauma and injuries during the Arba'een pilgrimage in 2018. Read More

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2021 Annual Meeting Supplement.

Authors:

Acad Emerg Med 2021 May;28 Suppl 1:S9-S418

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Incidence of Guillain-Barré Syndrome in an Uruguayan population. A Prospective Cohort Study.

J Peripher Nerv Syst 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Neurology, Clinical Professor of Neurology. Hospital de Clínicas, Montevideo, Uruguay.

Background And Aims: Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) is an acute autoimmune peripheral inflammatory neuropathy and the most frequent cause of non-poliovirus acute flaccid paralysis worldwide. Background annual GBS incidence rates (IRs) in Latin America (LA) varies from 0.40 to 2. Read More

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Wind and wind power characteristics of the eastern and southern coastal and northern inland regions, South Africa.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Center for Engineering Research, Research Institute, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran, 31261, Saudi Arabia.

The objective of this work is to understand the fluctuating nature of wind speed characteristics on different time scales and to find the long-term annual trends of wind speed at different locations in South Africa. The hourly average mean wind speed values over a period of 20 years are used to achieve the set objective. Wind speed frequency, directional availability of maximum mean wind speed, total energy, annual energy yield and plant capacity factors are determined for seven locations situated both inland and along the coast of South Africa. Read More

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Correlation Between Changes in Brand-Name Drug Prices and Patient Out-of-Pocket Costs.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 May 3;4(5):e218816. Epub 2021 May 3.

Program On Regulation, Therapeutics, And Law, Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacoeconomics, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts.

Importance: List prices set by manufacturers for brand-name prescription drugs in the US have been increasing faster than inflation, although confidential manufacturer rebates offset some of these increases. Most commercially insured patients pay at least some out-of-pocket costs for prescription drugs, and higher patient spending is associated with lower adherence and worse health outcomes.

Objective: To examine whether price changes for brand-name drugs are correlated with changes in patient out-of-pocket spending and whether this association varies by insurance benefit design. Read More

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Qualitative Exploration of Barriers to Statin Adherence and Lipid Control: A Secondary Analysis of a Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 May 3;4(5):e219211. Epub 2021 May 3.

Center for Health Incentives and Behavioral Economics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.

Importance: Financial incentives may improve health by rewarding patients for focusing on present actions-such as medication regimen adherence-that provide longer-term health benefits.

Objective: To identify barriers to improving statin therapy adherence and control of cholesterol levels with financial incentives and insights for the design of future interventions.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This qualitative study involved retrospective interviews with participants in a preplanned secondary analysis of a randomized clinical trial of financial incentives for statin therapy adherence. Read More

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Diagnosis and Management of Stable Angina: A Review.

JAMA 2021 May;325(17):1765-1778

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas.

Importance: Nearly 10 million US adults experience stable angina, which occurs when myocardial oxygen supply does not meet demand, resulting in myocardial ischemia. Stable angina is associated with an average annual risk of 3% to 4% for myocardial infarction or death. Diagnostic tests and medical therapies for stable angina have evolved over the last decade with a better understanding of the optimal use of coronary revascularization. Read More

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Variations in surgical peer-reviewed publications among editorial board members, associate editors and their respective journal: Towards maintaining academic integrity.

Ann Med Surg (Lond) 2020 Dec 27;60:140-145. Epub 2020 Oct 27.

Department of Surgery, Division of Trauma and Surgical Critical Care, Kendall Regional Medical Center, Miami, FL, USA.

Background: Physician scientists who are also Editorial Board members or Associate Editors may prefer publishing in their own journal and therefore create an environment for conflicts of interest to arise.

Objectives: To assess the relationship between the number of peer-reviewed publications in surgical journals in which authors serve as Editorial Board Members and Associate Editors and their total number of annual publications.

Materials And Methods: A cross-sectional study utilizing PubMed was performed regarding the total annual number of peer-reviewed publications by Editorial Board Members/Associate Editors and the number published in their respective affiliated journals from 2016 to 2019. Read More

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December 2020

Economic growth as an underlying probable systemic driver for childhood obesity in South Africa: A Joinpoint regression and ecological analysis over 10 years.

S Afr Med J 2021 Mar 2;111(3):220-226. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

MRC/Wits Developmental Pathways for Health Research Unit, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; Department of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pretoria, South Africa; Right to Care, Centurion, South Africa.

Background: Childhood obesity has become a global public health problem and is a known risk factor for type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, stroke, myocardial infarction and various cancers in later adulthood.Associations between adult obesity and economic growth, technological changes, socioeconomic status and economic inequities have been reported, but limited data are available for children and adolescents in countries that are undergoing an epidemiological health transition exhibiting both under- and overnutrition.

Objectives: To demonstrate childhood obesity trends and explore their associations with economic growth in South Africa (SA). Read More

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First Report of Anthracnose of American Ginseng caused by in Northeast China.

Plant Dis 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 12661, Institute of Special Wild Economic Animal and Plant Science, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Juye Street No. 4899, Changchun, Jilin, China, 130112.

American ginseng () is a medicinal plant that is commercially cultivated in China. Anthracnose is a devastating disease of American ginseng, with annual production losses exceeding 20%. In July 2019, anthracnose of American ginseng was observed on 3-year-old plants in Fusong County, Jilin Province, China, the most important region of American ginseng. Read More

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Long-Term Exposure to Particulate Air Pollution Is Associated With 30-Day Readmissions and Hospital Visits Among Patients With Heart Failure.

J Am Heart Assoc 2021 May 4:e019430. Epub 2021 May 4.

Center for Public Health and Environmental Assessment US Environmental Protection Agency Chapel Hill NC.

Background Long-term air pollution exposure is a significant risk factor for inpatient hospital admissions in the general population. However, we lack information on whether long-term air pollution exposure is a risk factor for hospital readmissions, particularly in individuals with elevated readmission rates. Methods and Results We determined the number of readmissions and total hospital visits (outpatient visits+emergency room visits+inpatient admissions) for 20 920 individuals with heart failure. Read More

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The Chemistry of Nonclassical Taxane Diterpene.

Acc Chem Res 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Chemistry, University of Konstanz, 78457 Konstanz, Germany.

ConspectusThe taxane diterpenes are a pharmaceutically vital family of natural products, consisting of more than 550 congeners. All taxane diterpenes are isolated from slow growing evergreen shrubs (genus Taxus) commonly known as "yews" and have a history of over 50 years as potent anticancer compounds. The most prominent congener, taxol (paclitaxel = PTX), has been used in clinics for more than 25 years and is one of the top-selling anticancer drugs worldwide, with annual sales reaching 1. Read More

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Health care access and utilization among adult cancer survivors: Results from the National Institutes of Health "All of Us" Research Program.

Cancer Med 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Medicine, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta University, Augusta, GA, USA.

Background: Many cancer survivors face financial difficulties that prevent them from receiving appropriate health care. Racial/ethnic disparities in receipt of health care have been reported among cancer survivors, but recent data for important racial/ethnic subgroups of the US population are lacking.

Methods: To learn more about barriers to healthcare access faced by cancer survivors, we analyzed data from the NIH "All of Us" Research Program. Read More

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Gerald Lincoln: A man for all seasons.

J Neuroendocrinol 2021 May 4:e12968. Epub 2021 May 4.

Centre for Biological Timing & School of Medicine, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.

Gerald Anthony Lincoln died after a short illness on 15 July 2020 at the age of 75 years. Gerald was Emeritus Professor of Biological Timing at Edinburgh University and a Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. He was an outstanding scientist and naturalist who was a seminal figure in developing our understanding of the neuroendocrine mechanisms underlying seasonal rhythmicity. Read More

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Low dose CT detected interstitial lung abnormalities in a population with low asbestos exposure.

Am J Ind Med 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Curtin Medical School, Curtin University, Perth, Western, Australia.

Background: The use of low dose CT (LDCT) chest is becoming more widespread in occupationally exposed populations. There is a knowledge gap as to heterogeneity in severity and the natural course of asbestosis after low levels of exposure. This study reports the characteristics of LDCT-detected interstitial lung abnormalities (ILA). Read More

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