Annu Rev Clin Psychol 2021 05 5;17:285-311. Epub 2021 Feb 5.
Department of Psychiatry, McGill University, Montréal, Québec H3A 1A1, Canada; email:
Why does prenatal exposure to wars, natural disasters, urbanicity, or winter increase the risk for schizophrenia? Research from the last two decades has provided rich insight about the underlying chains of causation at play during environmental upheaval, from conception to early infancy. In this review, we appraise the evidence linking schizophrenia spectrum disorder to prenatal maternal stress, obstetric complications, early infections, and maternal nutrition and other lifestyle factors. We discuss putative mechanisms, including the maternal stress system, perinatal hypoxia, and maternal-offspring immune activation. Read More